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Events, deaths, births, of 22 AUG
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the prison guard was a dummy...^  On a 22 August:
2004 Armed robbers steal a version of Norwegian artist Edvard Munch's The Scream, and his Madonna from the Munch Museum in Oslo. — READ ALL ABOUT IT AT ART “4” AUGUST 
2002 A judge on an inspection visit to the Taubate Provisional Detention Center for prisoners awaiting trial, near São Paulo, discovers a straw scarecrow dressed in police uniform [photo >] on the watchtower "guarding" some 735 prisoners. The judge removes the scarecrow, which had apparently been manning the watchtower for days, and takes it to the court as evidence. This jail was opened at the end of 2001 and has already had one publicized escape via an underground tunnel. Brazil's prison system is plagued with break-outs and violent riots due to extreme overcrowding, lack of funds and poor pay for prison officers.
2000 Publishers Clearing House agreed to pay $18 million to 24 states and the District of Columbia to settle allegations it had used deceptive promotions in its sweepstakes mailings.
1997 Teamster chief forced out
      Just a few days after the pro-union outcome of the UPS strike, reigning Teamster President Ron Carey is forced to step down from his position. The move is part of Election Commissioner Barbara Zack Quindel's ruling that Carey's successful bid for the presidency against James Hoffa in 1996 may have been swayed by illegal campaign contributions. In the election, Carey beat Hoffa by 16'000 votes, or less than 4% of the vote.
1996 US President Clinton signed welfare legislation ending guaranteed cash payments to the poor and demanding work from recipients.
^ 1992 Clinton attacks Bush's economic record
      "It's the economy, stupid" doesn't exactly sound like the basis of quality campaign rhetoric, but on this day Democratic challenger Bill Clinton translated edict into action and uncorked the first in a series of sharp attacks on President George Bush's economic record. As the presidential race heated up, the Arkansas governor dismissed Bush's proposed set of tax cuts as "fools gold." Clinton also branded Bush a "liar," warning that the president had failed to keep his pledge not to raise taxes and would only continue to betray the American public. The economy cooperated with Clinton's rhetoric: on this day, the dollar sank to a record low against the German mark, while the Dow continued to slump its way through the dog days of summer. Though Clinton lacked national experience and was plagued by questions about his personal life, his economic oratory proved potent enough to eventually help him win the election.
1991 Terrorist bombing of the USIS Binational Center in Lima, Peru.
1991 Shortly after midnight, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev returned to Moscow following the collapse of the hard-liners' coup. Later that day, he purged his government of the men who'd tried to oust him.
1991 El Ejército soviético inicia su retirada de las tres repúblicas bálticas — Estonia, Letonia y Lituania — recientemente independizadas.
1990 Pres Bush calls up military reserves
1988 Australia unveils first platinum coin (Koala)
1984 Republican convention in Dallas renominates President Reagan and Vice-President Bush
1982 General Ariel Sharon urges Palestinians to discuss peaceful coexistence.
1978 Los sandinistas (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) ocupan el Palacio Nacional de Managua y secuestran a cientos de personas.
^ 1972 Vietnam: Demonstrators disrupt Republican National Convention in Miami Beach Delegates entering the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach are harassed by 3'000 antiwar demonstrators, many painted with death masks. The rest of the convention is marked by demonstrations outside the meeting hall; hundreds of protestors are arrested and many are injured when police use riot-control agents. —
1971 Golpe de estado en Bolivia, encabezado por el coronel Hugo Banzer Suárez, que depone al presidente, Juan José Torres González.
1968 Vietnam: VC repudiates Johnson's peace overture For the first time in two months, Viet Cong forces launch a rocket attack on Saigon, killing 18 and wounding 59. Administration officials denounced the attack as a direct repudiation of President Johnson's speech of August 19, in which he appealed to the North Vietnamese to respond favorably to his limitation of the air campaign north of the DMZ.
1968 first papal visit to Latin America (Pope Paul VI arrives in Bogota) — El Papa Pablo VI llega a Colombia para asistir al XXXIX Congreso Eucarístico Internacional. Primer viaje de un pontífice a Iberoamérica.
1967 Vietnam: Graduated bombing policy condemned Chief of Staff of the Air Force, General John P. McConnell, states before a Senate Subcommittee that adopting a graduated bombing policy in North Vietnam was a mistake. Three days later, Secretary of Defense McNamara admitted that the bombing of North Vietnam had not materially affected Hanoi's "warmaking capability."
Sally1966 Peppermint Patty appears in Peanuts for the first time.      ^top^
      Peppermint Patty is a pro on the baseball diamond, but in the classroom she's a D-minus all the way. Bold, brash and tomboyish, what she lacks in common sense she makes up for in sincerity. She's the only one who calls Charlie Brown "Chuck." Oblivious to much that goes on around her, for a long time she seemed unaware that "the funny-looking kid who plays shortstop" was a beagle. She has trouble staying awake in class; most of her waking hours in the schoolroom are spent analyzing the probability patterns of true-false tests.
. Patty appears in Peanuts
1962 Vietnam: Kennedy reports stalemate in Vietnam
      Kennedy administration officials quoted in The New York Times estimate that there are 20'000 guerrilla troops in South Vietnam. Despite hundreds of engagements during the preceding two months and encouraging victories for South Vietnamese forces, the Viet Cong had grown in numbers, and US officials felt that the war had reached a point of stalemate.
1962 Fracasa en Francia un atentado contra Charles André de Gaulle y su esposa.
1961 From the National Gallery in London, is stolen the recently acquired The Duke of Wellington, the most famous of his three portraits by Goya [30 March 174616 April 1828]. It would later be recovered.
Sally1960 Sally appears in Peanuts      ^top^
      Sally Brown's brother, Charlie Brown, was so pleased and proud when she was born that he passed out chocolate cigars. Since then he's been trying to understand her. She always looks for the easy way out, particularly at school, where her view of life reflects much of the frustration and confusion kids experience. Her speech is riddled with malapropisms. Uninhibited, and precocious, she has a schoolgirl crush on Linus, her "Sweet Babboo." She may never win Linus' heart, but she has her big brother wrapped around her little finger. Sally, writing letters or doing homework, causes pain and joy to her fans in roughly equal proportions
. Sally appears in Peanuts
1956 Pres Eisenhower and VP Nixon renominated by Republican convention in San Francisco
1949 Early computer sold at a loss      ^top^
      BINAC, the first stored-memory computer built in the United States, is accepted by Northrop Corporation, which had contracted to buy the custom-made computer for about $100'000. The computer is the first commercial sale by Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, formed when computer pioneers Presper Eckert and John Mauchly left the University of Pennsylvania over a patent dispute in 1946. BINAC cost some $278'000 to build and was delivered a year late. Northrop officials expressed disappointment with the machine and evidently never used it for its intended purpose.
1948 The Amsterdam Assembly of the World Council of Churches convenes (through Sept 4) to ratify the Constitution for this newly-formed experiment in organizational and global Christian unity.
1945 Soviet troops land at Port Arthur and Dairen on the Kwantung Peninsula in China.
1945 Conflict in Vietnam begins when a group of Free French parachute into southern Indochina, in response to a successful coup by communist guerilla Ho Chi Minh.
1945 Conferencia de Potsdam, para reorganizar el mapa político de Europa tras la II Guerra Mundial.
^ 1944 Soviet troops penetrate into Romania
      Soviet forces break through to Jassy, in northeastern Romania, convincing Romania's king to sign an armistice with the Allies and concede control of his country to the USSR.
      As early as 1937, Romania had come under control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany's, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania's king, Carol II, dissolved the government a year later, but was unable to suppress the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization. In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders.
      So on July 5, 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany. Later that year, it would be invaded by its "ally" as part of Hitler's strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union. King Carol would abdicate in September 1940, leaving the country in the control of fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. While Romania would recapture the territory lost to the Soviet Union when the Germans invaded Russia, it would also have to endure the Germans' raping of its resources as part of the Nazi war effort.
     On 23 August 1944, King Michael, son of the late King Carol, had the pro-German Antonescu arrested, imploring Romanians, and loyal military men, to fight with, not against, the invading Soviets. The king would finally sign an armistice with the Allies and declare war against an already-dying Germany in 1944. King Michael would, ironically, be forced to abdicate by the Soviets, who would force a puppet communist government onto Romania.
1942 Brazil declares war on the Axis powers. It is the only South American country to send combat troops to Europe.
1941 Nazi troops reach the outskirts of Leningrad. They surround it by September 8, the start of the siege which would last until January 1944.
1932 BBS begins experimental regular TV broadcasts
1926 En Grecia, un golpe de Estado militar, dirigido por Georges Kondylis, pone fin a la dictadura de Theodoros Pangalos.
1914 Battle of Charleroi, Battle of Namur: the advancing French collide with the invading Germans and are pushed back.
1911 Mona Lisa stolen
      Italian Vincenzo Peruggia, employed by the Louvre, in Paris, to install mirrors, has spent the night hiding in the closed museum. Some time after 07:00 he steals the famous painting of the wife of Francesco del Gioconda by Leonardo da Vinci [15 April 145202 May 1519] , known as the Mona Lisa ...
READ ALL ABOUT IT AT ART “4” AUGUST
La Joconde disparait!
     Alors que 9 heures sonnent à la grosse horloge du Louvre, le peintre Louis Béroud pénètre dans le musée, un carton à dessin sous le bras : il vient se livrer à l’étude de certains tableaux de la Renaissance italienne. Il se dirige droit vers l’emplacement de la Joconde. Mais, stupeur : le tableau a disparu !
1910 Japan annexes Korea — Se anuncia oficialmente la anexión de Corea por Japón.
1906 Arrivée du premier aéoroplane à Paris. C'est la machine volante des frères Wright achetée par le brésilien Santo Dumont, passionné des choses de l'air. Il avait gagné la prime de 100'000 francs offerte pour être le premier qui a volé autour de la Tour Eiffel (1901), mais en dirigeable. En octobre 1906, il volera pour la première fois aux commandes d'un " plus lourd que l'air ".
1906 first Victor Victrola manufactured
1902 Teddy Roosevelt rides in a car
      President Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first US chief executive to ride in an automobile. His first drive takes place in Hartford, Connecticut, adding yet another first to Roosevelt’s presidential accomplishments. He was also the first president to entertain an African-American in the White House. With a reputation for aggressiveness, righteousness, and pride, Roosevelt was not the kind of man to fear uncharted waters; he also wrote almost forty books, cleared the building of the Panama Canal, and won a Nobel Peace Prize for his contributions toward the resolution of the Russo-Japanese War.
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Skirmish at Catlett's Station, Virginia
^ 1862 Lincoln replies to abolitionist editorial.
      President Lincoln writes a carefully worded letter in response to Horace Greeley's abolitionist editorial, and hints at a change in his policy concerning slavery. From the outset of the Civil War, Lincoln proclaimed the war's goal to be the reunion of the nation. He said little about slavery for fear of alienating key constituencies such as the Border States of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and, to a lesser extent, Delaware. Each of these states allowed slavery but had not seceded from the Union. Lincoln was also concerned about Northern Democrats, who generally opposed fighting the war to free the slaves but whose support Lincoln needed.
      Tugging him in the other direction were abolitionists such as Frederick Douglass and Horace Greeley. In his editorial, "The Prayer of Twenty Millions," Greeley assailed Lincoln for his soft treatment of slaveholders and for his unwillingness to enforce the Confiscation Acts, which called for the property, including slaves, of Confederates to be taken when their homes were captured by Union forces. Abolitionists saw the acts as a wedge to drive into the institution of slavery.
      Lincoln had been toying with the idea of emancipation for some time. He discussed it with his cabinet but decided that some military success was needed to give the measure credibility. In his response to Greeley's editorial, Lincoln hinted at a change. In a rare public response to criticism, he articulated his policy by stating, "If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that." Although this sounded noncommittal, Lincoln closed by stating, "I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere could be free." By hinting that ending slavery may become a goal of the war, Lincoln was preparing the public for the change in policy that would come one month later with the Emancipation Proclamation.
1851 Gold fields discovered in Australia
1846 US annexes New Mexico
1795 — 5 fructidor an IIILa Convention approuve une Constitution qui accorde aux Français un quasi-suffrage universel, mais à deux degrés et obéré d'un cens. En somme elle réserve l'électorat à la bourgeoisie et aux petits propriétaires. Le corps législatif est composé de deux chambres, le Conseil des Cinq-Cents et le Conseil des Anciens, renouvelables annuellement par tiers, le premier chargé de proposer les lois, le second de les accepter. Le gouvernement sera confié à un Directoire de cinq membres, choisis par les Anciens sur une liste présentée par les Cinq-Cents. L'un d'eux sortira de charge chaque année. Ils nommeront et révoqueront les ministres. En plus la Convention décréte (et le complète le 13 fructidor) que les deux tiers des membres du prochain corps législatif, Anciens et Cinq-Cents seront obligatoirement choisis parmi les Conventionnels.— Revolución Francesa: la Convención decreta la llamada "Constitución del Año III", sancionada por una votación falsificada del pueblo el 23 de septiembre.
1791 Haitian Revolution begins
1787 Years before Fulton, inventor John Fitch demonstrated his steamboat on the Delaware River to delegates of the Continental Congress.
1777 With the approach of General Benedict Arnold's army, British Colonel Barry St. Ledger abandons Fort Stanwix and returns to Canada.
1775 King George III of England proclaimed the American colonies in a state of open rebellion.
1751 New Light Church minister Isaac Backus, 27, is re-baptized. Forced to leave the sect because of his opposition to infant baptism, he organizes a Baptist church in 1756, and served as its pastor until his death on 29 November 1806. He becomes a leading spokesman for the Baptist church and writes A History of New England, with Particular Reference to the Denomination of Christians Called Baptists.
1741 George Frederick Handel begins work on his sublime oratorio, the Messiah.
1717 The Austrian army forces the Turkish army out of Belgrade, ending the Turkish revival in the Balkans.
1717 El Ejército español desembarca en Cagliari y en tres meses reconquista la isla de Cerdeña.
1642 Civil war in England begins as Charles I declares war on Parliament at Nottingham.
1555 Jeanne d'Albret calls a conference of beleagured Huguenot ministers.
1526 Toribio Alonso de Salazar descubre en el Pacífico las islas Carolinas, a las que llamó así en honor de Carlos I de España.
1454 Jews are expelled from Brunn, Moravia, by order of King Ladislaus
1350 John II, also known as John the Good, succeeds Philip VI as king of France.
0565 Saint Columba reports seeing monster in Loch Ness.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 August:

2009 Dario De Felip, 49, pilot; Marco Zago, 42, assistant pilot and member of mountain rescue; Stefano Da Forno, 40, mountain rescue technician, Fabrizio Spaziani, 46, physician; who are all those aboard a helicopter of the SUEM (Servizio di Urgenza ed Emergenza Medica) which crashes on the slopes of Monte Cristallo, above Cortina d'Ampezzo, in Italy, probably after hitting a high-voltage cable, almost invisible from the air as it is not hung with signals, as it ought to be. —(090828)
2006 All 169 persons aboard a Tupolev Tu-154 plane of the Russian Pulkovo Airlines, which, possibly on fire from a lightning strike, crashes at 14:37 (11:37 UT) near village Sukha Balka, 40 km from Donetsk, Ukraine, headed to St. Petersburg from Anapa on the Black Sea. —(060823)
2003 Amintas Rocha Brito; Antonio Sergio Cezarini; Carlos Alberto Pedrini; Cesar Augusto Costalonga Varejão; Daniel Faria Gonçalves; Eliseu Reinaldo Moraes Vieira; Gil Cesar Baptista Marques Gines Ananias Garcia; Jonas Barbosa Filho; José Aparecido Pinheiro; José Eduardo de Almeida; José Eduardo Pereira II; José Pedro Claro Peres da Silva; Luis Primon de Araújo; Mário Cesar de Freitas Levy; Massanobo Shimabukuro; Mauricio Biella de Souza Valle; Roberto Tadashi Segushi; Rodolfo Donizetti de Oliveira; Sidney Aparecido de Moraes, and Walter Pereira Junior; incinerated by explosion which destroys 30-meter-high VLS-3 space rocket, the two research satellites aboard it, and its launching pad, at the Alcântara Launch Center, near São Luis, Brazil. The dead were 10 technicians and 11 engineers. No one else is injured. O terceiro protótipo do Veículo Lançador de Satélites (VLS-1) explodiu, por volta das 13h30, na plataforma de lançamento e levou pelos ares todo o lançador de foguetes, um pequeno satélite e parte da torre. Vinte e um técnicos do Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço (IAE) que trabalhavam no local morreram no acidente. Houve 'uma ignição de um dos quatro motores do corpo principal do foguete, o que levou a uma explosão. Com essa explosão, a plataforma de lançamento ruiu. O foguete estava sendo preparado para um lançamento na segunda-feira (Monday 25 August 2003). Dois satélites de tecnologia nacional seriam lançados. O veículo lançador de foguetes, na hora da explosão, pesava 50 toneladas, sendo 90% combustível sólido, o perclorato de amônia. Quatro grandes tanques são utilizados no primeiro estágio para impulsionar o protótipo. O perclorato de amônia, ao queimar, atinge mais de mil graus. A explosão atingiu um raio de um quilômetro de diâmetro e levou grande parte da torre de lançamentos. Só o veículo lançador custou US$ 7 milhões (R$ 21 milhões). Todo o equipamento é brasileiro. O pequeno satélite de pesquisas que estava na ponta do veículo custa R$ 2 milhões (US$670'000). Esse é a terceira tentativa fracassada de pôr um satélite em órbita com o VLS, mas o mais grave acidente da história do programa espacial brasileiro. Os dois anteriores só ocorreram após o lançamento e não deixaram vítimas. Desta vez, havia pessoas trabalhavam no foguete, no chão.
2002 All seven on board two British helicopters, AgustaWestland Sea Kings, which collide and crash into the Persian Gulf as they participate in attack on the al-Faw peninsula in Iraq. The dead include a US Navy officer.
2002:: 13 German, 1 British, and 1 US tourists, 2 crew members, and Nepalese pilot B. Mishra, at 10:00 as Canadian-built Twin Otter plane of Shangri-La Air, coming Jomson, a popular trekking destination and Hindu religious site in Nepal, crashes near Dopahar, a village about 5 km southeast of resort town Pokhara, in western Nepal.
2001 Bilal al-Ghoul, 26, as two Israeli helicopters fired four missiles at two cars, one of which al-Ghoul, a member of Hamas, was driving, in the southern part of Gaza city. Israel was targeting the top Hamas bomb-makers and commanders, Mohammed Deif and Mohammed al-Ghoul — the victim's father — but they escaped. This brings the al~Aqsa intifada body count to 584 Palestinians and 152 Israelis.
2001 Mahmoud Jasser, 23, Palestinian, in southern Gaza, in an explosion or shot by an Israeli sniper, according to discrepant reports..
2001 Hakem Tayeh, 22, Fadi Samani, 25, and Zaher Ismail, 30, Ahed Fares, 23, and a 5th Palestinian, shot by Israeli's commandos who thought a first group was planting a terrorist bomb and, later, armed militants approached the bodies. According to Palestinians, four of the five dead were peaceful unarmed villagers.
     Israeli commandos opened fire on a group of Palestinians they said were planting a bomb, killing two and at least two others who later approached the bodies. Palestinian officials said three of the dead were unarmed villagers. The Palestinians said they retrieved four bodies from the scene. The army said five Palestinians were killed, but could not account for a fifth body.
      The events in the West Bank began sometime after midnight, the Israeli army and Palestinian witnesses providing differing accounts. Soldiers of the elite commando unit Egoz, which is trained for guerrilla warfare, spotted three Palestinians trying to plant a bomb in the area of Shavei Shomron, a Jewish settlement near the Palestinian town of Nablus. The force opened fire, killing two Palestinians and wounding the third who escaped.
      An hour later, the force identified another three people, one armed, approaching the bodies, and killed two of them," Adiri said. "After they (the soldiers) charged, they killed the third." The Israeli army initially said armed men approached the area in an ambulance, but later withdrew that claim. A bomb that had been planted by the Palestinians in the area was defused, the Israeli army said.
       According to Palestinian witnesses, the incident began with an exchange of fire between Palestinian gunmen from Nablus and soldiers. After one of the gunmen went missing, the others came to the nearby village of Beit Iba to ask residents to form a search party. Dozens of villagers began combing the olive groves near the village. At one point, three of the villagers also went missing, and searches concentrated on a major road near the village used by Jewish settlers and Israeli troops. Palestinian ambulances approaching the area came under fire from the Israeli soldiers. At daybreak, the villagers saw four bodies in the area. Israeli troops eventually permitted ambulances to take away the bodies of the three villagers, but kept the body of a gunman killed in the first clash. The body was later turned over to the Palestinians as well.
      Adiri, the Israeli commander, said he had passed warnings to Palestinian officials after the first incident that no one should approach the area because troops were still operating there. The three villagers killed Wednesday were identified as Hakem Tayeh, 22, Fadi Samani, 25, and Zaher Ismail, 30. Hospital officials in Nablus said one of the men had been shot 10 times. None of the three had been involved in gun battles with Israelis in the past, villagers said. The fourth man was identified as Ahed Fares, 23, from the Balata refugee camp near Nablus.
2001 Three Dalit women and three of their children, as they slept late Wednesday night in Dasmai village, 30 kilometers southeast of Patna, India, murdered by the Jayanandan Yadav gang. [Dalit = Untouchable]
^ 1992 Vicki Weaver, Samuel Weaver, 14, William Degan, and dog Striker Weaver
      In the second day of the standoff at Randy Weaver's remote northern Idaho cabin at Ruby Ridge, FBI sharpshooter Lon Horiuchi kills Weaver's wife Vicki as she stands in the cabin's doorway cradling her infant daughter, Elisheba. She is allegedly trying to surrender.
      Randy Weaver, a white separatist, had been targeted by the federal government after failing to appear in court to face charges related to his selling of two illegal sawed-off shotguns. Weaver's cabin had been under surveillance for several months when a shootout broke out after the family spotted camouflaged agents near the house on August 21, 1992. In the exchange, Deputy US Marshal William Degan was fatally wounded along with Weaver's fourteen-year-old son, Samuel, and Striker, the family's dog. Degan had been shot by Kevin Harrison, a Weaver associate.
      A tense standoff ensued, and the next day, the FBI joined the marshals besieging Ruby Ridge. Later that day, an FBI sharpshooter shoots Vicki Weaver dead, and Harrison is wounded and surrenders. Weaver and his three daughters, inside the cabin with the bodies of Vicki and Samuel Weaver, would hold out for nine more days before surrendering. The disastrous standoff spawned a nationwide debate on the use of force by federal law enforcement agencies, and a Senate subcommittee concluded that the FBI gave its sharpshooters rules of engagement that violated the US Constitution.
      In 1993, Weaver and Harris were tried in federal court on murder, conspiracy, and other charges. They were found not guilty of the most serious charges, including murder, but Weaver was convicted of failing to appear for trial on the firearms charge. In 1997, FBI agent Lon Horiuchi was charged with manslaughter in the death of Vicki Weaver, but a federal judge dismissed the charge in 1998. Horiuchi claimed that he was aiming at Harris when he accidentally shot Weaver in the head.
      However, rumors that the FBI had engaged in a cover-up regarding the Ruby Ridge operation were verified when E. Michael Kahoe, former chief of the FBl's violent crimes section, was convicted of obstruction of justice in 1996. Kahoe, who had destroyed an official bureau critique of the standoff, was sentenced to eighteen months in prison. In 1996 tthe government agreed to pay Randy Weaver and his family over $3 million to settle a wrongful-death suit.
1989 Huey P. Newton, Black Panther co-founder, shot in Oakland, Calif. (Gunman Tyrone Robinson was later sentenced to 32 years to life in prison.)
1978 Jomo Kenyatta, 83, president of Kenya.
1976 André Lanskoy, French artist born on 31 March 1902.
1975 Andrzej Mostowski, Polish mathematician born on 01 November 1913.
1974 Jacob Bronowski, 66, Polish mathematician and science ethicist. Author of The Poet's Defence (1939, on the truth of science vs that of poetry), William Blake, a man without a mask (1944), The Effects of Atomic Bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945), The Common Sense of Science (1951), Science and Human Values (1956), The Identity of Man (1965).
1969: 255 victims of Hurricane Camille, which strikes US Gulf Coast
^ 1968 Several Czechs protesting against Soviet invasion.
      In the streets of Prague and in the United Nations headquarters in New York City, Czechs protest against the Soviet invasion of their nation. The protests served to highlight the brutality of the Soviet action and to rally worldwide condemnation of the Soviet Union. On 21 August 1968, more than 200'000 soldiers of the Warsaw Pact crossed into Czechoslovakia in response to democratic and free market reforms being instituted by Czech Communist Party General Secretary Alexander Dubcek. Negotiations between Dubcek and Soviet bloc leaders failed to convince the Czech leader to back away from his reformist platform. The military intervention on 21 August indicated that the Soviets believed that Dubcek was going too far and needed to be restrained. On 22 August, thousands of Czechs gathered in central Prague to protest the Soviet action and demand the withdrawal of foreign troops.
      Although it was designed to be a peaceful protest, violence often flared and several protesters were killed on August 22 and in the days to come. At the United Nations, the Czech delegation passionately declared that the Soviet invasion was illegal and threatened the sovereignty of their nation. They called on the U.N.'s Security Council to take action. The Council voted 10 to 2 to condemn Russia's invasion; predictably, the Soviet Union vetoed the resolution. The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia severely damaged the Soviet government's reputation around the world, and even brought forth condemnation from communist parties in nations such as China and France. Nonetheless, Dubcek was pushed from power in April 1969 and the Czech Communist Party adopted a tough line toward any dissent. The "Prague Spring" of 1968, when hopes for reform bloomed, would serve as a symbol for the so-called "Velvet Revolution" of 1989. In that year, Czech dissidents were able to break the Communist Party's stranglehold on their nation's politics by electing Vaclav Havel, the first noncommunist president in 40 years.
1958 Roger Martin du Gard, French author [Nobel-1937]
1926 Charles William Eliot, author. CHARLES ELIOT ONLINE: A Turning Point in Higher Education — editor of: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
^ 1922 Michael Collins, 31, Beal-na-Blath, Cork, shot by the IRA.
      The reason for the death sentence was that he had signed a treaty with the British
     He was a hero of the Irish struggle for independence, best remembered for his daring strategy in directing the campaign of guerrilla warfare during the intensification of the Anglo-Irish War (1919-1921). Collins was employed as a British civil servant in London from 1906 until he returned to Ireland in 1916.
     In 1911, the British Liberal government had approved negotiations for Irish Home Rule, but the Conservative Party opposition in Parliament, combined with Ireland's anti-Home Rule factions, defeated the plans. Collins joined Sinn Féin, an Irish political party dedicated to achieving independence for all of Ireland. From its inception, the party became the unofficial political wing of militant Irish groups in their struggle to throw off British rule. With the outbreak of World War I, the British government delayed further discussion of Irish self-determination, and Collins and other Irish nationalists responded by staging the Easter Uprising of 1916
      Collins was arrested and held in detention at Frongoch, Merioneth, but was released in December 1916. In 1918, with the threat of conscription being imposed on the island, the Irish people gave Sinn Féin a majority in national elections and the party established an independent Irish parliament, Dáil Éireann. In December 1918 he was one of 27 out of 73 elected Sinn Féin members (most of whom were in jail) to be present when the Dáil Éireann convened in Dublin and declared for the republic. Their elected president, Eamon De Valera, and vice president, Arthur Griffith, were both in prison. Hence, much responsibility fell on Collins, who became first Sinn Féin minister of home affairs and, after arranging for De Valera's escape from Lincoln jail (February 1919), minister of finance.
      It was as director of intelligence of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), however, that he became famous. As chief planner and coordinator of the revolutionary movement, Collins organized numerous attacks on police and the assassination (1920) of many of Britain's leading intelligence agents in Ireland. He headed the list of men wanted by the British, who placed a price of £10'000 on his head.
      After the truce of July 1921, Griffith and Collins were sent to London by De Valera as the principal negotiators for peace (October-December 1921). The treaty of 06 December 1921, was signed by Collins in the belief that it was the best that could be obtained for Ireland at the time and in the full awareness that he was signing his own death warrant. It gave Ireland dominion status, but its provisions for the partition of the country and for an oath of allegiance to the British crown were unacceptable to De Valera and other republican leaders. Collins' persuasiveness helped win acceptance for the treaty by a small majority in the Dáil, and a provisional government was formed with Collins as chairman; but effective administration was obstructed by the mutinous activities of the anti-treaty republicans.
      Collins refrained from taking action against his former comrades until IRA insurgents seized the Four Courts in Dublin and civil war became inevitable. W.T. Cosgrave replaced Collins as chairman when the latter assumed command of the army in mid-July 1922 in order to crush the insurgency. About five weeks later, while on a tour of military inspection, Collins is shot to death by anti-treaty insurgents in an ambush in west Cork.
1920 Anders Leonard Zorn, Swedish painter, etcher, and sculptor, born on 18 February 1860. — MORE ON ZORN AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1919 Más de 5000 judíos, degollados por destacamentos del Ejército de la República autónoma de Ucrania, en la provincia de Podolia.
1917 Matthijs (Thijs) Maris, Dutch painter born on 17 August 1839 — MORE ON MARIS AT ART “4” AUGUST 17 with links to images.
1914 James Dickson Innes, Welsh painter born on 27 February 1887. — link to images.
1907 Platon Sergeevich Poretsky, Russian mathematical logician born on 15 October 1846.
1904 Kate (O'Flaherty) Chopin, author. CHOPIN ONLINE: The Awakening, The Awakening (another site), The Awakening, and Selected Short Stories, Bayou Folk, A Night in Acadie
1898 Félicien Joseph Victor Robs, Belgian artist born on 07 July 1833.
1886 Calvin Ellis Stowe, co-author of Discourses by Rev. Samuel T. Seclye, and Rev. Calvin E. Stowe, Delivered ... Before the Society for the Promotion of Collegiate and Theological Education at the West.
1878 María Cristina de Borbón, reina de España.
1875 Karel Ferdinand Venneman, Charles, Flemish~Belgian artist born on 07 January 1802.
1861 Richard Oastler, 71, who had campaigned against child labor and for limiting the work day to ten hours. Because he opposed a law that forced poor farm laborers to work in factories for a pittance, he was fired from his job (May 1838) and placed in debtors prison (December 1840-February 1844). During his imprisonment he wrote the Fleet Papers, a weekly journal discussing factory conditions and poor laws. Eventually supporters raised funds to pay his debt and he was freed.
1849 The Portuguese governor of Macao, assassinated because of his anti-Chinese policies.
^ 1828 Franz-Joseph Gall, German anatomist and physiologist.
      Born on 09 March 1758, in Tiefenbronn, Baden [Germany], he was a pioneer in ascribing cerebral functions to various areas of the brain (localization). He originated the pseudo-science of phrenology, the attempt to divine individual intellect and personality from an examination of skull shape. Convinced that mental functions are localized in specific regions of the brain and that human behavior is dependent upon these functions, Gall assumed that the surface of the skull faithfully reflects the relative development of the various regions of the brain.
      His popular lectures in Vienna on "cranioscopy" (called phrenology by his followers) offended religious leaders, were condemned in 1802 by the Austrian government as contrary to religion, and were banned. Three years later he was forced to leave the country.
      However his concept of localized functions in the brain was eventually proved correct when the French surgeon Paul Broca demonstrated the existence of a speech centre in the brain (1861). On the other hand, it was also shown that, since skull thickness varies, the surface of the skull does not reflect the topography of the brain, invalidating the basic premise of phrenology. Gall was the first to identify the gray matter of the brain with active tissue (neurons) and the white matter with conducting tissue (ganglia).
1818 Warren Hastings, 85, first governor-general of India (1773-84)
1806 Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter born on 05 April 1732. MORE ON FRAGONARD AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1794 Achille-Pierre Dionis du Séjour, French lawyer, politician, mathematician, astronomer, born on 11 January 1734.
1789 Johann Heinrich Tischbein I “Kassel Tischbein”, German painter born on 14 October 1722. — MORE ON TISCHBEIN AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1752 William Whiston, mathematician who succeeded Newton as Lucasian professor at Cambridge, but was later deprived of his chair on religious grounds. He translated The Works of Flavius Josephus.
1684 Jan van den Hecke, Belgian artist born in 1620.
1676 Edward Cocker, English mathematician, born in 1631, who was the author of an influential arithmetic text which ran to more than 100 editions.
^ 1485 King Richard III and many soldiers, at the Battle of Bosworth Field
      In the last major battle of the War of the Roses, the last of Plantagenets, King Richard III is defeated and killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field by Henry Tudor, the earl of Richmond. After the battle, the royal crown, which Richard had worn into the fray, was picked out of a bush and placed on Henry's head. His crowning as King Henry VII inaugurated the rule of the house of Tudor over England, a dynasty that would last until Queen Elizabeth's death in 1603.
      In the 1450s, English failures in the Hundred Years War with France, coupled with periodic fits of insanity suffered by King Henry VI, led to a power struggle between the houses of York, whose badge was a red rose, and Lancaster, later associated with a white rose. The War of Roses left little mark on the common English people but severely thinned the ranks of the English nobility. Among the royalty who perished were Richard of York, Richard Neville, the earl of Warwick, and kings Henry VI and Richard III. In 1486, King Henry VII's marriage to Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV, united the houses of Lancaster and York and formally ended the bloody War of the Roses.
1241 Pope Gregory IX, who persecuted Albigensians, a heretical sect of France.
 
< 21 Aug 23 Aug >
^  Births which occurred on a 22 August:

^ 1966 The United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC), later to be renamed the United Farm Workers of America (UFW), is formed by the merger of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) and the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), both in the middle of strikes against certain California grape growers. It joins the AFL-CIO.
      Under the strong direction of Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta, the UFW would win many considerable concessions for the historically underrepresented migrant farm workers. Before the rise of the UFW working conditions were harsh for most agricultural workers. On average, farm workers made about ninety cents per hour plus ten cents for each basket of produce they picked. Many workers in the field were not provided even the most basic necessities such as clean drinking water or portable toilets. Unfair hiring practices, such as favoritism and kickbacks, were rampant. Seldom were their living quarters equipped with indoor plumbing or cooking facilities.
   The UFW brought these issues to the public's attention. In 1967, the UFW called for a boycott of table grapes, which became a nationwide boycott by 1968. Several other boycotts against lettuce and strawberry growers were organized in following years. On 14 February 1968, UFW President Cesar Chavez began the first of many fasts in protest of the treatment of farm workers. During this first fast he received a letter of support from Martin Luther King Jr. On 10 March he broke the fast with Robert Kennedy at his side.
      In 1969, the UFW organized a march through the Coachella and Imperial Valleys in Central California to the United States-Mexico border to protest growers' use of illegal immigrants as strike breakers. The thousands of marchers were joined by the Reverend Ralph Abernathy and US Senator Walter Mondale. In 1970, Chavez was jailed for defying a court injunction against boycotting. While imprisoned, he was visited by Coretta Scott King and Ethel Kennedy.
      The UFW won many important benefits for agricultural workers. It brought comprehensive health benefits for farm workers and their families, rest periods, clean drinking water, sanitary facilities, even profit sharing and parental leave. The UFW has also pioneered the fight to protect farm workers against harmful pesticides.
1940 Yambo Ouologuem “Utto Rodolph”, Malian writer, whose first novel, Le Devoir de violence (1968), was an attack on Léopold Senghor's concept of négritude and the prevailing idealized picture of African history, which later was crystallized in Alex Haley's famous novel Roots.
1939 Julio Edgar Cabrera Ovalle, in San Juan Comalapa, Guatemala, studied for priesthood at the Gregorian University, Rome, living at the Pio Latino Americano college. Ordained priest in Rome on 01 December 1963, for the archdiocese of Guatemala City. Appointed Bishop of Santa Cruz del Quiché on 31 October 1986, and consecrated bishop on 06 January 1987; appointed Bishop of Jalapa on 05 December 2001.
1935 Edna Annie Proulx, US writer whose darkly comic yet sad fiction is peopled with quirky, memorable individuals and unconventionalfamilies. Proulx traveled widely, extensively researching physical backgrounds and locales. She frequently used regional speech patterns, surprising and scathing language, and unusual plot twists in her novels and short stories about disintegrating families who maintain attachments to the land.
      Educated at the University of Vermont (B.A., 1969) and Sir George Williams University, Montreal, Canada (M.A., 1973), Proulx settled in northern Vermont and later in Wyoming. She lived close to the land, about which she wrote frequently in freelance articles for such magazines as Gourmet. After publication of her first short-story collection, Heart Songs and Other Stories (1988), Proulx turned to writing novels, which better accommodated her dense plots and complex characterizations. Postcards (1992), her first novel, uses the device of picture postcards mailed from the road over 40 years' time to illustrate changes in US life. The postcards are sent by Loyal Blood, who accidentally kills his girlfriend and abandons his family and their meager Vermont farm, escaping to a life of picaresque adventures.
      In The Shipping News (1993), the protagonist Quoyle and his family, consisting of two young daughters and his aunt, leave the United States and settle in Newfoundland, Canada, after the accidental death of his unfaithful wife. The Shipping News was awarded both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. Proulx's next novel was Accordion Crimes (1996), which examines the immigrant experience by tracing the life of an Old World accordion in the United States.
      Author also of: short-story collection Close Range (1999)
1934 Norman Schwartzkopf, NJ, (US Army General: Desert Storm [1990-91]; author: It Doesn't Take a Hero). Commander of the coalition forces during the Persian Gulf War.
1920 Dr. Denton Cooley (heart surgeon)
1920 Ray Bradbury Ill, US science fiction writer whose works include Farenheit 451, The Illustrated Man, The Toynbee Convector, and The Martian Chronicles.
1908 Henri Cartier-Bresson, photographer.
1904 Deng Xiaoping Chinese leader (1976-1983) 1904 Deng Xiaoping, Chinese leader from 1977 to 1987, held nominal leadership position until his death in 1997.
1901 The Cadillac Company, named after eighteenth century French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, founder of the city of Detroit, was established on this day. Henry Leland, a former mechanic and precision machinist, founded the company that would come to be known as the maker of America’s luxury car. The Cadillac reached its height of popularity during the 1950s. The Cadillac Debutante, which debuted at the Waldorf Astoria, was based on the play The Solid Gold Cadillac. Cadillac sales decreased during the 1970s as the American car market experienced an influx of smaller imports, but luxury car sales, Cadillac included, have rebounded in recent years.
1898 Alexander Calder, escultor estadounidense.
1893 Dorothy Parker, US short story writer (1958 Marjorie Peabody Award), poet, satirist and founding member of the Algonquin Round Table. author, poet, critic and wit Dorothy Parker was born in West Bend, N.J. She died in on 07 June 1967.
1879 Valentin de Zubiaurre, Spanish artist who died in 1963.
^ 1864 International Red Cross is founded
      The Geneva Convention of 1864 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field is adopted and signed by twelve of the sixteen nations meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. The agreement, which had been advocated by Swiss humanitarian Jean Henri Dunant, calls for nonpartisan care to the sick and wounded in times of war and provides for the neutrality of the personnel of the medical services of armed forces. It also calls for the use of an international emblem to mark medical personnel and supplies. In honor of Dunant's nationality, a red cross on a white background — the Swiss flag in reverse — is chosen as the symbol.
      In 1881, American humanitarians Clara Barton and Adolphus Solomons would found the American National Red Cross, an organization designed to provide humanitarian aid to victims of wars and natural disasters in congruence with the International Red Cross. Barton, born in North Oxford, Massachusetts, became a well-known nurse during the American Civil War, and was called the "Angel of the Battlefield" for her tireless dedication to the medical needs of the war's wounded and sick.
      In 1865, President Abraham Lincoln commissioned her to search for lost prisoners of war, and with the extensive records she had compiled during the war, she succeeded in identifying thousands of the Union dead at the Andersonville prisoner-of-war camp. She was in Europe in 1870 when the Franco-Prussian War broke out, and she went behind the German lines to work for the International Red Cross.
      In 1873, she returned to the United States, and, four years later, she organized an American branch of the International Red Cross, which became part of the international relief organization in 1882, and received its first US federal charter in 1900. Barton headed the American Red Cross into her eighties, and died in 1912.
1862 Claude Debussy, St Germain-en-Laye, composer (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, La Mer, Clair de Lune, Nocturnes, String Quartet in G minor)
1862 Emilio Salgari, novelista italiano.
1860 Gustaf Fröding, Swedish poet, who was one of the pioneers liberating Swedish verse from traditional patterns. He died on 08 February 1911.
1860 Paul Nipkow, television pioneer      ^top^
      German engineer Paul Nipkow invented a rotating disk perforated with small openings called the "Nipkow disk." This invention made it possible to scan, analyze, and transmit small portions of a television image. The Nipkow disk was a key piece of television technology until the early 1930s, when it was replaced by electronic scanning devices.
1845 Julius von Blaas, Austrian artist who died in 1922.
1834 William Hazlitt, author. HAZLITT ONLINE: Characters of Shakespear's Plays and: Liber Amoris: or, The New Pygmalion, translator of The Table Talk of Martin Luther
1817 Emily Chubbuck Judson, author. JUDSON ONLINE: The Kathayan Slave, and Other Papers Connected with Missionary Life
1800 Edward Bouverie Pusey, English Anglican theologian, scholar, and a leader of the Oxford Movement, which sought to revive in Anglicanism the High Church ideals of the later 17th-century church. Pusey worked to establish religious orders in Anglicanism, founding in 1845 the first Anglican sisterhood. PUSEY ONLINE: The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent — translator of The Confessions of Saint Augustine.
1798 (or 1800?) François-Antoine Bossuet, Belgian artist who died on 30 September 1889.
1793 William Richards, US missionary who died on 07 November 1847 in Hawaii. He helped to promote a liberal constitutional monarchy in the Hawaiian Islands. He graduated from Williams College (Massachusetts) in 1819 and from Andover Theological Seminary in 1822. In the fall of 1822 he married and, with his bride, sailed for the Hawaiian Islands, where he resided (on Maui) for the next several years as a missionary. In 1838 the king asked him to become an adviser, and he thereafter spent his time urging the improvement of the political system, helping to transform Hawaii into a modern constitutional state, with a bill of rights (1839) and a constitution (1840). In 1842 he went abroad as a diplomat seeking British, French, and US acknowledgment of Hawaiian independence. No treaties were signed, but verbal acknowledgments were extended. Subsequently he held other positions, notably minister of public instruction (1846–1847). He wrote Memoir of Keopuolani, Late Queen of the Sandwich Islands (1825) and edited the Translation of the Constitution and Laws of the Hawaiian Islands (1842).
1648 Gerard Hoet, Dutch artist who died on 02 December 1733.
^ 1647 Denis Papin, in Blois, France; he would be a mathematician, physicist, and inventor of the piston steam engine.
      Denis Papin, British physicist who also invented the pressure cooker, got the first seedlings of an idea when he noticed the enclosed steam in the cooker raising the lid. Why couldn’t one use steam to drive a piston? Though he never actually constructed an engine, nor had a practical design, his sketches were improved on by others and led to the development of the steam engine and of the Cugnot automobile. He wrote Ars Nova ad Aquam Ignis Adminiculo Efficacissime Elevandam (1707). In 1709 he built a man-powered paddle-wheel boat. Papin died in London after 23 January 1712.
     Denis Papin attended a Jesuit school in Blois then, in 1661, he began his studies at the University of Angers. He graduated with a medical degree in 1669.
      Papin assisted Huygens [14 Apr 1629 – 08 Jul 1695] with air pump experiments from 1671 to 1674, during which time he lived in Huygens's apartments in the Royal Library in Paris. Papin went to London in 1675 to work with Boyle. He remained in this post until 1679 when he became the assistant of Hooke [18 Jul 1635 – 03 Mar 1703] at the Royal Society. Papin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1680.
      In 1681 Papin left for Italy where he was director of experiments at the Accademia publicca di scienze in Venice until 1684. There was an attempt to turn the Accademia in Venice into a Society modelled on the Royal Society in London and the Académie Royale in Paris but lack of financial support ended the attempt. Papin was a Calvinist, born into a Huguenot family, and after the Edict of Nantes (which had granted religious liberty to the Huguenots) was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, he became an exile.
      Papin returned to London in 1684 working again with the Royal Society until 1687. After this Papin left England and went to Hesse-Kassel where he was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Marburg. He held this post until 1696 when he worked for the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel until 1707. This time in Hesse-Kassel was not a successful one for Papin who found himself in disagreement with his colleagues.
      Papin is best known for his work as an inventor, particularly his work on the steam engine. In 1679 he invented the pressure cooker and, in 1690 he published his first work on the steam engine in De novis quibusdam machinis. The purpose of the steam engine was to raise water to a canal between Kassel and Karlshaven. He also used a steam engine to pump water to a tank on the roof of the palace to supply water for the fountains in the grounds. In 1705, when Leibniz [01 Jul 1646 – 14 Nov 1716] sent Papin a sketch of a steam engine, Papin began working on that topic again and wrote The New Art of Pumping Water by using Steam (1707). He designed a safety valve to prevent the pressure of steam building up to dangerous levels.
      Other inventions which Papin worked on were the construction of a submarine, an air gun and a grenade launcher. He tried to build up a glass industry in Hesse-Kassel and also experimented with preserving food both with chemicals and using a vacuum.
      In 1707 Papin built the first paddle boat and that same year he returned to London where he lived in obscurity and poverty until his death. The date given for his death is only a guess since no records seem to exist of his last years in London. His last known letter is dated 23 January 1712.

 
Religious Observances RC : Queenship of Mary (Immaculate Heart) / Santa María, reina; santos Timoteo, Hipólito, Saturnino, Marcial y Mauro.

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Thoughts for the day: "Early to rise and early to bed, make a man healthy, but socially dead."
"Early to rise and early to bed, make a man healthy, wealthy, and dead."
"Early to bed and early to rise, make a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."
"Early to rise and early to bet, make a man filthy, stealthy, and broke."
"Early to bed and late to rise, make a man prone to bed sores."
"Early to bed with dogs, early to rise with fleas."
"Early to bed and late to rise, make a man save on electricity."
"Early to bet and early to raise, make a man unworthy of praise."
"Early to pet and ... oh, never mind."
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