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Events, deaths, births, of 19 AUG
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ALTERNATE SITES  ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY   ART “4” AUG 19    wikipedia
^  On a 19 August:
2002 In the early morning in Midvale, suburb of Salt Lake City, police dogs capture Javier Sickler, 28, stopping him from killing Sharon Zahne's 11-year-old daughter, whom he is beating viciously about the head with a hammer after raping her. He had abducted her from her bedroom at about 01:30, in sight of her 10-year-old brother. The girl, in critical condition, is rushed to Primary Children's Medical Center in Salt Lake City, where she undergoes nine hours of surgery for multiple bone fractures to her face. Over the following years she would undergo a series of surgical operations, but would be left with a blind right eye, only 40% vision in her left eye, and bald areas in her scalp. As Sickler is shown on television, he is recogrized by a 32-year-old woman who, on 03 August 2002, was walking home from a restaurant, when Sickler jumped out from behind a tree, punched her, dragged her into a wooded area and raped her. Sickler would be sentenced to life in prison for rape, forcible sodomy, attempted rape of a child, attempted aggravated murder, and child kidnapping. Sickler was also been linked to several sex crimes he was never charged with. Sickler, a former high school classmate of the girl’s father, was physically and sexually abused as a child. —(080815)
1999 Chechnya war:
Russian Defense Minister Igor Sergeyev and Interior Minister Vladimir Rushailo visit Dagestan. Sergeyev promises that militants will be eliminated "within a very short period."
Russian troops rebuffed in an attempt to storm Tando, a village occupied by fighters from Chechnya. Eight servicemen are reported killed, the figure is later revised downward to four.
Shamil Basayev puts his troops on alert for second stage of operations believed to target Khasavyurt in the north of Dagestan — http://www.cdi.org/issues/Europe/aug.html
1996 Former Arkansas governor Jim Guy Tucker is sentenced to four years' probation for his Whitewater crimes.
1992 IBM and Sears team up for ISP
      The media reported that IBM and Sears, Roebuck and Co. would work together to create a voice-and-data network service called "Advantis." The two companies had already been working together since the mid-1980s to create the online service Prodigy. With their entry into Internet provider services, the companies expected to generate at least $1 billion a year in revenue.
1991 An “emergency committee” of Communist hardliners, set up the previous day, orders tanks into the streets of Moscow and deposes Mikhail Gorbachev, vacationing in the Crimea. The coup is defeated the next day by popular demonstrations and a general strike called by Russian federation President Boris N. Yeltsin.
1989 Tadeusz Mazowiecki, elected first non-communmist president of Poland.
1988 Iran-Iraq begin a cease-fire in their 8-year-old war (11 PM EDT)
1981 2 US Navy F-14 jet fighters shot down 2 Soviet-built Libyan SU-22
1978 Balloon crosses Atlantic
      The Double Eagle, a helium-filled balloon piloted by Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Anderson, and Larry Newman of Albuquerque, New Mexico, touched down in Paris, France, on 19 19 August78. The three Americans, who had set off from Presque Island, Maine, six days earlier, thus accomplished the first transatlantic balloon crossing in history. The men also set a new endurance record for their 138 hours and six minutes in the air.
1972 Vietnam: Democratic candidate McGovern attacks Nixon policy in Vietnam.
      Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern attacks US pacification techniques of applying "massive firepower and free-fire zones and [clearing] 6 million people out of their homes." McGovern, a senator from South Dakota, had long been an outspoken opponent of the war in Southeast Asia and had begun calling for withdrawal of US troops in early 1965. In 1972, he campaigned on a liberal reform platform, callling for an immediate end to US involvement in the Vietnam War. He also advocated making the Democratic party more responsive to youth, women, and minorities. Despite McGovern's attempt to appear more "mainstream," his opponent, incumbent President Richard Nixon, effectively portrayed McGovern as a radical and was able to draw moderate Democrats to the Republican camp. In addition, many of McGovern's domestic reform ideas alienated many old-line Democrats who also switched their support to Nixon. McGovern's campaign was further damaged when his first choice for running mate, Thomas Eagleton, admitted that he had been treated for mental illness. His second choice, Sargent Shriver, added very little to the ticket. Badly split, the Democrats suffered one of the worst defeats in US political history when Nixon and Spiro T. Agnew won in a landslide. Also on this day: In South Vietnam, the Nguyen Hue Offensive continues with major fighting near the northern district capital Que Son and neighboring Fire Base Ross. After a heavy bombardment, the North Vietnamese captured both the town and the base, giving the Communist control of most of Quang Nam province.
1970 Vietnam: Cambodia and US sign military aid pact Cambodia and the US sign a military aid agreement worth $40 million for the fiscal year ending on 30 June 1971. The equipment included small arms, ammunition, communications equipment, spare parts and training funds.
1968 Vietnam: Many Americans against a bombing halt
      A Harris survey indicates that 61% of those polled are against calling a halt to the bombing in Vietnam. President Johnson, in a major speech at the Veterans of Foreign Wars convention in Detroit, challenged Hanoi to respond to the limitations of the bombing campaign that he had announced in March. But he refused to curtail other military activities in Southeast Asia, saying that, "there are some among us who appear to be searching for a formula which would get us out of Vietnam and Asia on any terms, leaving the people of South Vietnam and Laos and Thailand...to an uncertain fate."
1965 US forces destroy a Viet Cong stronghold near Van Tuongin South Vietnam.
^ 1960 Captured US spy pilot is sentenced to ten years in prison.
      In the USS.R., American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to ten years in a Soviet prison for his confessed espionage.
      On 01 May 1960, Powers's U-2 high altitude reconnaissance aircraft was shot down over central Russia, forcing him to bail out at 5000 meters. The CIA-employed pilot survived the parachute jump from his crippled aircraft, but was picked up by the Soviet authorities, who immediately arrested him. On May 5, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced the capture of the American spy, and vowed that he would put him on trial. After initial denials, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower admitted on May 7 that the unarmed reconnaissance aircraft was indeed on a spy mission. In response, Khrushchev cancelled a long-awaited summit meeting in Paris, and in August, Powers was sentenced to ten years in a Soviet prison for his confessed espionage. However, a year-and-a-half later, the Soviets agreed to release him in exchange for Rudolph Abel, a Soviet spy caught and convicted in the United States five years earlier. Upon returning to the US, the CIA and the Senate cleared Powers of any personal blame for the incident.
     On 01 May 1960, Powers took off from Pakistan at the controls of an ultra-sophisticated Lockheed U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. A CIA-employed pilot, he was to fly over more than 3'000 km of Soviet territory to Bodö military airfield in Norway, collecting intelligence information en route. Roughly halfway through his journey, he was shot down by the Soviets over Sverdlovsk in the Ural Mountains. Forced to bail out at 5000 meters altitude, he survived the parachute jump but was promptly arrested by Soviet authorities.
      On 05 May, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announced that the American spy aircraft had been shot down and two days later revealed that Powers was alive and well and had confessed to being on an intelligence mission for the CIA. On 07 May, the United States acknowledged that the U-2 had probably flown over Soviet territory but denied that it had authorized the mission. On 16 May, leaders of the United States, the USSR, Britain, and France met in Paris for a long-awaited summit meeting. The four powers were to discuss tensions in the two Germanys and negotiate new disarmament treaties. However, at the first session, the summit collapsed after President Dwight D. Eisenhower refused to apologize to Khrushchev for the U-2 incident. Khrushchev also canceled an invitation for Eisenhower to visit the USSR.
      In August, Powers pleaded guilty to espionage charges in Moscow and was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment — three in prison and seven in a prison colony. However, only 18 months later, the Soviets agreed to release him in exchange for Rudolf Abel, a senior KGB spy who was caught and convicted in the United States five years earlier. On February 10, 1962, Powers and Abel were brought to separate sides of the Glienicker Bridge, which connected East and West Berlin across Lake Wannsee. As the spies waited, negotiators talked in the center of the bridge where a white line divided East from West. Finally, Powers and Abel were waved forward and walked past each other to freedom.
      Upon returning to the United States, Powers was cleared by the CIA and the Senate of any personal blame for the U-2 incident. In 1970, he published a book, Operation Overflight, about the incident and in 1977 was killed in the crash of a helicopter he flew as a reporter for a Los Angeles television station.
1960 Sputnik 5 carries 2 dogs, 3 mice into orbit (later recovered alive) [cats were ruled out]
1958 NAACP Youth Council begin sit-ins at Oklahoma City Lunch counters
1957 The first balloon flight to exceed 100'000 feet (30'480 m) altitude takes off from Crosby, Minnesota.
1954 Ralph J Bunche named undersecretary of UN
1944 In an effort to prevent a Communist uprising in Paris, Charles DeGaulle begins attacking German forces all around the city.
1942 First US offensive in Pacific in WW2, Guadalcanal, Solomon Island.
^ 1934 German voters make Hitler a dictator.
      A plebiscite in Germany approved the vesting of sole executive power in Adolf Hitler.
      Adolf Hitler, already chancellor, is also elected president of Germany in an unprecedented consolidation of power in the short history of the republic. In 1932, German President Paul von Hindenburg, old, tired, and a bit senile, had won re-election as president, but had lost a considerable portion of his right/conservative support to the Nazi Party. Those close to the president wanted the cooperation of Hitler and the Nazis. Hindenburg had contempt for the Nazis' lawlessness, but ultimately agreed to oust his chancellor, Heinrich Bruning, for Franz von Papen, who was willing to appease the Nazis by lifting the ban on Hitler's Brown Shirts and unilaterally canceling Germany's reparation payments, imposed by the Treaty of Versailles at the close of World War I.
      But Hitler was not appeased. He wanted the chancellorship for himself. Von Papen's authoritarian rule alienated his supporters, and he too was forced to resign. Von Papen then made common cause with Hitler, persuading President Hindenburg to appoint Hitler chancellor and himself vice-chancellor. He promised the president that he would restrain Hitler's worst tendencies and that a majority of the Cabinet would go to non-Nazis. As Hindenburg's current chancellor could no longer gain a majority in the Reichstag, and Hitler could bring together a larger part of the masses and a unified right/conservative/nationalist coalition, the president gave in.
      In January 1933, Hitler was named chancellor of Germany. But that was not enough for Hitler either. In February 1933, Hitler blamed a devastating Reichstag fire on the communists (its true cause remains a mystery) and convinced President Hindenburg to sign a decree suspending individual and civil liberties, a decree Hitler used to silence his political enemies with false arrests.
      Upon the death of Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler proceeded to purge the Brown Shirts (his storm troopers), the head of which, Ernst Roem, had began voicing opposition to the Nazi Party's terror tactics. Hitler had Roem executed without trial, which encouraged the army and other reactionary forces within the country to urge Hitler to further consolidate his power by merging the presidency and the chancellorship. This would make Hitler commander of the army as well. 38 million Germans vote in a plebiscite on 19 August. Intimidation, and fear of the communists, give Hitler a 90 percent majority. He is now an unrestrained dictator
1927 Last Model T Ford
      Henry and Edsel Ford drove the fifteen millionth Model T off the assembly line at the Highland Park plant in Michigan, officially ending Model T production. Production in England ends on 19 August; in Ireland on December 31. After revolutionizing the automobile market, sales of the Model T had started to falter due to its failure to keep up with the competition. Total world Model T production: 15'458'781.
1914 The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) lands in France.
1886 Joseph Conrad becomes a British citizen
     Joseph Conrad, born Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski in Poland, becomes a British citizen. Conrad's father had been a Polish poet and patriot. He was arrested in 1861 for his political activism and exiled to northern Russia. His wife and toddler son Jozef joined him. He and his wife died of tuberculosis when Jozef was about 12. An uncle raised Jozef, until the boy set out at age 17 for Marseilles, France, where he joined the merchant marines and sailed to the West Indies.
      Conrad's many harrowing adventures at sea set the scenes for much of his work. In 1878, when Conrad was 21, he traveled to England as a deck hand on a British freighter. He learned English during six voyages on a small British trade boat and spent 16 years with the British merchant navy. He had numerous adventures around the world and got his first command in 1888. The following year, he commanded a Congo River steamboat for four months, which set the stage for his well-known story The Heart of Darkness (1902).
      Conrad began writing in the late 1890s. His first novel, Almayer's Folly, was published in 1895. The following year, he married an English girl and gave up the sea to write full time. His work progressively grew from hearty sea-adventure tales to sophisticated and pessimistic explorations of morals, personal choices, and character. His best-known works, including Lord JimNostromo, and The Secret Agent, were published between 1900 and 1911, but he did not become financially secure from his fiction until about 1910. He died on 3 Aug 1924.
CONRAD ONLINE: : Lord JimNostromoThe Secret AgentThe Heart of Darkness.
^ 1848 Gold in California: news reach the US East
      Though gold was discovered in California in January of 1848, the news didn't make it to the East Coast until 19 August when the New York Herald let the East Coast know the rush was on. Until this date, there had been rumors, but people remained skeptical without an official report. However, the Herald's story, coupled with an official confirmation by President James Polk, erases any doubts.
      And with that, people went to find their fortune in America's Wild West. Those who made it to California a long, arduous, and sometimes deadly journey found boomtowns filled with everyone from entrepreneurs to unscrupulous shysters, all practicing their own brand of unfettered capitalism. People earned money by providing various services to miners. Demand for domestic skills, such as washing clothes, meant that for the first time women could charge healthy rates for their work. A shortage of women in the West created even easier ways of making money: One man charged $5.00 for the privilege of gawking at his fiancée during their wedding. If only gold had been so easy to come by. While some miners found their fortunes, the gold rush ruined many other people who had picked up their lives and made a mad dash for money that they never found.
1841 Bankruptcy laws in force in the US. Before their repeal a few years later, 33'737 persons will have availed themselves of the opportunity to voluntarily declare bankruptcy.
^ 1812 Old Ironsides earns its nickname.
      During the War of 1812, the US Navy frigate Constitution, commanded by Commodore Isaac Hull, defeated the British ship Guerrière in a furious engagement off the coast of Nova Scotia. Witnesses claimed that the British cannonballs merely bounced off the Constitution's sides, as if the ship was made of iron rather than wood. The success of "Old Ironsides" against the formidable British navy was a tremendous morale booster for the young American republic.
[Paintings of the engagement between the Constitution and the Guerrière at ART “4” 2~DAY, by Birch, by Chambers.]
      The Constitution was one of six frigates that in 1794 Congress requested be built to help protect American merchant fleets from attacks by Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli and harassment by British and French forces. It was constructed in Boston, and the bolts fastening its timbers and copper sheathing were provided by the industrialist and patriot Paul Revere. Launched on 21 October 1797, the Constitution was 62 meters long, displaced 2200 tons, and was rated as a 44-gun frigate (although it often carried as many as 50 guns)..
      In July 1798 it was put to sea with a crew of 450 and cruised the West Indies, protecting US shipping from French privateers. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson ordered the US warship to the Mediterranean to fight Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli. The vessel performed commendably during the conflict, participating in four bombardments of enemy forts and destroying or capturing five enemy ships. In 1805 a peace treaty with Tripoli was signed on the Constitution's deck.
     When war broke out with Britain in June 1812, the Constitution was commanded by Isaac Hull, who served as lieutenant on the ship during the Tripolitan War. Scarcely a month later, on 16 July, the Constitution encountered a squadron of five British ships off Egg Harbor, New Jersey. Finding itself surrounded, the Constitution was preparing to escape when suddenly the wind died. With both sides dead in the water and just out of gunnery range, a legendary slow-speed chase ensued. For 36 hours, the Constitution's crew kept their ship just ahead of the British by towing the frigate with rowboats and by tossing the ship's anchor ahead of the ship and then reeling it in. At dawn on 18 July, a breeze sprang, and the Constitution was far enough ahead of its pursuers to escape by sail.
      One month later, on 19 August, the Constitution catches the British warship Guerrière alone about 1000 km east of Boston. After considerable maneuvering, the Constitution delivers its first broadside, and for 20 minutes the US and British vessels bombard each other in close and violent action. The British man-of-war is de-masted and rendered a wreck while the Constitution escapes with only minimal damage. The unexpected victory of Old Ironsides against a British frigate helped unite the US behind the war effort and made Commander Hull a national hero. The Constitution went on to defeat or capture seven more British ships in the War of 1812 and ran the British blockade of Boston twice.
      After the war, Old Ironsides served as the flagship of the navy's Mediterranean squadron and in 1828 was laid up in Boston. Two years later, the navy considered scrapping the Constitution, which had become unseaworthy, leading to an outcry of public support for preserving the famous warship. The navy refurbished the Constitution, and it went on to serve as the flagship of the Mediterranean, Pacific, and Home squadrons.
      In 1844, the frigate left New York City on a global journey that included visits to numerous international ports as a goodwill agent of the United States. In the early 1850s, it served as flagship of the African Squadron and patrolled the West African coast looking for slave traders. In 1855, the Constitution retired from active military service, but the famous vessel continued to sail, first as a training ship and later as a national treasure.
      Since 1934, the Constitution has been based at the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. Over the years, Old Ironsides has enjoyed a number of restorations, the most recent of which was completed in 1997, allowing it to sail for the first time in 116 years. Today, the Constitution is the world's oldest commissioned warship afloat.
1787 W. Herschel discovers Enceladus, a moon of Saturn.
1785 Congress empowers the US Treasury Board to standardize the nation's weights and measures.
1779 Americans under Major Henry Lee take the British garrison at Paulus Hook, New Jersey.
1772 Gustavus III of Sweden eliminates the rule of parties and establishes an absolute monarchy.
1587 Sigismund III is chosen to be the king of Poland.
^ 1561 Mary Proclaimed Queen of Scots
      After thirteen years in France, Mary, the wife of the late King Francis II of France, returns to Scotland and is proclaimed queen. In 1542, while just six days old, Mary ascended to the Scottish throne upon the death of her father, King James V. Her mother sent her to be raised in the French court, and in 1558 she married the French dauphin, who became King Francis II of France in 1559, and died in the following year. After Francis's death, Mary returned to Scotland to assume her designated role as the country's monarch, and in 1565 married her English cousin Lord Darnley in order to reinforce her claim of succession to the English throne after Queen Elizabeth's death.
      In 1567, Darnby was mysteriously killed in an explosion at Kirk o' Field, and Mary's lover, the Earl of Bothwell, was the key suspect. Although Bothwell was acquitted of the charge, his marriage to Mary in the same year enraged the nobility, and she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son by Darnby, James. In 1568, she escaped from captivity and raised a substantial army, but was defeated and fled to England. Queen Elizabeth I initially welcomed Mary, but was soon forced to put her friend under house arrest after Mary became the focus of various English Catholic and Spanish plots to overthrow Elizabeth. Nineteen years later, in 1586, a major plot to murder Elizabeth was uncovered, and Mary was brought to trial, convicted for complicity, and sentenced to death. On 08 February 1587, Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded for treason at Fotheringhay Castle in England. Her son, King James VI of Scotland, calmly accepted his mother's execution, and upon Queen Elizabeth's death in 1603, he became James I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
1493 Maximilian succeeds his father Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor.
1263 King James I of Aragon censors Hebrew writings
1099 The armies of the First Crusade defeat the Saracens at the Battle of Ascalon (an historic Palestinian city on the Mediterranean), one month after they had captured Jerusalem.
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 19 August:

2006 Dylan Rambo, 8, drowns in the car which his drunk and drugged mother Wynema Worley, 27, at 00:30 (04:30 UT) drives off the Cumberland Point boat ramp into Lake Cumberland, Wayne County, Kentucky, near her mother's home, after an argument with her husband, Danny Worley. Her daughter, Misty Rambo, 6, swims away. Wynema is rescued by fishermen. She is arrested on 23 August 2006 on charges of second degree manslaughter. —(060827)
Reina
2005 Cdr. Y. Ravindra Nath, Lt. Cdr. O. Shrawat, CPOF A.K. Singh, EAA3 Ravinder, and Air Mechanic Biswanath Singh, all five of the Indian Navy, due to crash of a Kamov-28 helicopter coming from the naval air station in Dabolim, Goa, headed to Vishakapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. It crashes in the dense forest in neighboring Karnataka, 55 km from the Goa airport. Hampered by heavy rain and the rough terrain, rescuers manage to find the site only on 23 August 2005. They find the bodies of the first four named, and the lone survivor still alive, though injured, Sandeep Singh. The body of Biswanath Singh in not found; he is presumed to have survived the crash, with injuries, and died later while trying to reach help.

2004 Amélie Delagrange, 22, French student, murdered on Twickenham Green in south-west London.

2003 Carlos Roberto Reina Idiáquez [photo >], Honduran, suicide after three weeks of illness following a gallbladder operation. Born on 13 March 1926, he was a Liberal Party activist who was imprisoned in 1944 after criticizing the dictator Tiburcio Carías Andino, and again imprisoned briefly by military governments in 1963 and 1968. Reina was elected President of Honduras in November 1993 with promises to crack down on corruption and reduce the role of the military. He took office on 27 January 1994. He made gradual progress on both fronts during his four-year term which ended on 27 January 1998, when he was succeeded by Carlos Roberto Flores Facussé [10 Mar 1950~], also of the Liberal Party, who had been elected on 30 November 1997. He eliminated mandatory military service, helping ease Honduras away from decades of military meddling in politics, though corruption, crime and poverty remain grave problems in Honduras. He survived a 1996 bombing that blew a hole in his house (the bomber escaped). He was a law professor for 30 years at the National Autonomous University and was publisher of the Liberal Party newspaper El Pueblo in the 1960's. He was first elected to Congress on 12 February 1965. After his presidential term, he served as a judge of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and as ambassador to France.
Liebel
2003: Lilach Karadi, 22, and her Unborn Baby Karadi, due to be born within a month; Menachem Liebel, 24 [< photo]; Shmuel Zargari, 11 months; Yaakov Binder, 50; rabbi Eliezer Weisfish, 42; Avraham Bar On, 12; Yaacov “Yankele” Binder, 50; Benjamin Bergman, 15; Liba Schwartz, 54; Tehila Nathanson, 3; Shmuel Volner, 50 (all 12 from Jerusalem); Mordechai Reinitz, 49, and his son Yisachar Reinitz, 9, from Netanya; Goldie Taubenfeld, 43, and her son Shmuel Taubenfeld, 5 months, from New York; Henoch Segal, 65; Hava Rechnitzer, 19; Elisheva Meshulami, girl 16; Miriam Eisenstan, 20, all 4 from Bnei Brak; and a Thai woman; and suicide bomber Raed Abdel-Hamid Masq, a Hamas militant, on a #2 bus in the Shmuel Hanavi neighborhood near Jerusalem, at 21:00 (18:00 UT). 118 persons are wounded, including some 40 children. One of the wounded, Mordechai Laufer, 27, would die on 05 September 2003. Most of the people on the bus, which was traveling from the Western Wall to the religious neighborhood of Har Nof, were ultra-Orthodox Jews. Some of the dead and injured were not on the bus, but near it.
Vieira
Nadia Younes2003 The following 16 UN staff members:
1) Sergio Vieira de Mello, 55, the UN's secretary-general's special representative to Iraq, (Brazil).
2) Richard Hooper, 40, an Arab expert on special assignment in Iraq, special assistant to UN Undersecretary-General for Political Affairs Kieran Prendergast (US)
3) Emaad Ahmed Salman, Vieira de Mello's office (Iraq)
4) Ranillo Buenaventura, 47, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, (Philippines).
5) Nadia Younes, 57, Vieira de Mello's chief of staff (Egypt)
6) Jean-Selim Kanaan, born on 28 July 1970, a member of Vieira de Mello's staff, father of a 3-weeks-old son, Mattia-Selim Kanaan (France-Egypt)
7) Fiona Watson, 35, a political affairs officer in Vieira de Mello's office (Scotland)
8) Christopher Klein-Beekman, 32, the UN Children's Fund's program coordinator for Iraq (Canada)
9) Martha Teas, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (US)
10) Reham Al-Farra, UN Department of Public Information, (Jordan)
11) Reza Hosseini, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, (Iran)
12) Raid Shaker Mustafa Al Mahdawi, UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (Iraq)
13) Leen Assad Al Qadi, UN Office for Project Services (Iraq)
14) Mahmoud u Taiwi Basim, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (Iraq)
15) Ihssan Taha Husein, UN Office for Project Services (Iraq)
16) Khidir Saleem Sahir (or Sahir Khuhir Salim), 31, unconfirmed UN staff member (Iraq)
and the following 6, not employed by the UN:
17) Gillian M. Clark, Christian Children's Fund of America, Canada.
18) Arthur C. Helton, director of peace and conflict studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (US); he was in a meeting with Vieira, just above where the truck bomb exploded.
19) Alya Sousa, World Bank consultant, (Iraq)
20) Manuel Martin, Spanish Embassy, (Spain)
21) Saad Hermiz Abona, staff of UN contractor, (Iraq)
22) Omar Kahtan Mohamed Al-Orfali, driver for non-governmental organization, (Iraq).
after a truck bomb, at 16:30, partly destroys the Canal Hotel in Baghdad, which houses the headquarters for the UN staff in Iraq, of which Vieira [photo >], born on 15 March 1948, was the head. Younes [< photo], born on 13 June 1946, was his chief of staff. Some 50 persons are injured, at least one of whom, Spanish navy captain Manuel Martín-Oar, dies the next day.
[aftermath photo below]

after car bomb
2002 Ester Schwimmer, 5 months, and a young black bear, (probably in the first season it was on its own) who kidnaps her, then, pursued, drops her, fatally injured in the head and neck, from its mouth, and is later shot by police, without trial or any legal formalities. When Ester's mother had seen the bear approaching the porch of the vacation bungalow where the family, from Brooklyn, was staying, she took her 4- and 2-year-olds inside, foolishly leaving the infant. When she returned outside, the bear had fled with Ester in its mouth.
2002:: 115 of the 147 aboard an overloaded Russian military helicopter, coming from Mosdok, Ingushetia, overloaded with soldiers and some relatives (all 5 crew members survive),
Which, with the engine on fire, apparently shot down by a Strela shoulder-fired missile of Chechen patriots, makes an emergency landing just before 17:00 in a minefield protecting the the Russian base at Khankala, Chechnya. Detonating mines engulf the helicopter in flames, others kill some of the survivors who manage to get out. Among the dead are several officers' wives and the child of a nurse. The Mi-26 is the heaviest and most powerful transport helicopter in the world, designed to carry 82 persons.
2001 Samir Abu Zeid, Palestinian activist, his daughter Inez, 7, and son Suleiman, 5, when their their home in the town of Rafah, Gaza Strip, is hit, during an exchange of fire, by an Israeli rocket (according to the Palestinians) or a Palestinian mortar shell falling short of its target (according to the first Israeli version) or a bomb which Samir was preparing in his yard (the final Israeli version, the most likely one). This brings the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 575 Palestinians and 152 Israelis.
2001 Muhammad Arrar, 13, Palestinian shot in the chest by Israeli soldiers patrolling the Israel-Egypt border in the southern Gaza Strip, who were firing back at Palestinian militants throwing grenades and fired rifles at them.
2001 Moeen Abu Lawi, 38, Palestinian, shot in the neck by Israeli soldiers enforcing the blockade of Nablus, West Bank, from where Lawi was returning after having sneaked in to buy books for his shop in a neighboring community.
1991 Gavin Cato, 7, Black, and Yankel Rosenbaum, 29, Jewish. Rioting erupts in the Brooklyn NY neighborhood of Crown Heights after Gavin Cato is struck and killed by the car driven by Yosef Lifsh, a Jew from the ultra-Orthodox Lubavitch community. Three hours later, a gang of Blacks fatally stabs Rosenbaum, a rabinnical student born in Australia. The violence rages over the next two days — including 188 injured and angry crowds breaking windows, shouting “Heil Hitler!” and burning the Israeli flag. A grand jury would decline to charge Lifsh, who would move to Israel. Lemrick Nelson Jr., 16, Black, would be charged with killing Rosenbaum but acquitted in state court. In federal court, he would be convicted of violating Rosenbaum's civil rights and, on 31 March 1998, be sentenced to the maximum, 19.5 years in prison, along with Charles Price, another Black, who was videotaped provoking the rioters. But, on 07 January 2002, the 2nd US Circuit Court of Appeals would overturn their convictions, saying that the trial judge's efforts to secure an ethnically balanced jury were unconstitutional and the defendants actually wound up with a juror who had shown bias during jury selection; and order a new trial before a properly chosen jury. This third trial would take place in May 2003.
1980: 301 persons in plane crash of Saudi Arabian Lockheed Tristar, on landing at Riyadh
1978:: 422 moviegoers, in an arson fire at a cinema in Iran
1977 Julius (Groucho) Marx, 86, comedian (Marx Brothers)
^ 1958 The Packard car.
     The production of the elegant Packard line ends, soon after Packard’s acquisition of Studebaker. Studebaker-Packard attributes the decision to lagging luxury car sales. Many wondered why Packard, with its reputation for high-quality cars and knowledgeable management, would buy the debt-ridden Studebaker Company. Studebaker's management, not Packard's, took over after the merger.
1957 David Bomberg, British painter born on 05 December 1890. — MORE ON BOMBERG AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1955 Some 200 by floods in the US Northeast.
1942: 3600 Allied Dieppe raiders and some Germans.
     During World War II, General John H. Roberts leads an Allied force of some 7000 men carry out a large daytime raid against German positions at the French seaport of Dieppe. Aided by tanks and aircraft, the commando force — made up of approximately 5000 Canadians, 2000 British soldiers, and a handful of American and Free French troops — gain a foothold on the beach in the face of a furious German defense. During nine hours of fighting, the Allies fail to destroy most of their targets, and lose 3600 men, 106 aircraft, a destroyer, thirty-three landing craft, and thirty tanks. The Dieppe raid would provide information valuable for planning the successful Allied landings in Northern Africa, Sicily, and Normandy.
^ 1936 Federico García Lorca, 38, Spanish poet and dramatist, summarily executed.
     He is shot without trial, in the night of 19~20 August, shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, by Franco's troops after being forced to dig his own grave, in the city where he had grown up, Granada, to which he had fled from Madrid is July. [The Falange has no need of poets?]
     Born on 05 June 1898, García Lorca was noted for his poems of death and for his trilogy of folk dramas Bodas de Sangre (1933), Yerma (1934), and La Casa de Bernarda Alba ( June 1936).
     His father made him study law, but Frederico abandoned it to study music, for which he was quite gifted, literature, and painting. In 1918 he published a prose book about a trip in Castile: Impresiones y Paisajes. As a student at the University of Madrid, he became known as a poet who said that verse is made to be recited, not laid dead in a book. García Lorca became friends with such contemporaries as painter Salvador Dali, filmmaker Luis Buñuel, and poet Rafael Alberti, and met older ones, such as poet Juan Ramón Jiménez.
    Eventually García Lorca did publish Libro de Poemas (1921), Primera Canciones (1936), Canciones (1927). His first play, El Maleficio de la Mariposa, closed after one night in 1920. He wrote Poema del Cante Jondo in 1922, Romancero Gitano in 1927.
     García Lorca had his first success in the theater in 1927 in Barcelona with the poetic and romantic drama Mariana Pineda, with scenery by Salvador Dali. The first public exhibition of García Lorca's drawings was held in 1927 in Barcelona.
     In 1929-1930 García Lorca made a trip to Cuba and to the US and wrote Poeta en Nueva York.
     Then he wrote the poems of Diván del Tamarit, the retabillos (puppet plays) Los Títeres de Cachiporra and Retabillo de Don Cristóbal.
     The inspiration for Bodas de Sangre came from a news item: a bride had fled on her wedding day with her secret lover, and groom and lover killed each other. Lorca makes pawns of fate out of the characters, trapped in a conflict between passion and civilization's code. Yerma, is about a childless woman who kills her sterile husband. La Casa de Bernarda Alba, almost entirely in prose, is about four hateful and lustful sisters who emprison their mother in a house of mourning.
GARCIA LORCA ONLINE: Obras Completas
Los caballos negros son.
Las herraduras son negras.
Sobre las capas relucen
manchas de tinta y de cera.
Tienen, por eso no lloran,
de plomo las calaveras.
Con el alma de charol
vienen por la carretera.
[from Romance de la Guardia Civil: they are riding toward a gypsy village.]
A las cinco de la tarde.
Eran las cinco en punto de la tarde.
Un niño trajo la blanca sábana
a las cinco de la tarde.
Una espuerta de cal ya prevenida
a las cinco de la tarde.
Lo demás era muerte y sólo muerte
a las cinco de la tarde.
[from Lamento por Ignacio Sánchez Mejía, a bullfighter friend who died in 1934 from a goring}
1929 Sergei P. Diaghilev, 57, Russia, Russian ballet impresario and director, died. He founded his Ballets Russes and produced such masterpieces as Stravinsky's Rite of Spring and Firebird.
1918 Roger Joseph Jourdain, French artist born on 11 December 1845.
1905 William Adolphe Bouguereau, French painter born on 30 November 1825. — MORE ON BOUGUEREAU AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1895 John Wesley Hardin [May 26, 1853–], one of the bloodiest killers of the Old West, is murdered in a saloon in El Paso, Texas, by off-duty policeman John Selman, who was under threat by Hardin for having arrested his girl friend. An El Paso jury would acquit Selman of the murder.
^ 1862 Settlers, killed by Dakotas bypassing Fort Ridgely
      On the third day of the Dakota (Sioux) uprising in Minnesota, warriors debate whether they should attack a garrison inside of Fort Ridgely. Concluding that the fort was too strong, the Dakota moved on to the settlement of New Ulm, killing settlers along the way. The uprising began when the Dakota bands were pushed to the limit during a summer in which their crops were destroyed by insects and many families faced starvation. Attempts to get local merchants to extend them credit failed, and promised provisions from the Federal government were not forthcoming. This came after years of white settlement had whittled the Dakota territory down to a few small, temporary reservations.
      The uprising exploded on 17 August when some young Dakota men killed members of a nearby white family. Knowing that the tribe would be blamed for the atrocity, the Dakota, led by Taoyateduta (also known as Little Crow), began attacking local farms and killing settlers. A force of 46 soldiers was dispatched to head off the Dakota, but they were ambushed along the way, and more than half were killed. The Dakota next headed to the fort, where they found less than 50 soldiers and nearly 200 frightened settlers taking refuge in a cluster of buildings, as the fort had no stockade. On the morning of 19 August the warriors conferred in full view of the garrison and refugees. After deciding that the fort was too strong, the warriors attacked the nearby German community of New Ulm, killing 17 townspeople. The uprising would last for two more months before Union troops subdued the rebellion. More than 500 whites were killed and 2'000 Indians captured. On 26 December 1862, 38 Dakota warriors were hanged for their participation in the uprising.
1822 Jean-Baptiste Delambre, French astronomer born on 19 September 1749. He produced tables of the location of planets and their satellites. He also worked in the Bureau des Longitudes. A large lunar crater is named after him.
1782 Francesco de Mura, Italian painter born on 21 April 1696: MORE ON MURA AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1692 The Rev. George Burroughs; Martha Carrier; George Jacobs, Sr.; John Proctor [1632–]; John Willard; hanged in Salem, Massachusetts after being convicted of the crime of witchcraft. Fourteen more people are executed that year and 150 others are imprisoned.
1665 Pierre Antoine Lemoyne, French artist born in 1605.
click for portrait of Pascal^ 1623 Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, writer, religious philosopher, and physicist, born on 19 June 1623. — [click on eye for portrait >] — Pascal laid the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities, formulated what came to be known as Pascal's law of pressure, and propagated a religious doctrine that taught the experience of God through the heart rather than through reason. The establishment of his principle of intuitionism had an impact on such later philosophers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Henri Bergson and also on the Existentialists.
      Pascal's father, Étienne Pascal, was presiding judge of the tax court at Clermont-Ferrand. His mother died in 1626, and in 1631 the family moved to Paris. Étienne, who was respected as a mathematician, devoted himself henceforth to the education of his children. While his sister Jacqueline (born in 1625) figured as an infant prodigy in literary circles, Blaise proved himself no less precocious in mathematics. In 1640 he wrote an essay on conic sections, Essai pour les coniques, based on his study of the now classical work of Girard Desargues on synthetic projective geometry. The young man's work, which was highly successful in the world of mathematics, aroused the envy of no less a personage than the great French Rationalist and mathematician René Descartes. Between 1642 and 1644, Pascal conceived and constructed a calculating device to help his father, who in 1639 had been appointed intendant (local administrator) at Rouen, in his tax computations. The machine was regarded by Pascal's contemporaries as his main claim to fame, and with reason, for in a sense it was the first digital calculator since it operated by counting integers. The significance of this contribution explains the youthful pride that appears in his dedication of the machine to the chancellor of France, Pierre Seguier, in 1644.
      Until 1646 the Pascal family held strictly Catholic principles, though they often substituted l'honnêteté for inward religion. An illness of his father, however, brought Blaise into contact with a more profound expression of religion, for he met two disciples of the abbé de Saint-Cyran, who, as director of the convent of Port-Royal, had brought the austere moral and theological conceptions of Jansenism into the life and thought of the convent. Jansenism was a 17th-century form of Augustinianism in the Roman Catholic Church. It repudiated free will, accepted predestination, and taught that divine grace, rather than good works, was the key to salvation. The convent at Port-Royal had become the center for the dissemination of the doctrine. Pascal himself was the first to feel the necessity of entirely turning away from the world to God, and he won his family over to the spiritual life in 1646. His letters indicate that for several years he was his family's spiritual adviser, but the conflict within himself—between the world and ascetic life—was not yet resolved. Absorbed again in his scientific interests, he tested the theories of Galileo and Evangelista Torricelli (an Italian physicist who discovered the principle of the barometer). To do so, he reproduced and amplified experiments on atmospheric pressure by constructing mercury barometers and measuring air pressure, both in Paris and on the top of a mountain overlooking Clermont-Ferrand. These tests paved the way for further studies in hydrodynamics and hydrostatics. While experimenting, Pascal invented the syringe and created the hydraulic press, an instrument based upon the principle that became known as Pascal's law: pressure applied to a confined liquid is transmitted undiminished through the liquid in all directions regardless of the area to which the pressure is applied. His publications on the problem of the vacuum (1647–1648) added to his reputation. When he fell ill from overwork, his doctors advised him to seek distractions; but what has been described as Pascal's“worldly period” (1651–1654) was, in fact, primarily a period of intense scientific work, during which he composed treatises on the equilibrium of liquid solutions, on the weight and density of air, and on the arithmetic triangle: Traité de l'équilibre des liqueurs et de la pesanteur de la masse de l'air and also his Traité du triangle arithmétique. In the last treatise, a fragment of the De Alea Geometriae, he laid the foundations for the calculus of probabilities. By the end of 1653, however, he had begun to feel religious scruples; and the “night of fire,” an intense, perhaps mystical “conversion” that he experienced on 23 November 1654, he believed to be the beginning of a new life. He entered Port-Royal in January 1655, and though he never became one of the solitaires, he thereafter wrote only at their request and never again published in his own name. The two works for which he is chiefly known, Les Provinciales and the Pensées, date from the years of his life spent at Port-Royal.
      Written in defense of Antoine Arnauld, an opponent of the Jesuits and a defender of Jansenism who was on trial before the faculty of theology in Paris for his controversial religious works, Pascal's 18 Lettres écrites par Louis de Montalte à un provincial deal with divine grace and the ethical code of the Jesuits. They are better known as Les Provinciales. They included a blow against the relaxed morality that the Jesuits were said to teach and that was the weak point in their controversy with Port-Royal; Pascal quotes freely Jesuit dialogues and discrediting quotations from their own works, sometimes in a spirit of derision, sometimes with indignation. In the two last letters, dealing with the question of grace, Pascal proposed a conciliatory position that was later to make it possible for Port-Royal to subscribe to the “Peace of the Church,” a temporary cessation of the conflict over Jansenism, in 1668.
      The Provinciales were an immediate success, and their popularity has remained undiminished. This they owe primarily to their form, in which for the first time bombast and tedious rhetoric are replaced by variety, brevity, tautness, and precision of style; as Nicolas Boileau, the founder of French literary criticism, recognized, they marked the beginning of modern French prose. Something of their popularity, moreover, in fashionable, Protestant, or skeptical circles, must be attributed to the violence of their attack on the Jesuits. In England they have been most widely read when Roman Catholicism has seemed a threat to the Church of England. Yet they have also helped Catholicism to rid itself of laxity; and, in 1678, Pope Innocent XI himself condemned half of the propositions that Pascal had denounced earlier. Thus, the Provinciales played a decisive part in promoting a return to inner religion and helped to secure the eventual triumph of the ideas set forth in Antoine Arnauld's treatise De la fréquente communion (1643), in which he protested against the idea that the profligate could atone for continued sin by frequent communion without repentance, a thesis that thereafter remained almost unchallengeable until the French church felt the repercussion of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (which had granted religious freedom to French Protestants) in 1685. Whereas the Jesuits seemed to represent a Counter-Reformation predominantly concerned with orthodoxy and obedience to ecclesiastical authority, the Provinciales advocated a more spiritual approach, emphasizing the soul's union with the Mystical Body of Christ through charity.
      Further, by rejecting any double standard of morality and the distinction between counsel and precept, Pascal aligned himself with those who believe the ideal of evangelical perfection to be inseparable from the Christian life. Although there was nothing original in these opinions, Pascal nevertheless stamped them with the passionate conviction of a man in love with the absolute, of a man who saw no salvation apart from a heartfelt desire for the truth, together with a love of God that works continually toward destroying all self-love. For Pascal, morality cannot be separated from spirituality. Moreover, his own spiritual development can be traced in the Provinciales. The religious sense in them becomes progressively refined after the first letters, in which the tone of ridicule is smart rather than charitable.
      Pascal finally decided to write his work of Christian apologetics, Apologie de la religion chrétienne, as a consequence of his meditations on miracles and other proofs of Christianity. The work remained unfinished at his death. Between the summers of 1657 and 1658, he put together most of the notes and fragments that editors have published under the inappropriate title Pensées. In the Apologie, Pascal shows the man without grace to be an incomprehensible mixture of greatness and abjectness, incapable of truth or of reaching the supreme good to which his nature nevertheless aspires. A religion that accounts for these contradictions, which he believed philosophy and worldliness fail to do, is for that very reason “to be venerated and loved.” The indifference of the skeptic, Pascal wrote, is to be overcome by means of the “wager”: if God does not exist, the skeptic loses nothing by believing in him; but if he does exist, the skeptic gains eternal life by believing in him. Pascal insists that men must be brought to God through Jesus Christ alone, because a creature could never know the infinite if Jesus had not descended to assume the proportions of man's fallen state.
      The second part of the work applies the Augustinian theory of allegorical interpretation to the biblical types (figuratifs); reviews the rabbinical texts, the persistence of true religion, the work of Moses, and the proofs concerning Jesus Christ's God-like role; and, finally, gives a picture of the primitive church and the fulfillment of the prophecies. The Apologie (Pensées) is a treatise on spirituality. Pascal was not interested in making converts if they were not going to be saints.
      Pascal's apologetics, though it has stood the test of time, is primarily addressed to individuals of his own acquaintance. To convert his libertine friends, he looked for arguments in their favorite authors: in Michel de Montaigne, in the Skeptic Pierre Charron, in the Epicurean Pierre Gassendi, and in Thomas Hobbes, an English political philosopher. For Pascal, Skepticism was but a stage. Modernist theologians in particular have tried to make use of his main contention, that “man is infinitely more than man,” in isolation from his other contention, that man's wretchedness is explicable only as the effect of a Fall, about which a man can learn what he needs to know from history. In so doing, they sacrifice the second part of the Apologie to the first, keeping the philosophy while losing the exegesis. For Pascal as for St. Paul, Jesus Christ is the second Adam, inconceivable without the first.
      Finally, too, Pascal expressly admitted that his psychological analyses were not by themselves sufficient to exclude a “philosophy of the absurd”; to do so, it is necessary to have recourse to the convergence of these analyses with the “lines of fact” concerning revelation, this convergence being too extraordinary not to appear as the work of providence to an anguished seeker after truth (qui cherche en gémissant).
      He was next again involved in scientific work. First, the “Messieurs de Port-Royal” themselves asked for his help in composing the Élements de géométrie; and second, it was suggested that he should publish what he had discovered about cycloid curves, a subject on which the greatest mathematicians of the time had been working. Once more fame aroused in him feelings of self-esteem; but from February 1659, illness brought him back to his former frame of mind, and he composed the “prayer for conversion” that the English clergymen Charles and John Wesley, who founded the Methodist Church, were later to regard so highly. Scarcely capable of regular work, he henceforth gave himself over to helping the poor and to the ascetic and devotional life. He took part intermittently, however, in the disputes to which gave rise the “Formulary”, a document condemning five propositions of Jansenism that, at the demand of the church authorities, had to be signed before a person could receive the sacraments. Finally a difference of opinion with the theologians of Port-Royal led him to withdraw from controversy, though he did not sever his relations with them.
      Pascal died after suffering terrible pain, probably from carcinomatous meningitis following a malignant ulcer of the stomach. He was assisted by a non-Jansenist parish priest.
      At once a physicist, a mathematician, an eloquent publicist in the Provinciales, and an inspired artist in the Apologie and in his private notes, Pascal was embarrassed by the very abundance of his talents. It has been suggested that it was his too concrete turn of mind that prevented his discovering the infinitesimal calculus; and in some of the Provinciales the mysterious relations of human beings with God are treated as if they were a geometrical problem. But these considerations are far outweighed by the profit that he drew from the multiplicity of his gifts; his religious writings are rigorous because of his scientific training; and his love of the concrete emerges no less from the stream of quotations in the Provinciales than from his determination to reject the vigorous method of attack that he had used so effectively in his Apologie.
—      The son of a judge in the French tax court, the teenage Pascal invented a calculating device to help his father's tax computations. The counting device relied on a series of wheels divided into ten parts each, representing the integers 0-9. The wheels, which were connected by gears and turned by a stylus, kept track of sums as numbers were added and subtracted. In mathematics he worked on conic sections and produced important theorems in projective geometry. In correspondence with Fermat he laid the foundation for the theory of probability.
—   Blaise Pascal (mort le 19 Aug 1662), philosophe, mathématicien, savant et inventeur (le calcul des probabilités, la machine à calculer), un des génies de ce XVII° siècle français, si fécond en génie de toutes sortes. La condition de l’Homme sur la terre conduit le mathématicien inquiet à “parier” sur l’existence de Dieu. “Pesons le gain et la perte, en prenant croix [c.à d. face, jouons à pile ou face] que Dieu est. Estimons ces deux cas. Si vous gagnez, vous gagnez tout. Si vous perdez, vous ne perdez rien. Gagez donc qu’il est, sans hésiter!”
      Ses Pensées restent une source inépuisable de réflexion encore très moderne au niveau existentiel. “Le moi est haïssable”,“Pensée fait la grandeur de l’Homme”, “Le nez de Cléopâtre, s’il eût été plus court, toute la face de la terre aurait changé”, “L’Homme n’est qu’un roseau, le plus faible de la nature, mais c’est un roseau pensant”, “Le cœur a ses raisons que la raison ne connaît point”, “L'affection ou la haine changent la justice de face”.

PASCAL ONLINE:
  • Correspondance diverse
  • La Machine arithmétique
  • La Machine d'Arithmétique
  • La Machine d'Arithmétique
  • Le "Mémorial"
  • Petits écrits philosophiques et religieux
  • Les Provinciales ou Les lettres écrites par Louis de Montalte à un Provincial de ses Amis et aux RR. PP. Jésuites sur le Sujet de la Morale, et de la Politique de ces Pères
  • Pensées
  • Pensées (éd. 1671)
  • Pensées de M. Pascal sur la Religion et sur quelques autres Sujets, qui ont esté trouvées après sa Mort parmy ses Papiers
  • Pascal's Theorem

    1657 Frans Snyders, Flemish painter born on 11 November 1579. — MORE ON SNYDERS AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1646 Francesco Furini, Florentine painter born in 1604. — MORE ON FURINI AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1493 Frederick III Innsbruck Austria, German Emperor (1440-1493)
    0440 Saint Sixtus III Pope
    -14 -BC- Octavian [Augustus], 48, Roman general
     
    < 18 Aug 20 Aug >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 19 August:

    2003 Mei Sheng, male giant panda, at the San Diego Zoo, to Bai Yun, 13, on loan from China. The newborn “giant” is about 10cm long. Its twin is stillborn two days later. Bai Yun gave birth before: to Hua Mei, on 21 August 1999.
    ^ 1946 William Jefferson Blythe IV “Bill” Clinton, Democrat, Little Rock attorney, Arkansas governor, 42nd president of the United States (1993–2001), 2nd one to be impeached and not convicted. Clinton oversaw the US's longest peacetime economic expansion.
          Bill Clinton was born after his father, traveling salesman William Jefferson Blythe III [27 Feb 1918 – 17 May 1946], died in an automobile accident. Bill Clinton's mother, Virginia Dell Cassidy Blythe, then married Roger Clinton Sr. [1908-1967], and despite their unstable union (they divorced and then remarried) and Roger Clinton's alcoholism, her son eventually took his stepfather's name. Bill Clinton was reared in part by his maternal grandmother. His political aspirations, which he developed at an early age, were solidified (by his own account) in July 1963, when he met and shook hands with US President John F. Kennedy [29 May 1917 – 22 Nov 1963]. Clinton attended Georgetown University in Washington DC, graduating in 1968 with a degree in international affairs. Like many young men of his generation, Clinton opposed the Vietnam War. He received a draft deferment for the first year of his studies as a Rhodes scholar at the University of Oxford in 1968 and later attempted to extend the deferment by applying to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program at the University of Arkansas School of Law. Although he soon changed his plans and returned to Oxford, thus making himself eligible for the draft, he was not chosen. While at Oxford, Clinton wrote a letter to the director of the Arkansas ROTC program thanking the director for “saving” him from the draft and explaining his concern that his opposition to the war could ruin his future “political viability.” During this period, Clinton also experimented with marijuana, though he would later memorably claim that he “didn't inhale.”
          After graduating from the Yale University Law School in 1973, he joined the faculty of the University of Arkansas School of Law, where he taught until 1976. In 1974 he ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1975 he married a fellow Yale Law graduate, attorney Hillary Rodham [26 Oct 1947~], who thereafter took an active role in his political career. The following year he was elected attorney general of Arkansas, and in 1978 he won the governorship, becoming the youngest governor the country had seen in 40 years.
          After an eventful two-year term as governor, Clinton failed in his reelection attempt in 1980, the year his daughter and only child, Chelsea, was born. After apologizing to voters for unpopular decisions he made as governor (such as highway improvement projects funded by increases in the state gasoline tax and automobile licensing fees), he regained the governor's office in 1982 and was successively reelected three more times by substantial margins. A pragmatic, centrist Democrat, he imposed mandatory competency testing for teachers and students and encouraged investment in Arkansas by granting tax breaks to industries. He became a prominent member of the Democratic Leadership Council, a group that sought to recast the party's agenda away from its traditional liberalism and move it closer to the center of US political life.
          Clinton declared his candidacy for president while still governor of Arkansas. His campaign was nearly derailed just before the New Hampshire presidential primary by widespread press coverage of his alleged 12-year affair with an Arkansas woman. Clinton and his wife subsequently admitted to having marital problems in an interview watched by millions of viewers on the television news program 60 Minutes. Clinton's popularity soon rebounded, and he scored a strong second-place showing in New Hampshire, a performance for which he labeled himself the “Comeback Kid.” On the strength of his middle-of-the-road approach, his apparent sympathy for the concerns of ordinary people (his statement “I feel your pain” was an often mocked phrase), and his personal warmth, he eventually won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1992. Facing incumbent President George Bush Sr., Clinton and his running mate, Tennessee Senator Al Gore [31 Mar 1948~], emphasized the political and economic stagnation brought on by 12 years of Republican leadership. In November the Clinton-Gore ticket defeated both Bush and independent candidate Ross Perot [27 Jun 1930~] with 43% of the popular vote to 38% for Bush and 19% for Perot; Clinton won the electoral vote over Bush 370 to 168.
         The new Clinton administration got off to a shaky start. His attempt to fulfill a campaign promise to end discrimination against homosexuals in the military was met with criticism from conservatives and some military leaders, including General Colin Powell [05 Apr 1937~], the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In response, Clinton proposed a compromise policy (summed up by the phrase “don't ask, don't tell”) that failed to satisfy either side of the issue. Clinton's first two nominees for attorney general withdrew after questions were raised about domestic workers they had hired. Clinton's efforts to sign campaign-finance reform legislation were quashed by a Republican filibuster in the Senate, as was his economic stimulus package.
          Clinton had also promised during the campaign to institute a system of universal health insurance. His appointment of his wife to chair the Task Force on National Health Care Reform, a novel role for the country's first lady, was criticized by conservatives, who objected both to the propriety of the arrangement and to Hillary Clinton's feminist views. They joined lobbyists for the insurance industry, small-business organizations, and the American Medical Association to campaign vehemently against the task force's eventual proposal, the Health Security Act. Despite protracted negotiations with Congress, all efforts to pass compromise legislation failed.
          Despite these early missteps, Clinton's first term was marked by numerous successes, including the passage by Congress of the North American Free Trade Agreement, which created a free-trade zone between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Clinton also appointed more women and minority members to significant government posts throughout his administration, including Janet Reno [21 Jul 1938~] as attorney general, Donna Shalala as secretary of Health and Human Services, Joycelyn Elders as surgeon general, Madeleine Albright [15 May 1937~] as the first woman secretary of state, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg [15 Mar 1933~] as the second woman justice on the United States Supreme Court. During Clinton's first term, Congress enacted a deficit reduction package (which passed the Senate with a tie breaking vote from Gore) and some 30 major bills related to women and family issues, including the Family and Medical Leave Act and the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.
          In 1994 the Republicans gained a majority in both houses of Congress for the first time in 40 years. A chastened Clinton subsequently accommodated some of the Republican program, offering a more aggressive deficit reduction plan and a massive overhaul of the country's welfare system, while continuing to oppose Republican efforts to slow the growth of government spending on many social programs. Ultimately the uncompromising and confrontational behavior of the new Republicans in Congress produced the opposite of what they intended, and Clinton won considerable public sympathy for his more moderate approach. Clinton's initiatives in foreign policy included a successful effort in September and October 1994 to reinstate Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide [15 Jul 1953~], who had been ousted by a military coup in 1991; the sponsorship of peace talks and the eventual Dayton Accords (1995) aimed at ending the ethnic conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and a leading role in the ongoing attempt to bring a permanent resolution of the dispute between Palestinians and Israelis. In 1993 he invited Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin [01 Mar 1922 – 04 Nov 1995] and Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasir 'Arafat [24 Aug 1929~] to Washington to sign a historic agreement that granted limited Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.
          Scandal was never far from the Clinton White House: a fellow Arkansan who had been part of the administration committed suicide; there were rumours of financial irregularities that had occurred in Little Rock; former associates were indicted and convicted of crimes; and rumours of sexual impropriety involving the president persisted. Yet Clinton was handily reelected in 1996, buoyed by a recovering and increasingly strong economy. He got 49% of the popular vote, Republican Bob Dole [22 Jul 1923~] got 41% and Perot 8%; the electoral vote was for 379 Clinton, 159 for Dole. Economic growth continued during Clinton's second term, eventually setting a record for the country's longest peacetime expansion. By 1998 the Clinton administration oversaw the first balanced budget since 1969 and the largest budget surpluses in the country's history. The vibrant economy also produced historically high levels of home ownership and the lowest unemployment rate in nearly 30 years.
          During Clinton's first term, Attorney General Reno approved an investigation into business dealings by Clinton and his wife with an Arkansas housing development corporation known as Whitewater. Led from1994 by independent counsel Kenneth Starr, the Whitewater inquiry consumed several years and more than $50 million without turning up any conclusive evidence of wrongdoing by the Clintons. However, when Starr was allowed to expand the scope of his investigation, he uncovered evidence of an affair between Clinton and White House intern Monica Lewinsky. Clinton repeatedly and publicly denied that the affair had taken place. Ultimately forced to testify, he equivocated and stretched word definitions, for example he responded to one question with the sentence, “It depends on what the meaning of the word is is”, prompting renewed criticism of his flawed character. After conclusive evidence of the affair surfaced, Clinton apologized to his family and to the US public. On the basis of Starr's 445-page report and supporting evidence, the House of Representatives in 1998 approved two articles of impeachment, for perjury and obstruction of justice. Clinton was acquitted of the charges by the Senate in 1999. Despite his impeachment, Clinton's job approval rating remained high.
          In foreign affairs, Clinton ordered a four-day bombing campaign against Iraq in December 1998 in response to Iraq's failure to cooperate fully with UN weapons inspectors (the bombingcoincided with the start of full congressional debate on his impeachment). Perhaps the most significant event of Clinton's second term came in 1999, when US-led forces of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) conducted a successful three-month bombing campaign against Yugoslavia designed to end Serbian attacks on ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo. Clinton also became the first US president to visit Vietnam since the end of the Vietnam War, and he was hailed as a peacemaker in visits to Ireland and Northern Ireland.He spent the last weeks of his presidency in an unsuccessful effort to broker a final peace agreement between the Israelis and the Palestinians.
          Shortly before he left office, Clinton issued a number of pardons, including one to the former spouse of a major Democratic Party contributor. Many of the pardons were roundly criticized by Democrats and Republicans alike. Nevertheless, Clinton remained active in political affairs, even agreeing to participate in a weekly debate with Bob Dole on the television program 60 Minutes, and was a popular speaker on the lecture circuit.
          In 1999 Hillary Rodham Clinton launched her candidacy for the New York Senate seat being vacated by Democrat Daniel Patrick Moynihan [16 Mar 1927 – 27 Mar 2003]. After a hard-fought race she defeated Republican Representative Rick Lazio to become the first wife of a US president to win elected office.
    1939 Alan Baker, English mathematician
    1919 Malcolm Forbes, Sr. (publishing magnate: Forbes magazine), candidate for Republican presidential nomination (1996)
    1915 Ring Lardner (writer: You Know Me, Haircut and Other Stories)
    ^ 1906 Philo Farnsworth, in Beaver, Utah, television pioneer
          Philo T. Farnsworth would grow up to imagine the principles of television during high school and later begin researching image transmission at Brigham Young University. In 1927 he would transmit the first television image-ironically, a dollar sign-made up of 60 horizontal lines. He went on to patent 165 devices pertaining to the television, including cathode ray tubes, amplifiers, vacuum tubes, and electrical scanners. He cofounded Crocker Research Labs in 1926, which became Farnsworth Television Inc. in 1929, and later Farnsworth Radio and TV Corporation.
    1903 James Gould Cozzens US, 1949-(Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist: Guard of Honor [1948]; S.S. San Pedro, The Last Adam, By Love Possessed)
    1902 Ogden Nash Rye NY, humorous poet (I'm a Stranger Here Myself)
    1899 Bradley Walker Tomlin, US artist who died in 1953.
    1886 The Christian Union is founded by Baptist clergyman Richard G. Spurling (1858-1935) in Monroe County, Tennessee. In 1923, this pentecostal denomination changed its name to the Church of God. Headquartered today in Cleveland, Tennessee, its current membership is nearly 500'000.
    1883 Coco (Gabrielle) Chanel (fashion designer; perfume creator: Chanel #5)
    1881 Georges Enesco (or Enescu) Romania, composer (Romanian Dances)
    1878 Manuel Quezon first president of Philippine Commonwealth (1935-42)
    1871 Orville Wright (one of the Wright Brothers: pioneers in aviation)
    1870 Bernard Baruch financier/presidential adviser (financier; chairman of War Industries Board [WWI]; US representative to UN Atomic Energy Commission; presidential adviser)
    1860 John Kane Scottish-born US primitivist painter (Self-Portrait)
    1848 Gustave Caillebote, French artist who died on 21 February 1894. — MORE ON CAILLEBOTE AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1844 Minna Canth Finland, novelist/dramatist (social evils)
    1829 Edward Moran, US painter who died on 09 June 1901 MORE ON MORAN AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1808 Petrus Jan Schotel, Dutch artist who died on 23 July 1865.
    1805 Josef Dankhauser, Austrian artist who died on 04 May 1845. — MORE ON DANHAUSER AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1785 Seth Thomas pioneer in mass production of clocks
    1739 Georg Simon Klügel, German mathematician who died on 04 August 1812.
    1736 Erland Samuel Bring, Swedish mathematician who died on 20 May 1798. Author of Meletemata quaedam mathematematica circa transformationem aequationum algebraicarum (1786).
    1689 Samuel Richardson English novelist (Pamela) (baptized)
    1646 John Flamsteed, English astronomer who died on 31 December 1719. He published accurate astronomical observations and was the first Astronomer Royal.
    ^ 1631 (09 August Julian) John Dryden, English poet, dramatist, and literary critic, who died on 12 May (01 May Julian) 1700.
         Dryden so dominated the literary scene of his day that it came to be known as the Age of Dryden. He was the first official Poet Laureate of Great Britain (1668 to1700).
          The son of a country gentleman, Dryden grew up in the country. When he was 11 years old theCivil War broke out. Both his father's and mother's families sided with Parliament against the king, but Dryden's own sympathies then are unknown.
          About 1644 Dryden was admitted to Westminster School, where he received a predominantly classical education under the celebrated Richard Busby. His easy and lifelong familiarity with classical literature begun at Westminster later resulted in idiomatic English translations.
          In 1650 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1654. What Dryden did between leaving the university in 1654 and the Restoration of Charles II in 1660 isnot known with certainty. In 1659 his contribution to a memorial volume for Oliver Cromwell marked him as a poet worth watching. His “heroic stanzas” were mature, considered, sonorous,and sprinkled with those classical and scientific allusions that characterized his later verse. This kind of public poetry was always one of the things Dryden did best.
          When in May 1660 Charles II was restored to the throne, Dryden joined the poets of the day in welcoming him, publishing in June Astraea Redux, a poem of more than 300 lines in rhymed couplets. For the coronation in 1661, he wrote To His Sacred Majesty. These two poems were designed to dignify and strengthen the monarchy and to invest the young monarch with an aura of majesty, permanence, and even divinity. Thereafter Dryden's literary productivity was remarkable and his touch almost invariably confident and sure. On 11 December 1663, he married Elizabeth Howard, the youngest daughter of Thomas Howard, 1st earl of Berkshire. In due course she bore him three sons.
          Dryden's longest poem to date, Annus Mirabilis (1667), was a celebration of two victories by the English fleet over the Dutch and the Londoners' survival of the Great Fire of 1666. In this work Dryden was once again gilding the royal image and reinforcing the concept of a loyal nation united under the best of kings. It was hardly surprising that when the poet laureate, Sir William Davenant, died in 1668, Dryden was appointed poet laureate in his place and two years later was appointed royal historiographer.
         Soon after his restoration to the throne in 1660, Charles II granted two patents for theatres, which had been closed by the Puritans in 1642. Dryden soon joined the little band of dramatists who were writing new plays for the revived English theatre. His first play, The Wild Gallant, a farcical comedy with some strokes of humour and a good deal of licentious dialogue,was produced in 1663. It was a comparative failure, but in January 1664 he had some share in the success of The Indian Queen, a heroic tragedy in rhymed couplets in which he had collaborated with Sir Robert Howard. Dryden was soon to successfully exploit this new and popular genre, with its conflicts between love and honour and its lovely heroines before whosecharms the blustering heroes sank down in awed submission. In the spring of 1665 Dryden had his own first outstanding success with The Indian Emperour, a play that was a sequel to The Indian Queen.
          In 1667 Dryden had another success with a tragicomedy, Secret Love, or the Maiden Queen, which appealed particularly to the king. The part of Florimel, a gay and witty maid of honor, was played to perfection by the king's latest mistress, Nell Gwynn. In Florimel's rattling exchanges with Celadon, the Restoration aptitude for witty repartee reached a new level of accomplishment. In 1667 Dryden also reworked for the stage Molière's comedy L'Étourdi (translated by William Cavendish, duke of Newcastle) under the title Sir Martin Mar-all.
          In 1668 Dryden published Of Dramatick Poesie, an Essay, a leisurely discussion between four contemporary writers of whom Dryden (as Neander) is one. This work is a defense of English drama against the champions of both ancient Classical drama and the Neoclassical French theatre; it is also an attempt to discover general principles of dramatic criticism. By deploying his disputants so as to break down the conventional oppositions of ancient and modern, Frenchand English, Elizabethan and Restoration, Dryden deepens and complicates the discussion. This is the first substantial piece of modern dramatic criticism; it is sensible, judicious, and exploratory and combines general principles and analysis in a gracefully informal style. Dryden's approach in this and all his best criticism is characteristically speculative and shows the influence of detached scientific inquiry.
          In 1668 Dryden agreed to write exclusively for Thomas Killigrew's company at the rate of three plays a year and became a shareholder entitled to one-tenth of the profits. Although Dryden averaged only a play a year, the contract apparently was mutually profitable. In June 1669 he gave the company Tyrannick Love, with its blustering and blaspheming hero Maximin. In December of the next year came the first part of The Conquest of Granada by the Spaniards, followed by the second part about a month later. All three plays were highly successful; and in the character Almanzor, the intrepid hero of The Conquest of Granada, the theme of love and honor reached its climax. But the vein had now been almost worked out, as seen in the 1671 production of that witty burlesque of heroic drama The Rehearsal, by George Villiers, 2nd duke of Buckingham, in which Dryden (Mr. Bayes) was the main satirical victim. The Rehearsal did not kill the heroic play, however; as late as November 1675, Dryden staged his last and most intelligent example of the genre, Aureng-Zebe. In this play he abandoned the use of rhymed couplets for that of blank verse.
          In writing those heroic plays, Dryden had been catering to an audience that was prepared to be stunned into admiration by drums and trumpets, rant and extravagance, stage battles, rich costumes, and exotic scenes. His abandonment of crowd-pleasing rant and bombast was symbolized in 1672 with his brilliant comedy Marriage à-la-Mode, in which the Restoration battle of the sexes was given a sophisticated and civilized expression that only Sir George Etherege and William Congreve at their best would equal. Equally fine in a different mode was his tragedy All for Love (1677), based on Antony and Cleopatra of Shakespeare and written in a flowing but controlled blank verse. Dryden had now entered what may be called his Neoclassical period, and, if his new tragedy was not without some echoes of the old extravagance, it was admirably constructed, with the action developing naturally from situation and character.
          By 1678 Dryden was at loggerheads with his fellow shareholders in the Killigrew company, which was in grave difficulties owing to mismanagement. Dryden offered his tragedy Oedipus, a collaboration with Nathaniel Lee, to a rival theatre company and ceased to be a Killigrew shareholder.
         Since the publication of Annus Mirabilis 12 years earlier, Dryden had given almost all his time to playwriting. If he had died in 1680, it is as a dramatist that he would be chiefly remembered. Now, in the short space of two years, he was to make his name as the greatest verse satirist that England had so far produced. In 1681 the king's difficulties, arising from political misgivings that his brother, James, the Roman Catholic duke of York, might succeed him, had come to a head. Led by the earl of Shaftesbury, the Whig Party leaders had used the Popish Plot to try to exclude James in favor of Charles's illegitimate Protestant son, the duke of Monmouth. But the king's shrewd maneuvers eventually turned public opinion against the Whigs, and Shaftesbury was imprisoned on a charge of high treason.
          As poet laureate in those critical months Dryden could not stand aside, and in November 1681he came to the support of the king with his Absalom and Achitophel, so drawing upon himself the wrath of the Whigs. Adopting as his framework the Old Testament story of King David (Charles II), his favorite son Absalom (Monmouth), and the false Achitophel (Shaftesbury), who persuaded Absalom to revolt against his father, Dryden gave a satirical version of the events of the past few years as seen from the point of view of the king and his Tory ministers and yet succeeded in maintaining the heroic tone suitable to the king and to the seriousness of the political situation. As anti-Whig propaganda, ridiculing their leaders in a succession of ludicrous satirical portraits, Dryden's poem is a masterpiece of confident denunciation; as pro-Tory propaganda it is equally remarkable for its serene and persuasive affirmation. When a London grand jury refused to indict Shaftesbury for treason, his fellow Whigs voted him a medal. In response Dryden published early in 1682 The Medall, a work full of unsparing invective against the Whigs, prefaced by a vigorous and plainspoken prose “Epistle to the Whigs.” In the same year, anonymously and apparently without Dryden's authority, there also appeared in print his famous extended lampoon, Mac Flecknoe, written about four years earlier. What triggered this devastating attack on the Whig playwright Thomas Shadwell has never been satisfactorily explained; all that can be said is that in Mac Flecknoe Shadwell's abilities as a literary artist and critic are ridiculed so ludicrously and with such good-humouredcontempt that his reputation has suffered ever since. The basis of the satire, which represents Shadwell as a literary dunce, is the disagreement between him and Dryden over the quality ofBen Jonson's wit. Dryden thinks Jonson deficient in this quality, while Shadwell regards the Elizabethan playwright with uncritical reverence. This hilarious comic lampoon was both the first English mock-heroic poem and the immediate ancestor of The Dunciad of Alexander Pope [21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744].
          In 1685, after the newly acceded king James II seemed to be moving to Catholic toleration, Dryden was received into the Roman Catholic church. In his longest poem, the beast fable The Hind and the Panther (1687), he argued the case for his adopted church against the Church of England and the sects. The abdication of James II in 1688 destroyed Dryden's political prospects, and he lost his laureateship to Shadwell. He turned to the theater again. The tragedy Don Sebastian (1689) failed, but Amphitryon (1690) succeeded, helped by the music of Henry Purcell. Dryden collaborated with Purcell in a dramatic opera, King Arthur (1691), which succeeded. His tragedyCleomenes was long refused a license because of what was thought to be the politically dangerous material in it, and with the failure of the tragicomedy Love Triumphant in 1694, Dryden stopped writing for the stage.
          In the 1680s and '90s Dryden supervised poetical miscellanies and translated the works of Juvenal and Persius for the publisher Jacob Tonson with success. In 1692 he published Eleonora, a long memorial poem commissioned for a handsome fee by the husband of the Countess of Abingdon. But his great late work was his translation of Virgil, contracted by Tonson in 1694 and published in 1697. Dryden was now the grand old man of English letters and was often seen at Will's Coffee-House chatting with younger writers. His last work for Tonson was Fables Ancient and Modern (1700), which were mainly verse adaptations from the works of Ovid, Geoffrey Chaucer, and Giovanni Boccaccio, introduced with a critical preface. He died in 1700 and was buried in Westminster Abbey between Chaucer and Abraham Cowley in the Poets' Corner.
          Besides being the greatest English poet of the later 17th century, Dryden wrote almost 30 tragedies, comedies, and dramatic operas. He also made a valuable contribution in his commentaries on poetry and drama, which are sufficiently extensive and original to entitle him to be considered, in the words of Dr. Samuel Johnson, as “the father of English criticism.”
          After Dryden's death his reputation remained high for the next 100 years, and even in the Romantic period the reaction against him was never so great as that against Alexander Pope. In the 20th century there was a notable revival of interest in his poems, plays, and criticism, and much scholarly work was done on them. In the late 20th century his reputation stood almost as high as at any time since his death.

    DRYDEN ONLINE:
  • Absalom and Achitophel
  • All for Love
  • All for Love (another site)
  • All for Love (a 3rd site)
  • Discourses on Satire and on Epic Poetry
  • Mac Flecknoe
  • The Medal: A Satire Against Sedition
  • Of Dramatic Poesie
  • Palamon and Arcite
  • Translations by Dryden:
    1621 Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch biblical, genre, and portrait painter, who died on 29 September 1674. — MORE ON VAN DEN EECKHOUT AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1584 Pierre Vernier, Ornans, Franche-Comté (then under the Spanish Habsburgs), government official, engineer, surveyor, mathematician, who died on 14 September 1638. Author of La Construction, l'usage, et les propriétés du quadrant nouveau de mathématiques (1631), in which he gives a table of sines and a method for deriving the angles of a triangle if its sides are known. He also describes his most famous invention, that of the vernier caliper.
    1398 Iñigo López Spain, marques de Santillana, poet (Comedieta de Ponza)
     
    Ethiopia : Buhe / US : National Aviation Day (1939)

    Religious Observances Orth : Transfiguration of Our Lord (06 August Julian) / RC : St John Eudes, confessor/priest (opt)
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “There is as much greatness in acknowledging a good turn, as there is in doing it.”
    “When someone dies, why do people go into mourning, and not into eavening?”
    “When the gray sky does not hear prayers for sunshine, why do people say it's a Grade~A, and not a Grade~F?”
    “Why do motorists park on a driveway and drive on a parkway?”

    “Outside of a dog, the best friend of man is a book. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read.” — Groucho Marx [02 Oct 1890 – 19 Aug 1977]
    "Don't compromise yourself. You are all you've got."
    Janis Joplin, US rock singer [19 Jan 1943 – 04 Oct 1970].
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