<< Dec 06|         HISTORY “4” “2”DAY          |Dec 08 >>
Events, deaths, births, of 07 DEC
v.7.a0
[For Dec 07 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1582~1699: Dec 171700s: Dec 181800s: Dec 191900~2099: Dec 20]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY    ART “4” DEC 07    wikipedia
^  On a 07 December:
2003 Parliamentary elections in Russia, unfairly biased by the government's control of television. The results boost the dictatorial tendencies of President Vladimir Putin. His United Russia party gets 37.1% of the vote. The party of nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, which almost always votes with United Russia, gets 11.6%. Homeland, a new, Kremlin-approved party formed to syphon votes from the Communists, gets 9.1%. The opposition Communists are down to 12.7%. With no other parties getting the minimum 5% to be represented, the Kremlin's allies are assured of the vast majority of the 225 seats filled by the party vote. The two main liberal parties get none of those seats, as Yabloko gets 4.3% of the vote and the SPS (Union of Right Forces) 3.9%. The other half of the lower house's 450 seats aree filled in individual elections, whose overall results are similar. A lower voter turnout seemed to indicate many Russians thought that the outcome was inevitable, and nearly 5% of the 55 million voters voted to reject all the candidates. Union of Right Forces' leader Boris Nemtsov comments: “The majority will belong to those who stand for a police state, for curtailing civic freedoms, for shutting down independent judicial authority” and for antagonistic relations with Russia's neighbors and the West.
starving child fed through a tubestarving child2002 At the Ethiopian government's Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission's emergency appeal, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi tells diplomats and UN officials that, in his country, there is a "chronic, predictable underlying structural problem that needs to be addressed." and he appeals for help ho feed the 11.3 million of the 62 million Ethiopians who face severe food shortages. Ethiopia, with an average annual income of $108, is one of the world's 10 poorest countries and is regularly beset by serious food shortages. Between 1984 and 1985 famine devastated the nation, and in 2000 an estimated 10 million persons needed food aid. In “normal” years some four million Ethiopians need food aid to survive. Ethiopia is also still trying to overcome the effects of a 2-1/2-year border war with Eritrea which ended in December 2000. Worse-than-usual harvests in 2002 have accentuated the problem. In 2002, throughout Africa more than 30 million persons are in danger of severe malnutrition or starvation because of food shortages caused by drought, poor management and corruption. [< A starving child is fed through a tube at a temporary feeding center in the town of Gode in April 2000].
2002 View of the Sea at Scheveningen and Congregation Leaving the Reformed Church in Nuenen, both by Van Gogh, are stolen from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. — MORE AT ART-4-2DAY
2000 Se celebra la cumbre de Niza entre los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de los quince países miembros de la Unión Europea para debatir el reto de la ampliación comunitaria y de la reforma de las instituciones.
2000 Al Gore's lawyer, David Boies, pleaded with the Florida Supreme Court to order vote recounts and revive his presidential campaign. Republican attorneys called George W. Bush the certified, rightful victor.
1998 Quedan enlazados los dos primeros módulos (el ruso Zariá y el estadounidense Unity) de la Estación Espacial Internacional.
1997 El escritor español Javier Marías recibe el premio internacional Nelly Sachs.
1995 A two-week-old strike by hundreds of thousands of French public-sector workers protesting planned cuts in welfare spending has spread to cities throughout France.
^ 1995 Microsoft shifts focus to Internet
      Bill Gates announces that Microsoft would shift its entire business focus to the Internet. He said that MSN, the company's proprietary online service, would move all of its content to the Web in a massive redesign. The company also divulged plans to link Microsoft Office to Internet Explorer and other Internet products. Many industry observers said online services were doomed, and soon both Prodigy and eWorld announced they, too, would port their offerings to the Web. However, Microsoft was slow to find success on the Web. Its highly touted Web shows never attracted much attention, and the company's high-profile Sidewalk city guides were converted from entertainment guides to online shopping directories in 1998.
1995 A 338-kg probe from the Galileo spacecraft hurtles into Jupiter's atmosphere, sending back data to the mothership before it is destroyed. — La sonda lanzada desde la nave espacial estadounidense Galileo atraviesa la atmósfera de Júpiter y envía las primeras señales a la nave nodriza.
1993 Astronauts aboard the shuttle Endeavor repair the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope.
1993 Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary revealed the US has conducted 204 underground nuclear tests from 1963 to 1990 without informing the public.
1992 The destruction of a 16th century mosque by militant Hindus touches off five days of violence across India that will leave more than 1100 people dead.
1990 El Partido Nacional Democrático, liderado por Muhammad Hosni Mubarak, obtiene amplia mayoría en las elecciones celebradas en Egipto.
1990 Iraqi parliament endorses Saddam's decision to free hostages
1988 Gorbachev announces 10% unilateral Soviet troop reductions at UN — Mijail Sergeievich Gorbachov anuncia en la Asamblea General de la ONU una reducción unilateral de los efectivos militares soviéticos en Europa, lo que es acogido con satisfacción en Occidente.
1988 Yasser Arafat recognizes existence of Israel
1987 El Papa Juan Pablo II y el patriarca de Constantinopla, Dimitrius I, firman en el Vaticano una declaración conjunta en la que expresan su deseo de llegar a la unidad.
^ 1987 Gorbachev arrives in the US for a summit meeting
      Despite protests in Washington concerning Soviet human rights abuses, most Americans get swept up in "Gorbymania" as Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev arrives for his summit with President Ronald Reagan. Gorbachev and his wife, Raisa, charmed the American public and media by praising the United States and calling for closer relations between the Soviet Union and America.
      Aside from the excitement surrounding Gorbachev (whose face was soon plastered on T-shirts, cups, and posters), the summit with Reagan resulted in one of the most significant arms control agreements of the Cold War. Reagan and Gorbachev signed off on the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty, which called for the elimination of all ground cruise and ballistic missiles and launchers in Europe with ranges of 515 to 5470 km. By June 1991, the United States had eliminated over 800 missiles and the Soviets had eliminated 1800 such weapons.
      The INF Treaty was the first arms control agreement that eliminated, rather than simply limited, nuclear weapons. The treaty also required on-site inspections to ensure compliance, part of Reagan's famous "trust but verify" credo. Some critics in the United States denounced the treaty, claiming that it would "de-nuke" Europe and leave America's allies at the mercy of the Soviets' massive conventional forces. Most Americans, however, considered it a monumental step toward the reduction of the risk of nuclear war. The treaty was ratified by the Senate and went into effect in June 1988.
1986 Las elecciones legislativas celebradas en Taiwan dan como resultado un ligero avance de la oposición al Kuomintang.
1985 Se clausura con el discurso del Papa Juan Pablo II el Sínodo de Obispos en el Vaticano, en el que se decidió adoptar un Catecismo único.
1984 Camilo José Cela Trulok es galardonado con el Premio Nacional español de Literatura por su novela Mazurca para dos muertos.
1983 Toledo es elegida capital de Castilla-La Mancha.
1983 La guerrilla del Ejército de Liberación Nacional pone en libertad a Jaime Betancur, hermano del presidente colombiano Belisario Betancur, secuestrado el 22 noviembre en Bogotá.
1981 The Reagan Administration predicts a US record deficit in 1982 of $109 billion.
1980 El general Antonio dos Santos Ramalho Eanes es reelegido presidente de Portugal.
1978 Juan Carlos I, Rey de España sanciona la Constitución en un pleno de ambas Cámaras.
1978 Rúbrica en Ginebra del acuerdo entre España y la Asociación Europea de Libre Comercio (AELC).
1976 UN Security Council endorses Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General for 2nd 5 yr term.
^ 1975 A 3rd reason why this date will live in infamy: Indonesia invades East Timor
     Indonesia invades and later annexes East Timor, overthrowing the popularly elected leftist government. Genocide (an estimated one-third of the East Timorese population) rivals Cambodia's "killing fields", but little attention is paid in US media, which makes big to-do of Cambodia while ignoring East Timor, for political reasons. Long-time East Timor activists Bishop Carlos Belo and Jose Ramos-Horta would received Nobel Peace prize.
      Early in the morning, Indonesian forces launch a massive invasion of the former Portuguese half of the island of Timor, which lies between Indonesia and Australia. After the departure of the Portuguese from East Timor in August, Indonesian troops began infiltrating across the border from Indonesian West Timor. On November 28, the democratically elected government of East Timor, fearing an imminent Indonesian invasion, proclaimed the Democratic Republic of East Timor in the hope that formal independence would enable East Timor to appeal for international support against the Indonesian aggression.
      However, on the morning of December 7, Indonesia initiates a naval bombardment of the city of Dili, followed by landings of paratroopers from the air and of marines on the beaches. On December 10, a second invasion results in the capture of the second largest town, Baucau, but East Timorese resistance prevents the capture of the majority of East Timor for over a year. By 1978, the annexation of East Timor by Indonesia is complete. During the initial years of the Indonesian invasion and occupation, it is estimated that some 200'000 East Timorese died as a direct result of the conflict. The majority of the dead were civilians and tens of thousands of these civilians were murdered by Indonesian troops or died from starvation or disease in internment camps.
L'Indonésie envahit Timor-Est
      L'armée indonésienne envahit l'ancienne colonie portugaise de Timor-Est. C'est le début d'une longue lutte ponctuée par de grands massacres de civils. L'île de Timor, aussi appelée Loro Sae ou Tim-Tim, se situe à l'extrémité orientale des îles de la Sonde (Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores,...). Son climat est relativement sec du fait de sa proximité de l'Australie, dont elle est éloignée de seulement 500 km. Cette île sans attrait touristique particulier est à peine plus grande que la Bretagne (33'000 km2) et aujourd'hui peuplée de 3'500'000 habitants, dont 800'000 dans la partie Est. Elle représente peu de chose au milieu des 200 millions d'habitants très divers qui peuplent l'Indonésie. Le destin tragique de Timor est le résultat des vieilles rivalités coloniales du XVIIe siècle.
Histoire coloniale
      Les Portugais sont les premiers Européens arrivés dans les îles de la Sonde au XVIe siècle, dans la foulée de Vasco de Gama. Au siècle suivant, les Hollandais, que leur indépendance a rendus audacieux, délogent les Portugais de l'Insulinde et ne leur laissent que l'extrémité orientale de l'île de Timor. Les Hollandais, avides seulement de commerce et de profit, s'accommodent des religions indigènes ainsi que de l'islam qui commence à se répandre dans l'archipel et deviendra largement majoritaire à 80%. Les Portugais, quant à eux, exploitent le précieux bois de santal qui constitue la seule ressource notable de l'île. Mais ils se soucient plus encore du salut des indigènes et introduisent la religion catholique dans leur territoire. L'île participe à la Seconde guerre mondiale avec l'irruption des Japonais et la contre-offensive des Australiens, courageusement appuyés par la population locale. Le 25 avril 1974, à Lisbonne, le gouvernement autoritaire de Caetano, héritier du dictateur Salazar, est renversé au cours de la "Révolution des oeillets". Les militaires progressistes qui prennent le pouvoir décident de liquider sans tarder le passif colonial qui fait du Portugal la dernière puissance coloniale d'Europe occidentale.
Génocide caché
      L'armée et l'administration portugaises évacuent les colonies d'Afrique ainsi que le très humble territoire de Timor-Est (capitale: Dili). Ils livrent à la guerre civile ces nouveaux Etats nullement préparés à l'indépendance. A Timor-Est, le Fretilin (Front Populaire pour l'indépendance de Timor), à orientation communiste, engage la guerilla contre les mouvements minoritaires qui prônent le rattachement à l'Indonésie. Le dictateur Suharto ordonne alors l'occupation de Timor-Est et annexe le petit territoire en 1976, en faisant la 27e province de l'Indonésie. Le Fretilin poursuit la guerilla malgré l'assassinat de son chef. Le clergé catholique devient de son côté le fer de lance de la résistance civile En 1981, l'armée indonésienne engage une opération de répression brutale qui se solde par une vaste famine et la mort d'environ 250'000 habitants, soit le tiers de la population. Cette affaire proprement indonésienne n'émeut pas outre-mesure les opinions occidentales et démocratiques qui ont d'autres soucis en tête (Afghanistan, missiles soviétiques SS 20, Cambodge,...). En 1989, un relatif apaisement permet au pape Jean-Paul II de rendre visite à ses catholiques du bout du monde. La tension reste néanmoins vive et le territoire est mis en coupe réglée par les chefs militaires. Il faudra la crise de 1997 et l'effondrement de l'économie indonésienne, artificiellement nourrie par des investissements spéculatifs, pour que le dictateur Suharto soit contraint à une retraite dorée. Son successeur désigné, Habibi, proposera un référendum d'auto-détermination à Timor-Est dans l'espoir de se concilier les bailleurs de fonds des pays démocratiques. Mené dans la précipitation mais sous contrôle de l'ONU, le référendum se soldera par le franc succès des partisans de l'indépendance. Comme ils l'avaient annoncé, les militaires et les miliciens pro-indonésiennes entreprennent aussitôt de ravager l'île et de déporter la population. Mais l'implication officielle de l'ONU ne leur permet plus d'agir en toute impunité et à l'abri des regards comme 15 ans auparavant. L'indépendance de Timor-Est devient une réalité. En Indonésie et dans les grandes chancelleries, cependant, on craint que le succès des Timorais n'encourage d'autres revendications autonomistes, avec au final l'éclatement de l'archipel en Etats rivaux.
1973 En las primeras elecciones legislativas realizadas en Bahrein, la izquierda consigue la victoria.
^ 1972 Last 20th century manned mission to the Moon
      Apollo 17, the sixth and last of the Apollo landing missions, is successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, with astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmitt aboard. On December 11, Cernan and Schmitt descend to the surface of the moon, where they stay a record seventy-five hours. During three separate surface excursions, the astronauts discover what they describe as orange soil, which is taken to be a possible indication of volcanic activity on the moon, and employ the Lunar Rover vehicle to help them collect some 243 pounds of rock and soil samples. On December 19, Apollo 17 safely returns to earth, splashing down in the Pacific Ocean.
1970 Poland and West Germany sign a pact renouncing the use of force to settle disputes, recognizing the Oder-Neisse River as Poland's western frontier, and acknowledging the transfer to Poland of some 100'000 square kilometers of former German territory.
1968 Richard Dodd returns a library book his great grandfather took out in 1823. The $22'646 fine went unpaid.
1965 Pope Paul VI and Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras I simultaneously lift mutual excommunications that led to split of the 2 churches in July 1054.
1965 Chevrolet produces its three-millionth car for the year, the first time it surpasses that number in one year.
1961 Military police hold civilians at Peterson Field, Colorado at gunpoint as Tibetan commandos, who'd been secretly trained by the CIA, are smuggled aboard a C-124 Globemaster.
1958 Rómulo Betancourt es elegido presidente de Venezuela.
1954 Simone de Beauvoir gana el premio Goncourt con Les Mandarins.
^ 1954 US Republican administration can't balance the budget.
      A member of the Eisenhower Administration conceded that the debt would continue to plague the country throughout the next fiscal year. The source attempted to spin the situation, trumpeting the administration's "great progress" in "gaining control" of the deficit as proof of the president's commitment to balancing the budget. Sensing a ripe partisan opportunity, Democrats launched a series of sharp attacks against the Republican Administration, chiding Eisenhower for failing to fulfill what had putatively been the "foremost plank" of his presidential campaign. Democrats also hammered at the administration's failure to translate the nation's stunning peace-time prosperity into a sound budget plan.”If we cannot balance the budget plan now," one senator wondered, "when can we balance it? Are we on a chronic deficit basis?"
1953 Israel's PM Ben-Gurion retires
1949 The A.F.L. and the C.I.O. organize a non-Communist international trade union.
1946 The president of the United Mine Workers, John L. Lewis, orders all striking miners back to work.
1943 Josip Broz "Tito" forma su propio Gobierno en Yugoslavia.
1941 On news of the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Dow Jones Industrial Average loses 4.08 points, closing at 112.52.
1940 Adolf Hitler desiste del plan Félix.
1936 Se constituye en España una junta de censura cinematográfica para todo el territorio nacionalista, en el contexto de la Guerra Civil.
1934 Pilot Wiley Post discovers the jet stream over the United States.
1932 1st gyro-stabilized vessel to cross the Atlantic arrives in New York
1931 The last Ford Model A is produced. The Ford motor works then shut down for six months for retooling. On 1 April 1 1932, Ford would introduce its first car with an 8-cylinder engine, a V-8.
1931 A report indicates that Nazis would ensure "Nordic dominance" by sterilizing certain races.
1923 Una ley establece en España el procedimiento de creación de parques nacionales.
1922 El nuevo Gobierno de España, formado por Manuel García Prieto, reúne a todos los representantes de las familias liberales.
1919 Salen a la luz datos que reflejan la muerte en España de 250'000 personas a causa de la gripe.
1918: 100'000 textile workers strike in Lancashire.
1918 Spartacists call for a German revolution. — En un ambiente de agitación revolucionaria en Berlín, los espartaquistas llaman a la insurrección.
1917 With only one dissenting vote in Congress, the United States becomes 13th country to declare war on the Austrian-Hungarian Empire during World War I.
1916 Las fuerzas alemanas del mariscal August Von Mackensen entran en Bucarest, en el contexto de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1916 David Lloyd George replaces resigning H.H. Asquith as British PM
1914 Pope Benedict XV suggests a Christmas truce in World War I. Germany agrees, but the other powers refuse.
1910 La peste se extiende por Manchuria y Mongolia en su forma más peligrosa: la afección pulmonar.
1909 Leo Baekeland, Yonkers NY, patents 1st thermosetting plastic
1908 Se inauguran oficialmente las obras del túnel internacional de Canfranc (Huesca, España).
1907 The "Great Chesterton-Belloc-Wells-Shaw Controversy" is begun when Hilaire Belloc publishes Thoughts About Modern Thought in The New Age.
1905 General uprising begins in Moscow (fails 23 days later, leaving over 1000 dead.) Over 150'000 workers in a General Strike. By the 9th, workers erect barricades throughout the city and fight against the soldiers.
1893 A Special Unit of the Guardia Civil of Spain is created for the repression of the anarchists.
1891 52nd Congress (1st to appropriate $1 billion) holds 1st session
1885 49th Congress (1885-87) convenes
1872 HMS Challenger sets sail on 3«-year world oceanographic cruise.
1862 Confederate forces surprise an equal number of Union troops at the Battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas.
1862 Engagement at Hartsville, Tennessee
1861 USS Santiago de Cuba, under Commander Daniel B. Ridgely, halts the British schooner Eugenia Smith and captures J.W. Zacharie, a New Orleans merchant and Confederate purchasing agent.
1836 Martin Van Buren is elected the eighth president of the United States
1810 131 years before Pearl Harbor, this date ought to live in infamy according to http://www.geocities.com/~jthunderbird/gch.html
1808 James Madison is elected US president, to succeed Thomas Jefferson.
^ 1805 Returning Lewis and Clark build wintering quarters
      Having spied the Pacific Ocean for the first time a few weeks earlier, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark cross to the south shore of the Columbia River (near modern-day Portland) and begin building the small fort that would be their winter home. Lewis, Clark, and their men deserved a rest. During the past year, they had made the difficult trip from the upper Missouri River across the rugged Rockies, and down the Columbia River to the ocean. Though they planned to return home by retracing their steps in the spring, the Corps of Discovery settled in the relatively mild climate of the Pacific Coast while winter raged in the mountain highlands. For their fort, Lewis and Clark picked a site three miles up Netul Creek (now Lewis and Clark River), because it had a ready supply of elk and deer and convenient access to the ocean, which the men used to make salt. The men finished building a small log fortress by Christmas Eve; they named their new home Fort Clatsop, in honor of the local Indian tribe.
      During the three months they spent at Fort Clatsop, Lewis and Clark reworked their journals and began preparing the scientific information they had gathered. Clark labored long hours drawing meticulous maps that proved to be among the most valuable fruits of the expedition. After talking with local Indians, the two men determined that they had taken an unnecessarily difficult path through the Rockies, and planned alternate routes for the return journey. Meanwhile, the enlisted men and fellow travelers hunted and trapped-they killed and ate more than 100 elk and 20 deer during their stay.
      While the stay at Fort Clatsop was peaceful, it was not entirely pleasant. The Clatsop Indian tribe was friendly, but Clark noted that the Indians were hard bargainers, which caused the expedition party to rapidly deplete its supply of gifts and trading goods, and eventually caused some resentment on both sides. Most vexing, though, was the damp coastal weather--rain fell all but twelve days of the expedition's three-month stay. The men found it impossible to keep dry, and their damp furs and hides rotted and became infested with vermin. Nearly everyone suffered from persistent colds and rheumatism. The expedition departed for home from soggy Fort Clatsop on 23 March 1806. The region they explored later became the state of Oregon--Lewis and Clark's journey strengthened the American claim to the northwest and blazed a trail that was followed by thousands of trappers and settlers.
1796 Electors chose John Adams to be the second president of the United States.
1792 The Mississauga tribe cedes a portion of South Ontario, bordering Lake Erie, for 1180 British pounds.
^ 1787 Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the US constitution.
      In Dover, Delaware, the US Constitution is unanimously ratified by all thirty delegates to the Delaware constitutional convention, making Delaware the first state of the modern United States. (That is why the US Mint chose it in 1999 for the first state quarter coin issued) Just under four months before, the Constitution was signed by thirty-seven of the original fifty-five delegates to the Constitutional Convention meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Constitution was sent to the states for ratification and it was agreed that the Constitution would become binding once nine of the former thirteen colonies had ratified the document. Delaware led the process, and on June 21, 1788, New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify the Constitution, making the document the law of the land. The new government of the United States under the Constitution was declared to be in effect on March 4, 1789.
1661 Under pressure from the British Parliament, the American Colony of Massachusetts suspended its Corporal Punishment Act of 1656, which had imposed harsh penalties on Quakers and other religious Nonconformists.
1542 Emperor Charles V places a reward of 100 gold guilders on Menno Simon's head. Menno had the audacity to be an Anabaptist.
1526 Un decreto real prohíbe a los moriscos en España el uso de costumbres, trajes y nombres árabes o musulmanes, al tiempo que se intenta combatir la endogamia de la comunidad morisca.
0983 Otto III takes the throne after his father's death in Italy. A power struggle between magnates ensues.
0430 At the Synod of Rome, Cyril of Alexandria, 54, formally condemned the doctrine of the Antiochene monk Nestorius, who had claimed that there were two separate Persons in the Incarnate Christ (one Divine, the other Human).
0374 Early Church Father, Ambrose, 34, is consecrated Bishop of Milan, Italy. His influential works on theology and ethics made Ambrose (along with Jerome, Augustine, and Gregory the Great) one of the "four doctors"of the Western (Latin) Church.
--36 -BC- Earliest known Mayan inscription, Stela 2 at Chiapa de Corzo
TO THE TOP
^  Deaths which occurred on a 07 December:
click for  SHRIK and ANGST combined
2005 Rigoberto Alpizar, 44, manic-depressive passenger on American Airlines Flight 924 (which was soon to leave for Orlando), shot in the back by an air marshal at Miami International Airport as Alpizar suddenly runs up the aisle, past the two marshals incognito on the plane, disregards their orders to lie on the ground, his wife shouts: “He is bipolar and has not taken his medicine!”, and Rigoberto runs onto the access ramp seeming to reach into his bag. He had no bomb and was unarmed. _ Edvard Munch [12 Dec 1863 – 23 Jan 1944], who painted The Scream and Angst (1894; 1363x1000pix, 256kb [<<< click on image for a combination] is believed to have been a bipolar disorder sufferer. The same is true of Van Gogh [30 Mar 1853 – 29 Jul 1890], Winston Churchill [30 Nov 1874 – 24 Jan 1965], Virginia Woolf [25 Jan 1882 – 28 Mar 1941], Beethoven [bap. 17 Dec 1770 – 26 Mar 1827}, Gaetano Donizetti, Robert Schumann [08 Jun 1810 – 29 Jul 1856], and Patty Duke, co-author of A Brilliant Madness: Living with Manic-Depressive Illness. — (051208).

2004 Four Afghan soldiers and six of the attackers of their post at the Pakistani border, near Tana, Khost province, Afghanistan.

Father Gulas2002 Father William Gulas, O.F.M., 68 [photo >], shot in the chest and hit on the head by Franciscan novice brother Daniel Montgomery, 37, who then sets fire to the rectory of St. Stanislaus Catholic church in Cleveland, where he was an assistant since the summer of 2002, and Father Gulas was the pastor since 1993. Montgomery, a novice since 1995, had been dismissed from the Franciscans a few days earlier.
2002 Nur Abu Tir, 5, abducted in the evening and murdered. He body would be found on 13 December 2002, a few meters from her home in East's Jerusalem's Umm Tuba.
2002 Hodaya Kedem-Pimstein, 22 months, drowned in her bath by her father Eli Pimstein, in the Kiryat Yover neighborhood of Jerusalem, who then buries her in a hole he had prepared in a forest near the Jerusalem-area moshavim of Ora and Aminadav. Her body is discovered and her father arrested on 10 December 2002. He confesses.
2002:: 17 persons in Mymenshingh, Bangladesh, as terrorist bombs explode within 30 minutes of each other starting at 18:00, in four movie theaters, crowded with Muslims celebrating the end-of-Ramadan Eid-al-Fitr. 10 persons died instantly, the others on their way to or at the hospital. Some 300 are injured.
1989 Hans Heinrich Ernst Hartung, German-born French painter born on 21 September 1904. — MORE ON HARTUNG AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER. with links to images.
1988 More than 25'000 earthquake victims in Armenia
      In the Soviet Union, an earthquake of a 6.9 magnitude on the Richter scale hits northwestern Armenia, affecting an area eighty kilometers in diameter. Four minutes later, the initial earthquake is followed by a powerful 5.8 magnitude aftershock. More than twenty towns and 342 villages are affected, and fifty-eight of them are heavily damaged. Spitak, a major population center, was almost totally destroyed. The earthquake kills more than 25'000 people, injures at least 15'000, and leaves some 500'000 Armenians homeless. Direct economic losses are estimated at fourteen billion dollars. With the USSR nearing economic collapse, rebuilding would be slow.
1985 Robert Graves, English poet, novelist, mythographer, critic, historian, dies in Deya, Majorca, Spain. Author of I, Claudius and Claudius the God. For those with Graves concerns.
1985 Potter Stewart, 70, retired US Supreme Court Justice, in New Hampshire.
1983 Edgar Graham member of N Ireland Assembly, shot dead by IRA
^ 1982 Charles Brooks, Jr., in first execution by lethal injection
      The first execution by lethal injection takes place at the state penitentiary in Huntsville, Texas. Charles Brooks, Jr., a Black convicted of murdering used car salesman David Gregory in Huntsville Texas in 1976, receives an intravenous injection of sodium pentathol (the barbiturate known as a "truth serum" when administered in lesser doses), beginning at 00:07. He is certified dead at 00.16.
      Texas adopted the lethal injection procedure as a more humane method of carrying out its death sentences, as opposed to the standard techniques of death by gas, electrocution, or hanging. Over the next decade, thirty-two states, the federal government, and the US military all utilize the lethal injection method, although Texas, which consistently performs more than one-third of all US executions, remains the statistical leader. After several years of practical development, Texas and most other states adopt a lethal injection procedure in which three separate drugs are injected successively into the convict's bloodstream. The first drug, sodium thiopental, a barbiturate, renders the prisoner unconscious, the next, pancuronium bromide, a muscle relaxant, paralyses the diaphragm and lungs, and the third, potassium chloride, causes cardiac arrest and ensures the prisoner's death.
     The state has the right and duty to protect society and punish criminals. But in administering the Death Penalty, we all become part of the violence.
     Killing is killing. Executions are executions regardless of how they are carried out. Lethal injection has been represented to be a more humane way to perform an execution but it is no more humane than any other method. It has been said that it is a less gruesome way to perform executions but it is not. It may be less gruesome to witness, we may not hear or smell or see burning flesh that goes along with electrocution, but the result is no less gruesome to the condemned prisoner. And there is evidence to suggest that the anxiety that accompanies lethal injection is greater than that of electrocution.
     Killing is barbaric regardless of how it is done. Each time we come up with a new form of execution that is supposed to be more efficient, quicker, or more painless, its predecessor is regarded as barbaric. Whether it is being drawn and quartered, death by the guillotine, hanging, firing squad, gas chamber or electrocution the result is always the same. Each time we take a life through an execution we diminish ourselves as a people. Killing people to show that killing is wrong serves only to perpetuate the cycle of violence. The contradiction is Capital Punishment reflects a desire for revenge, but at the same time, we want it sanitized.
     Lethal injection is a corruption and exploitation of medical technology. It involves a medical procedure, requires medical training to be able administer, and requires medical knowledge in order to prepare the drugs involved. Moreover, lethal injection is a violation of the Hippocratic Oath.
     The AMA's Code of Medical Ethics (1994 Edition) states: "A physician, as a member of a profession dedicated to preserving life when there is hope of doing so, should not be a participant in a legally authorized execution. In the case where the method of execution is lethal injection, the following actions by the physician would also constitute physician participation in execution: selecting injection sites; starting intravenous lines as a port for a lethal injection device; prescribing, preparing, administering, or supervising injection drugs or their doses or types; inspecting, testing, or maintaining lethal injection devices; and consulting with or supervising lethal injection personnel.
     Any bill that does go forward should have a provision that no licensed medical personnel should partake in lethal injection execution. Conscience clauses for health care employees and employees should also be included.
     Proponents of lethal injection have claimed that it is quick and painless. Reportedly, the first person to be executed by lethal injection, Charles Brooks (1982--Texas), was alive for seven minutes after the injection; James Autry (1984--Texas) lived for a full fifteen minutes, was conscious for the first thirteen minutes, and at one point during that process cried out in pain.
     Experts testify that there is no certain way to know how long a lethal injection will take or how much of a dosage is required. Lethal injection involves many variables. Human tolerance levels vary; vascular condition plays a role; the proper administration of the drug is a factor. The drugs involved decrease the respiratory and heart beat gradually and it is difficult to tell exactly when the life functions have ceased.
     Whether it is by needle or electrocution, killing is killing. Lethal injection may be easier to accept by society and more comfortable for us, but the taking of life, even if guilty, is something that should not rest easily on our minds. The reality of the terror of executions is something about which we should always remain aware. http://www.flacathconf.org/B3/Legses98/Pstnpr98/Let298pp.htm
^ 1977 Peter Goldmark, television and recording pioneer.
      Goldmark was born in Budapest and later immigrated to the United States. As an engineer at Columbia Broadcasting Systems Laboratory, he devised a color television system and later the LP (long playing) record album, which transformed the recording industry. Goldmark's color television, first demonstrated in 1940 and approved for commercial use after World War II, used a rotating, three-color disk to project color images. Although all-electronic color television quickly replaced Goldmark's mechanical system, closed-circuit television manufacturers continued to use Goldmark's design. In 1948, Goldmark developed the LP, which could carry as much music as six 78-rpm records. Later, as vice president of CBS, Goldmark developed a system that allowed the US Lunar Orbiter to transmit photographs from the Moon to the Earth.
1972 Assailant shot by bodyguards of Imelda Marcos, wife of Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos, whom he stabbed and seriously wounded.
1970 Ruben Lucius "Rube" Goldberg, 87, in New York City. US cartoonist who satirized the American preoccupation with technology. His name became synonymous with any simple process made outlandishly complicated, such as by the preposterous machines he drew. One of his hundreds of pictorial inventions was an automatic stamp licker activated by a dwarf robot who overturned a can of ants onto a page of postage stamps, gumside up. They were then licked up by an anteater who had been starved for three days. MORE ON GOLDBERG AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
^ 1964 Hundreds of South Vietnamese and 2 US advisers, in Viet Cong attack.
      The situation worsens in South Vietnam, as the Viet Cong attack and capture the district headquarters at An Lao and much of the surrounding valley 300 miles northeast of Saigon. South Vietnamese troops regained control only after reinforcements were airlifted into the area by US helicopters. During the course of the action, two US advisors were killed. There were over 300 South Vietnamese casualties and as many as 7000 villagers were temporarily forced to abandon their homes.
      In response, Ambassador Maxwell Taylor, who had just returned from Washington, held a series of conferences with Premier Tran Van Huong, General Nguyen Khanh, and other South Vietnamese leaders. Taylor told them that the United States would provide additional financial aid to help stabilize the worsening situation in the countryside. It was agreed that the funds would be used to strengthen South Vietnam's military forces (which South Vietnam agreed to increase by 100'000 men) and to "further economic assistance for a variety of reforms of industrial, urban, and rural development.” Nothing was said during these discussions about President Lyndon B. Johnson's plans to commence the bombing of North Vietnam, which had been decided during Taylor's meeting with the president and his advisers when Taylor was in Washington earlier in December.
1952 Hundreds of persons in London, choked by the Great Killer Fog which settled on 05 December and fed by intensified millions of home coal fires, as the temperature drops, has worsened to the point that, now, visibility is reduced to 30 cm and breathing is oppressive.
^ 1952 Some 500 more choked by the Great Killer Smog in London.
         With weather colder than usual a fog had formed on 05 October over London under a stagnant inversion, and loaded by coal smoke and other pollutants had thickened by evening reducing the visibility to a few meters. On 06 October some 500 persons had already died from the smog. On 07 October another 500 die, choked by the coal smoke and industrial pollutants in the thick smog. In central London, the visibility falls to less than 50 meters. At Heathrow Airport, visibility remains below ten meters. The smog would persist until blown away by winds on 09 December.
     The term 'smog' meaning 'fog intensified by smoke' was coined by H.A. Des Voeux, who first used it in 1905 to describe the conditions of fuliginous (sooty) fog that occurred all too often over British urban areas. It was popularized in 1911 when Des Voeux presented to the Manchester Conference of the Smoke Abatement League of Great Britain a report on the deaths that occurred in Glasgow and Edinburgh in the Autumn of 1909 as a consequence of smoke-laden fogs.
     As long ago as the 13th century, air pollution was recognized as a public-health problem in the cities and large towns of the British Isles, and the burning of coal was identified as the principal source. Later, in his Fumifugium, or the Inconvenience of the Aer and Smoake of London Dissipated, published in 1661, John Evelyn wrote of the 'Hellish and dismall cloud of sea-coale' that lay over London and recommended that all noisome trades be banished from the city. The authorities did not, however, take his advice. The burning of coal continued and the pall of soot over London grew worse.
      The industrial revolution brought factory chimneys that belched gases and huge numbers of particles into the atmosphere. Some of these particles caused lung and eye irritations. Others were poisonous. All were potentially condensation nuclei. From the gases, corrosive acids were formed, notably sulphuric acid, which is produced when sulphur dioxide combines with oxygen and water.
      As if it were not enough that they brought on agues, rheumatism and fevers and carried particles of soot from coal fires, the fogs of the British Isles now became even more unpleasant, for the noxious emissions from factory chimneys gave them an acrid taste, an unpleasant odor and a dirty yellow or brown color. These fogs, so different from the clean white fogs of country areas, came to be known as 'pea soupers', not only in London but also in other industrial areas of the British Isles. The particles in the atmosphere made buildings dirty and the acids attacked ironwork, stonework and fabrics.
     There were killer smogs before 1912. On 27 December 1813, for example, fog was so dense that the Prince Regent, having set out for Hatfield House, was forced to turn back at Kentish Town. The fog persisted for almost a week and on one day was so thick that the mail coach from London to Birmingham took seven hours to reach Uxbridge. Contemporary accounts tell of the fog being so thick that the other side of the street could not be seen. They also tell of the fog bearing a distinct smell of coal tar.
      After a similar fog during the week of 07 to 13 December 1873, the death rate in the Administrative County of London was 40% above normal. Marked increases in death rate occurred, too, after the notable fogs of January 1880, February 1882, December 1891, December 1892 and November 1948. The worst affected area of London was usually the East End, where the density of factories and domestic dwellings was greater than almost anywhere else in the capital. The area was also low-lying, which inhibited fog dispersal.
1947 Tristán Bernard, escritor francés.
1946: 119 persons, including W. Frank Winecoff, founder of the Winecoff Hotel in Atlanta, in which they are killed by a fire.
1942 Manuel García Morente, filósofo español.
Arizona is hit WAR! headline
^ 1941: Fewer than 100 Japanese airmen, 2335 US servicemen, and presumably some civilians, on “a date which will live in infamy”
Japanese carrier planes attack Pearl Harbor by surprise
1st Japanese submarine sunk by a US ship (USS Ward)

     In an early-morning sneak attack, Japanese warplanes bomb the US naval base at Oahu Island's Pearl Harbor-and the United States enters World War II. President Roosevelt [30 Jan 1882 – 12 Apr 1945] and Secretary of State Cordell Hull [02 Oct 1871 – 23 Jul 1955] knew a Japanese attack was imminent. Having received intelligence reports of intercepted coded messages from Tokyo to the Japanese ambassador in the United States, the president anticipated Japanese reprisals for his government's refusal to reverse economic sanctions and embargoes against Japan. The Roosevelt administration had remained firm in its demand that the Japanese first withdraw from China and French Indochina, which it had invaded in 1937 and July 1941, respectively, and renounce its alliance with fascist Germany and Italy.
      But Japan refused, demanding that the United States first end the embargo on oil shipments vital for Tokyo's war machine. Although negotiations between the two nations continued up to the very last minute, Roosevelt was aware of a secret 25 November deadline, established by Tokyo, that confirmed military action on the part of the Japanese should they not received satisfaction from the negotiations. While forewarned, Washington could not pinpoint the time or place of an attack.
      Despite initially objecting to war with the US, Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto believed that if Prime Minister Hideki Tojo [30 Dec 1884 – 23 Dec 1948] was determined to go to war, it was Japan who had to make a preemptive strike. Yamamoto studied the devastating November 1940 British attack against the Italian fleet at Taranto, and planned and led the sneak attack against the United States. Approximately 360 Japanese warplanes were launched from six aircraft carriers, reinforced by battleships, cruisers, and destroyers.
      The first dive-bomber is spotted over Pearl Harbor at 07:55 Hawaii time. It was followed by 200 aircraft, which decimated the US ships anchored there, most of which were only lightly manned because it was Sunday morning. Among the 18 US ships destroyed, sunk, or capsized were the Arizona, Virginia, California, Nevada, and West Virginia. More than 180 planes were destroyed on the ground and another 150 were damaged (leaving but 43 operational). US casualties totaled more than 3400, with more than 2400 killed (1000 on the Arizona alone). The Japanese lost fewer than 100 men.
      In the short term, the Japanese goal of crippling US naval strength in the Pacific, and thereby giving Tokyo free reign to gobble up more of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific in its dream of imperial expansion, was successful. But the war had only just begun.

1941 PEARL HARBOR BOMBED: Early on this Sunday morning, peacetime in the Hawaiian Islands explodes at Pearl Harbor. In a surprise attack, some 400 planes from six Japanese carriers freely bombed the harbor and airfield. Naval intelligence thought such an attack improbable, and within two hours the fleet was rendered nearly useless. Losses were devastating: six of eight battleships, three destroyers, and seven other ships were sunk or severely damaged, and more than half the island's aircraft were destroyed. A total of 2400 US persons were killed and 1200 were wounded. Japan's losses were twenty-nine planes and four midget submarines. The following day, Congress almost unanimously declared war against Japan.
     Nineteen US ships were sunk or severely damaged, 150 US planes were destroyed, and 2335 servicemen were killed.

     At 07:55 Hawaii time, a Japanese dive bomber bearing the red symbol of the Rising Sun of Japan on its wings appears out of the clouds above the island of Oahu. A swarm of 360 Japanese warplanes followed, descending on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in a ferocious assault. The surprise attack struck a critical blow against the US Pacific fleet and drew the United States irrevocably into World War II.
      With diplomatic negotiations with Japan breaking down, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his advisers knew that an imminent Japanese attack was probable, but nothing had been done to increase security at the important naval base at Pearl Harbor. It was Sunday morning, and many military personnel had been given passes to attend religious services off base. At 07:02, two radio operators spotted large groups of aircraft in flight toward the island from the north, but, with a flight of B-17s expected from the United States at the time, they were told to sound no alarm. Thus, the Japanese air assault came as a devastating surprise to the naval base.
      Much of the Pacific fleet was rendered useless: Five of eight battleships, three destroyers, and seven other ships were sunk or severely damaged, and more than 200 aircraft were destroyed. A total of some 2400 US persons were killed and 1200 were wounded, many while valiantly attempting to repulse the attack. Japan's losses were some 30 planes, five midget submarines, and fewer than 100 men. Fortunately for the United States, all three Pacific fleet carriers were out at sea on training maneuvers. These giant aircraft carriers would have their revenge against Japan six months later at the Battle of Midway, reversing the tide against the previously invincible Japanese navy in a spectacular victory.
      The day after Pearl Harbor was bombed, President Roosevelt appeared before a joint session of Congress and declared, "Yesterday, December 7, 1941 -- a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan." After a brief and forceful speech, he asked Congress to approve a resolution recognizing the state of war between the United States and Japan. The Senate voted for war against Japan by 82 to 0, and the House of Representatives approved the resolution by a vote of 388 to 1. The sole dissenter was Representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana, a devout pacifist who had also cast a dissenting vote against the US entrance into World War I. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war against the United States, and the US government responded in kind. The US contribution to the successful Allied war effort spanned four long years and cost more than 400'000 US lives.
The author of http://www.cyberessays.com/History/134.htm argues that Roosevelt conspired to provoke the attack on Pearl Harbor (a belief that, in the US Congress the next day, caused Jeannette Rankin, to cast the one vote against war). A much better analysis of the event starts at http://gohawaii.about.com/travel/gohawaii/library/weekly/aa120797a.htm or a shorter one at http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/World/PearlHarbor.html
     The surprise aerial attack on Pearl Harbor climaxed a decade of worsening relations between the United States and an increasingly expansionist and militaristic Japan. Japan's invasion of China in 1937, its subsequent alliance with the Axis powers (Germany and Italy) in 1940, and its occupation of French Indochina in July 1941 prompted the United States to respond that same month by freezing Japanese assets in the United States and declaring an embargo on petroleum shipments and other vital war materials to Japan. By late 1941 the United States had severed practically all commercial and financial relations with Japan. Though Japan continued to negotiate with the United States up to the day of the Pearl Harbor attack, the government of Prime Minister Tojo Hideki decided on war.
      Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku [14 Apr 1884 – 18 Apr 1943], the commander in chief of Japan's Combined Fleet, had planned the attack against the US Pacific Fleet with great care. Once the US fleet was out of action, the way for the unhindered Japanese conquest of all of Southeast Asia, the Indonesian Archipelago, and the South Pacific would be open. On 26 November a Japanese fleet, under Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi [25 Mar 1887 – 06 Jul 1944] and including 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, and 11destroyers, sailed to a point some 440 km north of Hawaii. From there, about 360 planes were launched.
      The first Japanese dive bomber appeared over Pearl Harbor at 07:55 (17:55 UT and 12:55 in Washington DC on 06 Dec). It was followed by a first wave of nearly 200 aircraft, including torpedo planes, bombers, and fighters. The reconnaissance at Pearl Harbor had been lax; a US Army private who noticed this large flight of planes on his radar screen was told to ignore them, since a flight of B-17s from the United States was expected at that time. The anchored ships in the harbor made perfect targets for the Japanese bombers, and since it was Sunday morning (a time chosen by the Japanese for maximum surprise) they were not fully manned. Similarly, the US military aircraft were lined up on the airfields of the Naval Air Station on Ford Island and adjoining Wheeler and Hickam Fields to guard against sabotage, and very few became airborne. Most of the damage to the battleships was inflicted in the first 30 minutes of the assault. The Arizona was completely destroyed and the Oklahoma capsized. The California, Nevada, and West Virginia sank in shallow water. Three other battleships, three cruisers, three destroyers, and other vessels were also damaged. More than 180 aircraft were destroyed. US military casualties totaled more than 3400, including more than 2300 killed. The Japanese lost from 29 to 60 planes, five midget submarines, perhaps one or two fleet submarines, and fewer than 100 men.
      The Pearl Harbor Attack severely crippled US naval and air strength in the Pacific. However, the three aircraft carriers attached to the Pacific Fleet were not at Pearl Harbor at the time and thus escaped. Of the eight battleships, all but the Arizona and Oklahoma were eventually repaired and returned to service, and the Japanese failed to destroy the important oil storage facilities on the island. The “date which will live in infamy,” as US President Franklin Roosevelt termed it, unified the US public and swept away any earlier support for neutrality. On 08 December Congress declared war on Japan with only one dissenting vote, that of Representative Jeannette Rankin [11 Jun 1880 – 18 May 1973] of Montana, who had also voted against US entry into World War I.
      The extent of the disaster and the unpreparedness of the US military provoked considerable criticism. Admiral Husband Edward Kimmel [26 Feb 1882 – 14 May 1968] and General Walter Campbell Short [30 Mar 1880 – 09 Mar 1949], the Navy and Army commanders on Oahu, were relieved of duty, and official investigations were begun at once. Later investigations indicated that, while information had been obtained by that an attack by Japan was probable, and even the time and date, it had not informed been transmitted to Kimmel or Short, as the US officials lacked the imagination of the Japanese and never though of Pearl Harbor as a possible target, rather than the Philippines. On 25 May 1999, the United States Senate passed a resolution exonerating Kimmel and Short. "They were denied vital intelligence that was available in Washington," said Senator William V. Roth Jr. (R-DE), noting that they had been made scapegoats by the Pentagon. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) called Kimmel and Short "the two final victims of Pearl Harbor."
more
Les Japonais attaquent Pearl Harbor      ^ top ^
      Au matin du dimanche 7 décembre 1941, des nuées d'avions japonais attaquent par surprise la flotte de guerre américaine à Pearl Harbor, dans les îles Hawaï. L'aéronavale nippone, forte de 6 porte-avions et de 423 avions, a pu s'approcher de l'archipel sans être repérée par les radars. En deux vagues d'assaut, les Japonais détruisent ou endommagent huit cuirassés. 2000 marins sont tués ou blessés. Fort heureusement, trois porte-avions ont quitté la base dans les jours précédents, échappant de ce fait à de graves dommages.
Roosevelt savait-il?
      Les Japonais sont coutumiers de cette façon d'entrer en guerre par une attaque surprise et sans déclaration préalable. En 1904, ils ont ainsi attaqué par surprise la base russe de Port-Arthur, en Chine du nord. Plus tard, en 1931, le général Tojo et l'empereur Hirohito ont de même agressé la Chine. Ils ont profité de l'invasion de la France par l'armée allemande en 1940 pour occuper la colonie française du Tonkin. Ils sont désormais gênés par la puissance américaine dans leur folle conquête des pays de l'Océan Pacifique et ils n'excluent plus d'attaquer les Etats-Unis malgré l'extraordinaire disproportion des forces en faveur des Américains. Les responsables américains et l'opinion éclairée s'attendent donc à une attaque de la part des Japonais. Mais nul ne sait quelle base du Pacifique en fera les frais. Guam? Les Philippines? Pearl Harbor?... Le président Franklin Delanoo Roosevelt n'était pas en mesure d'empêcher cette attaque japonaise, sauf à désarmer toutes ses bases de l'océan Pacifique et à lever le drapeau blanc. Eût-il connu à l'avance l'objectif visé qu'il ne lui aurait servi à rien de le protéger. S'il l'eût fait, les Japonais auraient tout simplement changé de plan au dernier moment et attaqué une autre base. On peut raisonnablement penser qu'il avait quelques soupçons sur l'attaque de Pearl Harbor et qu'il a voulu limiter la casse en laissant quelques cuirassés quitter le port dans les jours précédents. Paradoxalement, cette attaque japonaise a servi la libération de l'Europe en décidant le peuple américain à entrer dans la guerre contre Hitler.
La guerre devient mondiale
      Depuis plusieurs mois déjà, Roosevelt tentait de rallier les pacifistes et les isolationnistes de son pays à une guerre contre l'Axe tripartite germano-italo-japonais. Il soutenait activement les Anglais et les Soviétiques, seuls en lutte contre Hitler. Il multipliait les provocations contre les Allemands mais Hitler se gardait bien d'y répondre. L'attaque de Pearl Harbor met fin à l'ambigüité. Une union sacrée se forme aussitôt aux Etats-Unis et le Congrès déclare la guerre au Japon. Trois jours plus tard, l'Allemagne et l'Italie, alliées du Japon, déclarent à leur tour - mais à contrecoeur - la guerre aux Etats-Unis. Le conflit devient véritablement mondial.
1941 L’Amérique entre dans la guerre Depuis plus de deux ans, la guerre s’était installée en Europe et les forces de l’Axe, conduits par l’Allemagne nazie, gagnaient du terrain. Le totalitarisme germano-italo-japonais menaçait le monde et les Etats- Unis s’en inquiétaient bien évidemment, eux qui avaient proclamé leur neutralité dès septembre 1939. Que faire ? Il fallait une loi et un prétexte pour intervenir. La loi tomba le 11 mars 1941 : la loi prêt-bail promulguée ce jour et qui prévoit d’aider les nations en guerre contre l’Allemagne. Le prétexte, lui, fut fourni par le Japon : le 7 décembre 1941, les avions japonais attaquent une base militaire américaine située à Pearl Harbor, une rade de l’île d’Oahu, dans le Pacifique, à 5 000 km du Japon. Tokyo a lancé 360 appareils qui détruisent les navires US en deux heures de temps. La contre-attaque n’y changera rien : l’Amérique venait de perdre, ce 7 décembre 1941, 2 403 hommes et 188 avions. Désormais, la Guerre mondiale devient aussi leur guerre. Ils y entrent le jour même par une déclaration solennelle du Président Roosevelt. La défaite de Hitler se profile
^ 1939 Day 8 of Winter War: USSR aggression against Finland.
More deaths due to Stalin's desire to grab Finnish territory.
Finnish troops at Kollaa beat back the first Soviet offensive.
  • Taipale: by evening Finnish troops have beaten back the first Russian offensive.

  • Ladoga Karelia: during the night Soviet troops achieve combat contact with the Finnish positions on the River Kollaanjoki.

  • Ilomantsi: Finnish troops in the Ilomantsi sector fall back to Möhkö and overnight to Kallioniemi ferry. They begin a defensive action.

  • Northern Finland: Commander-in-Chief Mannerheim reinforces the troops around Suomussalmi with sections of the 9th Division commanded by Colonel Siilasvuo.
  • Soviet troops take the parish village at Suomussalmi.

  • Ladoga Karelia: Finnish troops at Kollaa beat back the first Soviet offensive.
  • Lieutenant-Colonel Pajari takes command of the Finnish forces in the Tolvajärvi area.Finnish troops launch active countermeasures.

  • Northern Finland: the Russian 122nd Division launches its main offensive against Finnish positions on the Kairala parallel.The defending Finnish battalion cannot hold. The detachment pulls back to the parish village at Salla.

  • The three largest US radio networks have sent their own correspondents to Helsinki.One is the journalist Warren Irving, who is sending a radio commentary from Helsinki to the USA.
    Talvisodan 8. päivä
    Ensimmäinen neuvostohyökkäys Kollaalla torjuttu
    Taipaleessa suomalaiset torjuvat iltaan mennessä venäläisten ensimmäisen suurhyökkäyksen.
    Laatokan-Karjalassa neuvostojoukot saavat yöllä taistelukosketuksen Kollaanjoen asemaan.
    Ilomantsin suunnalla suomalaiset vetäytyvät Möhköön ja yöllä Kallioniemen lossille.Puolustustaistelut alkavat.
    Ylipäällikkö Mannerheim vahventaa Suomussalmen suunnalla joukkoja 9. Divisioonan osilla, joita johtaa eversti Siilasvuo.
    Neuvostojoukot valtaavat Suomussalmen kirkonkylän.
    Kollaalla suomalaiset torjuvat ensimmäisen neuvostohyökkäyksen.
    Everstiluutnantti Pajari ottaa komentoonsa Tolvajärven alueen joukot.Suomalaisten aktiiviset vastatoimenpiteet käynnistyvät.
    Sallassa venäläisten 122. Divisioona aloittaa pää-hyökkäyksensä suomalaisasemiin Kairalan tasalla.Suomalaispataljoona lyödään.Osasto vetäytyy Sallan kirkonkylään.
    Kolme suurinta amerikkalaista radioasemaa on lähettänyt oman reportterinsa Helsinkiin.Yksi heistä on amerikkalainen lehtimies Warren Irving, joka lähettää radioselostuksen Helsingistä USA:han.
  • 1928 Glaisher, mathematician.
    1912 George Darwin, mathematician, theorized Moon was pulled out of Pacific Ocean
    1910 Ludwig Knaus, German painter born on 05 October 1829. — more
    1894 Ferdinand de Lesseps, ingeniero francés.
    1874 Friedrich Otto Georgi, German artist born on 02 February 1819.
    1874: 70 Blacks who had protested the ejection of a carpetbagger sheriff, Vicksburg, Mississippi.
    ^ 1862 Hundreds of Yanks and Rebs at Battle of Prairie Grove.
          Northwestern Arkansas and Southwestern Missouri is secured for the Union when a force commanded by General James G. Blunt holds off a force of Confederates under General Thomas Hindman. Hindman assembled a force at Fort Smith, Arkansas, to make an attempt to recapture territory lost during the Pea Ridge campaign of early 1862. Hindman planned to cross the Boston Mountains into northwestern Arkansas and then Missouri, but the Union Army of the Frontier, commanded by John Schofield, made a preemptive move to Maysville, Arkansas. Schofield had to leave the army due to illness, and Blunt assumed command. When Hindman sent an advance detachment of cavalry under John Marmaduke through the mountains in late November, Blunt moved south and defeated Marmaduke in a minor engagement at Cane Hill.
          After Cane Hill, Hindman moved his 11'000-man army across the Boston Mountains and approached Blunt's 5000 soldiers. Hindman prepared to attack, but was surprised by the approach of Union reinforcements from Missouri. In one of the most dramatic marches of the entire war, Union General Francis Herron had moved 7000 reinforcements more than 180 km in three and a half days. Hindman turned to face Herron, but then took up defensive positions in Prairie Grove. Herron arrived and attacked Hindman on 07 December. Herron sent only half of his force to the assault, believing that this was only part of Hindman's force. Outnumbered nearly three to one, Herron's attack failed. Hindman ordered a counterattack, but it was repulsed with heavy loses. Hearing noise from the battle, Blunt moved toward Prairie Grove and attacked Hindman later that day. This, too, failed, as did another Confederate counterattack.
          Darkness ended the engagement with the Confederates still holding the high ground at Prairie Grove. The battle was a tactical draw but Hindman's army was running low on ammunition. Confederate losses amounted to more than 1400 killed and wounded, while the Yankees lost more than 1200. Hindman retreated back to Fort Smith, and the region was secured for the Union.
    1847 Francisco Manuel Sánchez de Tagle, poeta mexicano.
    ^ 1835 Benjamin Rush Milam, 47, by sniper bullet, as he leads the Texan army's attack on Mexican-held San Antonio.
          Milam was born in 1788 in Frankfort, Kentucky. He became a citizen and soldier of Mexico in 1824, when newly independent Mexico was still under a republican constitution. Like many Americans who immigrated to the Mexican state of Texas, Milam found that the government both welcomed and feared the growing numbers of Americans, and treated them with uneven fairness. When Milam heard in 1835 that Santa Ana had overthrown the Mexican republic and established himself as dictator, Milam renounced his Mexican citizenship and joined the rag-tag army of the newly proclaimed independent Republic of Texas.
          After helping the Texas Army capture the city of Goliad, Milam went on a reconnaissance mission to the southwest but returned to join the army for its planned attack on San Antonio-only to learn that the generals were postponing the attack on San Antonio for the winter. Aware that Santa Ana's forces were racing toward Texas to suppress the rebellion, Milam worried that any hesitation would spell the end of the revolution. Milam made an impassioned call for volunteers, asking: "Who will go with old Ben Milam into San Antonio?"
          Inspired by Milam's bold challenge, three hundred men did volunteer, and the Texas Army began its attack on San Antonio at dawn on December 5. Milam death did not stop the Texan attack and by December 9, the defending forces of the Mexican army were badly beaten, and the commanding general surrendered the city. . If Milam had survived, he might well have been among the doomed defenders of the Alamo that were wiped out by Santa Ana's troops the following March.
    1830 Joseph Stannard, British artist born on 12 September 1797.
    1817 William Bligh British naval officer of "Bounty" notoriety, in London
    ^ 1815 Michel Ney, duc d'Elchingen, prince de la Moskowa, maréchal de France, fusillé.
          Ney n'a pu s'empêcher de tomber dans les bras de l'empereur à Auxerre, où il était allé l'arrêter , la Restauration ne lui pardonne pas cette trahison. Après Waterloo, il n'a rien fait pour échapper à la Terreur blanche qui s'installe. A 03 h 30 du matin ce jour, on lui annonce à la prison du Luxembourg le verdict prononcé par la Chambre des pairs : la mort. Lorsqu'on le conduit devant le peloton d'exécution et qu'on s'apprête à lui bander les yeux il rétorque : "Ignorez-vous que depuis vingt-cinq ans, j'ai l'habitude de regarder en face la balle et le boulet?" Quelques minutes plus tard, face aux soldats qui le mettent en joue, il lance, la main sur le coeur : "Soldats, hâtez-vous et tirez là!"
    1771 Fray Martín Sarmiento, erudito español.
    1709 Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter born in 1638. MORE ON HOBBEMA AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1254 Innocent IV, pope whose entire papacy was spent in strife with and flight from German emperors [What did they want with him? After all, he was Innocent.].
    0283 St Eutychian, Pope
    --43 BC Marcus Tullius Cicero, 63, Roman orator, politician, writer, his head and right hand chopped off by Mark Antony's soldiers. CICERO ONLINE: (in Latin:) Complete Works — (in English translations): De Officiis -- Laelius, or, An Essay on Friendship -- Letters of Cicero.
    ^  Births which occurred on a 07 December:
    1995 Michael Wong-Sasso. From the age of 2 he would be interested in trash and would develop the ambition to be a trash collector when he grows up. He would make news by holding the party for his 7th birthday next to Los Angeles' Sunshine Canyon Landfill and saying: "I like the big trucks. I like putting trash where it belongs. I like making the world cleaner."
    1972 Dick and Jane as Victims, 78-page booklet criticizing sexism in US elementary school textbooks, by the National Organization of Women (NOW).
    1942 USS New Jersey, the largest battleship ever built., is launched by the US Navy.
    1936 Sharkovsky, mathematician
    ^ 1928 Noam Chomsky, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, linguist (founded transformational grammar), anarchist, social critic, activist.
          Chomsky learned a lot about linguistics from his father, William. Among his many accomplishments Chomsky is most famous for his work on generative grammar, which he developed from his interest in modern logic and mathematical foundations. Always interested in politics, and politics brought him into the linguistics field. His political tendencies result from "the radical Jewish community in New York.” Since 1965 Chomsky has become one of the leading critics of US foreign policy. He has many books and essays published arguing against American involvement in Vietnam, Latin America and Indonesia's political involvement in East Timor. Chomsky has many contributions to anarchism, constantly stressing that we are all capable of become more aware of what is fundamentally right and wrong, and that life itself is bigger and brighter than passively consuming state led propaganda and mis-information. http://flag.blackened.net/daver/anarchism/chomsky/index.html " While I have yet to hear him play the accordian, I have been proud to know that he is part of a family as well as a community I have identified with, a man with private moments, and good hearty laughs, of a boat that sails a Cape Cod pond, and so many friends in movements far away who take heart from his words, and passion from his pen. — Danny Schechter, one of over 1500 birthday greetings on Chomsky's 70th birthday http://www.zmag.org/noambirth.htm http://tigerden.com/~berios/libertarians.html http://www.disinfo.com/rev/rev_chomsky.html
    1927 Antonio Maria Blanco, US artist.
    1926 Leon Kossoff, British artist. MORE ON KOSSOFF AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1926 Victor Kiam CEO (Remington shavers)/NFL owner (Patriots)
    1924 Mario Alberto Soares (Socialist), premier of Portugal (1976-1978, 1983- )
    1940 The Heart is a Lonely Hunter, de Carson Smith McCullers, se publica.
    1915 Leigh Brackett, US writer of crime novels and short stories, best known for her science fiction and fantasy (over 200 titles). Also wrote screenplays and television scripts for Checkmate and Suspense series.
    1909 Bakelite is patented by Leo Baekeland.
    1905 Gerard Kuiper US astronomer (discovered moons of Uranus, Neptune)
    1895 Sir Milton Margay, the first prime minister of Sierra Leone.
    1894 Stuart Davis, US artist who died on 24 June 1964. . MORE ON DAVIS AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1888 Joyce Cary Anglo-Irish man, writer (House of Children, The Horse's Mouth)
    1881 Lilian Westcott Hale, US artist who died in 1963.
    1878 Akiko Yosano Japan, poet (Tangled Hair)
    ^ 1873 Willa Sibert Cather, Winchester, Cack Creek Valley, Virginia. Pulitzer Prize-winning author. “Most of the basic material a writer works with is acquired before the age of fifteen.”
         Cather was the first of seven children born to an old Virginia family dating back to colonial times. Her maternal grandfather served several terms in the Virginia House of Delegates. Her grandmother was a strong, courageous woman who had a powerful influence on Cather and served as the model for several of her characters.
          Cather's family moved to Red Cloud, Nebraska, when she was a child, and for the rest of her life she wrote about the deep conflict she felt between East and West. While books like O Pioneers! (1913) and My Antonia (1918) celebrated the spirit of the frontier, in other works, such as The Song of the Lark (1915), she explores the stifling effects of small-town life on creative young minds.
          After graduating from the University of Nebraska in Lincoln in 1895, Cather moved to Pittsburgh to be an editor for a family magazine. She later became an editor for the daily paper in Pittsburgh. In 1901, she became a teacher and stuck with it for several years while she published her first book of verse, April Twilights (1903), and her first collection of stories, The Troll Garden and Selected Stories (1905). She moved to New York to take a job as managing editor of McClure's, a monthly publication, and began writing novels. Her first, Alexander's Bridge, appeared in 1912, but she didn't find her true voice until O Pioneers!. Cather won a Pulitzer in 1922 for One of Ours.
          Perhaps her most famous book is A Lost Lady (1923). It is the story of the Middle West in the age of railway-building, of the charming wife of Captain Forrester, a retired contractor, and her hospitable and open-handed household as seen through the eyes of an adoring boy. The climax of the book, with the disintegration of the Forrester household and the slow coarsening of his wife, is considered a masterpiece of vivid, haunting prose.
          Her 1927 novel, Death Comes for the Archbishop, the story of two saintly French-Canadian priests who build a cathedral in the wilds of New Mexico, was also well received.
          Among Cather's other books are the novels The Professor's House (1925), My Mortal Enemy (1926), Shadows on the Rock (1931), Lucy Gayheart, Sapphira and the Slave Girl (1940); two books of short stories, Obscure Destinies and Youth and the Bright Medusa, and a collection of essays, Not Under Forty.
          Cather lived most of her adult life in New York. She died on 24 April 1947 of a cerebral hemorrhage (she had said: “I shall not die of a cold. I shall die of having lived.”).
         CATHER ONLINE:
  • My Antonia
  • O Pioneers!
  • One of Ours
  • One of Ours
  • The Professor's House
  • The Troll Garden and Selected Stories
  • Youth and the Bright Medusa
  • The Song of the Lark
  • The Song of the Lark
  • Alexander's Bridge
  • 1872 Johan Huinzinga, ludentologist, Gronengen, Holland.
    1861 Han Ryner (1861-1938), Nemours. French teacher, anticlerical, pacifist, anarchist, philosopher (called a "contemporary Socrates"). Lecturer asd speaker of talent, Ryner collaborated with many reviews as well. Writer of a rich asd varied work whose principal books are: Le crime d'obéir (1900), L'homme fourmi (1901), Les voyages de Psychodore (1903), Le sphinx rouge; Le père Diogène (1920), Bouche d'or, patron des pacifistes (1934). Married to poet and author Georgette Ryner.
    1830 Luigi Cremona, mathematician.
    1826 Christian Wiener, mathematician.
    1823 Leopold Kronecker, Prussian mathematician who died on 29 Dec 1891. He limited his achievements and made himself obnoxious by insisting that nothing exists in mathematics except what can be constructed with a finite number of operation from the integers, an opinion which he expounded in Über den Zahlbergriff (1887).
    1822 Émile Digeon. French revolutionary socialist journalist, person in charge of the "Commune of Narbonne," libertarian free thinker, anarchist journalist.
    ^ 1810 Theodor Schwann, German physiologist who died on 11 January 1882. He founded modern histology by defining the cell as the basic unit of animal structure.
          After studying medicine in Berlin, Schwann assisted the physiologist Johannes Peter Müller [14 Jul 1801 – 28 Apr 1858] from 1834 to 1838. In 1836, while investigating digestive processes, he isolated a substance responsible for digestion in the stomach and named it pepsin, the first enzyme prepared from animal tissue. While professor of physiology at the University of Louvain, Belgium (1839–1848), he observed the formation of yeast spores and concluded that the fermentation of sugar and starch was the result of life processes. He knew Matthias Schleiden [05 Apr 1804 – 23 Jun 1881] well, and a year after the latter, working at University of Jena, advanced the cell theory for plants, Schwann extended it to animals in his Microscopic Researches into Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Animals and Plants (1839).
          At the universities of Louvain and Liège, in Belgium (1849–1879), he also investigated muscular contraction and nerve structure, discovering the striated muscle in the upper esophagus and the myelin sheath covering peripheral axons, now termed Schwann cells. He coined the term metabolism for the chemical changes that take place in living tissue, identified the role played by microorganisms in putrefaction, and formulated the basic principles of embryology by observing that the egg is a single cell that eventually develops into a complete organism.
    1769 Adèle Romany (or Romanée), French artist who died on 06 June 1846.
    1756 Cornelis van Spaendonck, Flemish painter who died in January 1840. MORE ON SPAENDONCK AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1647 Giovanni Ceva, mathematician.
    1637 Neile, mathematician.
    1598 Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Italy, greatest Baroque sculptor in Italy, also an architect, painter, and dramatist, the last of Italy's remarkable series of universal geniuses. He died on 28 November 1680. — Cet architecte dit "Le Cavalier Bernin "est aussi peintre et sculpteur. On lui doit, sous la Renaissance la grande colonnade de Saint Pierre à Rome (1656-1657). Il fut appelé en France par Louis XIV pour achever le Louvre, mais ses plans furent refusés. MORE ON BERNINI AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
    1493 Isabela (hoy Santo Domingo), primera ciudad occidental del Nuevo Mundo, es fundada por Cristóbal Colón en la isla La Española, en honor de la reina de España.
    ^ 0521 Saint Columba
          Two centuries after Saint Patrick had carried the gospel of Christ to Ireland, Columba was born in the Irish town of Donegal. He was a member of the noble O'Neil family, the family of the later kings of Ireland. Columba's parents were devout Christians, and as a boy Columba even attended a church founded by Patrick two centuries earlier. Columba was ordained and established several churches and monasteries in Ireland, but in 563 he left his native land and went "on pilgrimage for Christ.” With twelve companions he sailed to Iona, an island off the west coast of Scotland. There he established a monastery which could serve as a base of evangelism among the Scots and the Picts. Columba courageously preached to people still under the strong influence of the Druid religion. Brude, king of the Picts, was converted under Columba's influence, and Christianity began to have a strong influence on the region. Columba died in 597, on 09 June, the date that would become his annual feast day.
          The monastery Columba founded at Iona became a center of learning and piety. In a day when the Roman church was becoming more ceremonial and priestly, the school at Iona emphasized the Word of God as the rule of faith. For these Celtic Christians, Christ alone was head of the Church; they did not follow the priestly authority or ceremonies of the Roman church. From Iona, many missionaries went out to what is modern day Holland, France, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. This church of the Britons was independent of the Roman Church. By the end of the sixth century, Pope Gregory tried to bring the movement Columba had begun under the authority of the Roman Church. He sent the missionary Augustine to Britain in 592 and established him as bishop at Canterbury. For a century there was a struggle between the British church and the Roman church for authority in the region. In the seventh century, at the synod of Whitby in 664, the authority of the Roman church was finally affirmed and accepted.

     

    Holidays Cuba : Day of National Mourning / Delaware : Ratification Day (1787) / Ivory Coast : National Day (1960) / US : Pearl Harbor Day (1941)

    Religious Observances RC, Ang, Luth : St Ambrose, governor/bishop of Milan / Saint Ambroise fut évêque de Milan au IVe siècle, sous le règne de l'empereur romain Théodose. Il combattit l'hérésie arienne et développa le culte des reliques. Il baptisa aussi le futur saint Augustin. Comme ce dernier, Ambroise figure parmi les grands Docteurs de l'Eglise catholique./ RC : St Mary Josepha Rossello, foundress / Santos Ambrosio, Bartolomé, Isidoro, León, Policarpo, Teodoro, Siervo y Urbano; santa María Josefa Roselló.

    DICTIONNAIRE TICRANIEN: Pyrénées: grandes sœurs les plus détestables.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day :
    “Where there is great love there are always miracles.” —
    Willa Cather [07 Dec 1873 – 24 April 1947]
    “The stupid believe that to be truthful is easy; only the artist, the great artist, knows how difficult it is.” — Willa Cather
    “Some memories are realities, and are better than anything that can ever happen to one again.” —
    Willa Cather
    “Either you repeat the same conventional doctrines everybody is saying, or else you say something true.” —
    Noam Chomsky [07 Dec 1928~] {you can say that again! and again... and again...}
    “Whatever advice you give, be brief.”
    “Whatever brief you give, don't include advice.”
    “Whatever advice you give, don't give advice about giving advice.”
    “Whatever advice you give, apply to yourself first.”
    “Whatever advice you give, can and will be used against you.”

    “Whatever advice you give, is not as effective as your example.”
    “Whatever advice you give, is like a candle in the wind.”

    “When building a castle in the air, make sure it has wings.”
    {filling it with hot air is not enough}
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE TO “HISTORY 4 2DAY”
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4dec/h4dec07.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4dec/h4dec07.html
    http://42day.site.voila.fr/history/h4dec/h4dec07.html
    updated Saturday 01-Dec-2007 3:45 UT
    principal updates:
    v.6.b0 Thursday 07-Dec-2006 0:16 UT
    v.5.b0 Thursday 08-Dec-2005 20:08 UT
    Monday 24-Jan-2005 22:57 UT
    Monday 08-Dec-2003 16:27 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site