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DLW price chart^  On a 21 August:

2017
First total solar eclipse of the 3rd millenium visible from North America.

2002
On the New York Stock Exchange, the stock of apparel manufacturer Delta Woodside Industries (DLW) rises from its previous close of $2.70 to an intraday high of $3.98 and closes at $3.68. On 19 August after the market closed (with DLW at $1.75) the company announced 4th quarter earnings of $0.22 per share vs. a loss of $0.94 per share in the year earlier 4th quarter. The stock had traded as high as $61.00 on 31 May 1999 and as low as $1.40 on 20 February 2002. [5~year price chart >]

2001 As expected, the US Federal Reserve Board lowers the discount rate (which stood at 6.5% at the beginning of the year) from 3.75% to 3.5%, explaining: "Household demand has been sustained, but business profits and capital spending continue to weaken and growth abroad is slowing, weighing on the US economy."
^ 2000 Divers open the sunken sub Kursk and find the crew dead.
      For the divers who plunged to the ocean floor looking for Russia's stricken nuclear submarine, it was not unlike an ordinary day on the job. Except that on ordinary days, they serve the oil industry, finding, fixing or modifying just about anything that lies deep under the water. A lot of the time, technological advances are driven by military needs, and only later find a civilian application. This time it was the other way round. In roughly 30 hours, the team of four Norwegian and eight British divers managed what Russia's Northern Fleet had failed to do in a week. They dived to the Kursk nuclear submarine, opened one of its hatches and confirmed what had been suspected for days: that all 118 crewmen inside had to be dead. Except for the tragic denouement, "it really wasn't much different from what they do at the oil fields," said Julian Thomson, a spokesman for the company that employs them, Stolt Offshore.
      The Kursk had been stranded under 100 m of water in the Barents Sea since it sank more than a week earlier. The Russian navy tried for more than a week to open its emergency escape hatch with one of its own miniature rescue submarine. While the Russian navy complains of having no cash for rescue equipment, Norway, the world's second largest oil exporter, can afford the best, and has strict rules on offshore and diver safety. It is probably the first time that deep-sea divers have been used in a submarine rescue, and they have proven that they can be of use.
      Some of the Norwegians divers are Jon Are Hvalbye, 40, Rune Spjelkkavik, 42, Paal Stefan Dinessen, 34, and John Elias Bjoerneset. The four have experience as military divers. Before descending, the divers go into a shipboard saturation chamber, where pressure is increased to deep-water levels and they breathe a mix of oxygen and helium. The helium raises the pitch of their voices, and special training is needed to understand what they are saying. In their regular oil-platform work, they can spend up to 30 days in the chamber, working under water for about six hours a day, never alone. The rest of the time they can read, watch videos or sleep, but they can never leave.
      For the Kursk effort, four three-man teams went down. Each consisted of one man in a diving bell that brought them to the bottom and two others outside. Umbilical cords from the bell to their suits pumped breathing gas and circulated warm water to keep them from freezing. A camera on their diving helmets transmitted pictures to the surface.
2000 National Geographic buys 30% of iExplore, an online travel travel agent, to which it will license its name, stories, and photos, a first.
1999 Chechnya war: Yeltsin spokesman quotes the president as saying that it was impossible to expect "quick solution" to the conflict in Dagestan — http://www.cdi.org/issues/Europe/aug.html
1997 IBM stock price reaches a new high of $177.125, and closes at $173.625, though, '80s and early '90s, IBM had lost the home computer market leadership to Microsoft and others, and fallen to number three in the technology field.
1996 US President Clinton signs the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, aimed at making health insurance easier to obtain and keep.
1995 Microsoft antitrust pact accepted
     A federal judge approved an agreement between Microsoft and the Justice Department settling an antitrust suit. The agreement prohibited Microsoft from using certain types of licensing contracts with personal computer makers for some Microsoft operating systems. The same agreement had been rejected by a judge in February 1995 for not being aggressive enough in its restraints on Microsoft, but the deal was approved on appeal.
1992 Personal digital assistant
      IBM announces that it will demonstrate an electronic organizer called a "personal digital assistant'' (PDA) at a trade show in Las Vegas in November 1992. The concept of a PDA had been introduced by John Sculley, who demonstrated a prototype of the Apple Newton at a spring trade show. However, PDAs didn't truly catch on until the late 1990s, when the PalmPilot perfected an easy-to-use, writing-based organizer
1991 El Parlamento de Letonia proclama su independencia de la URSS.
^ 1991 Reactionary Soviet coup is defeated
      The hardliner coup against Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev ends with the arrest of the seven living conspirators. The same day, Gorbachev returned from house arrest in the Crimea to reassume leadership of the USS.R., but found that, in his absence, Russian President Boris Yeltsin had become the leader against the coup.
      Three days earlier, on the eve of the planned signing of a new Union treaty for the USSR, eight senior officials of the Soviet government and military launched the August Coup against Gorbachev. The Communist hardliners were opposed to Gorbachev's sweeping liberal reforms of recent years and his appeasement of the independence-minded Baltic states. Gorbachev was detained at his villa in the Crimea, and Soviet troops and tanks were sent to Moscow, Leningrad, and the Baltics. Claiming that Gorbachev had fallen ill and was unfit to rule, the coup leaders formed an eight-man Committee of the State of Emergency and attempted to assume control of the Soviet government.
      However, the conspirators failed to arrest the popularly elected Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who began to rally parliamentary and popular opposition at the Russian White House. Soldiers and tanks sent to arrest Yeltsin found the Russian Parliament building surrounded by a huge crowd of civilians protesting the coup, and the protestors raised the old white, blue, and red Russian flag above the building. Under threat from the Soviet tanks, the protestors refused to disperse, but the tense situation was defused when soldiers began joining the resistance or returning to their barracks.
      The hardliners also met with opposition from many junior officers and officials in the Moscow ministries, and, on 21 August, the coup collapses. The seven living conspirators — one had committed suicide — are arrested, and Gorbachev is flown back to Moscow. However, power had shifted to Yeltsin, who used the coup as a reason for eliminating the political power of the Communist party. Gorbachev recognized Yeltsin's authority, and together the two dissolved the Communist party, granted the Baltic states independence, and proposed a loose economic federation among the remaining republics. With the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States on 08 December 1991, not only would the USSR be dissolved but also much of the centuries-old Russian empire. On 25 December Gorbachev would resign as Soviet president.
1991 Apple Computer, which previously refused to use others' software, agrees to incorporate Adobe's font control programs. Apple had previously had planned to develop its own, jointly with Microsoft. The decision to use Adobe's program helped entrench the Apple Macintosh as the top choice for desktop publishing in the early 1990s.
1989 La organización antiapartheid surafricana African National Congress presenta un plan, adoptado por la OUA, para poner fin al conflicto racial en el país.
1988 Cease fire between Iran and Iraq takes effect after 8 years of war.
^ 1987 The Dow-Jones Industrial Average reaches record 2772.4
      In some ways, however, the summer of '87 was a difficult time for Wall Street. There were some strong economic signs by August, 158 companies on the NYSE had split their stock. However, interest rates were nearing the double-digit barrier and stories were flying about brokers bracing themselves for doom. What's more, Wall Street was engulfed in scandal; the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) was hauling in tax evaders and insider traders in a string of highly publicized cases. On top of that, traders were getting arrested for using and peddling cocaine. So, it was no surprise when, on 19 October, the good times came crashing to a halt as the Dow lost a record-setting 508 points.
1987 Clayton Lonetree, first US marine court-martialed for spying, is convicted
1983 Hallada en Orce (Granada) una supuesta mandíbula del hombre de Neanderthal, la más perfecta de las encontradas hasta entonces.
1983 The musical play La Cage Aux Folles opens on Broadway.
1983 A group of Milwaukee teenagers breeks into 60 computers across the US, including those at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City.
1977 Donna Patterson Brice sets high speed water skiing rec (111.11 mph)
1972 1st hot air balloon flight over the Alps
1972 Republican convention opens in Miami Beach
1971 Vietnam: Antiwar protesters associated with the Catholic Left raid draft offices in Buffalo, New York, and Camden, New Jersey, to confiscate and destroy draft records. The FBI and local police arrest 25 protesters.
1970 El tifón "Anita" devasta el sur y el oeste de Japón y destruye 50'000 casas.
1969 Un triunvirato militar asume el poder en Brasil al conocerse que el mariscal Artur Da Costa e Silva se halla afectado de una trombosis cerebral.
1969 Un incendio, al parecer provocado, destruye casi totalmente la mezquita "al Aqsa" en Jerusalén.
1969 Vietnam: Nixon meets allied South Korean President
      President Nixon and South Korean President Park Chung Hee meet in San Francisco. In his welcoming address, Nixon notes that South Korea had "more fighting men in South Vietnam than any other nation" except the United States and South Vietnam. The United States would spend $250 million in 1969 to maintain South Korea's 50'000-man Tiger Division in South Vietnam, which they had previously agreed to outfit.
1968 After 5 years Russia once again jams Voice of America radio
1968 El presidente argentino, Juan Carlos Onganía, destituye a un grupo de militares liberales, entre ellos a los generales Alsogaray y Lanusse.
1968 Democratic Convention opens in Chicago
1968 — 00:50 Radio Prague announces: Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia just before midnight.
      650'000 Warsaw Pact troops come to crush the "Prague Spring," the efforts by Alexander Dubcek, 46, leader of Czechoslovakia, to establish "communism with a human face" Prague is not eager to give way, but scattered student resistance is no match for the Soviet tanks. Dubcek's reforms would be repealed and the leader himself replaced with the faithful Soviet puppet Gustav Husak, 55, whose Kremlin-controlled dictatorship will last twenty years.
MORE
1965 Vietnam: US pilots to attack AA missiles in the North
      It is revealed by MACV headquarters (Headquarters Military Assistance Command Vietnam) in Saigon that US pilots have received approval to destroy any Soviet-made anti-aircraft missiles they see while raiding North Vietnam. This was a major change from previous orders that restricted them to bombing only previously approved targets.
1963 Martial law declared in S Vietnam
^ 1963 Vietnam: Nhu's Special Forces attack the Buddhists
     The South Vietnamese Army arrests over 100 Buddhist monks in Saigon.
      South Vietnamese Special Forces loyal to President Diem's brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, attack Buddhists pagodas, damaging many and arresting 1,400 Buddhists. Diem's government represented a minority of Vietnamese who were mostly businessmen, land owners, and Roman Catholics. A large part of the rest of the South Vietnam's population, overwhelmingly Buddhist, deeply resented Diem's rule because of what they perceived as severe discrimination against non-Catholics. In May 1963, the Buddhists began a series of demonstrations against the Diem government, in which seven Buddhist monks set themselves on fire in protest. The US government tried to convince Diem to be more lenient with the Buddhists, but he only became more repressive.
      This continuing confrontation with the Buddhists and Diem's failure to press for meaningful reforms led to a withdrawal of US support for the South Vietnamese leader and effectively gave a green light for a coup conducted by opposition generals, who were told that the United States would support whichever government was in power. During the course of the coup, Diem and his brother were assassinated by South Vietnamese officers. The removal of Diem, which US government officials had hoped would stabilize the political situation in South Vietnam, resulted in anything but stability — there would be ten successive governments in Saigon within 18 months.
^ 1961 Kenyatta freed from jail:
      In the early 1950s, British troops crushed the Mau Mau Rebellion in Kenya and held more than 80'000 members of the tribe captive. On 21 August 1961, many of these captives, including Mau Mau leader Jomo Kenyatta, were finally released. Two years later, the seventy-three-year-old Kenyatta was elected Kenya's first prime minister. The following year, his nation gained complete independence from Britain, and was proclaimed a democratic republic.
      Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the Kenyan independence movement, is released by British colonial authorities after nearly nine years of imprisonment and detention. Two years later, Kenya achieved independence and Kenyatta became prime minister. Once portrayed as a menacing symbol of African nationalism, he brought stability to the country and defended Western interests during his 15 years as Kenyan leader.
      Kenyatta was born in the East African highlands southwest of Mount Kenya sometime in the late 1890s. He was a member of the Kikuyu ethnic group — Kenya's largest — and was educated by Presbyterian missionaries. In 1920, Kenya formally became a British colony, and by 1921 Kenyatta was living in the colonial capital of Nairobi. There he became involved in African nationalist movements and by 1928 had risen to the post of general secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association, an organization opposed to the seizure of tribal land by European settlers. In 1929, he first went to London to protest colonial policy, but authorities refused to meet with him.
      Kenyatta returned to London several times over the next few years to petition for African rights and then remained in Europe in the 1930s to receive a formal education at various institutions, including Moscow University. In 1938, he published his seminal work, Facing Mount Kenya, which praised traditional Kikuyu society and discussed its plight under colonial rule. During World War II, he lived in England, lecturing and writing.
      In 1946, he returned to Kenya and in 1947 became president of the newly formed Kenya African Union (KAU). He pushed for majority rule, recruiting both Kikuyus and non-Kikuyus into the nonviolent movement, but the white settler minority was unyielding in refusing a significant role for blacks in the colonial government.
      In 1952, an extremist Kikuyu group called Mau Mau began a guerrilla war against the settlers and colonial government, leading to bloodshed, political turmoil, and the forced internment of tens of thousands of Kikuyus in detainment camps. Kenyatta played little role in the rebellion, but he was vilified by the British and put on trial in 1952 with five other KUA leaders for "managing the Mau Mau terrorist organization." An advocate of nonviolence and conservatism, he pleaded innocent in the highly politicized trial but was found guilty and sentenced to seven years in prison.
      He spent six years in jail and then was sent to an internal exile at Lodwar, where he lived under house arrest. Meanwhile, the British government slowly began steering Kenya to black majority rule. In 1960, the Kenya African National Union (KANU, not related to Canu) was organized by black nationalists, and Kenyatta was elected president in absentia. The party announced it would not take part in any government until Kenyatta was freed. Kenyatta pledged the protection of settlers' rights in an independent Kenya, and on 14 August, 1961, he was finally allowed to return to Kikuyuland. After a week of house arrest in the company of his family and supporters, he was formally released on 21 August.
      In 1962, he went to London to negotiate Kenyan independence, and in May 1963 he led the KANU to victory in pre-independence elections. On 12 December 1963, Kenya celebrated its independence, and Kenyatta formally became prime minister. The next year, a new constitution established Kenya as a republic, and Kenyatta was elected president.
      As Kenya's leader until his death in 1978, Kenyatta encouraged racial cooperation, promoted capitalist economic policies, and adopted a pro-Western foreign policy. He used his authority to suppress political opposition, particularly from radical groups. Under his rule, Kenya became a one-party state, but the stability that resulted attracted foreign investment in Kenya. After he died on 22 August 1978, he was succeeded by Daniel arap Moi, who continued most of his policies. Affectionately known in his later years as mzee, or "old man" in Swahili, Kenyatta is celebrated as the founding father of Kenya. He was also influential throughout Africa.
1960 La Organización de Estados Americanos (OEA) acuerda una serie de medidas condenatorias del régimen de Héctor B. Trujillo, al ser probada la complicidad dominicana en el atentado contra el presidente venezolano, Rómulo Betancourt.
^ 1959 Hawaii becomes the 50th United State
      President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order admitting Hawaii into the Union as the fiftieth state. The president also orders a new US flag with fifty stars in staggered rows: five six-star rows and four five-star rows, to become official on 04 July 1960.
      The first known settlers of the Hawaiian Islands were Polynesian voyagers who arrived sometime in the eighth century. In the early eighteenth century, the first American traders came to Hawaii to exploit the islands' sandalwood, which was much valued in China at the time. In the 1830s, the sugar industry was introduced to Hawaii, and by the mid-nineteenth century had become well established. American missionaries and planters brought about great changes in Hawaiian political, cultural, economic, and religious life, and in 1840, a constitutional monarchy was established, stripping the Hawaiian monarch of much of his authority.
      In 1893, a group of US expatriates and sugar planters supported by a division of US Marines deposed Queen Liliuokalani, the last reigning monarch of Hawaii. One year later, the Republic of Hawaii was established as a US protectorate with Hawaiian-born Sanford B. Dole as president. Many in Congress opposed the formal annexation of Hawaii, and it was not until 1898, and the use of the naval base at Pearl Harbor during the Spanish-American War, that Hawaii's strategic importance became evident and formal annexation was approved.
      Two years later, Hawaii was organized into a formal US territory, and, during World War II, firmly entered into the American national identity following the surprise Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. On 18 March 1959, the US government approved statehood for Hawaii, and, on 27 June, the Hawaiian people voted by a wide majority to accept admittance into the Union. On 21 August 1959, Hawaii formally enters the Union as the fiftieth state.
1945 US President Truman ends Lend-Lease program that had shipped some $50 billion in aid to America's allies during World War II.
^ 1944 Dumbarton Oaks conference plans UN
     Representatives from the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China meet in the Dumbarton Oaks estate at Georgetown, Washington, D.C., to formulate the formal principles of an organization that will provide collective security on a worldwide basis-an organization that will become the United Nations. Following up on a promise made at the Moscow Conferences of 1943 to create an international organization to succeed the League of Nations, the Dumbarton Oaks Conference began planning its creation. Step one was the outline for a Security Council, which would be composed of the member states (basically, the largest of the Allied nations) — the United States, the USSR, China, France, and Great Britain — with each member having veto power over any proposal brought before the Council. Many political questions would remain to be hammered out, such as a specific voting system and the membership status of republics within the Soviet Union.
      A more detailed blueprint for the United Nations would be drawn up at both the Yalta Conference in February 1945, and the San Francisco Conference, which would produce the U.N. charter, also in 1945.
1942 US Marines turn back the first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal in the Battle of Tenaru.
1915 Italy declares war on Turkey.
^ 1912 First US Eagle Scout
      Arthur R. Eldred of Oceanside, New York, became the first person known to have achieved the rank of Eagle Scout, the highest in the Boy Scouts of America. The Boy Scouts movement began in England in 1908 with the publication of Robert Baden-Powell's Scouting for Boys, a nonmilitary field manual for teenagers interested in the outdoors.
      After leading several successful youth expeditions in which he taught camping and nature skills, Baden-Powell founded the Boy Scouts, and soon after the Girl Guides. The US version of the Boy Scouts has it origins in an event that occurred in London in 1909. Chicago publisher William Boyce was lost in one of the city's classic fogs when a Boy Scout came to his aid. After guiding Boyce to his destination, the boy refused a tip, explaining that as a Scout he would not accept payment for doing a good deed. This anonymous gesture inspired Boyce to organize several regional US youth organizations, specifically the Woodcraft Indians and the Sons of Daniel Boone, into the Boy Scouts of America. The movement, which emphasized morality and good deeds along with outdoor education, soon spread throughout the country. On February 8, 1910, the Boy Scouts of America were officially incorporated, and in 1912, Juliette Gordon Low founded the Girl Scouts of America in Savannah, Georgia
1911 La República de Portugal promulga la primera Constitución de su historia.
1911 Uninvited guest spends night in the Louvre
     Vincenzo Perugia stealthily lets himself be locked in the Louvre museum when it closes. The next day he will leave, but not alone...
1908 Muley Hafiz, nuevo sultán de Marruecos.
1887 Mighty (Dan) Casey Struck-out in a game with the NY Giants!
1883 In Missouri begins the trial of Frank James, 40, who, after having robbed dozens of banks and trains over nearly two decades, turned himself in, in October 1882, discouraged by the murder of his brother Jesse the previous spring. The sympathetic jury would find him not guilty. The states of Alabama and Missouri would try to convict him twice more, on charges of armed robbery, with no success. In late 1883, Frank James would become a free man. He would live quietly until his death in 1915.
1874 Popular 19th century preacher Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1887) is accused by Theodore Tilton of committing adultery with his wife. The resulting trial would end in a 9-3 hung jury decision, in Beecher's favor.
1864 Skirmish at Summit Point, West Virginia
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 The US Treasury Department circulates "postage currency", .5, 10, 25, and 50-cent notes.
^ 1858 Lincoln and Douglas debate slavery
      Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois and Abraham Lincoln, a one-time US representative from Illinois, begin a series of famous public encounters on the issue of slavery. The two politicians, the first a Northern Democrat and the latter a Republican, are competing for Douglas's US Senate seat.
      During the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, Lincoln, a Kentucky-born lawyer, argued against the spread of slavery while Douglas maintained that each territory should have the right to decide whether it would become free or slave. Lincoln lost the Senate race, but his campaign brought national attention to the young Republican party.
      In 1860, Lincoln won the party's presidential nomination. In that election, he again faced Douglas, who represented the Northern faction of a heavily divided Democratic Party, as well as Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. On 06 November 1860, Lincoln defeated his opponents with only 40% of the popular vote, becoming the first Republican to win the presidency. His victory meant the secession of the Southern states, which since the beginning of the year had been publicly threatening secession if the Republicans gained the White House.
      By the time of Lincoln's inauguration on 04 March 1861, seven states had seceded and the Confederate States of America had been formally established with Jefferson Davis as its elected president. One month later, the American Civil War began when Confederate forces under General P. G. T. Beauregard opened fire on Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina.
1808 Napoléon Bonaparte's general Junot is defeated by Wellington at the first Battle of the Peninsular War at Vimiero, Portugal.
1794 France surrenders the island of Corsica to the British.
1680 Pueblo Indians take possession of Santa Fe, N.M., after driving out the Spanish.
1525 Estavão Gomes returns to Portugal after failing to find a clear waterway to Asia.
1192 The cruel warlord Minamoto Yoritomo , after killing off potential rivals, including his cousin and brothers, proclaims himself seii taishogun ("barbarian-quelling generalissimo"), becoming the supreme commander over the feudal lords. Thus he establishes the bakufu or shogunate which was to rule Japan for 700 years.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 21 August:

2006 Some 60 persons in crash of two southbound commuter trains at 07:00 (04:00 UT) in Qalyub, 19 km north of Cairo, Egypt. Some 140 persons are injured. One of the train was coming from Mansoura, missed a stop signal and crashed into the rear of the other train, which came from Benha and was stopped. [below: the aftermath] —(060821)
crashed trains
2004 At least 12 persons, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, by 7 or 8 bombs or grenades targeting former Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina Wajed as she addresses a rally of her Awami League opposition party. She is only very lightly injured, but one of her bodyguards is amonng the dead. At least 100 persons are injured, including 17 policemen. Ibrahim Ali, 50, publicity secretary of the party in town Sylhet was assassinated there on 07 August 2004. The Awami League, which has staged strikes since February 2004 in its effort to remove Prime Minister Khaleda Zia and force early general elections, has in the past accused the ruling Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) of "pre-planned murders of opposition leaders and activists."
2003 Ismail Abu Shanab and two bodyguards, by five missiles from an Israeli helicopter fired at their car, in the Rimal neighborhood of Gaza City. Abu Shanab, a US-educated professor of engineering, was a senior political official of Hamas.
2002 Adelina Domingues, who was recognized as the oldest living person in the US, dies at the age of 114. Domingues died in her sleep Wednesday afternoon 21 August 2002, in San Diego at Brighton Place, the nursing home where Domingues lived since 1995. Though Domingues had remained physically active and mentally sharp, her health had declined over the last month. Domingues was born in the Cape Verde Islands and insisted her birth year was 1887, which would have made her 115 and the oldest person in the world. But a search turned up a baptism date of 1888. The Guinness Book of Records ruled she was 114 with a birthdate of 19 February 1888.
      The oldest known living person is Kamato Hongo of Japan, who was born on 16 September 1887. She will die of pneumonia on 31 October 2003.
      John McMorran of Florida is now the oldest person in the US. Born on 19 June 1889, he is 113. He will die on 24 February 2003.
      Born to an Italian sea captain and a Cape Verdean woman, Adelina was 18 when she married Jose Domingues, a whaling captain. The couple moved to New Bedford, Mass., in 1907. They raised four children while Adelina worked as a seamstress. After her husband died in 1950, Domingues moved to Southern California to be near her son Frank, who died in Palm Desert in 1998. This was devastating to her, who lost her first son when he was 2 and another son and a daughter when they were teenagers. She asked why she would still be alive and have to bury her last child. That was the hardest thing for her, to still be alive and having buried all four of her children and her husband and brothers and sisters.
 Dominic James     Domingues lived on her own until she was 107. She voted well into her 100s, and often wrote admiring letters to Ronald Reagan. She was quite opinionated, very clear in her wants and needs. Domingues herself never tried to offer a secret for her longevity, though she ate a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, and abstained from alcohol and tobacco. She never took any credit for anything she achieved in life. She always gave credit to God and to his plan and purpose in life. Domingues is survived by six grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren.

2002 Dominic James [photo >], born on 04 June 2000, of severe head injury due to having been violently shaken. This followed repeated abuse since soon after he was taken from his parents (Black Sidney James and White Stephanie Ford, when police was called because they were fighting) on 18 June 2002 and placed in foster care in the home of the White couple John “Wesley” Dilley, 34, in Willard, Missouri. The abuse was reported repeatedly to the Division of Family Services, which did nothing to protect the child.

2001 Maria A. Caraveo, 36, and her daughters, Sharon Denise Mar, 13; Kelsey Idette Mar, 10; and Nerissa Aileen Mar, 9, each shot in the head and chest while in a car and the body dragged into a cornfield near Guadalajara. The bodies, in swimsuits, would be found the next morning near the abandoned car, with dozens of 9 mm shell casings lying next to towels, empty soft-drink bottles and pairs of flip-flops. The children were US citizens from Texas, and the mother a permanent legal resident of the US, from the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. .
1995 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, University of Chicago mathematical astrophysicist born in India on 19 October 1910, who was awarded the 1983 Nobel prize in Physics for his theoretical work on the gravitational collapse of stars Author of The Mathematical Theory of Black Holes (1983), Principles of Stellar Dynamics (1942), Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (1961), Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science (1987).
1993 Thomas Smith, suicide by shooting himself in the head with a 12-gauge shotgun. He was a Catholic priest of the diocese of Richmond, Virginia. Allegations that he had sexually abused a young boy were presented to him on 19 August 1993.
1993 Kasdi Merbah, ancien Premier ministre d'Algérie et ex-chef de la Sécurité militaire, son frère, son fils, et 2 gardes du corps, assassinés à Bordj El-Bahri,. Alger.
1986 1746 persons, by toxic gas from Lake Nios volcanic eruption in Cameroon.
1983 Benigno “Ninoy” Simeon Aquino Jr., 50, the most serious challenger to Ferdinand Marcos’ dictatorship of the Philippines, gunned down by Marcos agents as he deplanes at Manila Airport, back from exile in the US. to campaign for the presidency in an election Marcos had promised. Born on 27 November 1932, Aquino had been the chief opposition leader during the era of martial law in the Philippines (1972–81) under Marcos. The assassination only increased opposition to Marcos, and Benigno's widow, Maria Corazon (Cojuangco) Aquino, 50, daughter of one of the largest landowners and manufacturers in the Philippines. became its leader, overthrowing Marcos on 25 February 1986. She served a 6-year term as president, unable to effect needed reforms.
1971 George Jackson murdered
1964 Palmiro Togliatti, secretario general del PCI.
^ 1947 Ettore Bugatti, French car manufacturer.
     He specialized in racing and luxury automobiles. His factory in Alsace turned out some of the most expensive cars ever produced. The best-known Bugatti car was Type 41, known as the “Golden Bugatti” or “La Royale.” It was produced in the 1920s, meticulously constructed and inordinately expensive — only a few were ever built. After Bugatti’s death, the firm failed to survive, at least in part because Ettore’s eldest son and chosen successor died before Bugatti himself.
1943 Henrik Pontoppidan, 86, Danish realist writer.
     He had shared with Karl Gjellerup the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1917 for "his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark." Pontoppidan's novels and short stories — informed with a desire for social progress but despairing, later in his life, of its realization — present an unusually comprehensive picture of his country and his epoch.
1940 Trotsky, from wounds inflicted by assassin the day before
     In Mexico on 20 August, exiled Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky was fatally wounded by an ice-axe-toting assassin in Mexico City. The assassin — Ramón Mercader — was a Catalan Communist and probable agent of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
      Trotsky, a Marxist born of Russian-Jewish parents in 1879, was first arrested for revolutionary activities in 1898. Two years later, he was exiled to Siberia, but in 1902 he escaped to England using a forged passport under the name of Leon Trotsky (his original name was Lev Davidovich Bronstein). In London, he collaborated with fellow Russian revolutionary Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Expelled from several countries because of his radicalism, he lived in Switzerland, Paris, and New York City before returning to Russia at the outbreak of the Revolution in 1917.
      Trotsky played a leading role in the Bolshevik's seizure of power, and he was appointed Lenin's secretary of foreign affairs. In 1924 Lenin died and was succeeded by Joseph Stalin, who distrusted Trotsky and his calls for a continuing revolution that would inevitably result in the dismantling of the Soviet state. In 1927, Trotsky was expelled from the Communist party, and in 1929 was ordered to leave the USS.R. He lived in Turkey, France, and Norway, and in absentia was found guilty of treason during Stalin's purges of his political foes. Settling with his family in a suburb of Mexico City in 1939, he survived several assassination attempts before falling prey to a Spanish Communist on August 20, 1940. He dies from his wounds the next day.
1936 los defensores del cuartel de Simancas, en Gijón, tras una heroica resistencia de un mes, durante la Guerra Civil española:
1932 Lorenzo Coullaut y Valera, escultor e ilustrador español.
1927 William Burnside , mathematician who wrote the first treatise on groups in English and was the first to develop the theory of groups from a modern abstract point of view.
1926 Stuart Pratt Sherman, co-editor of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in 18 Volumes
1909 Three drivers, at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, before 201000 spectators. Meanwhile Barney Oldfield breaks five world records in his Benz before the three-day meet is ended early.
1905 Mary Mapes Dodge, 74, American author of children's books and first editor of St. Nicholas magazine.      ^top^
      Her first collection of children's stories, Irvington Stories (1864), centered on the American colonial family.
DODGE ONLINE:
  • Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates (1865, over 100 editions during Dodge's lifetime — an impoverished Dutch boy's determination enables him to obtain help for his sick father)
  • Along the Way
  • Baby World: Stories, Rhymes, and Pictures for Little Folks (edited by her)
  • 1890 Frederic Henry Hedge, author of Christian Liturgy, Hymns for the Church of Christ, Reason in Religion, Ways of the Spirit and Other Essays
    1883 Unas 100 personas por un huracán que destruye la ciudad de Rochester, en Minnesota.
    1869 Casto Méndez Núñez, marino español, héroe de la batalla de El Callao.
    1864 Many Confederates and some Union troops, at the Battle of Globe Tavern. Confederate General A.P. Hill attacks Union troops south of Petersburg, Va., at the Weldon railroad. His attack is repulsed, resulting in heavy Confederate casualties.
    ^ 1863 _ 192 men and boys in the Lawrence, Kansas, massacre by slavist gang.
          The vicious guerilla war in Missouri spills over into Kansas and precipitates one of the most appalling acts of violence during the war when 182 men in the abolitionist town of Lawrence are murdered in a raid by Southern partisans. The Civil War took a very different form in Kansas and Missouri than it did throughout the rest of the nation. There were few regular armies operating there; instead, partisan bands attacked civilians and each other. The roots of conflict in the region dated back to 1854, when the Kansas-Missouri border became ground zero for tension over slavery. While residents of Kansas Territory were trying to decide the issue of slavery, bands from Missouri, a slave state, began attacking abolitionist settlements in the territory. Abolitionists reacted with equal vigor.
          When the civil war began, the long heritage of hatred between partisans created unparalleled violence in the area. In August 1863, the Union commander along the border, General Thomas Ewing, arrested several wives and sisters of members of a notorious band led by William Quantrill. This gang of outlaws had scorched the region, terrorizing and murdering Union sympathizers. On 14 August, the building in Kansas City where the women were being held collapsed, killing five.
          Quantrill assembled 450 men to exact revenge. The army, which included such future western outlaws as the Younger brothers and Frank and Jesse James, headed for Lawrence, Kansas, long known as the center of abolitionism in Kansas. After kidnapping 10 farmers in order to guide them to Lawrence, the gang murdered each of them. Quantrill's men rode into Lawrence and dragged 182 men from their homes, many in front of their families, and killed them in cold blood. They burned 185 buildings in Lawrence, then rode back to Missouri with Union cavalry in hot pursuit. This incident incited the North and led to even more killing by both sides along the Kansas-Missouri border.
    1856 Fernando Ferrant Llausás, pintor español.
    1836 Navier, mathematician
    ^ 1831 The first of 57 Whites killed in Nat Turner slave revolt, Southampton County, Virginia
         In the evening, believing himself chosen by God to lead his people out of slavery, Nat Turner, with 5 other slaves, launches a bloody insurrection in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner, a slave and educated minister, slaughters his owner Joseph Travis and Travis's family, and then set off across the countryside to rally other slaves to join his insurrection. Over the next twenty-four hours, Turner and seventy followers rampage through Southampton County, killing a total of 57 whites.
         On 24 August, hundreds of militiamen and volunteers stopped the rebels near Jerusalem, the county seat, killing at least 40 and probably nearer 100. Then over 100 Blacks are hanged, most of them non-participants in the revolt. Turner himself was not captured until the end of October, and after confessing without regret to his role in the bloodshed, he was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death. On 11 November, he was hanged in Jerusalem, Virginia.
    1792 El primer guillotinado durante la Revolución Francesa, tras un juicio sumarísimo.
    1771 Fontaine des Bertins, mathematician
    1762 Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, author. LADY MONTAGU ONLINE: Selected Prose and PoetrySelected Prose and Poetry
    1757 Samuel König, mathematician
    1629 Camillo Procaccini, Italian painter born in 1548 approximately.
    ^ 1614 Elizabeth Bathory countess Nadasdy, incredibly sadistic torturer.
          On 26 December 1610 Count Gyorgy Thurzo made an investigative visit to Csejthe Castle in Hungary on orders from King Matthias and discovered Countess Elizabeth Bathory directing a torture session of young girls. Bathory was already infamous in the area for her torture and murder of servants and peasants, but her title and high-ranking relatives had, until this point, made her untouchable. Her bloodthirsty activities have led many to cite her as one of the first vampires in history. Bathory was born in Transylvania in 1560 to a distinguished family that included kings, cardinals, knights, and judges.
          Though she counted many luminaries among her relatives, her family tree also featured some seriously disturbed kin. One of her uncles instructed her in Satanism, while her aunt taught her all about sadomasochism. At the age of 15, Bathory was married to Count Nadasdy, and the couple settled into Csejthe Castle. To please his wife, her husband reportedly built a torture chamber to her specifications. Bathory's torture included jamming pins and needles under the fingernails of her servant girls, and tying them down, smearing them with honey, and leaving them to be attacked by bees and ants.
          Although the count participated in his wife's cruelties, he may have also restrained her impulses; when he died in 1600, she became much worse. With the help of her former nurse, Ilona Joo, and local witch Doratta Szentes, Bathory began abducting peasant girls to torture and kill. She often bit chunks of flesh from her victims, and one unfortunate girl was even forced to cook and eat her own flesh. Bathory reportedly believed that human blood would keep her looking young and healthy. Since her family headed the local government, Bathory's crimes were ignored until 1610. But King Matthias finally intervened because Bathory had begun finding victims among the daughters of local nobles. In January 1611, Bathory and her cohorts were put on trial for 80 counts of murder. All were convicted, but only Bathory escaped execution. Instead, she was confined to a room of the castle that only had slits for air and food. She survived for three years.
    1511 Pope Julius II, “the warrior pope.” A loose-living, heavy-eating man, he was the butt of sarcasm by Erasmus, the subject of great artists such as Michelangelo and Raphael, and so worldy that even he recognized and confessed himself a great sinner on his death bed.
    1245 Alexander of Hales, 59. English scholastic theologian, founder of the Franciscan school of theology. — a Franciscan who was one of the first to attempt to understand all of the recovered work of Aristotle with its implications for theology.
    1157 Alfonso VII, rey de Castilla y León.
     
    < 20 Aug 22 Aug >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 21 August:

    1999 Hua Mai, panda, one of the few born in a zoo. The mother, Bai Yun, 9, on loan from China, will give birth to another panda on 19 August 2003.
    1949 Marilyn Manuel, in the Philippines. After moving to Queens, NYC, she had been working for the UN for 18 years when she was at the UN's Baghdad headquarters when a terrorist truck bomb kills 22 persons there on 19 August 2003 and she would be listed among the dead. But on her 54th birthday she would phone her relatives in Queens and tell them that she only suffered an eye injury, for which she was hospitalized in Baghdad.
    1936 Fernando Abril Martorell, político español.
    1936 Wilt(on) Chamberlain NBA great center basketball player (LA Laker, 5 time MVP, Basketball Hall of Famer, only player to score 100 points in a professional basketball game).
    1932 Louis de Branges de Bourcia, French-born US mathematician. In July 1984 he was the first to completely prove the Bieberbach Conjecture (which dates from 1916).
    ^ 1920 Christopher Robin Milne
         Christopher Robin is the only son of Mrs. Daphne Milne and A.A. Milne, author who would write for his son, and about his son and his stuffed bear and other animals, Winnie-the-Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner. As Christopher grew up he resented the celebrity status they gave him, became a bookseller, and was estranged from his parents. Christopher wrote three autobiographical books. The Enchanted Places (1974), an account of his childhood and of the problems that he encountered because of the Pooh books, The Path Through the Trees (1979), and The Hollow on the Hill (1982). He died on 20 April 1996.
          Alan Alexander Milne was born in London on 18 January 1882, the youngest of three sons. His parents were both schoolteachers; his father was headmaster at a school where H.G. Wells taught. His family claimed Milne taught himself to read at age two. He began writing humorous pieces as a schoolboy and continued at Cambridge, where he edited the undergraduate paper.
          In 1903, he left Cambridge and went to London to write. Although he was broke by the end of his first year, he persevered and supported himself until 1906 with his writing. That year, he joined humor magazine Punch as an editor and wrote humorous verse and essays for the magazine for eight years, until World War I broke out. While at Punch, he wrote his first book-for adults, not children. In 1913, he married Daphne and two years later went to France to serve in World War I. While in the military, he wrote three plays, one of which, Mr. Pim Passes By, became a hit in 1919 and provided financial security for the family.
         In 1925, the family bought Cotchford Farm in Sussex; a nearby forest inspired the 100-Acre Wood where Winnie-the-Pooh's adventures would be set. Milne published two volumes of the verse he wrote for his son. When We Were Very Young was published in 1924, followed by Now We Are Six in 1927. When Christopher Robin was about one, he received a stuffed bear as a present. The child soon accumulated a collection of similar animals, which inspired Milne to begin writing a series of whimsical stories about the toys. Winnie-the-Pooh was published in 1926 and The House at Pooh Corner in 1928. Ernest Shepard illustrated the books, using Christopher Robin and his animals as models. A.A. Milne wrote numerous other books and plays, but is remembered almost solely for his beloved children's work. A. A. Milne died on 31 January 1956.
         A. A. MILNE ONLINE: all I found of A.A. Milne is The Red House Mystery.
    1915 Joshua Abraham Hassan, político británico.
    1909 C. Dillon Douglas Geneva Switz, US Secretary of Treasury (1961-1965)
    1907 Dr. Roy K Marshall Glen Carbon Ill, TV scientist (Nature of Things)
    1901 Edward Copson, expert in Complex Analysis, Regius Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews from 1950 until 1969.
    1896 Roark Whitney Wicliffe Bradford, US novelist and short-story writer. His first book, Ol' Man Adam an' His Chillun (1928), is biblical short stories as related by uneducated Blacks. His novels showed US Blacks in historical perspective, such as This Side of Jordan (1929), about the arrival of machines on the plantations. He died on 13 November 1948.
    1886 Andrés González Blanco, escritor español.
    1884 Rómulo Gallegos, escritor y político venezolano.
    1878 The American Bar Association is founded, in Saratoga NY.
    1875 Hanson Duvall Puthuff, US painter who died in 1972. — MORE ON PUTHUFF AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1872 Aubrey Beardsley England, artist (Salome)
    1848 Egisto Lanceretto, Italian artist who died on 31 May 1916.
    1841 Venetian blind is patented by John Hampson
    1839 Otto Bache, Danish artist who died in 1927.
    1820 Joseph Allen, co-author of An Elementary Course in Analytic Geometry and of Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges.
    1805 Nicolaas Johannes Roosenboom, Dutch artist who died in 1880.
    ^ 1798 Jules Michelet, French historian who died on 09 February 1874. He wrote the 24-volume Histoire de France (1833-1867).
         Michelet was the son of a modest printer who managed to give Jules an education. A brilliant student, Michelet at 29 was teaching history and philosophy at the École Normale Supérieure. He had already published textbooks and a translation (1827) of the Scienza nuova of Giambattista Vico [23 Jun 1668 – 23 Jan 1744]. The July Revolution (1830) confirmed Vico's influence on Michelet in stressing man's own partin the making of history, conceived as a continuous struggle of human freedom against fatality. This, the main theme of the Introduction à l'histoire universelle (1831), was to underlie Michelet's later writings.
          After the Histoire romaine, 2 vol. (1831), Michelet devoted himself to medieval and modern history; his appointment as head of the historical section of the Record Office in the same year provided him with unique resources for carrying out his monumental life's work, the Histoire de France. The first six volumes (1833–1843) stop atthe end of the Middle Ages; they include the “Tableau de la France,” in which the emergence of France as a nation is seen as a victory over racial and geographic determinism; they also include his treatment of Joan of Arc as the very soul of France and the living symbol of his ownpatriotic and democratic ideals.
          Michelet deliberately threw his intimate self into his narrative, convinced that this was the way to achieve the historian's ultimate aim: the resurrection (or re-creation) of the past. Such a resurrection must be integral: all the elements of the past—artistic, religious, economic, as well as political—must be brought back, intertwined, as they once were, in a living synthesis. Arbitrary and overambitious as the undertaking seems, Michelet's compassionate genius and romantic imagination enabled him to conjure up an effective evocation, unsurpassed for poetic and dramatic power.
          Toward the end of this period, which was marked by private crises reflected in his work (the death of his first wife, in 1839, and of his friend Mme Dumesnil, in 1842, cast shadows over whole periods of his Histoire de France), Michelet turned away from Christianity and began to profess a messianic belief in democratic progress. His increasing hostility to the church, expressed in his lectures at the Collège de France, eventually brought him into conflict with the Jesuits and caused his lectures to be suspended in January 1848.
          A month later, the revolution that he had heralded in Le Peuple (1846) seemed to bring about the realization of his dreams. But they were soon shattered: in 1852 Michelet, having refused allegiance to the Second Empire, lost his posts. In 1847 he had interrupted the sequence of the Histoire de France to write the Histoire de la révolution française, 7 vol. (1847–1853). He visualized the French Revolution as a climax, as the triumph of la Justice over la Grâce (by which he meant both Christian dogma and the arbitrary power of the monarchy). These volumes, written at a feverish pace, are a vivid, impassioned chronicle.
          Michelet then resumed the Histoire de France from the Renaissance to the eve of the revolution (11 vol., 1855–1867). Unfortunately, his hatred of priests and kings, his hasty or abusive treatment of documents, and his mania for symbolic interpretation continually distort these volumes into hallucinations or nightmares. Also thus distorted is La Sorcière (1862), an apology for witches considered as godforsaken souls, victims of the antinatural interdictions of the church.
          A new and happier inspiration produced a series of books on nature: L'Oiseau (1856); L'Insecte (1858); La Mer (1861); La Montagne (1868). They reflect the influence of his second marriage to Athénaïs Mialaret, 30 years his junior, in 1849; written in a lyrical vein, they contain some of the most beautiful pages of a supreme prose writer. L'Amour (1858) and La Femme (1860), written under the same influence, are erotic and didactic.
          The Franco-German War of 1870 shattered Michelet's idealism and his illusions about Germany. After his death, in 1874, his widow tampered with his diaries, and their publication as a whole was begun only in 1959 (Journal, vol. 1, 1959, vol. 2, 1962; Écrits de jeunesse, 1959). They record his travels through Europe, and, above all, they give a key to his personality and illuminate the relationship between his intimate experiences and his work.

    MICHELET ONLINE:
  • Histoire romaine
  • Introduction à l'Histoire universelle
  • La Mer
  • La Mer (autre site)
  • La Montagne
  • Le Peuple
  • avec E. Quinet:
          Des Jésuites
  • 1793 August-Karl-Friedrich von Kloeber, German artist who died on 31 December 1864.
    1790 Joaquín Vizcaíno Martínez, marqués de Pontejos, fundador del Monte de Piedad y de la Caja de Ahorros de Madrid.
    1789 Augustin-Louis Cauchy, French mathematician who pioneered the study of analysis, both real and complex, and the theory of permutation groups. He also researched in convergence and divergence of infinite series, differential equations, determinants, probability and mathematical physics.
    1765 William IV, king of Great Britain and Ireland and king of Hanover from 26 June 1830 to his death on 20 June 1837.
    1725 Jean-Baptiste Greuze, French Rococo era painter who died on 21 March 1805. MORE ON GREUZE AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1660 Hubert Gautier, engineer, wrote the first book on bridge building
    ^ 1567 François de Sales de Boisy
         He would be ordained a Catholic priest in 1593 and consecrated bishop of Geneva on 08 December 1602. A saint, and doctor of the church, who was active in the struggle against Calvinism and, together with Jeanne-Françoise Frémiot de Chantal, a widow mother of four, founded the order of Visitation Nuns (06 June 1610). He wrote the devotional classic Introduction to the Devout Life, which emphasized that spiritual perfection is possible for people busy with the affairs of the world and not only, as many believed at the time, for those who withdraw from society. He also wrote Treatise on the Love of God. In addition to his spiritual works, his writings include controversies against Calvinists, letters, sermons, and documents on diocesan administration. François de Sales died on 28 December 1622. In 1923 Pope Pius XI named Saint Francis of Sales patron saint of writers (NOT of sales people!).

    DE SALES ONLINE: (in English translations): Introduction to the Devout LifeTreatise on the Love of God
    1165 Philippe II Auguste, first of the great Capetian kings of medieval France (from 1179), who gradually reconquered the French territories held by the kings of England and also furthered the royal domains northward into Flanders and southward into Languedoc. He was a major figure in the Third Crusade to the Holy Land in 1191. He died on 14 July 1223.
     
    Religious Observances RC: St Jane Frances Frémiot de Chantal, widow / RC : Pius X, pope (1903-1914) / Santos Pío X, Anastasio, Fidel, Bernardo Tolomeo, Leoncio y santa Ciriaca.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Home to a young boy is merely a filling station.”
    "To a young boy a filling station is merely a reminder that he can't drive."
    "Home to young Christopher Robin was the house at Pooh Corner.”
    “To know a little less and to understand a little more: that, it seems to me, is our greatest need.”
    — James Ramsey Ullman [24 Nov 1907 – 1971], US author {who knew little and understood little more?}.
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    updated Friday 21-Aug-2009 19:21 UT
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