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Events, deaths, births, of AUG 28
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Nicholas Farber^  On a 28 August:
2287 Mars is at its closest to the Earth since it was at 55'760'000 km on 27 August 2003 at 09:51 UT.
Nicholas Farber2002 Nicholas Michael Farber, 9 [< photos >], is abducted at 02:00 from his father's rented room in Palm Desert, California, by two gunmen, the taller one with a nylon stocking over his heads, as phoned at 02:08 by his father, Michael Farber, manager of a Mexican restaurant, who is beaten up.
      The boy's mother, Debra Rose, 38, of Colorado Springs, Colorado, is divorced from the father since 1995 (they were married in 1991, the third of her five marriages all ended by divorce).
      She is also divorced from Stanley Rose, who says that she is a drug addict (as does Michael Farber), and, on 05 August 2002 obtained a restraining order (expiring on 21 August 2002) to keep her away from him and their children, Winter Rose, 6, and Dane Rose, 5. When she violated the restraining order, she was arrested on 15 August and held for one day.
      That is when Michael Farber, alerted by Stanley Rose, flew to Colorado and took Nicholas to California, where a court granted him temporary custody on 23 August 2002. There was to be a hearing on 05 September 2002 to consider making the custody permanent.
Debra Rose      On 30 August 2002 Nicholas would be found at a campground in Jamul, California, with his mother [< photo] and Michael J. Riley, 48, who are both arrested. Riley is not one of the two kidnapping gunmen, but he is wanted for financial crimes in Nebraska and in Arizona.

2002 Transparency International publishes its Corruption Perceptions Index 2002, rating 102 countries for each of which there was at least three surveys by independent institutions, on the perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people, academics and risk analysts, between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt). The top three countries are Finland (9.7), Denmark (9.5), and New Zealand (9.5). The bottom three are: Bangladesh (1.2), Nigeria (1.6), Angola (1.7), Madagascar (1.7), and Paraguay (1.7). The US is 16th (7.7). Hong Kong is 14th (8.2), listed separately from China (59th, 3.5). The median score is Croatia's 3.8, being 51st. Only 32 countries have a score above 5.

In a Campos, Brazil, cemetery, Pedro da Silva Correa, 43, pushes the cement lid off the tomb in which he was and climbs out. Covered with blood, he walked to the hospital. There they find lodged in his head one of the bullets with which a rival drug gang had shot him the previous day, after kidnapping and tying him up as he was on his way home to a shantytown. The gang then left Correa for dead inside a closed tomb.
2001 In Los Angeles, poor Mexican immigrant Asunción Franco Gonzalez, turns in to police, unopened, a suitcase~sized plastic bag of cash, which he found lying in the street. He is told the bag contains $203'000 and that he has earned a $25'000 reward. The bag had fallen out of the back of an AT Systems armored truck the previous evening.
2000 In the gulf of Manfredonia, off the southern coast of Italy, free dolphin Filippo saves a 14-year-old boy from drowning. The boy, who cannot swim, had fallen overboard from a boat. Filippo, well known to the local people, pushes the boy up and carries him back to the boat.
1995 MS Word computer virus The National Computer Security Association posts a virus alert, warning Microsoft Word users of a widespread virus, "Prank Macro." It is not as destructive as several other viruses spread through transferred files, but it could be irritating and troublesome. The virus turns normal documents into document templates, which are more difficult to work with.
1992 Tandy announces television-computer, a digital compact disc machine that would turn television sets into computers controlled by a remote control instead of a keyboard. Although several other companies also tried to introduce hybrid television-computers, combination television-computers did not catch on with the public.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev ordered a shake-up of the KGB and sacked his cabinet in the wake of the failed coup by hard-liners
1990 Iraq declares Kuwait its 19th province
1986 US Navy officer Jerry A Whitworth sentenced to 365 years for spying
1983 Israeli PM Menachem Begin announces resignation
1981 The US national Center for Disease Control, noting a high incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis in homosexual men, announced a medical task force had been formed to find out why. It was later determined the increased number of illnesses was caused by AIDS. 1991: Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev ordered a shake-up of the KGB and sacked his cabinet in the wake of the failed coup by hard-liners
1981 John Hinckley Jr. pleads innocent in attempt to kill President Reagan
1972 President Nixon announces that the military draft will end by July 1973.
^ 1972 Vietnam: First US Air Force ace since Korean War
      The US Air Force gets its first ace (a designation traditionally awarded for five enemy aircraft confirmed shot down) since the Korean War. Captain Richard S. Ritchie, flying with his "backseater" (radar intercept officer), Captain Charles B. DeBellevue, in an F-4 out of Udorn Air Base in Thailand, shoots down his fifth MiG near Hanoi. Two weeks later, Captain DeBellevue, flying with Captain John A. Madden, Jr., shot down his fifth and sixth MiGs. The US Navy already had two aces, Lieutenants Randall Cunningham and Bill Driscoll. By this time in the war, there was only one US fighter-bomber base left in South Vietnam at Bien Hoa. The rest of the air support was provided by aircraft flying from aircraft carriers or US bases in Thailand.
^ 1968 Democrat Vietnam platform provokes riot in Chicago.
      The Democratic National Convention in Chicago endorses the Johnson administration's platform on the war in Vietnam and chooses Vice President Hubert Humphrey as the party's nominee for president. The decision on the party platform resulted in a contentious three-hour debate inside the convention hall. Outside, a full-scale riot erupted, where antiwar protesters battled with police and National Guardsmen. By the time the convention was over, 668 demonstrators had been arrested and many people in the US were stunned by the images of armed conflict in the streets. Humphrey's Republican opponent, Richard Nixon, very successfully used this incident in a call for return to law and order that won him much support during the election campaign.
     At the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, tens of thousands of protesters against the Vietnam War battle police in the streets while the Democratic Party tears itself to shreds concerning a platform statement on Vietnam. In one day and night, the Cold War consensus that had dominated US thinking since the late 1940s was shattered. Since World War II ended and tensions with the Soviet Union began to intensify, a Cold War consensus about foreign policy had grown to dominate US thinking. In this mindset, communism was the ultimate enemy that had to be fought everywhere in the world. Uprisings in any nation, particularly in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, or Latin America, were perceived through a Cold War lens and were usually deemed to be communist-inspired.
      In Chicago in August 1968, that Cold War consensus began to crack and crumble. The Democratic Party held its national convention in Chicago that year. Problems immediately arose both inside and outside the convention. Inside, the delegates were split on the party's stance concerning the ongoing Vietnam War. Many wanted a plank in the party's platform demanding a US withdrawal from the bloody and frustrating conflict. Most of these delegates supported Eugene McCarthy, a committed antiwar candidate, for president. A majority, however, believed that the US must not give up the fight against Communism. They largely supported Vice President Hubert Humphrey. As the debate intensified, fights broke out on the convention floor, and delegates and reporters were kicked, punched, and knocked to the ground. Eventually, the Humphrey forces were victorious, but the events of the convention left the Democratic Party demoralized and drained.
      On the streets of Chicago, antiwar protesters massed in the downtown area, determined to force the Democrats to nominate McCarthy. Mayor Richard Daley responded by unleashing the Chicago police force. Thousands of policemen stormed into the crowd, swinging their clubs and firing tear gas. Stunned US citizens watched on TV as the police battered and beat protesters, reporters, and anyone else in the way. The protesters began to chant, "The whole world is watching. The whole world is watching." The world — especially the US — was indeed watching that night. What they were witnessing was a serious fracture beginning to develop in the US's previously solid Cold War consensus. For the first time, many US citizens were demanding that their nation withdraw from part of its war against Communism. North Vietnam, instead of being portrayed as the villain and pawn of its Soviet masters, was seen by some as a beleaguered nation fighting for independence and freedom against the vast war machine of the United States, as it had against France. The convention events marked an important turning point: no longer would the government have unrestrained power to pursue its Cold War policies. When future international crises arose — in Central America, the Middle East, or Africa — the cry of "No more Vietnams" was a reminder that the government's Cold War rhetoric would be closely scrutinized and often criticized.
1967 Vietnam: More protests against the war. Reverend Thomas Lee Hayes, speaking for the National Mobilization Committee, announces that there will be a massive protest march on 21 October 1967 in Washington. In the Senate, Mike Mansfield (D-Montana) made a proposal endorsed by 10 other senators to bring a peace plan before the United Nations.
^ 1966 Vietnam: North Vietnamese pilots being trained in Soviet Union
      It is reported in three Soviet newspapers that North Vietnamese pilots are undergoing training in a secret Soviet air base to fly supersonic interceptors against US aircraft. This only confirms earlier reports that the Soviets had initiated close relations with North Vietnam after a visit by Soviet Premier Aleksei Kosygin to Hanoi in February 1965 during which he signed economic and military treaties with the North, pledging full support for their war effort. The Soviets and North Vietnamese leadership planned military strategy and discussed North Vietnam's needs to prosecute such a strategy. The Soviets agreed to supply the necessary war materials, to include air defense weapons for the North and offensive weapons to be employed in the South. At one point in the war, the Soviets would supply 80% of all supplies reaching North Vietnam.
1964 Race riot in Philadelphia
1964 The first weather satellite capable of providing nighttime cloud photos is launched. It would transmit some 27'000 pictures of hurricanes and typhoons before it stopped working in September that same year.
^ 1963 Martin Luther King's I have a dream speech:
      On the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, the US civil-rights movement reached its high-water mark when Martin Luther King, Jr. speaks to the over 200'000 demonstrators present at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The famous "I Have a Dream" passage of the address is improvised by King, who departs from his prepared speech midway to make oratory history.
read the complete text    listen to the full speech
      In the year after the March on Washington, the civil rights movement would achieve two of its greatest successes: the ratification of the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which abolished the poll tax, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education, and outlawed racial segregation in public facilities. On 14 October 1964, it was announced that King won the Nobel Peace Prize.
     On the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC, the Black civil rights movement reaches its high-water mark when Martin Luther King, Jr., speaks to more than 200'000 persons attending the March on Washington. The demonstrators — black and white, poor and rich — came together in the nation's capital to demand voting rights and equal opportunity for Blacks in the US and to appeal for an end to racial segregation and discrimination. The peaceful rally was the largest assembly for a redress of grievances that the capital had ever seen, and King was the last speaker. With the statue of Abraham Lincoln — the Great Emancipator — towering behind him, King evoked the rhetorical talents he had developed as a Baptist preacher to articulate how the "Negro is still not free." He told of the struggle ahead, stressing the importance of continued action and nonviolent protest. Coming to the end of his prepared text (which, like other speakers that day, he had limited to seven minutes), he was overwhelmed by the moment and launched into an improvised sermon. He told the hushed crowd, "Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettoes of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed."
      Continuing, he began the refrain that made the speech one of the best known in US history, second only to Lincoln's 1863 "Gettysburg Address":
      "I have a dream," he boomed over the crowd stretching from the Lincoln Memorial to the Washington Monument, "that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.' I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood.
      I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
      I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today."
      King had used the "I have a dream" theme before, in a handful of stump speeches, but never with the force and effectiveness of that hot August day in Washington. He equated the civil rights movement with the highest and noblest ideals of the US tradition, and for many people in the US — White and Black — the importance of racial equality was seen with a new and blinding clarity. He ended his stirring, 16-minute speech with his vision of the fruit of racial harmony:
      “When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, 'Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!'
      In the year after the March on Washington, the civil rights movement achieved two of its greatest successes: the ratification of the 24th Amendment to the Constitution, which abolished the poll tax and thus a barrier to poor Black voters in the South; and the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education and outlawed racial segregation in public facilities. In October 1964, Martin Luther King, Jr., was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On 04 April 1968, he was shot to death while standing on a motel balcony in Memphis, Tennessee; escaped convict James Earl Ray was convicted of the assassination.
1957 Senator Thurmond begins 24-hr filibuster against civil rights bill
1945 Chinese communist leader Mao Tse-Tung arrives in Chunking to confer with Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek in a futile effort to avert civil war.
1944 German forces in Toulon and Marseilles, France, surrender to the Allies.
1941 The German U-boat U-570 is captured by the British and renamed Graph.
^ 1941 Price controls and rationing
      With the US on the verge of entering World War II and prices threatening to skyrocket, President Franklin Roosevelt, by an executive order, creates the Office of Price Administration (OPA). Charged with controlling consumer prices in the face of war, the OPA imposed rent controls and a rationing program which initially targeted auto tires. Soon, the agency was producing coupon books for sugar, coffee, meat, fats, oils, and numerous other items.
      With goods in tight supply, people in the US were urged to stick to the system of rationing. Some even took the Home Front Pledge, a declaration of their commitment to avoiding the black market in favor of buying the OPA way. The end of the war didn' t prompt an instant shutdown of the OPA. Reasoning that some goods were still quite scarce, President Truman kept the agency running. However big business objected to the controls, as did farmers, who suffered under continued meat rationing.
      Soon after the 1946 election, the OPA was relieved of its duties, with only rents, sugar, and rice still subject to controls. The agency's record of service during the war was fairly impressive: by V-J Day, consumer prices had increased by 31%, compared with 62% during World War I.
1933 In the Great Depression in the US, an executive order prohibits "hoarding" gold and places limits on its exportation.
1916 Italy's declaration of war against Germany took effect during World War I.
1914 Three German cruisers are sunk by ships of the Royal Navy in the Battle of Heligoland Bight, the first major naval battle of World War I.
^ 1879 Last independent Zulu king is captured
      King Cetshwayo, the last great ruler of Zululand, is captured by the British following his defeat in the British-Zulu War. He was subsequently sent into exile. In 1843, Britain succeeded the Boers as the rulers of Natal, which administered Zululand, the neighboring kingdom of the Zulu people. Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers who came to South Africa in the seventeenth century. Zulus, a migrant people from the north, had also come to southern Africa during the seventeenth century, settling around the Tugela River region.
      In 1838, the Boers, migrating north to elude the new British dominions in the south, first came into armed conflict with the Zulus, who were under the rule of King Dingane at the time. The European migrants succeeded in overthrowing Dingane in 1840, replacing him with his son Mpande, who became a vassal of the new Boer republic of Natal.
      In 1843, the British took over Natal and Zululand. In 1872, King Mpande died and was succeeded by his son Cetshwayo, who was determined to resist European domination in his territory. In December 1878, King Cetshwayo rejected the British demand that he disband his troops, and in January of the next year, British forces invaded Zululand to suppress Cetshwayo. The British suffered grave defeats at Isandlwana, where 1300 British soldiers were killed or wounded, and at Hlobane Mountain, but, on 29 March 1879, the tide turned in favor of the British at the Battle of Khambula.
      At Ulundi in July 1879, Cetshwayo's forces were utterly routed and the Zulus surrendered. King Cetshwayo was subsequently captured and sent into exile, but in 1883 he was reinstated to rule over part of his former territory. However, because of his defeats he was discredited in the eyes of his subjects, and they soon drove him out of Zululand. He died in exile in the next year. In 1887, faced with continuing Zulu rebellions, Britain formally annexed Zululand and, in 1897, it became a part of Natal, which joined the Union of South Africa in 1910.
1867 US occupies Midway Islands in the Pacific
^ 1866 Hopkins writes to Newman
      Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet, writes to John Henry Newman, asking for an audience so that he can convert to Roman Catholicism. Hopkins would become a Jesuit and write many Christian lines of the highest caliber: "The world is charged with the grandeur of God. It will flame out like shining from shook foil..." or "Glory be to God for dappled things — For skies of couple-color as a brinded cow..."
Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins
  • Apologia Pro Vita Sua
  • Apologia Pro Vita Sua (2 versions)
  • Discourses Addressed to Mixed Congregations
  • The Dream of Gerontius
  • The Dream of Gerontius (PDF)
  • An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent
  • The Idea of a University
  • Sermons Bearing on Subjects of the Day
  • Sermons Preached on Various Occasions
  • Fifteen Sermons Preached Before the University of Oxford, Between A.D. 1826 and 1843
  • Lectures on the Present Position of Catholics in England, Addressed to the Brothers of the Oratory in the Summer of 1851
  • A Letter Addressed to His Grace the Duke of Norfolk on Occasion of Mr. Gladstone's Recent Expostulation
  • On Consulting the Faithful in Matters of Doctrine
  • An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine
  • An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine
  • ^ 1864 Terry promoted to Major General.
          Union General Alfred Terry is promoted from brigadier general to major general of the United State Volunteers. A native of Connecticut, Terry studied law and became a clerk of the New Haven Superior Court before the war. He was a colonel in the Second Connecticut when the war began, and his regiment fought at the First Battle of Bull Run. Terry and his regiment fought at Port Royal, South Carolina, in the fall of 1861. He spent the next two and a half years fighting along the southern coast. For his service, he was promoted to brigadier general and given temporary command of the captured Fort Pulaski in Georgia. At the end of 1863, Terry was assigned to General Benjamin Butler's Army of the James. He participated in the early stages of the siege of Petersburg, Virginia, before his promotion to major general, and assumed temporary command of the Tenth Corps when General David Birney died of malaria.
          At the end of 1864, Terry participated in an attempt to capture Fort Fisher in North Carolina, a stronghold that protected the approach to Wilmington, the Confederacy's most important blockade-running port. Led by General Benjamin Butler, the expedition was a dismal failure. General-in-chief Ulysses S. Grant was so disappointed with Butler that he removed him from command and placed Terry in charge of the next attempt. In January 1865, Terry teamed with Admiral David Porter to make another attempt on Fort Fisher. Porter's ships shelled the fort, and Terry led nearly 10'000 soldiers on multiple attacks that effected a surrender by the Confederate garrison inside. Terry went on to a distinguished postwar military career. He commanded the Department of Dakota in the late 1860s, then took over the Department of the South during Reconstruction. He returned to the Department of Dakota, and he was the overall commander of the expedition that resulted in the massacre of George Custer and his entire command at the Battle of the Little Bighorn on June 25, 1876. Terry retired in 1888, and he died in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1890 at age 63.
    1862 Battle of Groveten begins as, mistakenly believing the Confederate Army to be in retreat, Union General John Pope attacks. Both sides sustain heavy casualties.
    1861 Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, falls to Union troops after a two-day operation, closing an important outlet from Pamlico Sound to Confederate blockade runners.
    1835 The New York Sun publishes the 4th instalment of a Moon hoax story about John Herschel [07 Mar 1792 – 11 May 1871]. The whole story appears in 6 instalments from 25 through 31 August 1835.
    ^ 1830 Autonomie de la Serbie
          Le sultan turc d'Istanbul reconnaît l’autonomie de la Serbie. La même année, la Grèce obtient son indépendance. Ayant conquis les Balkans quatre siècles plus tôt, les Turcs n'ont rencontré de résistance que dans les forêts de sapins du petit Monténégro. Au début du XIXe siècle, l'empire ottoman n'est plus que l'ombre de lui-même.
          En 1804, le pacha qui réside à Belgrade est éliminé par ses janissaires. Chassés par les troubles, les habitants de Belgrade se prennent à rêver à l'exemple de leurs cousins monténégrins. Un ancien éleveur de porcs prend la tête de leur révolte. Les Turcs le surnomment Karageorges (Georges le Noir) en raison de son tempérament. Karageorges rentre triomphalement à Belgrade le 12 decembre 1806 et érige la Serbie en principauté autonome. Mais finalement battu et chassé de sa capitale, il doit se réfugier en Autriche.
          Le flambeau de la révolte est repris par un autre éleveur de porcs, Miloc Obrénovic. Il fait assassiner Karageorges en 1817 avant de se faire reconnaître prince héréditaire de Serbie par le sultan. Les propriétaires turcs quittent le pays mais quelques garnisons ottomanes restent sur place.
          En 1839, les Serbes, lassés par la brutalité de leur prince, l'obligent à abdiquer au profit de son fils. Deux ans plus tard, ils chassent les Obrénovic et appellent au pouvoir le fils de Karageorges. Celui-ci sera à son tour chassé pour cause d'excessive complaisance envers le sultan. Les Serbes, par un singulier retour de balancier, rendront le pouvoir au vieux Miloc Obrénovic.
          Les familles des Karageorgevic et des Obrénovic ne cesseront dès lors de se disputer le trône à coup d'assassinats et de complots. En 1867, Michel Obrénovic, le fils et le successeur de Miloc, obtiendra le départ définitif des garnisons ottomanes. Devenu "l'homme malade de l'Europe", l'empire ottoman octroiera enfin une complète indépendance à la Serbie en 1878, sous la pression des grandes puissances occidentales réunies en congrès à Berlin.
         L’empire ottoman reconnaît l’autonomie de la principauté de Serbie. Presque au même moment, la Grèce acquiert son indépendance. Le sultanat d'Istanbul est devenu "l'homme malade de l'Europe" et les grandes puissances s'appliquent à le dépecer. La Serbie se soulève dès 1804 sous la conduite d'un paysan, Karageorges (Georges le Noir). Belgrade est prise le 12 decembre 1806. Mais, devenu prince, Karageorges est finalement battu et chassé de sa capitale. Le flambeau de la révolte est repris par un notable, Miloc Obrénovic. Il fait assassiner Karageorges le 25 Jul 1817 avant de se faire reconnaître, enfin, prince héréditaire de Serbie par les Turcs. Les propriétaires turcs quittent le pays et seules quelques garnisons restent sur place. Mais à Belgrade, les familles des Karageorgevic et des Obrénovic ne cesseront d'ensanglanter le pays en se disputant le trône au cours du XIXe siècle.
    1814 In the War of 1812, by 28 August 1814, the British had captured a large portion of the East Coast, including Washington DC, prompting New York banks to halt specie payments.
    1789 Sir William Herschel discovers Saturn's moon Enceladus
    1776 Battle of Long Island
    1655 New Amsterdam & Peter Stuyvesant bars Jews from military service
    1645 In Poland, King Vladislav IV convenes the Conference of Thorn. He seeks to bring reunion among the 26 Catholic, 28 Lutheran and 24 Calvinist theologians in attendance. Discussions would continue through November, but no theological agreement be achieved.
    1609 Delaware Bay discovered by Henry Hudson for the Netherlands.
    < 27 Aug 29 Aug >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 28 August:

    Alexander Gallon2005 Alexander Gallon, 4 months [photo >], in fire at his home in Cowgate, Newcastle, England. His mother, Danielle Wails, 21, home alone with him, says that she was in the kitchen when two men came in through the open front door at 22:30 (21:30 UT). They punched and kicked her. She passed out after falling to the ground and was dragged to the tiny living room where her son was sleeping on the sofa. The men set the house on fire and left. When Danielle Wails regained consciousness the room was filling with smoke and she was tied up with a telephone cord. She managed to dial 999 with her tongue and scream for help through the letterbox. This story is not believed by the authorities and, on 02 September 2005, she would be charged with the murder of the baby. Fire crews rescue her and her son. They are taken to Newcastle General Hospital but Alexander is dead. The baby's father, Robert Gallon, 21, did not live with Ms Wails. (050902)
    2005 A suicide bomber, during the morning rush hour, in the center of Be'er Sheva, Negev capital, Israel, severely injuring the two Israeli security guard who were pursuing him after the driver of a nearby bus pointed him out as suspicious because of the backpack and bag he was carrying. No one else is hurt. —(050828)

    neck collar recovered from bomb victim Wells2003 Brian Douglas Wells, [photo >] born on 15 November Wells1956, at 15:18 (19:18 UT) by a 12cm-diameter hole in his chest made by an unsophisticated bomb attached to a sophisticated neck collar secured by 5 locks [< photo]. He is is pleading that the bomb be removed, while he is sitting handcuffed near to a police car, 40 minutes after robbing the Peach Street PNC branch bank in Summit Town Centre, Erie, Pennsylvania. Wells, a 27-hour-a-week pizza delivery man (for Mama Mia's Pizza-Ria in Millcreek Township), had told the police which arrested him that false customers at the Peach Street address of a TV tower in an outlying area had fitted him with the bomb, set a timer, and ordered him to rob the bank. This does not explain why he did not go, instead of to the bank, to a police station and ask to be saved [unless the criminal(s) convinced him that their device had a listening and tracking capability]. It does not explain either why the criminal(s) would have concocted a plan likely to fail, because of the silent alarm in banks (of which Wells seemed unaware) and the insufficient time for Wells to return with the loot [if Wells failed to follow the criminal instructions in detail, and the bomb exploded prematurely]. The acquaintances of Wells, who lived alone, unmarried, say that he was mild and friendly, quite incapable of having planned or even willingly participated in such a robbery. Police find in Wells' car a specially made gun in the shape of a walking cane. — In Colombia, in May 2000, in what was believed to be an extortion attempt, a collar packed with explosives and placed around the neck of a 53-year-old woman exploded, killing her and a bomb technician trying to disarm it. In the summer of 2003, Colombian rebels were accused of using a "necklace bomb" to try to extort money from a Venezuelan rancher. Police were able to disarm that bomb. — Losing Face, an episode (which last aired on 07 July 2003) of the CBS TV drama CSI: Miami, was about a serial bomber suspected of attaching an explosive collar to the neck of a wealthy Colombian importer in Miami. — On 31 August 2003, Robert Pinetti, 43, dies of a drug overdose in his home in Eire. He was a friend and co-worker of Wells at the pizzeria.
    Hoter Greenway on fire2003 At least 22 persons, many of them children riding home from school, in vehicles which plunge into the rain-swollen Damanganga river when a 100m section of the recently renovated bridge connecting Nani Daman and Moti Daman collapses, at 13:30, in Diu and Daman Union territory, India. More than 20 persons are injured.
    2003 Javid Ahmad Shah; his bodyguard; and Roshan Lal Javid; and two gunmen who, at 19:00 the previous day, had entered the Greenway Hotel in Srinagar, Indian-occupied Kashmir, to assassinate Shah, a former member of state legislative council, and held off police for nearly 12 hours. Police fired mortars, which started a fire. [photo >] Javid was editor of the Urdu daily Wattan. At least 12 persons are injured.
    1988:: 18 Koreme men: Sagvan Huseen-Kader, 16; Shaaban Huseen-Kader, 14; Khalil Mohamed-Abdullah, 43;Adnan Khalil-Mohamed, 13; Morad Othman-Mostafa, 19; Zahir Mostafa-Saleh, 39; Zober Mostafa-Saleh, 37; Chaban Hamdy-Mostafa, 25; Abdulsalam Khalil-Mohamed, 26; Hameed Abdullah-Kader, 23; Sedeek Abdullah-Kader, 17; Salam Hasen-Merza, 20; Saleh Hasen-Merza, 16; Fatah Mohamed-Fatah, 15; Abdulrahman Huseen-Omer, 38; Haje Soleman-Esmaeel, 38; Khaled Mostafa-Esmaeel, 25; Salah Mostafa-Esmaeel, 23; — and 9 Chalkey men: Akram Shareef-Fatah, 34; Abdulsata Shareef-Fatah, 24; Mosa Shareef-Fatah, 18; Fadel Hasen-Taha, 19; Rasheed Jaafer-Taha, 19; Mohamed Yacoob-Kasem, 38; Morad Hakeem-Yacoob, 24; Ahmed Yacoob-Kasem, 39; Norey Abdulkader-Fatah, 34; lined up and shot by Iraqi troops of dictator Saddam Hussein, in the village of Koreme (near the village of Chalkey), in Iraqi-occupied Kurdistan, as part of the genocide of Kurds.
    1973 More than 520 persons in earthquake, central Mexico
    1965 More than 50 Viet Cong as their forces are routed in the Mekong Delta by US forces.
    ^ 1955 Emmett Till, 14, cruelly lynched for KWB ("Kidding While Black")
          While visiting family in Money, Mississippi, fourteen-year-old Emmett Till, a Black from Chicago, is brutally murdered for calling a White woman "baby" four days earlier. His assailants — the white woman's husband and brother — make Emmett carry a 35-kg cotton-gin fan to the bank of the Tallahatchie River and ordered him to strip. The two men then beat him nearly to death, gouge out his eye, shoot him in the head, and then throw his body tied to the cotton-gin fan into the river.
          Till grew up in a working-class neighborhood on the south side of Chicago, and though he had attended a segregated elementary school, he was ill prepared for the level of segregation he encountered in Mississippi. His mother warned him to take care because of his race, but Emmett enjoyed pulling pranks. On 25 August, while standing with his cousins and some friends outside a country store in Money, Emmett showed a photo of a white girl to them. He told them she was his girlfriend. Emmett's Black companions, disbelieving him, dared Emmett to talk to a White woman who was in the store at that moment. He went in, bought some candy, and on the way out said, "bye, baby" to the woman. One witness later claimed that he had also whistled at her.
          Roy Bryant, the proprietor of the store and the woman's husband, returned from a business trip four days later and found out how Emmett had spoken to his wife. Enraged, he went to the home of Till's great uncle Mose Wright with his brother-in-law J. W. Milam, and demanded to see the boy. Despite pleas from White, they forced Emmett into their car and drove him down to the Tallahatchie River. Three days later, his corpse was recovered, but was so disfigured that Mose Wright could only identify it by an initialed ring.
          Authorities wanted to bury the body quickly, but Till's mother, Mamie Bradley, requested it to be sent back to Chicago. After seeing the mutilated remains, she decided to have an open casket funeral so that all the world could see what racist murderers had done to her only son. Jet, a Black weekly magazine, published a photo of Emmett's corpse, and soon the mainstream media picked up on the story.
          Less than two weeks after Emmett's body was buried, Milam and Bryant went on trial in a segregated courthouse in Sumner, Mississippi. There were few witnesses besides Mose Wright, who positively identified the defendants as Emmett's killers. On 23 September the all-white jury deliberated for less than an hour before issuing a verdict of "not guilty," explaining that they believed the state had failed to prove the identity of the body. Many people around the country and the world were outraged by the decision, and also by the state's decision not to indict Milam and Bryant on the separate charge of kidnapping. The Emmett Till murder trial brought to light the brutality of Jim Crow segregation in the South, and was an early impetus of the Black civil rights movement. Bob Dylan sang The Ballad of Emmett Till.
    ^ 1943 Boris III, 49, king of Bulgaria (1918-1943), who during the last five years of his reign headed a thinly veiled royal dictatorship.
          The son of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria and Maria Luisa of Bourbon-Parma, Boris (born on 30 Jan 1894, Sofia), despite his Roman Catholic parentage, was brought up in the Orthodox faith for political and dynastic reasons. He succeeded his father as king of Bulgaria when he abdicated on 04 October 1918. An opponent of Bulgaria's political strongman, the Agrarian Union leader Aleksandur Stamboliyski, Boris is generally considered to have played some role in the coup that removed Stamboliyski from power in June 1923.
          During the following years he was the object of terrorist conspiracies; two attempts were made on his life within a few days in April 1925. His marriage to Princess Giovanna of Italy (1930) temporarily cemented Italian relations; but during the late 1930s he passed more into the German orbit and sought rapprochement with Yugoslavia.
          After the establishment of a military dictatorship in Bulgaria (1934), he worked gradually to reassert his power; by November 1935 he had successfully installed Georgi Kyoseivanov, a personal favorite, as prime minister. From 1938 until his death he was dictator in all but name.
          After Bulgaria's adhesion to the Axis pact (March 1941), Boris maintained a modicum of independence; even after Bulgaria's entry into World War II on the side of the Axis and after participating in the invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece, he was able to resist declaring war against Russia. He died shortly after a stormy interview with Adolf Hitler. Whether his death was caused by heart attack or by assassination is uncertain.
    ^ 1941 More than 23'000 Hungarian Jews, massacred by the Gestapo in occupied Ukraine.
    The German invasion of the Soviet Union had advanced to the point of mass air raids on Moscow and the occupation of parts of Ukraine. On 26 August, Hitler displayed the joys of conquest by inviting Benito Mussolini to Brest-Litovsk, where the Germans had destroyed the city's citadel. The grand irony is that Ukrainians had originally viewed the Germans as liberators from their Soviet oppressors and an ally in the struggle for independence.
          But as early as July, the Germans were arresting Ukrainians agitating and organizing for a provisional state government with an eye toward autonomy and throwing them into concentration camps. The Germans also began carving the nation up, dispensing parts to Poland (already occupied by Germany) and Romania.
          But true horrors were reserved for Jews in the territory. Tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews had been expelled from that country and migrated to Ukraine. The German authorities tried sending them back, but Hungary would not take them. SS General Franz Jaeckeln vowed to deal with the influx of refugees by the "complete liquidation of those Jews by September 1." He worked even faster than promised. On 28 August he marches more than 23'000 Hungarian Jews to bomb craters at Kamenets Podolsk, orders them to undress, and riddles them with machine-gun fire. Those who didn't die from the spray of bullets were buried alive under the weight of corpses that piled atop them. All told, more than 600'000 Jews had been murdered in Ukraine by war's end.
    1916 Henri-Joseph Harpignies, French artist specialized in Landscapes, born on 28 July 1819. — MORE ON HARPIGNIES AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    ^ 1914 The fallen of the 3rd of the 5 days of the Battle of Tannenberg, which started on 26 August and in which the Russian Second Army under Aleksandr Vasilyevich Samsonov would be enveloped and destroyed by the Germans under P.K. Rennenkampf. The battle would end on 30 August with 13'000 Germans and 30'000 Russians killed or wounded, 92'000 Russians prisoner, 400 Russian cannons captured. Samsonov would commit suicide on 29 August 1914.
    1904 Arthur Melville, born on 10 April 1855, avant-garde Scottish painter known for his wild watercolor technique. — MORE ON  MELVILLE AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
    1903 Frederick Law Olmsted, author. OLMSTED ONLINE: A Journey Through Texas: or, A Saddle-Trip on the Southwestern Frontier
    1862 Albrecht Adam, German painter born on 16 April 1786. — more
    ^ 1859 James Henry Leigh Hunt, English essayist, critic, journalist, and poet, born on 19 October 1784. He was an editor of influential journals in an age when the periodical was at the height of its power. He was also a friend and supporter of the poets Percy Bysshe Shelleyand John Keats. Hunt's poems, of which “Abou Ben Adhem” and “Jenny Kissed Me” are probably the best known, reflect the influence of foreign versification.
          Though he falls short of greatness, Hunt, at his best, insome essays and his Autobiography (1850; a rewriting of Lord Byron and Some of His Contemporaries, 1828), has a charm that has gained him a high place in his readers' affection. He excels in perceptive judgments of his contemporaries, from Keats to the Victorian Tennyson; and, as Radical journalist, though not much interested inpolitics, he attacks oppression with indignation. He considered himself to be essentially a dilettante.
          The poems in Juvenilia (1801), his first volume, show his love for Italian literature. He looked to Italy for a “freer spirit of versification,” and in The Story of Rimini (1816), published in the year of his meeting with Keats, he reintroduced a freedom of movement in English couplet verse lost in the 18thcentury. From him Keats derived his delight in color and imaginative sensual experience and a first acquaintance with Italian poetry, a potent influence long after he had outgrown Hunt's tutelage.
          In 1808 Leigh Hunt and his brother John had launched the weekly Examiner, which advocated abolition of the slave trade, Catholic emancipation, and reform of Parliament and the criminal law. For their attacks on the unpopular prince regent, the brothers were imprisoned in 1813. Leigh Hunt, who continued to write The Examiner in prison, was regarded as a martyr in the cause of liberty. After his release (1815) he moved to Hampstead, home of Keats, whom he introduced in 1817 to Shelley, a friend since 1811. The Examiner supported the new Romantic poets against attacks by Blackwood's Magazine on what it called “the Cockney school of poetry.”
          In Hunt's writings for the quarterly Reflector (1810–1811), politics was combined with criticism of the theater and of the fine arts, of which he had considerable knowledge. Imagination and Fancy (1844), his most sustained critical work, draws interesting parallels between painting and poetry. It was in the weekly Indicator (1819–1821) and The Companion (1828), however, that, taking a holiday from politics, Hunt published some of his best essays. He continued to edit and write for periodicals to 1853.
    — Brief passages of Hunt online:
    Deaths of Little Children
    On the Realities of Imagination
    Preface of Imagination and Fancy; or Selections from the Best English Poets, Illustrative of those first Requisites of their Art; with markings of the best passages, critical notices of the writers, and an essay in answer to the question "What is Poetry?
    Abou Ben Adhem

    Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase!)
    Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace,
    And saw, within the moonlight in his room,
    Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom,
    An angel writing in a book of gold: -
    Exceeding peace had made Ben Adhem bold,
    And to the Presence in the room he said
    "What writest thou?" -The vision raised its head,
    And with a look made of all sweet accord,
    Answered "The names of those who love the Lord."
    "And is mine one?" said Abou. "Nay, not so,"
    Replied the angel. Abou spoke more low,
    But cheerly still, and said "I pray thee, then,
    Write me as one that loves his fellow men."

    The angel wrote, and vanished. The next night
    It came again with a great wakening light,
    And showed the names whom love of God had blessed,
    And lo! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest.

    Jenny Kissed Me

    Jenny kissed me when we met,
    Jumping from the chair she sat in;
    Time, you thief, who love to get
    Sweets into your list, put that in!
    Say I'm weary, say I'm sad,
    Say that health and wealth have missed me,
    Say I'm growing old, but add,
    Jenny kissed me.

    1842 Peter Fendi, Austrian painter born on 04 September 1796. — more with link to an image.
    1818 Jean Baptiste Pointe du Sable, trader, founder of Chicago.
    1789 Dionys Nymegen, Dutch artist born on 07 April 1795.
    1727 Aart de Gelder, Dutch painter born on 26 October 1645, first trained by Samuel van Hoogstraten, and then was the last and most devoted pupil of Rembrandt. — MORE ON  DE GELDER AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
    1689 Alart Coosemans, Flemish artist born on 19 March 1627.
    1676 Indian chief King Philip, also known as Metacom, killed by English soldiers, ending the war between Indians and colonists.
    1665 Elisabetta Sirani, Italian Baroque era painter, poisoned (according to her father). She was born on 08 January 1638. — MORE ON SIRANI AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
    1652 Benjamin-Gerritszoon Cuyp, Dutch painter born in 1612 — MORE ON CUYP AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
    ^ 1645 Hugo Grotius, author on international law.
         Some men are not able to judge the value of their own work. Hugo Grotius was one such. On his deathbed he lamented the worthlessness of all he had done. He died convinced he was a failure. Born Huig de Groot, he latinized his name. He proved to be a precocious lad. At ten he won accolades for his Latin. When eleven he was called a second Erasmus. At 14 he completely revised Martianus Capella's encyclopedia, having read all the ancient authorities for himself. He followed this with translations of Simon Stevin and Aratus. At 15 he held public disputations and was made attaché to the great John van Barneveld on a crucial peace mission. By 17 he had argued his first legal case and at 22 had written a book (not published) which embodied his best ideas in embryonic form.
          Grotius' first venture into international law was his book Mare Liberum. As its title implies, it argued for freedom of the seas. He took his stand firmly on the rights of man. Grotius' work as a whole is notable for its tendency to escape pedantry. Although he cited massive sources, he also exhibited a great deal of originality and common sense. Mare Liberum was no exception.
          The Netherlands entered a period of severe theological disputation. Arminians and Calvinists were at odds. The States General issued an Edict of Pacification to cool tempers on both sides. This failed. Barneveld, Grotius and others saw Prince Maurice of Orange becoming a dictator. They supported the States General in negotiating a twelve year truce with Spain. This infuriated Maurice. When Barneveld and Grotius suggested a peace formula, he had Barneveld executed and Grotius imprisoned for life.
          With the help of his faithful wife, Grotius escaped. He was lionized in other European countries. In exile he wrote his most famous book: The Law of War and Peace. This book was badly needed. Christian Europe was in a tragic flux. Wars of great cruelty ravaged the land. No mercy was shown anyone except by a few enlightened leaders such as Adolphus Gustavus (who admired Grotius' work). To break oath with "heretical" enemies was the norm.
          Although a Christian, Grotius relied far less on Biblical arguments than was common for the time. Instead, he showed from Christian and heathen history how good men of all ages had been merciful and kept faith in international affairs. Three years after his death the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 embodied many of the principles set forth by Grotius. Two hundred years later it was recognized as the basis of international law. Grotius' greatest efforts were aimed at establishing peace between Christians, but he also wrote an apologetic, Truth of Christianity.
    GROTIUS ONLINE: The Freedom of the Seas: or, The Right Which Belongs to the Dutch to Take Part in the East Indian Trade , Mare Liberum (PDF)
    co-author of On the Origin of the Native Races of America: A Dissertation By Hugo Grotius; A Treatise of Foreign Languages and Unknown Islands By Peter Albinus (1884).
    1623 Frederick van Valkenborch, Flemish artist born in 1570 (or 1556?)
    ZOOM IN on Botticelli picture--^ 0430 Saint Augustine of Hippo (Aurelius Augustinus), born on 13 November 354.
         He was a great early Latin Church Father and one of the outstanding theological figures of the ages. It was Saint Augustine who wrote: 'Thou hast made us for thyself, O Lord, and our hearts are restless till they find their rest in thee.' More than any other man since the apostles, stamped the Church with his personality and ideas.
          He was bishop of Hippo from 396 to 430, one of the Latin Fathers of the Church, one of the Doctors of the Church, and perhaps the most significant Christian thinker after Saint Paul. Augustine's adaptation of classical thought to Christian teaching created a theological system of great power and lasting influence. His numerous written works, the most important of which are Confessions and City of God, shaped the practice of biblical exegesis and helped lay the foundation for much of medieval and modern Christian thought.
          Augustine is remarkable for what he did and extraordinary for what he wrote. If none of his written works had survived, he would still have been a figure to be reckoned with, but his stature would have been more nearly that of some of his contemporaries. However, more than five million words of his writings survive, virtually all displaying the strength and sharpness of his mind (and some limitations of range and learning) and some possessing the rare power to attract and hold the attention of readers in both his day and ours. His distinctive theological style shaped Latin Christianity in a way surpassed only by scripture itself. His work continues to hold contemporary relevance, in part because of his membership in a religious group that was dominant in the West in his time and remains so today.
          Intellectually, Augustine represents the most influential adaptation of the ancient Platonic tradition with Christian ideas that ever occurred in the Latin Christian world. Augustine received the Platonic past in a far more limited and diluted way than did many of his Greek-speaking contemporaries, but his writings were so widely read and imitated throughout Latin Christendom that his particular synthesis of Christian, Roman, and Platonic traditions defined the terms for much later tradition and debate. Both modern Roman Catholic and Protestant Christianity owe much to Augustine, though in some ways each community has at times been embarrassed to own up to that allegiance in the face of irreconcilable elements in his thought. For example, Augustine has been cited as both a champion of human freedom and an articulate defender of divine predestination, and his views on sexuality were humane in intent but have often been received as oppressive in effect.

    — SAINT AUGUSTINE ONLINE: (in the original Latin): Confessiones  — de Civitate Dei  — de Trinitate  — de Dialecticade Fide et Symbolode Catechizandis RudibusSermonesRegula Sancti Augustini
    (in English translations): The City of God Confessions ConfessionsConfessionsConfessionsConfessions De Dialectica Enchiridion Expositions on the Book of Psalms On Christian Doctrine

    < 27 Aug 29 Aug >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 28 August:

    1952 Rita Dove, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet.
    1939 John Frank Charles Kingman, English mathematical statistician. Author of Poisson Processes (1993).
    ^ 1937 The Toyota Motor Company, Ltd., originally a division of the Toyota Automatic Loom Works, becomes a corporation. The company underwent huge expansion in the 1960s and 1970s, exporting its smaller, more fuel-efficient cars to countless foreign markets. During this period, Toyota also acquired Hino Motors, Ltd., Nippondenso Company Ltd., and Daihitsu Motor Company, Ltd. Toyota has been Japan’s largest automobile manufacturer for several decades and is headquartered in Toyota City, Japan.
    1924 Janet Frame NZ, novelist (Intensive Care, Owls Do Cry)
    1916 C Wright Mills sociologist, writer (The Power Elite)
    ^ 1913 William Robertson Davies, novelist and playwright whose works offer penetrating observations on Canadian provincialism and prudery.
         Davies was the son of a publisher and politician who owned the Canadian newspaper the Peterborough Examiner. He attended college in Ontario and later in Oxford, England. He stayed in England after finishing his degree and worked for two years acting, directing, and teaching at London's Old Vic theater. He tried his own hand at writing drama in the 1940s and 1950s, without enormous success. When he returned to Canada, he became literary editor of a Toronto magazine, then edited for the Peterborough Examiner from 1962 to 1963. He began teaching English for the University of Toronto in 1960 and continued for more than 20 years.
          Meanwhile, he wrote novels, turning out more than 30 books of fiction, plus essays, articles, and nonfiction books. He was best known for his three trilogies, most notably the Deptford trilogy, including Fifth Business (1970), The Manticore (1972), and World of Wonders (1975). The trilogy followed the intertwined lives of three men from the small Canadian town of Deptford.
          His other well-know works included the Salterton trilogy in the 1950s, set in the provincial Canadian town of Salterton and dealing with fictional small-town events like a chaotic production of The Tempest, a small-town family feud, and a young woman training to be an opera singer. Later works included What's Bread in the Bone (1985), as well as many other novels and nonfiction books. Davies became the first Canadian admitted to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. He died on 2 December 1995.
    1911 Shizuo Kakutani, Japanese mathematician who died on 17 Aug 2004.
    1910 Paul Turán, Budapest Jewish mathematician who died on 26 September 1976.
    1908 Roger Tory Peterson NY, ornithologist, author of the innovative bird book A Field Guide to Birds.
    1907 United Parcel Service begins service, in Seattle
    1906 Sir John Betjeman poet laureate of England (Mt Zion)
    1812 Rudolf von Alt, Viennese painter who died on 12 March 1905. MORE ON VON ALT AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.—(060827)
    1903 Bruno Bettelheim, Austrian psychologist, educator of autistic and emotionally disturbed children,. writer (Uses of Enchantment)
    1896 Liam O'Flaherty, Irish novelist and short-story writer.
    1883 Jan A. Schouten who would work on tensor analysis and its applications.
    1878 George Hoyt Whipple, US pathologist, who died on 01 February 1976. He shared with George R. Minot [02 Dec 1885 – 25 Feb 1950] and William P. Murphy [06 Feb 1892 – 09 Oct 1987] the 1934 Nobel Medicine prize, for the treatment of anemia which he discovered in dogs and they applied to humans.
    1867 Maxime Bôcher  US mathematician who died on 12 September 1918. He worked on differential equations, series, and algebra.
    1833 Edward Coley Jones “Burne~Jones”, British Pre-Raphaelite painter, illustrator, and designer who died on 17 June 1898. — MORE ON BURNE~JONES AT ART “4” 2~DAY with links to images.
    ^ 1828 (Julian = 9 September Gregorian) Leo Tolstoy, 1828, near Tula, Russian novelist (War and Peace, Anna Karenina).

    TOLSTOY ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Anna Karenina
  • Anna Karenina
  • Childhood , Boyhood , Youth
  • A Confession
  • The Death of Ivan Ilych
  • The Devil
  • Family Happiness
  • Father Sergius
  • The Forged Coupon and Other Stories
  • The Forged Coupon and Other Stories
  • The Gospel in Brief
  • Hadji Murad
  • The Kreutzer Sonata
  • The Kreutzer Sonata and Other Stories
  • Master and Man
  • Resurrection
  • The Slavery of Our Times
  • Twenty-three Tales
  • War and Peace
  • War and Peace
  • War and Peace
  • ^ 1814: Joseph (Thomas) Sheridan Le Fanu, Dublin Irish writer of ghost stories and mystery novels, who died 07 February 1873. He is celebrated for his ability to evoke the ominous atmosphere of a haunted house.
          Le Fanu belonged to an old Dublin Huguenot family and was related on his mother's side to Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he became a lawyer in 1839 but soon abandoned law for journalism.
          The Purcell Papers, written while he was a student, show his mastery of the supernatural and were collected in three volumes in 1880. Between 1845 and 1873 he published 14 novels, of which Uncle Silas (1864) and The House by the Churchyard (1863) are the best known. He contributed numerous short stories, mostly of ghosts and the supernatural, to the Dublin University Magazine, which he owned and edited from 1861 to 1869. In a Glass Darkly (1872), a book of five long stories, is generally regarded as his best work. Le Fanu also owned the Dublin Evening Mail and other newspapers.
  • Carmilla
  • The Purcell Papers volume 1   volume 2   volume 3
  • The Purcell Papers volume 1   volume 2   volume 3
  • Uncle Sila
  • 1813 Jones Very, author. VERY ONLINE: Essays and Poems , Essays and Poems
    1812 Rudolf von Alt, Viennese painter, draftsman, and printmaker who died on 12 March 1905. — more
    1810 Constant Troyon, French painter, who died on 20 March 1865.— MORE ON TROYON AT ART “4” MARCH with links to images.
    1806 Jacob Thompson, British artist who died on 27 December 1879.
    1801 Cournot, mathematician
    1799 Auguste-Xavier Leprince, French painter and lithographer who died on 24 December 1826. — more
    1796 Irénée-Jules Bienaymé, Parisian mathematician who died on 19 October 1878. He worked on statistics and probability.
    1774 Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton, founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph and the first US-born saint.
    1789 Dionys Nymegen (or Nijmegen), Dutch painter born on 07 April 1795.
    click for portrait by Kiprensky^ 1832 click for portrait by TischbeinJohann Wolfgang von Goethe, in Frankfurt, Germany.
         Goethe would grow up to be a poet, playwright, novelist, and social philosopher, the greatest figure of the German Romantic period, best known for Faust. He died on 22 March 1832.
    — C'est à Francfort sur le Main que nait l'un des plus grands poètes allemands. Il fut aussi géologe, botaniste et naturaliste. Il découvrit l'os intermaxillaire. Parlant sept langues, musicien, Il a excercé une grande influence sur la littérature européenne. Son oeuvre capitale, Faust, est mondialement connue.
    — Throughout his life Goethe was interested in a variety of studies and pursuits. He made important discoveries in connection with plant and animal life, and evolved a non-Newtonian theory of the character of light, which was viewed with suspicion by scientists. In literature he gained fame early with The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), but his most famous work was the poetic drama in two parts, Faust.
          Goethe was born in Frankfurt am Main, the first child of a lawyer Johann Caspar Goethe, and Katherine Elisabeth Textor, the daughter of the mayor of Frankfurt. Goethe had a comfortable childhood and he was greatly influenced by his mother, who encouraged his literary aspirations. After troubles at school, he received at home an exceptionally wide education. At the age of 16, Goethe began to study law at Leipzig University (1765-1768), and he also studied drawing under Adam Oeser.
          An unhappy love affair inspired Goethe's first play, The Lover's Caprice (1767). After a period of illness, he resumed his studies in Strasbourg (1770-1771). Goethe may have contracted syphilis. He practiced law in Frankfurt (1771-1772) and Wetzlar (1772). He contributed to Frankfurter Gelehrte Anzeigen (1772-1773), and in 1774 he published his first novel, the self-revelatory Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. It narrates Werther's hopeless affair with Lotte Buff, the fiancée of a colleague. In the end the melancholic Werther commits suicide, thus becoming the prototype of the Romantic hero.
          Goethe's youth was emotionally hectic to the point that he sometimes feared for his reason. He was recognized as a leading figure in the Sturm und Drang, which celebrated the energetic Promethean quality of the individual as opposed to the rational idealistic ideal of the Enlightenment. Goethe's poem Prometheus, with its insistence that man must believe not in gods but in himself, might be seen as a motto for the whole movement.
          After a relaxing trip to Switzerland, Goethe made a decisive break with his past. In 1775 he was welcomed by Duke Karl August into the small court of Weimar, where he worked in several governmental offices. Occasionally he read aloud his texts to a selected group of persons, among them the Duke and the two Duchesses.
         During this period Goethe did not have much time to publish fiction. He was a council member and member of the war commission, director of roads and services, and managed the financial affairs of the court. His great love in this period was Charlotte von Stein, an older married woman, but the relationship was platonic. However, Goethe's scientific researches were more successful. He discovered the human intermaxilarry bone (1784), and formulated a vertebral theory of the skull.
          In 1786-1788 he visited Italy. He drew statues and ruins, collected antique and botanical samples, and was shocked by the primitive power of an ancient Greek temple — Renaissance art did not interest him. JHW Tischbein portrayed him as Goethe in The Roman Campagna. The journey ended Goethe's celibacy and inspired his play Iphigenie auf Tauris, and Römische Elegien, sensuous poems relating partly to Christiane Vulpius, who became Goethe's mistress in 1789. The ancient monuments he saw in Italy significantly influenced his growing commitment to a classical view of art. His emotional dependence on Charlotte ended, and in spite of public pressure, he continued to live happily unmarried with Christiane. Goethe was released from day-to-day governmental duties to concentrate on writing, although he was still general supervisor for arts and sciences, and director of the court theatres (1791-1817).
         In the 1790s Goethe contributed to Friedrich von Schiller´s journal Die Horen, published Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre in 1795-1796, and continued his writings on the ideals of arts and literature in his own journal Propyläen. Wilhelm Meister's story had preoccupied the author for many years. Wilhelm is disillusioned by love, he starts actively to seek out other values, and becomes an actor and playwright. Whereas Werther's life ended in despair, Meister has a more optimistic spirit. At the end he says: "... I know I have attained a happiness which I have not deserved, and which I would not change with anything in life."
          During the French Revolution Goethe reported in letters to his family his inconveniences, when he was forced to leave his home and dear garden after the French army attacked Prussia. He also saw killings and looted villages, and wrote in the middle of cannon fire. Although Goethe supported freedom and progress, he wanted to preserve the bourgeois or his artistic-individualistic way of life. The goals of the Revolution were embraced with enthusiasm by most of the German intelligentsia, including Kant, Schiller, and Friedrich Schlegel. Goethe remained creative during his last period. He married in 1806 Christiane Vulpius, with whom he had lived nearly 18 years, wrote his autobiography, Poetry and Truth (1811-1833), and completed the novel Wilhelm Meisters Wanderjahre (1821-1829).
          The first part of Goethe's masterwork, Faust, appeared in 1808, and the second part in 1832. Goethe had worked for most of his life on this drama. It is based on The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe [bapt. 26 Feb 1564 – 30 May 1593], and depicts a disillusioned scholar, who makes a pact with Satan. The original figure in the Faust legend was Gregorius Faustus (or Gregorius Sabellicus, Faustus Junior [1480-1511], a seeker of forbidden knowledge. His true identity is not known, but he claimed to be an astrologer, expert in magic, and an alchemist. This legend attracted Christoper Marlowe, who offered in his play a psychological study of the battle between good and evil. Marlowe's play ends with the protagonist's damnation. Goethe's story created a new persona for the Devil — Mephistopheles was a gentleman, who had adopted the manners of a courtier. Faust's lust for knowledge is limitless and he makes a contract with Mephistopheles: he will die at the moment he declares himself satisfied. In the first part Faust loses Margaret, an innocent girl, who is condemned to death for murdering her illegitimate child by Faust. In the philosophical second part Faust marries Helen of Troy and creates a happy community. Faust is finally satisfied, but Mephistopheles loses his victory, when angels take Faust to heaven.
          From 1791 to 1817 Goethe was the director of the court theaters. He advised Duke Carl August (on mining) and Jena University, which for a short time attracted the most prominent figures in German philosophy, including Hegel and Fichte. He edited Kunst and Altertum (1816-1832) and Zur Naturwissenschaft (1817-1824). In 1812 Goethe met Beethoven in Teplitz. Beethoven had admired Goethe already in his youth, although he considered Goethe's attitude toward the nobility too servile. Beethoven composed several music pieces based on the author's texts, among them Egmont. Franz Schubert's (1797-1828) first Lieder masterpiece, Gretchen am Spinnrade, took the words from Faust, but Goethe did not much appreciate Schubert's musical attempts.
          At the age of 74 Goethe fell in love with the 19-year old Ulrike von Levetzow. He followed her with high hopes from Marienbad to Karlsbad, and then returned disappointed to Weimar. There he wrote The Marienbad elegy, the most personal poem of his later years. Goethe died in Weimar. He and Schiller, who died over a quarter of a century earlier, are buried together, in a mausoleum in the ducal cemetery.

    — 1773 Portrait of Goethe by Johann Daniel Bager [1734 – 17 Aug 1815]. — 1787 Goethe in the Roman Campagna by Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein. — Photo of 1789 bust of Goethe by sculptor Alexander Trippel [1744-1793]. — 1823 Portrait of Goethe by Orest Kiprensky.
    Faust. Der Tragödie zweiter Teil in fünf AktenHermann und DorotheaDas Märchen (1795) — Novelle (1826)
    (in English translations):
    Egmont _ Egmont FaustHermann and Dorothea _ Hermann and Dorothea The Poems of Goethe The Sorrows of Young WertherDas Märchen – A Fairy Tale (1795) — Novella (1826)
    1710 Giuseppe Vasi, Italian engraver and painter who died on 16 April 1782. — more
    1689 Alexander (Alart) Coosemans, Flemish artist born on 19 March 1627.
    1623 Frederick (Friedrich) van Valkenborch (or Falkenburg), Flemish artist born in 1570 (or 1556?)
    Holidays England, Channel Is, Northern Ireland, Wales : Bank Holiday ( Monday ) / Hong Kong : Festival of Hungry Ghosts / Jordon : Arab Renaissance Day / Laos :
    Mauritius : Ganesh Chatturthi / Hong Kong : Liberation Day (1945) ( Monday )

    Religious Observances Orth : Dormition (Assumption) of Mary (8/15 OS) / Luth, RC : St Augustine of Hippo, bishop/doctor

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “"Wer Wissenschaft und Kunst besitzt, der hat auch Religion; wer jene beiden nicht besitzt, der habe Religion.”
    — Goethe [28 Aug 1749 – 22 Mar 1832]
    “When seeking love give nothing, Having found love give all.”
    “When seeking nothing give all, Having found nothing seek love.”
    “When seeking all give love, Having found all give all.”
    “The essence of immorality is the tendency to make an exception of one's self.” —
    Jane Addams [06 Sep 1860 – 21 May 1935], exceptional US social worker and 1931 Nobel Peace laureate.
    “Only the exceptional person resists the tendency to make an exception of one's self.”
    “Everyone is an exception.”
    “No one is an exception to the above rule.”
    updated Saturday 29-Aug-2009 3:55 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.70 Wednesday 15-Aug-2007 19:37 UT
    v.6.70 Monday 28-Aug-2006 5:19 UT
    v.5.72 Friday 02-Sep-2005 15:58 UT
    Friday 27-Aug-2004 19:44 UT

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