a 05 December:
2002 The previous evening, the US government's Air Transportation Stabilization Board declared “based on unreasonably optimistic revenue projections” the business plan of United Airlines' parent corporation UAL and rejected UAL's request for a $1.8 billion loan guarantee, which would have enabled UAL to obtain the bank loans it needs to avert Chapter 11 bankrupcy, for which it would apply on 09 December 2002 [PDF], the largest bankruptcy in airline industry history. Today, UAL is downgraded by Deutsche Securities from Hold to Sell. Standard & Poors downgrade UAL's debt to the lowest rating: D (for “default”). On the New York Stock Exchange, trading in the UAL shares is halted immediately after they drop at the opening (at 09:30) from their previous close of $3.12 to $1.28. They drop further when trading resumes at 13:44 and close (at 16:00) at $1.00. 44 million UAL share-transactions are made (which does not mean that 44 million of the 66 million UAL shares were traded, as some undoubtedly were traded several times during the day). The next day UAL stock would drop further, to an intraday low of 75 cents, and closes at 93 cents, after 48 million share-transactions; it is susceptible to delisting if it trades below $1 for more than 30 days. UAL had traded as high as $17.90 as recently as 12 March 2002 and $95.63 on 30 March 1998. 36 million of the 66 million shares of UAS are owned by its employees. UAL had been trying to obtain $5.2 billion in wage and benefit concessions from its employees , and $7.7 billion in cuts from vendors and other sectors. UAL had also cut another $60 million from company officers' compensation packages. [5~year price chart >] Effective on 06 December 2002, UAL is replaced in the Dow Jones Transportation Average (of 20 companies) by United Parcel Service (UPS).
2002 Major auction of US art at Christie's. MORE
2002 In Angola, President and Prime Minister Jose Eduardo dos Santos names his Interior Minister Fernando Dias dos Santos (not related) to take over as Prime Minister. Jose dS cumulated both top government posts since 1998, to better wage war against the UNITA rebels. The civil war began in 1975 when Angola gained independence from Portugal and ended in April 2002, shortly after government forces killed UNITA's leader Jonas Savimbi. Fernando dS, 50, has been interior minister since 1996. Previously he served as deputy minister for state security and national police chief. The ruling-party MPLA has governed Angola for 27 years.
2002 Homeless and unkempt Alice Perley walks into the Nashville, Tennessee, branch of the A. G. Edwards & Sons brokerage, and says that she has an account with the firm, which they find out to be true. In 1994, Perley, a college graduate with a chemistry degree, property, and other investments, had disappeared from her home in Kentucky after a painful divorce. She left a commercial flight during a stopover at Nashville's airport and, apparently suffering from partial amnesia, lived in the woods, on the streets, and in shelters. Her brother, Fred Perley of Charlotte NC, comes on 06 December 2002 to take her home.
2002 At the 100th-birthday party for US Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC), Trent Lott, 61, of Mississippi, unwittingly puts an end to his being Senate Republican leader (since 1996 when Bob Dole left the post to conduct an unsuccessful presidential campaign) when he says: “I want to say this about my state. When Strom Thurmond ran for president, we voted for him. We're proud of it. And if the rest of the country had followed our lead, we wouldn't have had all these problems over all these years either.” In 1948 Thurmond had been the presidential candidate of the segregationist Dixiecrat Party. Lott's words would bring attention to his lifelong racist attitudes, and, with abject apologies and lip-service to racial equality, he would fail to placate opponents, while dismaying his conservative supporters. After stubbornly insisting that he would remain Senate Republican leader, Lott would suddenly resign the post on 20 December 2002.
| 1997 El pintor y escritor Ramón Gaya Pomes recibe
el Premio Nacional Español de Artes Plásticas.
1997 El Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) adelanta una bajada de ocho décimas en el crecimiento mundial para 1998, que pasan del 4,3% al 3,5%, como consecuencia de la crisis económica en Asia.
1991 Finaliza la reunión de presidentes iberoamericanos en la "multicumbre" de Cartagena, con avances en la integración política y económica y la firma de acuerdos sobre la democratización de Cuba y Haití.
1991 Ucrania deroga el tratado de su participación en la URSS, firmado en 1922, y Leonid Kravchuk toma posesión como presidente de la República.
1991 Charles Keating Jr (Lincoln Savings & Loan fraud), found guilty
1989 Se proclama un Gobierno de mayoría no comunista en Checoslovaquia y Karel Urbanel anuncia la rehabilitación de 500'000 excluidos del PC tras la Primavera de Praga.
| 1985 El Reino Unido se retira de la UNESCO.
1983 Se disuelve la Junta Militar argentina, y el general retirado Reynaldo Benito Antonio Bignone es nombrado presidente provisional hasta que asuma el poder Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Folukes.
1980 A raíz del asesinato de tres religiosas y una misionera estadounidenses en El Salvador, Ronald Reagan decide suspender la ayuda política y militar al país, y enviar una comisión investigadora.
1975 Estados Unidos sufre una contundente derrota política ante el bloqueo de Hispanoamérica, al perder cinco votaciones consecutivas en el consejo político de la Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA), que estudia la reforma del sistema interamericano.
1957 NYC becomes 1st city to legislate against racial or religious discrimination in housing (Fair Housing Practices Law)
1950 Sikkim becomes a protectorate of India
1946 President Truman creates Committee on Civil Rights by Executive Order #9808
1943 Prosigue la ofensiva aliada en dirección a Pescara en el contexto de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1935 1st commercial hydroponics operation established (Montebello CA)
1933 21st Amendment to the US Constitution ratified (as Utah becomes the 36th state to ratify), repealing 18th Amendment (Prohibition)(17:32 EST) Abolición en Estados Unidos de la "Ley Seca", que prohibía la venta y consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y estuvo en vigor durante 13 años.
1932 German physicist Albert Einstein granted a visa to the US
1930 Dimite el gobierno de André Tardieu en Francia.
1924 La ciudad de Medina, que alberga la tumba del profeta Mahoma, ocupada por Abd al Aziz Ibn Saud III.
1920 En un referéndum celebrado en Grecia, la mayoría de los votantes pide el regreso del rey Constantino I.
1918 Se instaura en España un nuevo Gobierno de Alvaro de Figueroa y Torres Conde de Romanones, quien manifiesta su disconformidad con la autonomía de Cataluña.
1912 Se acuerda prolongar por seis años la Triple Alianza.
1905 Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Lib) becomes PM of England
1881 47th Congress (1881-83) convenes
1879 1st automatic telephone switching system patented 1879 Automatic telephone system Daniel and Thomas Connolly and Thomas McTighe received a patent for the first automatic telephone system on this day in 1879. Previously, telephone calls were placed through operators. The system patented on this day allowed users to place their own calls, but it was never commercially applied. The first successful system was put into use in 1892.
1865 Perú y Chile firman un tratado de alianza ofensiva-defensiva y ambos países declaran poco después la guerra a España.
1865 US Treasury Secretary Hugh McCulloch recommends the discontinuation of greenbacks, paper money introduced during the Civil War. However, proponents of greenbacks would succed in maintianing them into the 1870s.
1862 Engagement at Coffeeville, Mississippi
1848 President Polk triggers Gold Rush of '49, by confirming California gold discovery
1835 Texan army, led by Benjamin Rush Milam, starts attack on Mexican-held San Antonio, which will fall four days later, though Milam is killed on 07 December by a sniper bullet.
1831 Former US President John Quincy Adams takes his seat as member of House of Representatives.
1792 George Washington is re-elected US President; John Adams is re-elected vice president.
1496 Jews are expelled from Portugal by order of King Manuel I
1492 Columbus discovers Hispaniola (La Española) (Haiti) Cristóbal Colón, en su primer viaje, descubre la isla que los indígenas llamaban Quisqueya y que él denominó La Española.
1484 Innocent VIII issues his famous "Witch Bull,"ordering Inquisition to systematically discover, torture, and execute witches throughout Europe. This was done also by Protestants, even in the American colonies two centuries later.
2005 Palestinian suicide bomber Lotfi Abu Saada, 21; Israeli security guard, Haim Amram, 26, and 4 other persons who had been waiting at a checkpoint at the main entrance of the Sharon shopping mall in Netanya, Israel, and did not flee fast enough when the bomber was detected and pushed back by Amran. Some 40 persons are injured. — (051206)
2004 Jad al-Hindi, 19, Palestinian, shot in the head 12 times after being abducted late in the day by the Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, who say that he helped Israeli undercover agents track down and kill three of its members in Ramallah, West Bank, on 21 November 2004.
2004 A woman and a child, by insurgent mortar rounds misaimed at a US military base in Ramadi, Iraq.
2004 Three guardsmen and a suicide car bomber at an Iraqi National Guard checkpoint in Beiji, Iraq, at 09:30 (06:30 UT). 18 guardsmen are wounded.
2004 Seventeen civilians getting off their bus at their place of employment by the US military occupiers in Tikrit, Iraq, at 08:30 (05:30 UT), shot by 7 attackers in two cars. 13 persons are wounded.
2004 An Iraqi National Guardsman, shot by attackers near Samarra, Iraq, early in the morning. 4 guardsmen are wounded.
2003 Eight Afghans: 6 children and 2 adults, on which a wall collapses when US ground and air forces attack the compound of Taliban commander mullah Jalani, who is not there, in Paktia province. The US admits the killing only 5 days later.
2003 Jihad al-Akhras, 16, Palestinian of Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip, shot six times in the head, chest, and back, late in the evening, by Israeli soldiers firing “at a suspicious figure crawling toward an army outpost in a zone policed by Israel to prevent weapons smuggling from Egypt.”. He was a baggage handler at the Rafah-Egypt border terminal, and was running to help someone with his luggage.
2003:: 42 persons, including a suicide bomber, at 08:00 on commuter train approaching a station near Yessentuki, not far from Rostov-on-Don, Russia. Some 180 persons are injured, one of whom, a woman, dies the next day. Chechen separatist terrorists are suspected. [< photo]
2002 Three persons, by explosion at a McDonald's restaurant in a shopping mall in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
2002 Bilal Quereshi, another man, and a woman, their throats cut after they were gagged and bound hand and foot, shortly after midnight. Their bodies are discovered in the morning in the rubble after an explosion destroys Karachi offices of the honorary consul of Macedonia, where Quereshi, a Pakistani Christian was a night watchman, who should have been alone in the building. On the walls, scribbled in Urdu: “al-Qaida Pakistan, result of adultery”' and “Message for Infidels / Loyalty will be returned in loyalty. / Oppression in oppression. / We are men like you. / We will do what you will do.” In March 2002, in Macedonia, police killed seven Pakistani by shooting at a van that tried to drive through a roadblock. In the van were seven AK-47 assault rifles, ammunition, and hand grenades. The Pakistanis were planning attacks on Western embassies. One of them was Ahmet Ikaz, 24, known to Interpol as a criminal.
2002 Shu Maung “U Ne Win”, under house arrest, Burmese general and dictator (1962-1990), born on 24 May 1911. [1997 photo >]
2002 Rick Grannis and Garry Williams, pilot and sole passenger of a prototype Four Winds 192 single turboprop aircraft (4 seats, range 1600 km) which crashes in the evening into the Federal Reserve Bank building in Miami. The body of Williams is found the next day on a golf course across the street. Williams was sales manager, and Grannis instructor and salesman of Four Winds Aircraft company.
1994 Ryan Wilkieson, 16, and his mother, Cathy Wilkieson, who kills Ryan to save him from a life of suffering cerebral palsy and commits suicide. Carbon monoxide is the cause of both deaths.
1991 Richard Speck, on the eve of his 50th birthday. He had murdered eight student nurses in Chicago in 1966.
1982 Juan Martín Luna, en un enfrentamiento con la Policía en Barcelona, presunto máximo responsable de los GRAPO (Grupos de Resistencia Antifascista Primero de Octubre) .
1979 Sonia Stern Terk Delaunay, Russian French painter, designer, and printmaker, born in the Ukraine on 14 November 1885, active in France. — more with links to images.
1925 Wladislav Stanislaw Reymont, escritor polaco.
1924 Cipriano Castro, presidente de Venezuela.
1891 Pedro II, emperador de Brasil.
1876: 295 trampled or burned to death in fire at Brooklyn Theater.
1871 Friedrich Wilhelm Keyl, German painter born on 17 August 1823 — link to an image.
1859 Poinsot, mathematician.
1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 35, composer, in Vienna, Austria, probably of trichinosis from pork cutlets (according to Jan V. Hirschmann MD, Archives of Internal Medicine 11 June 2001)
1734 Peter Tillemans, Flemish English artist born in 1684. MORE ON TILLEMANS AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1594 Gerardus Mercator geographer cartógrafo y matemático holandés.
1082 Ramón Berenguer II, conde de Barcelona, asesinado.
1977 The Plymouth Horizon car is introduced. It is the first American-made small car with front-wheel drive. Technical advances in drive technology had reduced the size and cost of front-wheel drive systems.
1960 La madriguera, de Ricardo Rodríguez Buded, se estrena, galardonada con el Premio Universitario de Teatro.
1934 Joan Didion US writer (Salvador)
1932 Sheldon Lee Glashow, US physicist who shared the 1979 Nobel Physics Prize with Steven Weinberg [03 May 1933~] and Abdus Salam [29 Jan 1926 – 21 Nov 1996]. —(061204)
1915 La muerte del cisne, del poeta mexicano Enrique González Martínez, se publica, considerado un manifiesto contra la poesía modernista.
1911 Alfred Manessier, French painter and decorative artist who died on 01 August 1993. — more with links to images.
1909 Naimark, mathematician.
1903 Cecil Frank Powell England, physicist, discovered pion (Nobel 1950)
1902 James Strom Thurmond (Sen-D/R-SC) US politician, a prominent states' rights and segregation advocate who ran for the presidency in 1948 on the "Dixiecrat" (States' Rights Democratic Party) ticket and he was first elected to the US Senate in 1954. In 2000 [photo >], he would become the US Senator who served the longest in US history. In 1964 he switched from Democrat to Republican. He would retire in January 2003 at the end of his 8th term in the US Senate, after being the first US Senator to reach his 100th birthday. He would died on 26 June 2003
1901 Walter Elias Walt Disney Chicago, cartoonist, producer: Mickey Mouse, Disneyland, Walt Disney World, feature films, animation. He died on 15 December 1966.
1901 Werner Heisenberg, mathematician and physicist (the uncertainty principle)(Nobel 1932) who said "An expert is someone who knows some of the worst mistakes that can be made in his subject, and how to avoid them". He died in 1976.
1901 Robert Jemison van der Graaff, ingeniero y físico estadounidense
1894 Phillip K. Wrigley (corporate executive: Wrigley Gum)
1890 David Bomberg, British painter who died on 19 August 1957. MORE ON BOMBERG AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1876 First practical pipe wrench is patented by Daniel Stillson (Mass)
1868 Sommerfeld, mathematician Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, físico alemán.
1863 Paul Painlevé, French Prime Minister (1917, 1925), mathematician matemático, ingeniero aeronáutico y político francés.
1849 Rafael Reyes Prieto, militar y político colombiano.
1800 James Baker Pyne, English painter who died on 29 July 1870. — more
1798 Alexandre-Marie Colin, French artist who died in 1873.
1782 Martin Van Buren, Kinderhook NY, (D) 8th US President (1837-1841) (first native-born).
1658 (infant baptism) Pieter Bout, Flemish painter, draftsman, and etcher, who died on 28 January 1719.
1590 Daniel Seghers le Jésuite d'Anvers, Flemish painter who died on 02 November 1661. MORE ON SEGHERS AT ART 4 DECEMBER with links to images.
1443 Giuliano della Rovere, future Pope Julius II (28 Nov 1503 20 Feb 1513), patron of Michelangelo, Bramante, Raphael