a 24 August:
2002 In the southeastern Bering Sea, fisheries researchers sight, swimming alongside its mother, the first northern right whale calf to be seen in the eastern North Pacific Ocean in perhaps a century. The northern right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is the most endangered whale in the world. Between 1900 and 1994 there were only 29 reliable sightings of right whales in the eastern North Pacific. Since then scientific expeditions have found a few right whales between about four and 13 individuals in the eastern North Pacific each year. Right whales were hunted extensively in the early 1900s because they were easy to catch (the right whale to hunt), and floated after they were killed. Right whale flesh is very rich in oil.
1995 El Gobierno de Zaire establece con la Alta Comisaría de Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados (ACNUR) un acuerdo sobre las deportaciones de unos 13'000 ruandeses y burundeses, mientras otros 130'000 se esconden en las montañas.
1991 Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev resigned as head of the USSR Communist Party, culminating a stunning Kremlin shakeup that followed the failed coup by hard-liners. In Moscow, thousands of people held a martyrs' funeral for three men killed fighting the coup.
1991 Ukraine declares independence from the USSR.
1990 Iraqi troops surround US and other embassies in Kuwait City
1989 The Voyager 2 space probe flew by Neptune, sending back striking photographs.
1988 El nuevo presidente de Myanmar (Birmania), Maung Maung, levanta la ley marcial en su país.
1967 Liberian flag designed
1960 -88ºC, Vostok, Antarctica (world record)
1959 Hiram L Fong sworn in as 1st Chinese-American US senator while Daniel K Inouye sworn in as 1st Japanese-American Rep (Both from Hawaii)
1956 First non-stop transcontinental helicopter flight arrives in Washington DC
1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established as the North Atlantic Treaty goes into effect.
1949 Termina practicamente la guerra civil en Grecia, una lucha de tres años contra la guerrilla comunista.
1939 Nazi Germany and USSR sign 10-year non-aggression pact
1936 Australian Antarctic Territory created
1921 Se inaugura la torre Einstein, en la cima del Telegrafenberg, cerca de Potsdam (Alemania), en homenaje al gran científico.
1912 Territory of Alaska organized
1912 US passes Anti-gag law, federal employees right to petition the govt
1909 Workers start pouring concrete for Panama Canal
| 1894 The US Congress passes the US's first graduated
income tax law, which is ruled unconstitutional the next year.
1891 Thomas Edison files a patent for the motion picture camera.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1821 Juan O'Donoju y O'Rian [30 julio 1762 08 octubre 1821], enviado del gobierno español, y el insurgente Agustín de Iturbide [27 septiembre 1783 19 julio 1824] firman el Pacto de Córdoba, en el que se reconoce la Independencia de México; sin embargo, ésta no fue aceptada por España por carecer O'Donoju de facultades para concertarlo.
1814 British troops under General Robert Ross capture Washington, D.C., which they set on fire (including White House) in retaliation for the American burning of the parliament building in York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada.
1780 King Louis XVI abolishes torture as a means to get suspects to confess.
1542 In South America, Gonzalo Pizarro returns to the mouth of the Amazon River after having sailed the length of the great river as far as the Andes Mountains.
1535 Sale de Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz) la expedición de Pedro de Mendoza, compuesta de 14 naves y 2150 hombres, que exploró y conquistó una parte de la actual República Argentina.
1456 In Mainz, Germany, volume two of the famed Gutenberg Bible was bound, completing a two-year publishing project, and making it the first full-length book to be printed using movable type.
0410 The Visigoths, led by Alaric [370-410], conquer Rome, symbolizing fall of Western Roman Empire and disillusioning Christians who were trusting in God's protection of this ecclesiastical center of Christianity. St. Augustine [13 Nov 354 – 28 Aug 430] later confronted this religious problem in his monumental work, City of God (413). Born a nobleman in Peuce Island (now in Romania), Alaric served for a time as commander of Gothic troops in the Roman army, but shortly after the death of the emperor Theodosius I in 395, he left the army and was elected chief of the Visigoths. Charging that his tribe had not been given subsidies promised by the Romans, Alaric marched westward toward Constantinople (now Istanbul) until he was diverted by Roman forces. He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus (the port of Athens) and ravaged Corinth, Megara, Argos, and Sparta. The Eastern emperor Flavius Arcadius [377-408] finally placated the Visigoths in 397, probably by appointing Alaric magister militum in Illyricum. In 401 Alaric invaded Italy, but he was defeated by the Roman general Flavius Stilicho [365 – 22 Aug 408] at Pollenza on 06 April 402, and forced to withdraw from Italy. A second invasion also ended in defeat, though Alaric eventually compelled the Senate at Rome to pay a large subsidy to the Visigoths. After Stilicho was murdered, an antibarbarian party took power in Rome and incited the Roman troops to massacre the wives and children of tribesmen who were serving in the Roman army. These tribal soldiers thereupon defected to Alaric, substantially increasing his military strength. Although Alaric was eager for peace, the Western emperor Flavius Honorius [09 Sep 384 – 15 Aug 423] refused his requests for land and supplies. Alaric thereupon laid siege to Rome (408) until the Senate granted him another subsidy and assistance in his negotiations with Honorius. Honorius remained intransigent, however, and in 409 Alaric again surrounded Rome. He lifted his blockade after proclaiming Attalus as Western emperor. Attalus appointed him magister utriusque militiae but refused to allow him to send an army into Africa. Negotiations with Honorius broke down, and Alaric deposed Attalus in the summer of 410, besieging Rome for the third time. Allies within the capital opened the gates for him on 24 August 410, and for three days his troops occupied the city, which had not been captured by a foreign enemy for nearly 800 years. Although the Visigoths plundered Rome, they treated its inhabitants humanely and burned only a few buildings. Having abandoned a plan to occupy Africa. Alaric died at Cosenza as the Visigoths were marching northward. —(070813)
2006 Charles D. Smith, shot in the chest late in the night, near the intersection of 28th and Gaulbert in the west end of Louisville, Kentucky. —(060827)
2006 Gil Wilkins, aka Gilbert Harris, 22, from being shot multiple times in the afternoon of 22 August 2006, at 43rd and Market Streets in the west end of Louisville, Kentucky. —(060827)
2005 Anas Abu Zeina, 17; Mohammed Othman, 17; Mahmoud Ahadib, 17; Adel Abu Khalil (Al-Gawi), 26; and Majdi Atiya, 18; unarmed, unresisting Palestinians shot in cold blood at 23:25 (19:25 UT) by Israeli troops supposed to be conducting an arrest raid in Tul Karm, West Bank. (050907)
2004 All 46 aboard Sibir Airlines Flight 1047, a Tu-154 jet, which crashes near village Gluboky, north of Rostov-on-Don, Russia, at at 22:59, four minutes after emitting an SOS signal. It had left Moscow's Domodedovo airport at 21:35, bound to Sochi. This and the Flight 1303 (next) crashes were caused by Chechen women suicide bombers Satsita Dzhebirkhanova and Amnat Nagayeva (whose sister Roza Nagayeva would be the 31 August 2004 suicide bomber at the Rizhskaya metro station in Moscow).
2004 All 43 aboard a Tu-134 airliner, Flight 1303 of the small regional airline Volga-Aviaexpress (piloted by its director), which crashes near village Buchalki in the Tula region of Russia at 22:56. It had left Moscow's Domodedovo airport at 22:15, bound to Volgograd.
2003 Three bodyguards of Mohammed Saeed al-Hakim, by terrorist bomb made with a gas cylinder, which explodes just after noon prayers near the Imam Ali mosque in Najaf, Iraq, along the outside wall of the home of al-Hakim, who is lightly wounded. He is a high-ranking Shi'ite ayatollah and the uncle of ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, who would die among some 20 others in a terrorist bombing on 29 August 2003.
2003 US Army Spc. Michael Andrade, 28, of the 115th Military Police Company, in a vehicle accident 65 km north of Baghdad, Iraq.
2002 Ikhlas Yassin, 35, Palestinian mother of 3, shot in the chest and head by al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades militants, in the evening, on the town square of Tulkarm, West Bank, after they made her confess on videotape [photo >] that she had passed on information to her brother about the movements of a wanted militant who was later killed by Israeli forces.
^ 2000 John Kaiser, 67.
A native of Minnesota, he was a Catholic missionary priest among the Masai of Kenya for the past 36 years and human rights activist. His body, shot in the back of the head, is found early today along a highway near Naivasha, 80 km northwest of Nairobi. Documents found on the priest's body link two Kenyan Cabinet ministers to violent tribal clashes. Kaiser intended to hand the documents over to a government commission looking into the clashes, which took place in the Rift Valley Province between 1992 and 1997. "Father Kaiser always loved the truth," would say later Bishop Joseph Mairura, who studied under Kaiser in the seminary. "Because he witnessed to the truth, and some powerful people feared the truth, he was killed. Instead of repenting, they killed him."
1995 Alfred Eisenstaedt, US photographer and photojournalist born in Prussia on 06 December 1898. He worked for Life magazine from 1936 to 1972.
1991 Bernard Castro, 87, patented convertible couch
1982 Hitoshi Kumano-Go, of a brain tumor for which he had been hospitalized since May 1981. He was a Japanese mathematician born on 04 October 1935. Author of Pseudo Differential Operators (1974), Partial differential equations (1978).
1971 Wallace John Eckert, US astronomer born on 19 June 1902.
1967 Henry J. Kaiser, 85, in Honolulu. Along with a construction company, a shipyard, an aircraft company, and an aluminum manufacturing plant, Kaiser owned an automobile company. Co-founded with Joseph W. Frazer in 1945, the company produced only a few models before production was ceased in 1954.
1945 At least 524 Koreans and 25 Japanese crew members of the Imperial Japanese navy transport vessel Ukishima Maru which was carrying 4000 Koreans home when an explosion occurs, in Maizuru port in Kyoto.
1943 Simone Weil, escritora francesa.
1940 Paul Nipkow, television pioneer. German engineer Paul Nipkow invented a rotating disk perforated with small openings called the "Nipkow disk." This invention made it possible to scan, analyze, and transmit small portions of a television image. The Nipkow disk was a key piece of television technology until the early 1930s, when it was replaced by electronic scanning devices.
1929 Más de 500 personas en enfrentamientos armados en Jerusalén entre árabes y judíos.
1906 Alfred Stevens, Belgian painter born on 11 May 1823. Not to be confused with English painter Alfred Stevens [1817-1875] MORE ON STEVENS AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1903 Charles Henry Smith, who under the pseudonym of Bill Arp wrote From the Uncivil War to Date, 1861-1903
1901 Margaret Fairless Barber, author. MARGARET BARBER ONLINE: The Gathering of Brother Hilarius, The Grey Brethren and Other Fragments in Prose and Verse, The Roadmender
1899 Josef Reznicek Gisela, Austrian artist born on 17 November 1854.
1888 Rudolf Clausius, German physicist, born on 02 January 1822, who did important work in thermodynamics. In 1865 Clausius stated the First and Second laws of thermodynamics thus: 1. Die Energie der Welt ist konstant. 2. Die Entroopie der Welt strebt einem Maximum zu..
1884 Giuseppe de Nittis, Italian artist born on 22 February 1846.
| 1758 Bartolomeo Nazari, Italian artist born on 10 May
1751 Thomas Colley executed in England for drowning alleged witch
1648 Diego de Saavedra Fajardo, escritor político español.
1595 Thomas Digges, English military officer, politician, astronomer, mathematician born in 1546.
1313 Enrique VII, emperador de Alemania.
0079 Gaius Plinius Secundus, 56, among thousands in Pompeii,
Stabiae, Herculaneum and other, smaller settlements, from Vesuvius eruption.
Mount Vesuvius erupts near Pompeii in southern Italy. Although roughly half the citizens of Pompeii escape towards the sea, more than 2000 are choked by gases and buried under two meters of lava, ash, and pumice. Some 1700 years later, the excavation of Pompeii presented a picture of the everyday life of an ancient civilization, startlingly preserved in sudden death.
After centuries of dormancy, Mount Vesuvius erupts in southern Italy, devastating the prosperous Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing thousands. The cities, buried under a thick layer of volcanic material and mud, were never rebuilt and largely forgotten in the course of history. In the 18th century, Pompeii and Herculaneum were rediscovered and excavated, providing an unprecedented archaeological record of the everyday life of an ancient civilization, startlingly preserved in sudden death.
The ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum thrived near the base of Mount Vesuvius at the Bay of Naples. In the time of the early Roman Empire, 20'000 people lived in Pompeii, including merchants, manufacturers, and farmers who exploited the rich soil of the region with numerous vineyards and orchards. None suspected that the black fertile earth was the legacy of earlier eruptions of Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum was a city of 5000 and a favorite summer destination for rich Romans. Named for the mythic hero Hercules, Herculaneum housed opulent villas and grand Roman baths. Gambling artifacts found in Herculaneum and a brothel unearthed in Pompeii attest to the decadent nature of the cities. There were smaller resort communities in the area as well, such as the quiet little town of Stabiae.
At noon on August 24, 79 A.D., this pleasure and prosperity came to an end when the peak of Mount Vesuvius exploded, propelling a 15-km mushroom cloud of ash and pumice into the stratosphere. For the next 12 hours, volcanic ash and a hail of pumice stones up to 3 inches in diameter showered Pompeii, forcing the city's occupants to flee in terror. Some 2000 persons stayed in Pompeii, holed up in cellars or stone structures, hoping to wait out the eruption.
A westerly wind protected Herculaneum from the initial stage of the eruption, but then a giant cloud of hot ash and gas surged down the western flank of Vesuvius, engulfing the city and burning or asphyxiating all who remained. This lethal cloud was followed by a flood of volcanic mud and rock, burying the city. The people who remained in Pompeii were killed on the morning of 25 August when a cloud of toxic gas poured into the city, suffocating all that remained. A flow of rock and ash followed, collapsing roofs and walls and burying the dead.
Much of what we know about the eruption comes from an account by Pliny the Younger [62-113], who was staying west along the Bay of Naples when Vesuvius exploded. In two letters to the historian Tacitus, he told of how "people covered their heads with pillows, the only defense against a shower of stones," and of how "a dark and horrible cloud charged with combustible matter suddenly broke and set forth. Some bewailed their own fate. Others prayed to die." Pliny, only 17 at the time, escaped the catastrophe and later became a noted Roman writer and administrator. His uncle and adoptive father, Pliny the Elder [23 – 24 Aug 79], was less lucky. Pliny the Elder, a celebrated naturalist, at the time of the eruption was the commander of the Roman fleet in the Bay of Naples. After Vesuvius exploded, he took his boats across the bay to Stabiae, to investigate the eruption and reassure terrified citizens. After going ashore, he was overcome by toxic gas and died.
According to Pliny the Younger's account, the eruption lasted 18 hours. Pompeii was buried under 4 to 5 meters of ash and pumice, and the nearby seacoast was drastically changed. Herculaneum was buried under 20 meters of mud and volcanic material. Some residents of Pompeii later returned to dig out their destroyed homes and salvage their valuables, but many treasures were left and then forgotten.
In the 18th century, a well digger unearthed a marble statue on the site of Herculaneum. The local government excavated some other valuable art objects, but the project was abandoned. In 1748, a farmer found traces of Pompeii beneath his vineyard. Since then, excavations have gone on nearly without interruption until the present. In 1927, the Italian government resumed the excavation of Herculaneum, retrieving numerous art treasures, including bronze and marble statues and paintings.
The remains of 2000 men, women, and children were found at Pompeii. After perishing from asphyxiation, their bodies were covered with ash that hardened and preserved the outline of their bodies. Later, their bodies decomposed to skeletal remains, leaving a kind of plaster mold behind. Archaeologists who found these molds filled the hollows with plaster, revealing in grim detail the death pose of the victims of Vesuvius. The rest of the city is likewise frozen in time, and ordinary objects that tell the story of everyday life in Pompeii are as valuable to archaeologists as the great unearthed statues and frescoes. It was not until 1982 that the first human remains were found at Herculaneum, and these hundreds of skeletons bear ghastly burn marks that testifies to horrifying deaths.
Today, Mount Vesuvius is the only active volcano on the European mainland. Its last eruption was in 1944 and its last major eruption was in 1631. Another eruption, expected in the near future, could be devastating for the 700'000 persons who live in the "death zones" around Vesuvius.
1944 Gregory B Jarvis Detroit Mich, astronaut (STS 25)
1941 Carlos Casares Mouriño, escritor español.
1929 Rahman 'Abd Arra'uf al-Qudwah Yasir 'Arafat,
chairman of the PLO, head of the Palestinian Authority, who died on 11 November
Arafat may have assumed that name [my guess] from Jabal (Mount) Arafat, near Mecca, where pilgrims hear a sermon and spend an afternoon during the hajj. (According to the Palestinian authority, he was born on 04 August 1929).
His mother was related to the anti-Zionist grand mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni [1897 – 04 Jul 1974]. Arafat graduated from the University of Cairo as a civil engineer. In Egypt he had joined the Muslim Brotherhood and the Union of Palestinian Students, of which he was president during 1952-1956.
After participating in the 1956 war with Israel as an Egyptian officer, Arafat worked as an engineer in Kuwait, where he co-founded Al-Fatah, which would become the military wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Arafat became chairman of the PLO in 1968, commander in chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces in 1971, head of the PLO's political department in 1973.
At the end of August 1982, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon forced Arafat to move his headquarters from Beirut to Tunisia, he moved them to Baghdad in 1987. On 15 November 1982 the State of Palestine was proclaimed (in exile) and on 02 April 1989, Arafat became its president.
On 13 December 1993, in Washington, Arafat signed a peace accord with Israel's prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, establishing the Palestinian National Authority with limited authority on the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip. Arafat became its president, confirmed by a general election on 30 March 1989. Arafat, Rabin, and Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres received the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East.
“Yasir 'Arafat” is the byname of Muhammad 'Abd ar-Ra'uf al-Qudwah al-Husayni (or Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini), president (from 1996) of the Palestinian Authority, chairman (from 1969) of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and leader of Fatah, the largest of the constituent PLO groups. In 1993 he led the PLO to a peace agreement with the Israeli government. 'Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin [01 Mar 1922 – 04 Nov 1995] and Shimon Peres [16 Aug 1923~] of Israel were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1994.
'Arafat was one of seven children of a well-to-do merchant whose wife was related to the anti-Zionist grand mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni. The date and place of 'Arafat's birth are disputed. A birth certificate registered in Cairo, Egypt, gives 24 August 1929. Some sources, however, have supported 'Arafat's claim to have been born in “Al Quds” (as Palestinians call Jerusalem) on 04 August 1929, and still others have given Gaza, Palestine, as his birthplace. 'Arafat attended the University of Cairo, graduating as a civil engineer. He joined the Muslim Brotherhood and the Union of Palestinian Students, of which he became president (1952–1956), and was commissioned into the Egyptian army. In 1956 he served in the Suez campaign.
After Suez, 'Arafat went to Kuwait, where he worked as an engineer and set up his own contracting firm. In Kuwait he helped found Fatah, which was to become the leading military component of the PLO. After being named chairman of the PLO in 1969, he became commander in chief of the Palestinian Revolutionary Forces in 1971 and, two years later, head of the PLO's political department. Subsequently, he directed his efforts increasingly toward political persuasion rather than confrontation and terrorism against Israel. In November 1974 'Arafat became the first representative of a nongovernmental organization, the PLO, to address a plenary session of the UN General Assembly.
In 1982 'Arafat became the target of criticism from Syria and from various Syrian-supported factions within the PLO. The criticisms escalated after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon forced 'Arafat to abandon his Beirut headquarters at the end of August 1982 and set up a new base in Tunisia; he shifted to Baghdad, Iraq, in 1987. 'Arafat was subsequently able to reaffirm his leadership as the split in the PLO's ranks healed.
On 02 April 1989, 'Arafat was elected by the Central Council of the Palestine National Council (the governing body of the PLO) to be the president of a hypothetical Palestinian state. In 1993 'Arafat took a further step toward peace when, as head of the PLO, he formally recognized Israel's right to exist and helped negotiate the Israel-PLO accord, which envisaged the gradual implementation of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip over a five-year period. 'Arafat began directing Palestinian self-rule in 1994, and in 1996 he was elected president of the Palestinian Authority, which governed Palestinian-controlled areas of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
In mid-1996 Israeli-Palestinian relations became acrimonious with the election of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu [21 Oct 1949~], who favored a slower transition (if any) to self-rule. Growing distrust between 'Arafat and Netanyahu resulted in a 19-month-long deadlock, and in 1998 US President Bill Clinton [19 Aug 1946~] intervened, arranging a summit meeting with the two leaders. The resulting Wye Memorandum detailed the steps to be taken by Israel and Palestine to complete the peace process. 'Arafat pledged to continue the process with Netanyahu's successor, Ehud Barak [12 Feb 1942~]. Key dates in Yasser Arafat's life:
04 Aug or 24 Aug 1929: Born in Cairo, Jerusalem, or Gaza; fifth child of Palestinian merchant Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini.
1933: Mother Zahwa dies. Arafat and infant brother Fathi sent to Jerusalem to live with uncle.
1949: Moves back to Cairo; forms Palestinian Students' League.
August 1956: Attends international student congress in Prague, Czechoslovakia, secures membership for Palestine. For first time, wears Palestinian headdress, or keffiyeh, that becomes his trademark.
01 Jan 1965: Forms Fatah guerrilla movement; two days later attempts first attack on Israel, abortive bombing of water canal in Galilee.
21 Mar 1968: Israeli army attack on PLO base at Karameh, Jordan, inflicts heavy losses, but seen as victory for Arafat and his group; thousands join PLO.
04 Feb 1969: Arafat takes over PLO chairmanship, transforms it into dynamic force that makes Palestinian cause known worldwide.
13 Nov 1974: Arafat addresses UN General Assembly.
06 Jun 1982: Israel invades Lebanon to crush PLO, forcing Arafat and loyalists to flee Beirut.
01 Oct 1985: Arafat narrowly escapes death in Israeli air raid on PLO headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia.
16 Apr 1988: Khalil al-Wazir, Arafat's military commander, also known as Abu Jihad, assassinated in Tunis; Israel blamed.
12 Dec 1988: Arafat accepts Israel's right to exist, renounces terrorism.
02 Aug 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait; Arafat stupidly supports Saddam Hussein, resulting in PLO's isolation.
November 1991: Arafat secretly marries secretary Suha Tawil, 28, in Tunis. Their daughter Zahwa is born on 24 July 1995, in Paris.
07 Apr 1992: Arafat rescued after plane crash lands in Libyan desert during sandstorm, killing two pilots and engineer and leaving Arafat bruised and shaken.
1344 Sep 1993: Israel and PLO sign accord on Palestinian autonomy in Oslo, Norway, giving Arafat control of most of Gaza Strip and 27% of West Bank. Arafat shakes hands with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin on White House lawn.
01 Jul 1994: Returning from exile, a triumphant Arafat sets foot on Palestinian soil for the first time in 26 years.
10 Dec 1994: Arafat receives Nobel Peace Prize, along with Rabin and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres.
04 Nov 1995: Ultranationalist Jew assassinates Rabin at peace rally in Tel Aviv, Israel.
09 Nov 1995: Arafat makes first visit to Israel in secret trip to offer condolences to Rabin's widow.
20 Jan 1996: Arafat elected president of Palestinian Authority in first Palestinian elections.
15 Jan 1997: Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu sign accord on Israeli pullout from 80% of West Bank city of Hebron.
23 Oct 1998: Israeli and Palestinian leaders meeting at Wye River, Maryland, agree on interim land-for-peace deal on West Bank.
11 Jul 2000: Seeking final peace deal, US President Clinton convenes "Camp David II" and sequesters Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Arafat for nine days. Afterward, White House declares summit failure.
28 Sep 2000: Israel's then opposition leader, Ariel Sharon, provocatively visits Jerusalem shrine holy to Jews (Temple Mount) and Muslims (al-Aqsa Mosque), leading to clashes that escalate into second Palestinian intifadah.
03 Dec 2001: After three suicide bombings, Israel destroys Arafat's three helicopters in Gaza City, grounding him and effectively confining him to West Bank town of Ramallah, while making him more popular among Palestinians.
18 Jan 2002: Two Israeli tanks and armored personnel carrier park outside Arafat's Ramallah headquarters, confining him to office complex after Palestinian gunman bursts into banquet hall and kills six Israelis. In three ensuing military sieges, compound's walls torn down, along with most buildings, except for Arafat's three-story tan stucco office.
27 Mar 2002: Palestinian suicide bomber kills 29 people at Passover holiday meal at Park Hotel in Netanya, prompting Israeli incursion into West Bank.
29 March 2002: Israeli Cabinet declares Arafat an "enemy." Troops seize Ramallah, including most of Arafat's headquarters compound, further pinning in once globe-trotting leader.
02 Apr 2002: Arafat, responding to Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's offer of permanent exile, says he would rather die than leave West Bank.
24 Jun 2002: Siding with Sharon, USurper President Bush stupidly calls on Palestinians to replace Arafat as leader.
29 Apr 2003: Palestinian parliament confirms Arafat's deputy, Mahmoud Abbas, as first Palestinian prime minister, appointment pushed for by United States and Israel in a counterproductive effort to sideline Arafat.
04 Jun 2003: At first major Israeli-Palestinian summit without Arafat, Sharon and Bush launch "road map" peace plan, which allegedly aims to end fighting and create Palestinian state by 2005.
06 Sep 2003: Abbas, weakened by power struggle with Arafat, resigns and replaced by parliament speaker Ahmed Qureia.
29 Oct 2003: Having been seriously ill for two weeks, and having collapsed into unconsciousness for 10 minutes two days earlier, Arafat is flown to Paris for diagnosis and treatment. He soon falls into a coma and he dies in the morning of 11 November 2004.
Yasir Arafat, político palestino
Mohammed Abed Ar´ouf Arafat nació el 24 de agosto de 1929, en Gaza, Palestina, entonces dominio británico. Estudió en la Universidad de El Cairo (1952-1956), donde llegó a ser presidente de la Asociación General de los estudiantes palestinos. Después trabajó como ingeniero en Kuwait. Colaboró en la fundación del movimiento "Al-Fatah", en 1958, el más importante de los grupos guerrilleros reivindicadores del territorio de Palestina ocupado por Israel, del que, posteriormente, se convertiría en portavoz y líder. En 1968, después de la derrota de los árabes frente a Israel en la denominada "Guerra de los Siete Días", surge con nueva fuerza política la Organización para la Liberación de Palestina (OLP), fundada en 1964 por Ahmed es-Suqueiri, y controlada, ahora, por Al-Fatah. En 1969, es elegido presidente del comité ejecutivo de la OLP, representando al sector moderado de esta Organización. En 1982 Israel invade el Líbano, derrota a los guerrilleros palestinos instalados allí y expulsa a Arafat, que traslada su cuartel general a Túnez. Dos años más tarde, presenta su dimisión ante el Congreso Nacional Palestino, pero es rechazada, por lo que refuerza su figura dentro de la OLP. A partir de este momento, estalla en los territorios ocupados de Gaza y Cisjordania la revuelta conocida con el nombre de la "Intifada", que se va incrementando hasta 1988. A finales de este año, Arafat proclama la primera Constitución del Estado Palestino, en una ceremonia celebrada en Argel durante la reunión del Consejo Nacional.
El 13 Dec 1988 del mismo año, Arafat interviene ante la Asamblea General de la ONU, en Ginebra, con una rama de olivo y una piedra en sus manos, como presidente del nuevo Estado de Palestina. En 1989, durante la celebración de un congreso del grupo Al-Fatah, se hace un llamamiento a la lucha armada para poner fin a la ocupación de Israel de los territorios palestinos, y se nombra por unanimidad a Yasser Arafat presidente del Comité Central de Al-Fatah.
El apoyo prestado a Saddam Hussein en la crisis del Golfo, en 1990, le valió a Arafat la pérdida de la confianza internacional, pronto restablecida al apoyar la participación de Palestina en la Conferencia de Paz de Oriente Medio celebrada, en su primera fase, en Madrid, y la segunda, en Washington, en 1991. A pesar de ser criticado y acosado por los palestinos más exaltados por utilizar la vía negociadora para conseguir el reconocimiento del Estado de Palestina, Yasser Arafat e Itzhak Rabin, en presencia de Bill Clinton, firmaron la paz en Washington, el 13 Dec 1993, consiguiendo así el reconocimiento de la autonomía de Palestina. A pesar de ello, prosiguen las manifestaciones de los radicales integristas que mantienen la inestabilidad en un país en el que Yasser Arafat sigue siendo el líder más aclamado por el pueblo. En 1994 le fue otorgado el Premio Nobel de la Paz.
| 1927 Harry M. Markowitz, teórico de los sistemas financieros
modernos, Premio Nobel de Economía en 1990.
1922 René Lévesque Québec premier (1976-85)
1915 Fernando Claudín, teórico marxista español.
1915 Alice H.B. Sheldon, science fiction writer and artist, CIA photo-intelligence operative, lecturer at American University and major in the US Army Air Force.
1903 Graham Vivian Sutherland, etcher, lithographer, and painter, who died on 17 February 1980. MORE ON SUTHERLAND AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1902 Fernand Braudel French historian (Civililization & Capitalism)
1902 Felipe Alfau, poeta, escritor y traductor español.
1898 Albert Claude Belgium, physician (Nobel 1974)
1898 Malcolm Cowley Belsano Penn, author (Flowering of New England)
1896 Thomas Brooks, shot by an unknown assailant, begining a six year feud with the McFarland family. The long simmering feud between the brooks and McFarland clans erupted into gunfire at the new railroad town in Indian territory.
|1860 Alfons Maria Mucha, Czech Art
Nouveau illustrator, designer, painter, who died on 14 July 1939.
ON MUCHA AT ART 4 AUGUST
(MUCHO MUCHA:-) with links to images.
1848 José Villegas y Cordero, Spanish artist who died on 10 November 1922.
1810 Theodore Parker, anti-slavery movement leader. THEODORE PARKER ONLINE: The Function and Place of Conscience in Relation to the Laws of Men, The Nebraska Question, The New Crime Against Humanity, The Trial of Theodore Parker, for the "Misdemeanor" of a Speech in Faneuil Hall Against Kidnapping
1787 James Weddell Ostend England, Antarctic explorer (Weddell Sea)
1766 Adrian Meulemans, Dutch artist who died on 30 May 1835.
1759 Etienne-Barthélémy Garnier, French artist who died on 16 November 1849.
1759 Wilbur Wilberforce England, crusaded against slavery.
1724 George Stubbs, British artist specialized in horses, who died on 10 July 1806. MORE ON STUBBS AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1670 Louis Galloche, French artist who died on 21 July 1761.
1591 Robert Herrick England, poet (Gather ye rosebuds) (baptized)
1561 Bartholomeo Pitiscus, German Calvinist minister and mathematician who died on 02 July 1613. Author of Trigonometria (1595, he invented the word), Thesaurus Mathematicus.
1113 Geoffrey IV Plantagenet “le Bel”, comte d'Anjou, duc de Normandie, France, conquered Normandy. He died on 07 September 1151. [portrait >]
Geoffroy IV Plantagenet est le fils de Foulques V le Jeune [1092 – Nov 1142] et de Eremburge du Maine, né le 24 août 1113, mort le 07 septembre 1151 au Mans. Il est Comte d'Anjou, Maine, et Touraine de 1131 à 1151. Il épouse au Mans le 17 Jun 1128 Mathilda [1103-1169] fille de Henri I Beauclerc Roi d'Angleterre (en premières noces elle avait épousé l'Empereur Germanique Henri V). Il est le père de Henri II, le fondateur de l'Empire Plantagenet.
Après le départ de son père, Foulques, en Terre Sainte (qui y deviendra Roi de Jérusalem), Geoffroy est confronté en 1131 à une coalition de ses vassaux d'Anjou, conduite par Lisiard Seigneur de Sablé. Il vient à bout des révoltés un à un. Il s'empare et brûle Meslay en Mayenne et oblige Guy IV de Laval à demander la paix. Il enlève Thouars, fait raser le Donjon du château et soumet le Vicomte Aimery VI [–1139]. Les Seigneurs de Blaison et Parthenay se rendent et Mirebeau se soumet après un siège de quarante jours. Il s'empare de l'Ile Bouchard dont le Seigneur, Peloquin, se soumet. Geoffroy enlève Briollay et La Suze au Seigneur de Sablé et fait construire un château à Châteauneuf-sur-Sarthe pour le contrôler.
A la mort de son beau-père Henri I, en 1135, Mathilde d'Angleterre est écartée du trone par Étienne de Blois qui devient Roi d'Angleterrre et Duc de Normandie. Geoffroy Plantagenet réclame le Duché de Normandie, il engage la lutte en 1136 et prend Lisieux. Blessé, il ne reprend le combat qu'en 1137 et une trève de deux ans est achetée par Etienne de Blois.
A partir de 1141 Geoffroy engage une conquête systématique et méthodique de la Normandie. Il est reconnu Duc par tous les Seigneurs Normands en 1144. Il cèdera le Duché de Normandie à son fils Henri en 1150. En 1145 Geoffroy doit réduire son frère Hélie qui réclamait le Comté du Maine. Il le capture et le maintient en prison jusqu'à sa mort le 15 janvier 1151. Il doit également réduire Giraud de Berlai Seigneur de Montreuil-Bellay. Geoffroy Plantagenet est populaire en Normandie. Après une courte guerre avec Louis VII Roi de France, il traita avec lui en Août 1151 et lui cèda le Vexin Normand. Geoffroy est mort à Château-du-Loir le 07 septembre 1151 et a été inhumé dans la Cathédrale du Mans. C'est sur son tombeau que fut posée la plaque émaillée dont la photo est ci-contre.
Il a eu trois fils avec Mathilde d'Angleterre:
- Henri II, né le 05 May 1133 au Mans, le fondateur de l' Empire Plantagenet, qui meurt en 1189;
- Geoffroy né le 03 Jun 1134,
- Guillaume né le 22 Jul 1136.
Il a également eu une fille naturelle, Emma, épouse de David de Norfolk.
Geoffroy est donc à l'origine de la famille Plantagenet qui a possédé pendant 60 ans plus de la moitiè de la France et régné plus de 300 ans sur l'Angleterre.