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Events, deaths, births, of AUG 31
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^  On a 31 August:
2003 William J. Faenza Jr., 35, of West Penn Township PA, swerves around traffic on westbound Route 443 in Mahoning Township, Carbon County, forcing other cars from the road, before finally pulling into a gas station, where he is arrested for driving drunk at 182mph (293km/h) in a 55mph (89km/h) zone. Faenza, the former chief executive of K-Bar Powder Coating Inc. in Quakertown, says that he "maybe got up to 100mph" (161km/h) as he passed a slow-moving car, and pulled over at a gas station when he saw a police car behind him. "He never would have caught me [otherwise]"
2002 Within 24 hours, 86 cm of rain falls in Kangnung, South Korea, as typhoon Rusa, the worst in 40 years, rages on in South and North Korea, causing mudslides that kill hundreds and devastates crops..
2001 World Conference Against Racism begins in South Africa. Individual coutries are opposed to consideration of the treatment of: — Palestinians: (US, Canada, Israel), Dalits [=Untouchables] (India), slaves and reparations due their descendants (US), Tibetans (China). etc, etc.
2000 Corruption trial of former dictator Suharto, 79, starts in Djakarta, Indonesia, but, after one hour, it is postponed for two weeks, as the accused fails to appear because, his lawyers claim, he is too ill to stand trial.. The court wants him examined by independent physicians. In any case, president Wahid had said that he will pardon Suharto, if he is tried and convicted.
2000 US President William Jefferson Clinton [19 Aug 1946~] vetoes a bill that would have gradually repealed inheritance taxes, saying it would have benefited the wealthiest people in the US while threatening the nation's financial well-being.
1999 Chechnya war: First in a series of bomb explosions in Moscow kills a woman in a shopping mall
Shamil Basayev categorically denies receiving money from Osama Bin Laden,
Russian Defense Ministry reports concentration of gunmen in Chechnya on the border with Dagestan, near the Novolakskoye region http://www.cdi.org/issues/Europe/aug.html
1997 Research shows that Internet contributes to stress and depression. Newspapers report that a study by Carnegie Mellon University had found that extended Internet use tended to make people feel more depressed, stressed, and lonely. The study raised concerns that, rather than facilitating communication, e-mail and the World Wide Web were fostering a sense of isolation among computer users.
1994 The Irish Republican Army (IRA) announces a "complete cessation of military operations," opening the way to a political settlement in Ireland for the first time in a quarter of a century. — El IRA declara un alto el fuego incondicional, una esperanza para el fin de la violencia en el Ulster, que durante 25 años ha causado 3168 muertos.
1994 Despedida en Berlín de las últimas tropas del Ejército Rojo, que también se retira de Letonia y Estonia.
1994 Software qualifies for patents
      Newspapers report that a federal appeals court had made it easier to patent software inventions. For many years, the US Patent and Trademark Office had argued that certain types of software counted as printed matter and did not qualify for patents. However, the appeals court ruled that software cannot be read without a computer and did not qualify as print. Digital Equipment was permitted to apply for a patent to store data in computer memory.
1993 Tras más de 50 años de ocupación, los últimos soldados rusos abandonan Lituania.
1991 Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan declare their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union. — Los parlamentarios de Uzbekistán y los de Kirguizistán proclaman la independencia de estas repúblicas de la URSS. , raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
1991 In Washington DC, hundreds of thousands of union members march in a "Solidarity Day" protest.
1990 La República Federal de Alemania (RFA) y la República Democrática Alemana (RDA) firman el Tratado de la Unión.
1989 Libia y Chad firman un acuerdo sobre la franja de Auzu, lo que pone fin a más de 15 años de litigio fronterizo entre ambos países.
1980 Poland's Solidarity labor union founded
1979 Comet Howard-Koomur-Michels collides with the Sun
1978 Symbionese Liberation Army founders William & Emily Harris plead guilty to 1974 kidnapping of newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst
1972 Vietnam: US weekly casualty figures hit new low US weekly casualty figures of five dead and three wounded are the lowest recorded since record keeping began in January 1965. These numbers reflected the fact that there were less than 40'000 US troops left in South Vietnam by this time and very few of these were involved in actual combat. US troop withdrawals had begun in the fall of 1969 following President Richard Nixon's announcement at the Midway conference on 08 June 1972, that he would begin reducing the number of US troops in Vietnam as the war was turned over to the South Vietnamese as part of his "Vietnamization" policy. Once the troop withdrawals began, they continued on a fairly regular basis, steadily reducing the troop level from the 1969 high of 543'400. —
1971 Dave Scott becomes 1st person to drive a car on the Moon
1970 Vietnam: Thieu government maintains control of Senate In South Vietnam, antigovernment Buddhist candidates appear to win 10 of 30 Senate seats contested in the previous day's election. However, the Senate as a whole remained in the firm control of conservative, pro-government supporters. Catholics still held 50 percent of the Senate seats, even though they constituted only 10% of the population of South Vietnam.
1967 Vietnam: Dulles supports Diem's decision not to hold national election Secretary of State John Foster Dulles [26 Jan1953 – 22 Apr 1959].supports the position of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem [03 Jan 1901 – 02 Nov 1963] position regarding his refusal to hold "national and general elections" to reunify the two Vietnam states. Although these elections were called for by the Geneva Accords of July 1954, Diem and his supporters in the United States realized that if the elections were held, Ho Chi Minh [19 May 1890 – 02 Sep 1969] and the more populous north would probably win, thereby reuniting Vietnam under the Communist banner. Accordingly, he refused to hold the elections and the separation of North and South soon became permanent.
1965 House of Reps joins Senate establish Dept of Housing & Urban Develop
1965 Vietnam: Ky refuses to negotiate with the Communists.
      Premier Nguyen Cao Ky [08 Sep 1930~] announces that South Vietnam would not negotiate with the Communists without guarantees that North Vietnamese troops would be withdrawn from the South. He also said that his government would institute major reforms to correct economic and social injustices. Also on this day: In the United States, President Lyndon Baines Johnson [27 Aug 1908 – 22 Jan 1973] signs into law a bill making it illegal to destroy or mutilate a US draft card, with penalties of up to five years and a $10'000 fine. 1967 Senate Committee calls for stepped-up bombing Senate Preparedness Investigating Committee issues a call to step up bombing against the North, declaring that US Secretary of Defense Robert Strange McNamara [09 Jun 1916~] had "shackled" the air war against Hanoi, and calling for "closure, neutralization, or isolation of Haiphong." President Johnson, attempting to placate Congressional "hawks" and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, expanded the approved list of targets in the north, authorizing strikes against bridges, barracks, and railyards in the Hanoi-Haipong area and additional targets in the previously restricted areas along the Chinese border.
1962 Trinidad & Tobago gain independence from Britain (National Day)
1961 A concrete wall replaces the barbed wire fence that separates East and West Germany, it will be called the Berlin wall.
1957 Malaya (Malaysia) gains independence from Britain (National Day). —(070830)
1955 1st sun-powered automobile demonstrated, Chicago.
^ 1951 Justice Douglas: US should recognize Communist China.
      Following a hiking and mountain climbing trip through Asia, Supreme Court Justice William Orville Douglas [16 Oct 1898 – 19 Jan 1980] issues a statement calling for the recognition of the communist People's Republic of China. His comments touched off an angry partisan debate in the US Senate. Douglas spent much of the summer of 1951 hiking and mountain climbing around the borders of Russia and China. Upon his return, Douglas urged that the United States recognize communist China. The US had not established diplomatic relations with the communist People's Republic of China since the establishment of that nation in 1949, following the successful revolution of Mao Zedong [26 Dec 1893 – 09 Sep 1976]. And by 1951, US troops were battling Chinese military forces in the Korean War. Nevertheless, Douglas suggested that US diplomatic recognition of China would be a "real political victory" for the West.
      Recognition by the US, he reasoned, would help split China from its dependence on the Soviet Union and perhaps stem the tide of communist expansion in the Far East. "Recognition," Douglas stated, "will require straightforward and courageous thinking by all Americans, but it is the only logical course." In the US Senate, Herman Welker [11 Dec 1906 – 30 Oct 1957] (R-Idaho) set off a furious exchange when he proposed that Douglas's comments be printed in the Congressional Record. He suggested that the justice was a "high Administration spokesman" and that his statement indicated that the Democrat administration of President Harry S. Truman [08 May 1884 – 26 Dec 1972] was considering recognition of China. Tom Connally [27 Feb 1917 – 15 Jun 1993] (D-Texas) rose to attack Welker's action as pure politics and a "purely personal attack" on President Truman. Connally then chided Douglas for his "fool statements." Douglas, he suggested, was not the secretary of state or president and should "stay home instead of roaming all around the world and Asia." Senator Everett McKinley Dirksen [04 Jan. 1896 – 07 Sep 1969] (R-Illinois) commented that Douglas's comments could not be "divorced from the party in power."
      The controversy set off by Douglas's comments showed that despite talk about a "bipartisan" Cold War foreign policy, party loyalties were a very important component of post-World War II debates on the US's diplomacy. In 1951, Republicans were still blaming Democrat Harry S. Truman for having "lost" China to the communists in 1949. The Democrats had their turn, however, during the presidential campaign of 1960, when John F. Kennedy [29 May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963] criticized the Republican administration of President Dwight David Eisenhower [14 Oct 1890 – 28 Mar 1969] for "losing" Cuba.
1949 Six of the 16 surviving Union veterans of the Civil War attend the last-ever encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic, held in Indianapolis, Indiana.
^ 1946 Last day of Moore School computer lectures
      The seminal Moore School lectures at the University of Pennsylvania end. At the time, most of the country's leading computer scientists worked at the Moore School, including John Mauchly [30 Aug 1907 – 08 Jan 1980] and John Adam Presper Eckert [09 April 1919 – 03 Jun 1995], who led the development of ENIAC, the first widely publicized electronic computer. Newspapers, newsreels, and scientific publications covered the computer after its inauguration in February 1946. The Moore School responded to the growing demand of the scientific community to learn more about electronic computers by inviting 40 participants from major research organizations to a summer course beginning on 08 July 1946. The lectures, which continued for eight weeks, were instrumental in spreading the understanding of electronic computing to major universities in the US and England.
1944 The British Eighth Army penetrates the German Gothic Line, a defensive line across northern Italy. The Allies had pushed the German occupying troops on the Italian peninsula farther and farther north. On 04 June 1944, US Gen. Mark Clark had captured Rome. Now the Germans had dug in north of Florence. Built earlier in the year, this defensive line consisted of fortified towns, stretching from Pisa in the west to Pesaro in the east. One of these towns was Siena, home to much glorious medieval art — also home to the Italian partisans, guerillas who had been harassing the Germans and remnants of Italian fascists since Italy had surrendered. Their ability to create chaos and confusion behind the Germans' own lines was of great aid to the Allies. Expert strategic maneuvering by British General Harold Alexander, who opened his offensive on August 25, surprised the Germans, and the 8th Army swept through the Plain of Lombardy, crashing through the Gothic Line.
1944 Soviet troops and tanks capture Bucharest and receive a huge welcome from the people, who would soon find out that Soviet oppression was not much better than Nazi oppression. — II Guerra Mundial: Las tropas rusas entran en Bucarest. .
1942 The British army under General Bernard Law Montgomery defeats Field Marshal Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps in the Battle of Alam Halfa in Egypt.
^ 1939 Nazis stage pretext to attack Poland
      At noon, despite threats of British and French intervention, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler signs an order to attack Poland, and German forces move to the border. That evening, Nazi S.S. troops wearing Polish uniforms stage a phony invasion of Germany, damaging several minor installations on the German side of the border. They also leave behind a handful of dead German prisoners in Polish uniforms to serve as further evidence of "Polish aggression."
      At dawn the next morning, fifty-eight German army divisions invade Poland all across the 2800-km border. Hitler expected appeasement from Britain and France — the same nations that had given Czechoslovakia away to German conquest in 1938 with their signing of the Munich Pact. However, neither country would allow Hitler's new desecration of Europe's borders to stand, and Germany was presented with an ultimatum: withdraw by September 3 or face war with the Western democracies.
     At 11:15 on September 3, a few minutes after the expiration of the British ultimatum, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain appeared on national radio to solemnly announce that Britain was at war with Germany. Australian, New Zealand, and India immediately followed suit. Later that afternoon, the French ultimatum expired, and at 17:00 France declared war against Germany. World War II had begun.
1939 Protecting stock market investors
      The Public Examining Board, which had been formed to "study customer protection" in the stock market, releases fourteen recommendations ranging from fuller disclosure of brokerage firms' financials to increasing the minimum capital requirements for commodity accounts.
      Earlier in the decade, the government responded to the swirl of corruption and impropriety surrounding Wall Street by handing down a Securities Act in 1934, as well as a related measure in 1935. Along with imposing tighter controls, these bills also paved the way for the formation of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which was in full swing by 1939, monitoring the markets and meting out punishments.
1935 US President Roosevelt signed an act prohibiting the export of US arms to belligerents.
1928 Turquía acuerda adoptar el alfabeto latino y abandonar el árabe.
1925 Guerra de Marruecos: los generales Pétain (francés) y Primo de Rivera (español) trazan en Algeciras el plan de acción conjunta contra Abd-el-Krim.
1925 Asteroid 2001 CU11, about 800 m across, passes at about 500'000 km from Earth, but nobody notices until 2001.
1919 Caída de la dictadura de Bela Kun, en Hungría, por su fracaso económico y por la invasión de las tropas rumanas.
1919 Communist Labor Party of America is founded in Chicago, with the motto, "Workers of the world unite!"
1915 I Guerra Mundial. Alemania y Austria dividen Polonia en dos distritos: Varsovia para Alemania y Kielce para los austriacos.
1907 The Anglo-Russian Convention is signed in St. Petersburg, settling differences between the UK and Russia over Persia, Afghanistan and Tibet. It enables England, Russia & France to form the Triple Entente.
^ 1899 Stanley Steamer reaches top of Mount Washington
      A Stanley Steamer, driven by F.O. Stanley, becomes the first car to reach the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire. F.O. Stanley was one of the Stanley twins, founders of the Stanley Motor Company, which specialized in steam-driven automobiles. The steamers not only climbed mountains, but often beat larger, gasoline-powered cars in races. In 1906, a Stanley Steamer would break the world record for the fastest mile when it reached 127 miles per hour (204 km/h).
1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes' The Adventure of the Cardboard Box
1887 Thomas A Edison patents Kinetoscope, (produces moving pictures)
1864 At the Democratic convention in Chicago, General George B. McClellan is nominated for president.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1848 Se declara la Independencia de Costa Rica.
1848 La Asamblea Constituyente de Austria, tras suprimir la dependencia de los campesinos de los señores, declara libres sus propiedades territoriales.
1839 El general liberal Espartero y el carlista Maroto firman el Convenio de Vergara, con el que se pone fin a la primera guerra carlista en España.
1835 The New York Sun publishes the last instalment of a Moon hoax story about John Herschel [07 Mar 1792 – 11 May 1871]. The whole story appears in 6 instalments from 25 through 31 August 1835.
^ 1823 Les français prennent le fort du Trocadéro à Cadix.
      A la chute de Napoléon, les Bourbons sont revenus au pouvoir en France et en Espagne. Dans ce dernier pays, le roi Ferdinand VII, autoritaire et borné, accorde à contrecoeur une Constitution libérale. Mais en secret, il fait appel à la Sainte-Alliance des monarques européens pour chasser les libéraux de l'Assemblée des Cortès. L'écrivain François de Chateaubriand, qui est aussi ministre des Affaires étrangères de Louis XVIII, saisit l'occasion pour offrir à l'armée française un succès facile et aux Bourbons une revanche sur la Révolution. C'est ainsi que la Sainte-Alliance confie à la France le soin de donner une leçon aux libéraux espagnols. Le corps expéditionnaire est placé sous le commandement du duc d'Angoulême, neveu du roi Louis XVIII. L'Assemblée des Cortès ayant transféré la famille royale à Cadix, en Andalousie, l'armée française traverse la péninsule à leur poursuite. Le 31 août 1823, le fort du Trocadéro, qui défend le port de Cadix, est enlevé à la baïonnette, à marée basse, par les soldats français qui n'ont pas hésité à se jeter à l'eau. C'est le principal fait de gloire de cette expédition. Tandis que Ferdinand VII restaure l'absolutisme et met en branle une brutale répression, le duc d'Angoulême est acclamé à Paris. Chateaubriand, dont la modestie n'est pas la qualité première, conclut dans ses «Mémoires d'Outre-tombe»: «Enjamber d'un pas les Espagnes, réussir là où Bonaparte avait échoué, triompher sur ce même sol où les armes de l'homme fantastique avaient eu des revers, faire en six mois ce qu'il n'avait pu faire en sept ans, c'était un véritable prodige!»
1813 Battle of Dresden: Napoléon with a force of 130'000 defeats an allied force of 200'000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians.
1813 Se produce la batalla de San Marcial, conflicto dentro de la Guerra de Independencia española, que supuso una victoria estratégica del mando aliado, pues acabó con la ocupación francesa del País Vasco y puso fin a las operaciones militares en la zona.
1802 Captain Merriwether Lewis leaves Pittsburgh to meet up with Captain William Clark and begin their trek to the Pacific Ocean.
1778 British kill 17 Stockbridge indians in the Bronx during Revolution
1756 The British at Fort William Henry, New York, surrender to Louis Montcalm of France.
1535 Pope Paul II deposes and excommunicates English King Henry VIIII, who had changed much since he had been declared by an earlier pope "Most Christian King" and "Defender of the Faith."
1534 Jan of Leyden declares himself King David as he leads a peasant revolt.
1521 Cortes captures the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, and sets it on fire.
1303 The War of Vespers in Sicily ends with an agreement between Charles of Valois, who invaded the country, and Frederick, the ruler of Sicily.
^ 1264 The "Seraphic Doctor" preaches before the Pope.
     Next to founder St. Francis of Assissi [1182 – 03 Oct 1226], St. Bonaventure [1217 – 15 Jul 1274] is the most eminent of the Franciscan friars. He was not only Governor General of his order, but the man who gave them their definitive doctrine and only the sixth person to be named a primary doctor of the church. At that time he was given the name "Doctor Seraphicus." His theology teaches that God cannot be known rationally but must be apprehended mystically. To be pure of heart is a truer way to God than to have a razor-sharp mind. Love, he said (following St. Paul), supersedes knowledge.
      Bonaventure's teaching was strongly Christ-centered, even his biography of St. Francis, who taught men "to conform their lives to the life of Christ." Bonaventure was no arid scholar as three examples will show. To learn the needs of the Franciscan order he went out and visited his friars, winning such love from them that there was much weeping at his death. Then, too, his theology is not dry but mystical. He did not load his work down with tedious digressions into subtle points but made every effort to teach plainly. And the biography of St. Francis is an example of good investigative reporting, for he interviewed many brothers still living who had known the great saint.
      He was zealous for souls and preached much. An extensive collection of his sermons remains in existence. Bonaventure taught that man needs grace in order to stand straight. Only through Jesus Christ can he be put right with God. Christ as the word incarnate was an important theme in his preaching. The grace of the sacraments heals the soul of accumulated effects of sin, both deliberate and inherited.
      One sermon he preached was on this day 31 August 1264, before Pope Urban IV [1200 – 02 Oct 1264] and his council. This was on the "Blessed Sacrament." We are made complete by partaking of the Eucharist with appropriate contemplation. By contemplation he means a generous, prayerful and even mystical mindset that results in losing oneself in the adoration of God. As his apology for varieties of religious orders, Bonaventure notes that no one order can capture the fullness of Christ although each tries to capture something of his perfection. Hence there are many ways of serving Christ and approaching his perfection. Vows are merely aids to living a life which imitates Christ.
      Because of the warmth of his religious feeling, Bonaventure is highly regarded as a theologian. He managed to avoid the pitfalls of pagan philosophy. It is owing to him that Franciscan thought is largely Augustinian in orientation.
1217 Berenguela, reina de Castilla, cede el trono a su hijo Fernando III.
1216 Honorius III is crowned in Rome. A gentle and beloved pope, he is also remembered for the useful biographies he wrote.
< 30 Aug 01 Sep >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 31 August:

2005 Joseph Rotblat, Polish-born British physicist, 1995 Peace Nobel laureate, born (full coverage) on 04 November 1908. —(050902)
2005 (25 Rajab 1426) Some 1000 Iraqi Shi'ites, among crowd on the 100-meter-long Al-Ayma Bridge over the Tigris River in Baghdad, stampeded at 12:00 (08:00 UT) by false rumor of an impending suicide bombing. They died trampled, or drowned in the river into which they jumped or fell. The crowd was heading to the Kadhimiya mosque (or Kazimiye, al-Kazimiyyah) 1.5 km away, on this, the wafat (martyrdom anniversary) of the 7th imam, Musa Al-Kadhim [Sunday? 07 Safar 128 or 129? – Friday? 25 Rajab 183 AH, or? Thursday 28 Oct 745 or Friday 28 Oct 746? – Sunday 01 Sep 799 AD] (aka Mousa al-Kadhim, Musi-e-Kazim, Musa Kazim, Musa ibne Ja’far) who was imprisoned and poisoned on orders from caliph Harun ar-Rashid [February 766 or March 763 – 24 Mar 809,. Some 600 are injured.
2005 Some 15 Iraqi Shi'ites, at 10:00 (06:00 UT), by at least 3 mortar rounds fired at the crowd at the shrine of Musa al-Kadhim in Baghdad. 30 are injured.
2004 Ten persons, including Roza Nagayeva, woman suicide bomber of the Islambouli Brigades, in support of Muslims of Chechnya, at 20:10 in a parking lot next to the Rizhskaya metro station in Moscow, Russia. Three of the dead survived long enough to be brought to a hospital. Another 51 are injured. Roza Nagayeva's sister Amnat Nagayeva was one the two suicide bombers in the double plane crashes of August 2004. The Islambouli Brigades are named after Lt. Khaled el-Islambouli [1958 – 15 Apr 1982], leader of the group of soldiers who assassinated Egyptian president Anwar el-Sadat [25 Dec 1918 – 06 Oct 1981].
2004 Maria Sokolov, 58; Tatiana Koritchenko, 49; Rosita Lehman, 43; Emanuel Yosef, 28; Tekala Tiroyainet, 33; Denise Hadad, 40; Avial Atash, 4; Karin Malcha, 23; Shoshana Amos, 64; Vitaly Brodsky, 52, and his wife Nargiza Oststovsky, 54; Larisa Gomanenko, 48; Roman Sokolovsky, 51; Eliyahu Ozen, 58; Rosa Forer; all from Be'er Sheva; Tamara Dibrashvilli, 70, from Or Yehuda; and suicide bombers of the Iz a Din al-Kassam Brigades of Hamas Ahmed Kawasme, 26, and Nissim Jabri, 20, at 14:50 and 14:51 (11:51 UT) in Be'er Sheva, Israel, on two buses which had departed from the central bus station; the buses are one 100 m behind the other, one on Rager Boulevard near Soroka Medical Center, the other on a street close to the municipal building. More than 100 persons are injured. These are the first suicide bombings inside Israel since 14 March 2004, when 13 persons, including 2 suicide bombers, were killed in Ashdod.
2003 Robert Pinetti, 43, of a drug overdose, at about 09:00, in his home at 2525 Dobbins Road in Lawrence Park, Erie, Pennsylvania. At 05:00 he had refused treatment from paramedics called by a family member. He was as a friend and co-worker (at Mama Mia's Pizza-Ria in Millcreek Township) of Brian Wells, who, on 28 August 2003 shortly after been arrested after robbing a bank, was killed by a bomb attached to him by a neck collar.
2002 Rafat Daraghmeh, two 15-year-old boys, a boy, 9, and a girl, 10, Palestinians, in Toubus, West Bank, by missiles fired from an Israeli helicopter at the car where the three men were. The children were in a nearby house. Seven other bystanders are injured. Daraghmeh was an al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades militant.
2002 Some 50 of some 80 aboard an overloaded boat that capsizes in the monsoon-swollen Baitariani River in the Jajpur district of eastern Orissa, India, while crossing from Solampur to Devighat, hitting a midstream submerged sand bank and being sucked into a whirlpool. About 12 children are among those drowned.
2001 Rich Hernandez, 37, Santi Arovitx, 28, and Kip Krigbaum, 45, respectively pilot, co-pilot, and crew chief of a Columbia Helicopters Vertol 107 (13-meter fuselage, a rotor at each end), one of the largest of 15 helicopters assigned to the largest (100 sq. km) current wildfire in Montana, which crashes in a brushy ravine north of Yellowstone National Park, during a maintenance flight to check the helicopter. The fire was started on 14 August by lightning, so there is nobody to charge with murder, unlike in the case of the collision of two firefighting aircrafts in Northern California that killed two pilots on 27 August 2001.
2001 Hagop "Jake" Kuredjian, 40, and James Beck, 35, who fires 150 rounds at federal officers and sheriff's officials (including Los Angeles County sheriff's deputy Kuredjian) trying to serve a search warrant at his home in Santa Clarita, California, because a neighbor reported that Beck was stockpiling weapons and falsely claiming to be a US Marshal. Beck's charred remains are found the next day in his home destroyed by a fire after the gunfight. Beck was a police officer from June 1987 to August 1988 but was fired for failure to satisfactorily complete his probation period. Then he had numerous convictions for burglary, receiving stolen property and impersonating a police officer.
2000 John Kaiser, 67, a native of Minnesota, Catholic missionary priest among the Masai of Kenya for the past 36 years and human rights activist. His body, shot in the back of the head, is found early today along a highway near Naivasha, 80 km northwest of Nairobi. Documents found on the priest's body link two Kenyan Cabinet ministers to violent tribal clashes. Kaiser intended to hand the documents over to a government commission looking into the clashes, which took place in the Rift Valley Province between 1992 and 1997. "Father Kaiser always loved the truth," would say later Bishop Joseph Mairura, who studied under Kaiser in seminary. "Because he witnessed the truth, and some powerful people feared the truth, he was killed. Instead of repenting, they killed him."
^ 1997 Princess Diana of Wales, 36, her suitor, Dodi al Fayed, 41, and her drunk driver, Henri Paul, in an automobile accident while speeding away from paparazzi. She was the divorced wife of Prince Charles of Wales. Severely injured is al-Fayed's bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones [1968~], the lone survivor of the accident
      On 29 July 1981, nearly four billion people in seventy-four countries had watched on TV the marriage of Prince Charles [14 Nov 1948~], heir to the British throne, to Lady Diana, a young English schoolteacher. Married in a grand ceremony at St. Paul's Cathedral in the presence of 2650 guests, the couple's romance was for the moment the envy of the world.
      However, before long the couple grew apart. On 28 August 1996, two months after Queen Elizabeth II urged the couple to divorce, the prince and princess reached a final agreement. In exchange for a generous settlement, and the right to retain her apartments at Kensington Palace and her title of princess, Diana agreed to relinquish the title of "her Royal Highness" and any future claims to the British throne. In the year between the divorce and her fatal car accident, the popular princess had promoted charitable causes, such as the prohibition of land mines.
      Diana, Princess of Wales, dies in Paris' Pitié-Salpetrière Hospital after suffering massive chest injuries in an early morning car accident. Her companion, Dodi Fayed, was killed instantly in the 00:25 crash, as was driver Henri Paul, who was drunk and lost control of the Mercedes in a highway underpass. He was driving at excessive speeds in a reckless attempt to escape paparazzi photographers. Diana's bodyguard, Trevor Rees Jones, escaped with serious but nonfatal injuries. He was the only one wearing his seat belt. The death of Diana, beloved by millions for her beauty and good nature, plunged the world into mourning.
      On 01 July 1961, Diana Frances Spencer was born at Park House, the home that her parents rented on Queen Elizabeth II's estate at Sandringham, England. In her childhood, her playmates were Prince Andrew and Prince Edward, the younger sons of Queen Elizabeth. When her father Edward John Spencer [24 Jan 1924 – 29 Mar 1992] inherited the title Earl of Spencer in 1975, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. After completing her education, Lady Diana became a kindergarten teacher at a fashionable school in a suburb of London.
      In 1980, she began a romance with Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth. On 24 February 1981, the 33-year-old Prince of Wales announced his engagement to the 19-year-old schoolteacher. On 29 July 1981, nearly one billion television viewers in 74 countries tuned in to witness her marriage to the heir to the British throne at St. Paul's Cathedral. Their first child, Prince William, was born in 1982, and their second, Prince Henry, in 1984.
      Before long, however, the tale couple grew apart. The paparazzi — freelance photographers — made Diana one of the most photographed women in the world, and privately she suffered from eating disorders and depression. In 1992, Diana and Charles formally separated. On 28 August 1996, the prince and princess reached a final divorce agreement after prolonged negotiations. In exchange for a generous settlement and the right to retain her apartments at Kensington Palace and her title Princess of Wales, Diana agreed to relinquish the title Her Royal Highness and any future claims to the British throne.
      In the year after her divorce, the popular princess maintained a high public profile and continued to promote many humanitarian causes, including support for AIDS victims and a campaign against land mines. In late 1996, she became involved with millionaire Dodi Al Fayed [15 Apr 1955–], the son of Mohamed Al-Fayed [27 Jan 1929~] the Egyptian-born owner of the Harrods department stores. Their romance grew in 1997, and in August Diana took a holiday with Dodi in the Mediterranean. As always, the paparazzi followed closely behind, and one photographer was paid £3 million by the tabloids for a photo of Diana and Dodi kissing on Fayed's yacht.
      On 30 August, Diana and Dodi flew from Sardinia to Paris. Diana planned to return to Kensington Palace the next morning after spending a night in Dodi's Paris villa. That evening, Diana and Dodi dined at a restaurant in Paris' Ritz Hotel, owned by Dodi's father since 1979. The paparazzi came out in force. Toward the end of the meal, Dodi told his chauffeur to drive his car back to his mansion in an attempt to draw off photographers. Henri Paul [03 Jul 1956–], the deputy chief of security at the Ritz, was enlisted to be the new driver. He agreed, even though he had been drinking heavily and was taking anti-depressant drugs that were not supposed to be mixed with alcohol.
      At about midnight, Dodi and Diana emerged from the rear entrance of the Ritz. The paparazzi had not been fooled by the earlier ruse, and the couple were photographed getting into a bullet-proof Mercedes along with Diana's bodyguard. As they made their way across town, they were followed closely by paparazzi on motorcycles. On the Place de la Concorde, Henri Paul hit the accelerator in an attempt to escape the press. By the time they reached the underpass below the Pont de l'Alma, the driver was traveling an estimated 200 km/h in a 50-km/h speed zone. Paul lost control as they flew into the underpass, and the Mercedes ricocheted off a wall and slammed into pillars supporting the tunnel roof. The paparazzi, 100 meters behind at the time of the accident, were able to stop in time. Several of them then ran down the tunnel and began taking photos, which were later confiscated by police.
      The Mercedes, lying crushed against the 13th pillar, was a tangle of smoking metal. Diana, barely alive with serious chest injuries, was trapped inside. Emergency crews arrived within minutes, but because the car was made of reinforced steel meant to withstand bullets it took nearly an hour and a half to extricate her from the crumbled vehicle. She was taken to the Pitié-Salpetrière Hospital, where she suffered cardiac arrest minutes after her arrival. Surgeons failed to revive her, and at 03:00 she was pronounced dead.
      Al-Fayed's bodyguard is the only survivor of the crash. He suffered a concussion and other injuries and has no memory of the crash nor the events immediately preceding or following it. French authorities arrested 10 paparazzi photographers who were tailing the Mercedes and charged them with involuntary manslaughter. The charges were dropped when a formal investigation concluded that Henri Paul was solely at fault for the fatal accident.
      The tragic death of Diana caused an outpouring of British national feeling not seen since the celebrations surrounding the end of World War II. More than 3500 phone lines were set up to take donations for a memorial fund, and within a year the charity fund raised $133 million, of which $48 million came from sales of Elton John's memorial recording "Candle in the Wind 1997" and $20 million from official Diana souvenirs. After being criticized for failing to satisfactorily match the grief of the British people, the royal family arranged for a state funeral to be held for Diana at Westminster Abbey on 06 September. Diana's sons, William [21 Jun 1982~] and Harry [15 Sep 1984~], joined their father, Prince Charles; grandfather Prince Philip [10 Jun 1921~]; and uncle Charles, the Earl of Spencer, to walk the final stretch of the procession with the casket.
1996 Dennis Timothy Phillips [19 Sep 1969–], his wife, Angela Blackwood “Angie” Phillips [24 Nov 1973–], their children, Courtney Beulana Phillips [09 Aug 1992–], Meleana Jade Phillips [25 Sep 1994–], and Kinsleigh Skylar Phillips [18 Apr 1996–]; Carl Sydney “Sid” White III, 29, and Austin Dakota “Cody” Roodvoets, 3, drowned at about 21:00 (01:00 UT 01 Sep). With two girls and their mother Sonja Phillips (mate of White, not related to the other Phillips, babysitter of Roodvoets), in a van dirven by Tim, they had arrived at the John D. Long Lake, near Union, South Carolina, to visit the memorial to Michael Smith [10 Oct 1991–] and Alex Smith [05 Aug 1993–] drowned there on 25 October 1994 by their mother Susan Smith [26 Sep 1971~] who made her car roll into the lake with the two boys strapped in the back seat. This day the lights of the van light up the memorial and Angie, Carl, and Sonja and her daughters get out to get a closer look. The van (in Park, but with an improperly installed transmission) suddenly rolls down the ramp and a steep grassy embankment into the lake. Angie and Carl jump into the water to try to save those inside, but drown. —(090308)
1986:: 82 persons as an Aeromexico jetliner and a small private plane collide over Cerritos, Calif.
1986 Henry Moore, escultor británico.
1986 Urho Kaleva Kekkonen, born on 03 September 1900, Finnish prime minister (1950–1953, 1954–1956) and president (1956–1981), noted for his pragmatic Soviet-oriented neutrality.
1979 Celso Emilio Ferreiro, Spanish writer.
1975 Remez, mathematician
1963 George F. Braque, in Paris, French Cubist and Fauvist painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, born on 13 May 1882. — MORE ON BRAQUE  AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
1955 Willi Baumeister, German abstract artist born on 22 January 1889. — MORE ON BAUMEISTER  AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
1954 Nearly 70 persons, by hurricane Carol in northeastern US.
1951 The first of the North Koreans and US Marines to die as the 1st Marine Division begins its attack on Bloody Ridge in Korea. The four-day battle results in 2700 Marine casualties.
1945 Stefan Banach founded modern functional analysis and made major contributions to the theory of topological vector spaces. In addition, he contributed to measure theory, integration, and orthogonal series.
1931 (Thomas Henry) Hall Caine, author of The Scapegoat
1919: 35 members of a Jewish defense group, killed by Petlyura's Ukranian Army.
^ Pègoud
1915 Adolphe Célestin Pègoud
, 26, [photo >]

     During World War I, he becomes the first ace to be killed in aerial combat, shot down by a German two-seater piloted by his former student, Unteroffizier Kandulski, who two days later flew over the French lines and dropped a wreath with these words: "Dem im Kampfe fur sein Vaterland gefallenen Flieger Pègoud ehrt der Gegner" .

      Pègoud was born on 15 June 1889. He got his pilot's licence (no. 1243) on 1 March 1913, at the Blériot Company.

     On 20 August 1913, he had been the first person to parachute from an airplane, from 200 m above Buc, France (the plane, which he had been piloting, crashed). Less than a month later, became the first pilot to perform a loop (this is also claimed for Gustave Hamel, and for a Russian, Piotr Nesterov). Also in 1913, Pègoud became the first pilot to fly an aircraft in sustained inverted flight.
1908 William Guthrie, author. GUTHRIE ONLINE: The Christian's Great Interest
^ 1888 Mary Ann Nicholls, murdered by Jack the Ripper.
     Mary Ann Nichols, the first victim of London serial killer "Jack the Ripper," is found murdered and mutilated in Whitechapel's Buck's Row. The East End of London saw four more victims of the murderer during the next few months, but no suspect was ever found.
      In Victorian England, London's East End was a teeming slum occupied by nearly a million of the city's poorest citizens. Many women were forced to resort to prostitution, and in 1888 there were estimated to be more than 1'000 prostitutes in Whitechapel. That summer, a serial killer began targeting these downtrodden women. On September 8, the killer claimed his second victim, Annie Chapman, and on September 30 two more prostitutes — Liz Stride and Kate Eddowes — were murdered and carved up on the same night. By then, London's police had determined the pattern of the killings. The murderer, offering to pay for sex, would lure his victims onto a secluded street or square and then slice their throats. As the women rapidly bled to death, he would then brutally mutilate them with the same six-inch knife.
      The police, which lacked modern forensic techniques such as fingerprinting and blood typing, were at a complete loss for suspects. Dozens of letters allegedly written by the murderer were sent to the police, and the vast majority of these were immediately deemed fraudulent. However, two letters — written by the same individual — alluded to crime facts known only to the police and the killer. These letters, signed "Jack the Ripper," gave rise to the serial killer's popular nickname.
      On 07 November, after a month of silence, Jack took his fifth and last victim, Irish-born Mary Kelly, an occasional prostitute. Of all his victims' corpses, Kelly's was the most hideously mutilated. In 1892, with no leads found (except, it is alleged by some, suspicions that Jack was a royal) and no more murders recorded, the Jack the Ripper file was closed.
1886 Up to 110 persons in earthquake in Charleston, S.C..
1867 Charles Baudelaire, poeta francés.
^ 1864 Nearly 2000 Rebs, 178 Yanks, as Battle of Jonesboro begins.
      General William T. Sherman launches the attack that finally secures Atlanta, Georgia, for the Union, and seals the fate of Confederate General John Bell Hood's army, which is forced to evacuate the area. The Battle of Jonesboro was the culmination of a four-month campaign by Sherman to capture Atlanta. He had spent the summer driving his army down the 160-km corridor from Chattanooga, Tennessee, against a Confederate force led by General Joseph Johnston. General Hood, who replaced Johnston in July on the outskirts of Atlanta, proceeded to attack Sherman in an attempt to drive him northward. However, these attacks failed, and by 01 August 1 the armies had settled into a siege.
      In late August, Sherman swung his army south of Atlanta to cut the main rail line supplying the Rebel army. Confederate General William Hardee's corps moved to block Sherman at Jonesboro, and attacked the Union troops on 31 August but the Rebels were thrown back with staggering losses. The entrenched Yankees lost just 178 men, while the Confederates lost nearly 2000.
      On September 1, Sherman attacked Hardee. Though the Confederates held, Sherman successfully cut the rail line and effectively trapped the Rebels. Hardee had to abandon his position, and Hood had no choice but to withdraw from Atlanta. The fall of Atlanta was instrumental in securing the reelection of Abraham Lincoln in the fall.

1816 José Joaquín Camacho Lago
, político y periodista colombiano.

1811 Louis-Antoine de Bougainville
, French mathematician navigator who led the French naval expedition that first circled the globe, about which he wrote in Voyage Autour du Monde (1771). Born on 11 November 1729, he entered the army at age 24, he went to Canada in 1756 as aide-de-camp to general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and fought against the British during the French and Indian War. In 1763 he switched to the navy and in 1764 established in the Falkland Islands a colony, which was ceded to Spain in 1767. He set out on his voyage around the world in December 1766, stopped at Buru in the Moluccas in September 1768, and without a shipwreck disembarked at Saint-Malo (comme le M. Dumollet de la chanson) in March 1769, though he had lost 7 men. Bougainville served a chef d'escadre with the French fleet supporting the US War of Independence (1779-1782). After a French defeat off Martinique (12 April 1782) he was court-martialed. Napoléon made him a senator, count, and gave him the Légion d'Honneur. Named for Bougainville are the largest of the Solomon Islands, a strait in the New Hebrides, and a plant genus of some 14 species of shrubs, vines, and small trees in the four-o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae) native to South America.
Portrait of Bougainville (1790, 88x71cm) by Joseph Ducreux. [>>>]
^ 1777 Fifteen US soldiers, one Amerindian attacker, at Fort Henry.
      Samuel Mason, a captain in command of Fort Henry on the Ohio frontier, survives a devastating Indian attack only to become one of the young nation's first western desperados. The son of a distinguished Virginia family, Samuel Mason became a militia officer and was assigned to the western frontier post of Fort Henry in present-day West Virginia. In the summer of 1777, with the colonies fighting a war for independence, Mason feared attacks by the Indian allies of the British.
      On this day a band of Amerindians from several eastern tribes did attack the fort. The Indians initially fired only on several men who were outside the fort rounding up horses. Hearing the shots, Mason gathered 14 men and rode to their rescue. This was exactly what the warriors hoped he would do. They lay in wait and ambushed the party, killing all but Mason. Badly wounded, Mason escaped death by hiding behind a log. A second party that attempted to come to his rescue suffered the same fate as the first. All told, Mason lost 15 men compared to only one fatality among the attackers.
      Mason recovered from his wounds and continued to command Fort Henry for several years. Following the end of the war, though, he seems to have fallen on hard times. Repeatedly accused of being a thief, he moved farther west into the lawless frontier of the young US. By 1797, he had become a pirate on the Mississippi River, preying on boatmen who moved valuable goods up and down the river. He also reportedly took to robbing travelers along the Natchez Trace (or trail) in Tennessee, often with the assistance of his four sons and several other vicious men. By the early 1800s, Mason had become one of the most notorious desperados on the US frontier, a precursor to Jesse James, Cole Younger, and later outlaws of the Wild West. In January 1803, Spanish authorities arrested Mason and his four sons and decided to turn them over to the US. En route to Natchez, Tennessee, Mason and his sons killed the commander of the boat and escaped. Determined to apprehend Mason, the US upped the reward for his capture, dead or alive. The reward money soon proved too tempting for two members of Mason's gang. In July 1803 they killed Mason, cut off his head, and brought it into the Mississippi territorial offices to prove that they had earned the reward. The men were soon identified as members of Mason's gang, however, and they were arrested and hanged.
1762 Pietro Antonio Rotari, Italian painter and printmaker born on 30 September 1707.MORE ON ROTARI AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
1724 Luis I, rey de España.
1721 Keill, mathematician
1709 Andrea Pozzo, Italian Baroque era painter born on 30 November 1642. MORE ON POZZO AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
1688 John Bunyan, 69, English Puritan clergyman and writer. Imprisoned several times between 1660 and 1672, Bunyan used these periods of isolation to write his two literary masterpieces, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666) and The Pilgrim's Progress (1678). His death was caused by a cold caught riding through the rain to reconcile a father and son.
  • A Book for Boys and Girls
  • Christ a Complete Saviour: or, The Intercession of Christ, and Who Are Privileged in It
  • Christian Behaviour
  • Come and Welcome to Jesus Christ: or, A Plain and Profitable Discourse on John 6:37
  • A Discourse Upon the Pharisee and the Publican
  • The Doctrine of the Law and Grace Unfolded
  • Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners
  • The Holy War
  • The Holy War (another site)
  • I Will Pray With the Spirit, and I Will Pray With the Understanding Also
  • The Life and Death of Mr. Badman
  • The Pilgrim's Progress
  • The Pilgrim's Progress (another site)
  • The Resurrection of the Dead and Eternal Judgment
  • The Saints' Knowledge of Christ's Love: or, The Unsearchable Riches of Christ
  • Seasonable Counsel: or, Advice to Sufferers
  • The Strait Gate: or, Great Difficulty of Going to Heaven
  • A Treatise of the Fear of God
  • The Work of Jesus Christ as an Advocate
  • 1181 Pope Alexander III, who is considered one of the greatest popes, who excommunicated Emperor Frederick I. Frederick finally capitulated. He had set up an anti-pope. Under Alexander a council confirmed the exclusive right of papal elections to the college of cardinals.
    1057 Leofric husband of Lady Godiva
    < 30 Aug 01 Sep >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 31 August:

    Vanguard 5001980 Poland's Solidarity labor movement, as an agreement signed in Gdansk ends a 17-day-old strike.
    1976 The First Index Investment Trust is started, the first index mutual fund fund for individual investors, with the $11.4 million it raised during its initial underwriting. It seeks investment results that parallel the performance of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index. [5~year comparison chart >] The Fund would be renamed Vanguard 500 Index Fund (symbol VFINX) in 1998 and become the world's largest mutual fund in March 2000. On its 25th anniversary it would have assets of $90.6 billion. Someone who invests $10'000 in the Trust on this day, and reinvests all dividends and capital gains thereafter, has $261'419 on 30 June 2001, for an average annual return of 14.05%. However someone who would have invested $10'000 on 01 September 2000, would have been left on 04 April 2001 with only $7241.50 (not counting possible dividends), for an annualized loss of 42%.
    ^ 1908 William Saroyan, in Fresno, Calif., the son of an Armenian immigrant, US writer who made his initial impact during the Depression with a deluge of brash, original, and irreverent stories celebrating the joy of living in spite of poverty, hunger, and insecurity.
           Saroyan's father died when the boy was three, and he was raised in an orphanage. His mother later reunited the family. To earn extra money for the family, Saroyan started selling newspapers on the streets of Fresno, California, at age eight. Although he left school at 15, he became an avid reader and haunted the public libraries. Saroyan published his first collection of stories, The Daring Young Man on the Flying Trapeze, in 1934, followed by Inhale and Exhale in 1936. His first play, My Heart's in the Highlands, was produced in 1939. His play The Time of Your Life, about a group of lonely drifters in a San Francisco bar, was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1940. Saroyan rejected the award, saying the play was no better than anything else he had written.
          In his novels, Saroyan portrayed a fundamental goodness in all of his characters. His work was frequently based on his own childhood, and boys are often his main characters. The central figure in the stories of My Name Is Aram is a young Armenian-American boy, and his 1943 novel, The Human Comedy, featured a 14-year-old boy whose older brother has left to fight in World War II. Others of his novels are: Rock Wagram (1951), The Laughing Matter (1953).
          Saroyan also wrote several collections of brief essays: Here Comes, There Goes You Know Who (1961), Not Dying (1963), Days of Life and Death and Escape to the Moon (1971), and Places Where I've Done Time (1975)
          Saroyan married Carol Marcus, and the couple had two children, a son and a daughter. The couple divorced, remarried, then divorced again. Saroyan fell into deep debt in the 1960s and was plagued by tax problems. He wrote as much as possible to regain his financial footing, and much of his later work received mixed reviews. He died in Fresno on 18 May 1981.
    1907 Ramón Magsaysay Phillipines, statesman (US Legion of Merit—1952)
    1903 Sir Bernard Lovell England, radio astronomer, founded Jodrell Bank
    1899 Lynn Riggs, writer, her book Green Grow the Lilacs was adapted by Rodgers and Hammerstein to become Oklahoma.
    ^ 1897 The Kinetograph is patented by Edison
          Thomas Edison receives US patent #589168 for his “Kinetographic Camera”, for which he had applied on 24 August 1891. William K. L. Dickson and Edison had developed the camera and its viewer in the early 1890s and staged several demonstrations. The camera was based on photographic principles discovered by still-photograph pioneers Joseph Nicéphore Niepce and Louis Daguerre of France. In 1877, inventor Edward Muybridge developed a primitive form of motion pictures when Leland Stanford, governor of California, invited him to develop photo studies of animals in motion. Muybridge developed an ingenious system for photographing sequential motion, setting up 24 cameras attached to trip wires stretched across a racetrack. As the horse tripped each wire, the shutters snapped. The resulting series of photos could be projected as something resembling a motion picture. This breakthrough in the early 1870s inspired another student of animal motion, Etienne Jules Marey of France, to develop in 1882 a rotating camera rather like a rifle, where different pictures were taken in a rapid sequence by a rotating cartridge.
          Unlike these earlier cameras, Edison's Kinetoscope and Kinetograph used celluloid film, invented by George Eastman in 1889. In February 1893, Edison built a small movie studio that could be rotated to capture the best available sunlight. He showed the first demonstration of his films-featuring three of his workers pretending to be blacksmiths-in May 1893.
          The invention inspired French inventors Louis and August Lumière to develop a movie camera and projector, the Cinématographe, that allowed a large audience to view a film. Several other cameras and projectors were also developed in the late 1800s.
          In 1898, Edison sued American Mutoscope and Biograph Pictures, claiming that the studio had infringed on his patent for the Kinetograph. He had entrusted the development of the machine to his assistant, W.L.K. Dickson, who left Edison's company in 1895 and helped found Biograph. However, in 1902, the US Court of Appeals ruled that although Thomas Edison had patented the Kinetograph, he only owned rights to the sprocket system that moved perforated film through the camera, not the entire concept of the movie camera.
          In 1909, Edison and Biograph joined forces with other filmmakers to create the Motion Pictures Patents Company, an organization devoted to protecting patents and keeping other players from entering the film industry. In 1917, the Supreme Court dissolved the trust, and the Edison Company left the film industry the same year.
         The Kinetoscope is patented by Edison   Thomas Edison's inventions (and those of others which he attributed to himself) helped advance a number of different technologies, including motion pictures. His kinetoscope was the forerunner of the motion-picture film projector. The device, also known as the peephole viewer, ran film in a continuous movement between a magnifying lens and light source. Since images were viewed through the kinetoscope, Edison did not address the problem of showing them on a screen.
    1885 DuBose Heyward , US novelist, dramatist, and poet whose first novel, set in Catfish Row, a Charleston tenement street, Porgy (1925), was the basis for a highly successful play, an opera (Porgy and Bess with music by George Gershwin), and a motion picture. Heyward first wrote poems: Carolina Chansons (1922, with Hervey Allen); Skylines and Horizons (1924); and Jasbo Brown and Selected Poems (1931). His other novels include Angel (1926), Peter Ashley (1932), and Star-Spangled Virgin (1939). He died on 16 June 1940.
    1885 Herbert Turnbull, he would be Regius Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews from 1921 to 1950. He worked in algebra, particularly invariant theory and was also interested in the history of mathematics
    1880 Queen Mother Wilhelmina Netherlands (1890-1948)
    1880 Tietze, mathematician
    1878 Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, he would grow up to be a Russian general and leader of counter-revolutionary forces in Russia 1917-20.
    1870 Maria Montessori, Italian educator. She developed a theory of teaching which emphasized a reinforcement of initiative, and a freedom of movement for the child. She co-authored The Montessori Method
    1852 Gaetano Previati, Italian artist who died on 21 June 1920.
    1844 Mary Gray Phelps, would grow up to be Mrs. Ward, under the pseudonym Elizabeth Stuart Phelps wrote Poetic Studies (PHELPS ONLINE: )
    ^ 1840 Giovassi Verga, novelista italiano.
    — Nato a Catania, fu il massimo esponente del verismo [e del verghismo?]. La sua prima formazione romantico-risorgimentale si svolse a Catania, dove abbandonando gli studi giuridici, decise di dedicarsi esclusivamente alla letteratura. Trasferitosi a Firenze nel 1865 compose i suoi primi romanzi Una peccatrice e Storia di una Capinera. Successivamente a Milano frequentò l'ambiente degli Scapigliati, rappresentando in modo fortemente critico il mondo aristocratico-borghese (Eva, 1873; Tigre Reale, 1873; Eros,1875).
          In seguito alla scoperta del naturalismo francese matura la sua svolta decisiva verso il verismo che sarà segnato dai racconti e dai romanzi di ambiente siciliano (Vita nei campi, 1880 I Malavoglia, 1881; Novelle rusticane, 1883; Mastro don Gesualdo, 1889). Lo scrittore crede nel progresso ma si interessa ai vinti e ai deboli; la sua è una visione della vita tragicamente pessimistica che si pone in antitesi con l'ottimismo imperante nei suoi tempi.
          Rappresenta un mondo di primitivi in lotta con il destino avverso cui inesorabilmente soccombono quando si staccano dalla religione, dalla famiglia e dal lavoro. Il linguaggio verghiano è arditamente innovatore: dando spazio al linguaggio dialettale riesce a raggiungere effetti di grandiosa coralità. Alla produzione narrativa si accompagnò quella teatrale, connotata sempre da una intensa drammaticità (Cavalleria rusticana, 1884; La lupa, 1884; In portineria, 1885; Dal tuo al mio, 1903). Lo scrittore muore nella sua città natale nel 1922.
    Verga— VERGA ONLINE:
    Tutte le novelle (same zipped)
    /— [all the following are zipped text:
    I Malavoglia _ Scritto nel 1881 è il primo romanzo dell'incompiuto ciclo "I vinti", ed è considerato il capolavoro della letteratura verista. Verga supera il bozzettismo veristico per contribuire in modo fondamentale alla creazione di una tradizione narrativa realistica in Italia. Nella storia del declino dei Malavoglia egli dà una rappresentazione lucidamente critica della crisi di una civiltà arcaica investita da nuove, spietate leggi economiche. Il suo attaccamento ai valori più autentici di quella civiltà (la famiglia patriarcale, la casa del nespolo) si accompagna alla condanna dei suoi colpevoli ritardi; ma su tutto domina un pessimismo di fondo, un senso di immobilità e immutabilità dei destini sociali e umani che è in netto contrasto con gli ottimismi trionfanti della borghesia italiana postunitaria.
    Mastro Don Gesualdo _ Edito nel 1889, seconda parte dell'incompiuto ciclo de "I vinti", Mastro don Gesualdo ha sicuramente un respiro più ampio rispetto a I Malavoglia. Il tema è quello dell'alienazione borghese, affrontato in diversi quadri che raccontano l'ascesa sociale, e l'umiliazione, del protagonista, anch'esso alla fine "vinto" nonostante il suo lavoro di una vita ed i denari accumulati.
    Storia di una capinera _ È la triste storia di una giovane, avviata controvoglia dal padre al convento. Scritto in forma epistolare, racconta l'angoscia per una reclusione innaturale, l'innamoramento ed infine la follia della protagonista.
    Una peccatrice _ Un romanzo giovanile del Verga (il suo primo racconto lungo: è del 1886). D'ispirazione romantica, più tardi ripudiato dall'autore, che nel 1890 tentò di opporsi alla ristampa.
    ErosEvaIl marito di ElenaTigre RealeRose CaducheLa LupaCavalleria Rusticana
    1830 Charles Nordhoff, author. NORDHOFF ONLINE: For Health, Pleasure, and Residence, For Health, Pleasure, and Residence (another site), Northern California, Oregon, and the Sandwich Islands
    ^ 1827 Anna Bartlett Warner, US author and hymnwriter. She never married, but lived with her sister Susan (1819-1885, also an author) in New York state.
         Anna had invented an educational game called Robinson Crusoe's Farmyard, played with coloured cards. In 1852, she published Dollars and Cents. Anna's works include My Brother's Keeper (1855), The Star out of Jacob (1868), Gardening by Myself (1872), the first US book to urge women to do their own gardening, Cross Corners (1887), and Susan Warner (1909). She died on 22 January 1915.
    ANNA WARNER ONLINE: Hymns of the Church Militant (1858)
    1821 Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, Prussian mathematician and mathematical physicist who died on 08 September 1894.
    1817 Theude Grönland, German artist who died on 15 April 1876.
    1811 Théophile Gautier, Tarbes, France, poet, novelist and author of Art for Art's Sake.— GAUTIER ONLINE: (en français): [text] L’oeuvre fantastique. I, NouvellesL’oeuvre fantastique. II, RomansLa comédie de la mortLe capitaine FracasseAlbertus ou L'âme et le péché /(en français, images de pages): La comédie de la mort Mademoiselle de MaupinLes jeunes~France : romans goguenards ; suivis de Contes humoristiquesLe capitaine Fracasse. Tome premier   Tome second // (in English translation) Captain Fracasse
    1768 Barraband Jacques Barraban, French artist who died on 01 October 1809. —
    0161 Commode, empereur romain pas du tout commode. Il se signalera par un comportement exécrable et finira assassiné sans laisser de regret.
    0012 Gaius Caesar Germanicus "Caligula", 3rd Roman emperor (37~41 AD), very unpopular with ancient historians, and with good reason, as he was cruel and unpredictable, some say mad. Most people were relieved when he (together with his wife and daughter) was murdered by his Praetorian guards on 24 January 41. — L'empereur romain Caligula, qui se signalera par un comportement éxécrable et finira assassiné sans laisser de regret.
    Holidays Afghanistan : Pashtunistan Day / Malaysia : Malaysia Day (1957) / Trinidad & Tobago : Independence Day (1962) / US : Festal Day/Order of the Eastern Star (Robert Morris' birthday)

    Religious Observances Ang : Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, monastic founder / RC : St Raymund Nonnatus, cardinal, ransomer of captives / Luth : John Bunyan, teacher / Saint Aristide: Ce philosophe athénien s'étant converti au christianisme, il profite du passage à Athènes de l'empereur romain Hadrien pour lui remettre une «Apologie» où il plaide la cause de ses coreligionnaires. Mais il n'a guère de succès malgré la qualité de son écrit et il sera lui-même martyrisé sous le règne de l'empereur suivant. / Santos Ramón Nonato, Adolfo, Amado, Honorato, Leonardo, Rufina y Dominguito del Val.
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “There's so much to say, but your eyes keep interrupting me.”
    “There's so much to say, but your ‘I’s keep interrupting me.”
    “There's so much to say, but your nays keep interrupting me.”
    “There's so much to say, but your neighs keep interrupting me.”
    “There's so much to say, but your rise keeps interrupting me.”
    “There's so much to say, but your ice keeps interrupting me.”
    “There's so much to say, but your rice keeps interrupting me.”
    updated Sunday 08-Mar-2009 20:40 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.70 Wednesday 27-Aug-2008 21:02 UT
    v.7.70 Thursday 30-Aug-2007 22:22 UT
    Friday 11-Aug-2006 3:45 UT
    v.5.80 Friday 02-Sep-2005 16:48 UT
    Saturday 04-Sep-2004 14:02 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site