a 15 August:
2004 In a referendum, Venezuelans vote not to recall President Hugo Chávez Frías [28 Jul 1954~] who had been elected by large majorities on 30 July 2000 for a term of office to 10 January 2007, and previously on 04 February 1998. A leftist, Chávez was opposed by the wealthy in Venezuela and by the US regime of “Dubya” Bush [06 Jul 1946~].
2002 On the New York Stock Exchange the stock of Aquila Inc. (ILA) drops from its previous close of $4.95 to an intraday low of $2.22 and closes at $2.40. It started trading on 29 September 1997 at $20.55, rose to a peak of $37.55 on 21 May 2001, and, as recently as 17 April 2002 traded at $25.23. [5~year price chart >]. Aquila runs two lines of business: Regulated: (operates electric utilities and provides appliance repair and servicing) and Aquila Energy (markets wholesale energy, transports and processes natural gas).
2001 Ley de Derechos y Cultura Indígena, a Mexican constitutional amendement for Amerindian rights takes effect. It falls short of what the Amerindians were promised.
2001 Captain Strasser...has been facing embarrassment by some members of the public throwing stones at him as well as booing him the government of Sierra Leone (independent since 27 April 1961), announces, urging people to stop harassing Valentine Strasser, 34, who became Africa's youngest head of state (dictator) when he seized power in April 1992 and was overthrown in a bloodless military coup on 16 January 1996. After being overthrown, Strasser went to study in Britain. But he lost the right to stay in the former colonial power after dropping his studies and was refused entry last November after a trip to Gambia. Strasser's coup failed to end the civil war that broke out in 1991. One more cease-fire was reached in November 2000. Captain Strasser's forces were accused of torture and murder during his four-year rule, and on 26 May 2000 Amnesty International demanded that he be brought to justice for crimes against humanity.
2000 British Airways joined Air France in grounding its Concorde supersonic jets in the wake of the 25 July crash near Paris that claimed 113 lives.
2000 A group of 100 separated family members from North Korea arrived in South Korea for temporary reunions with relatives they had not seen for half a century; a group of 100 South Koreans visited the North.
Birthdays in History for Wed, August 15 Cooking expert Julia Child is 89. Actress Dame Wendy Hiller is 89. Conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly is 77.
| 1991 The UN Security Council, by a vote of 13-1, authorized
Iraq to export $1.6 billion worth of oil in a tightly controlled sale to
pay for desperately needed food and medicine.
1991 El Comité de Descolonización de la ONU reafirma el derecho de Puerto Rico a la libre determinación de independencia.
1990 President Mikhail Gorbachev restores Soviet citizenship to 1970-Nobel Prizewinning author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, 71, expelled to the West in 1974 for his harrowing novels attacking Stalinism. He wrote (translated titles): One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962), The First Circle (1968), Cancer Ward (1968), August 1914 (1971), The Gulag Archipelago (1973 Part I, 1974-75 Parts II and III), Lenin in Zurich: Chapters (1975), The Oak and the Calf (1980), The Mortal Danger (1980), In 1983 an expanded version of August 1914 appeared as the first part of a projected series, The Red Wheel, which included also October 1916, March 1917, April 1917.
1990 El gobierno de Mozambique, tras abandonar el marxismo-leninismo, legaliza el multipartidismo.
1989 Restrictions are lifted on the export of certain personal computers, such as the IBM PS/2 Model 30 and the Apple Macintosh Plus, to Soviet bloc countries, because many similar products were already available in Soviet bloc countries. This had been decided in July by the international Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls.
1986 The US Treasury Department enters the computer age with the digital “Treasury Direct” system.
1979 Andrew Young (black) resigns under pressure as UN ambassador after unauthorized meeting with representatives of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The controversy would further divide the Black and Jewish communities.
1975 Joanne Little (Black) acquitted of murdering a White jailer with an ice pick on 27August 1974. She was defending herself against sexual assault..
1974 South Korean President Park Chung-Hee escapes assassination.
| 1950 Two US divisions are badly mauled by the North
Korean Army at the Battle of the Bowling Alley in South Korea, which rages
on for five more days.
1948 Republic of Korea (South Korea) proclaimed (National Day)
1942 The Japanese submarine I-25 departs Japan with a floatplane in its hold which will be assembled upon arriving off the West Coast of the United States, and used to bomb US forests on 09 September.
1931 Roy Wilkins joins NAACP as assistant secretary
1918 US and Russia sever diplomatic ties
1917 Deposed Tsar Nicholas II, family, and a few servants, are moved by Bolsteviks from their residence at Tsarskoe Selo to further imprisonment in Siberia.
1872 The first ballot voting in England is conducted
1870 Transcontinental Railway actually completed
1867 2nd Reform Bill extends suffrage in England
1864 Off New England coast, Confederate raider Tallahassee captures 6 yankee schooners
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1863 Submarine "HL Hunley" arrives in Charleston on railroad cars
1862 Skirmish at Clarendon, Arkansas
1832 Gregory XVI encyclical On liberalism & religious indifferentism
1824 Freed American slaves establish Liberia.
1790 Father John Carroll, 55, is consecrated by Pius VI as the first Roman Catholic bishop (later, in 1811, the first archbishop) of the United States, with his see in Baltimore, freeing US Catholics from English oversight.
1760 Frederick II defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Liegnitz.
1748 United Lutheran Church of US organized
1620 Mayflower sets sail from Southampton with 102 Pilgrims
1598 Battle of Yellow Ford: Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, leads an Irish force to victory over the British.
1549 The first Christian missionaries to reach Japan land at Kagoshima (on the coast of Kyushu, southernmost of the four main islands of Japan). They were Spanish Jesuits, led by pioneer Catholic missionary Francis Xavier, 43.
1534 The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was founded by Ignatius of Loyola, 43. Created to foster reform within Catholicism, and to undertake education and missionary work, this religious order was formally approved by Pope Paul III in 1540.
1514 Las Casas renounces his encomienda (colonial lands) believing they are an offense to God.
1385 John of Portugal defeats John of Castile at the Battle of Aljubarrota.
1261 Constantinople falls to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.
1096 The armies of the First Crusade set out from Europe to deliver Jerusalem from the occupying forces of Islamic Turks. Peter the Hermit, contrary to legend, was not its initiator. Pope Urban II had called for the crusade at the Council of Clermont on 27 November 1095.
1057 Macbeth, King of Scotland, slain by son of King Duncan
0347 The proconsul of Africa proclaims the Catholic unity of the African Church under Gratus after years of conflict with the Donatists. Donatus withdraws into exile.
2005 Michael Green, shot in the morning, in the Sandy Row neighborhood of Belfast, Northern Ireland, as he was arriving to his job as a delivery driver. The murderers were from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), which has been feuding with another Protestant extremist group, the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF), to which Green, a Protestant, may not even have belonged. Since the IRA declared a cease-fire in 1997, the UVF and the LVF have fought each other, often in connection with drug dealing and racketeering.
2004 One adult and 16 children (9 girls, 7 boys), by terrorist bomb at 09:00 as Independence Day parade was about to begin at the entrance of the College in Dhemaji, Assam, India. More than 40 persons, mostly children, are injured.
2003 James T. Whitehead, of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, US poet and teacher, born on 15 March 1936, best remembered for his one novel Joiner, the story of Sonny Joiner, an oversize former football player and a man of excesses, intellectual and otherwise, passionate about history, theological discourse, painting, politics, quarreling, literature, and sports; just like Whitehead (1m95 tall) whose hopes of a professional football career were dashed by an injury in college.
2002 Iman Farres, 5, by unprovoked Israeli army gunfire in a residential area in Khan Yunis, Gaza Strip, near the Jewish enclave settlement Ganei Tal, as he was with his family working on a plot of land. The boy's grandfather, Nidal Farres, 60, and three others ran to help him. The grandfather and another man, 40, were critically wounded.
2002 Kristen Tragus, 34, David Barkus, 30, Raienhna Bechtel, 22, and Jacob Bechtel, 3, shot by Michael Harley Bechtel, 26, who then shoots himself in the head, but survives, in Port Carbon, Pennsylvania. Early in the morning, Michael goes to the home of his estranged wife Raienhna, violating a March 2002 order barring him from any contact with her. He finds her at the kitchen table with friends Kristen and David, and shoots all three. Then he shoots his and Raienhna's son Jacob in his bed. On 13 September 2002 he is brought to court from the hospital, on a gurney, to be arraigned.
2002 Father Jean Guth, of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, French missionary for 30 years in the Republic of the Congo, pastor of Mayama, his malaria and hypertension aggravated by ill treatment by those who kidnapped him on 31 March 2002, cut one of his foot tendons, and constantly move him from place to place in the Bangou forest. His corpse would be discovered in September 2002. The date of death is estimated to be between 10 and 15 August 2002.
2002 Felipe Santiago Mendoza Navarro, asesinado en el Municipio de Tibú, Departamento de Santander, Colombia. El estaba afiliado a la Unión Sindical Obrera de la Industria del Petróleo, de la Central Unitaria de Trabajadores (USO-CUT). Fue sacado de su residencia en horas de la noche y 15 minutos más tarde fue hallado asesinado con varios impactos de bala en su rostro. Los responsables de este crimen son los grupos paramilitares, quienes además tienen amenazados a la dirigencia en su totalidad de la USO, estos hechos criminales indican del querer aniquilar a sangre y fuego a la organización sindical de los obreros petroleros en Colombia. · El día 15 de agosto de
2002 Amparo Figueroa, asesinada en el Municipio de Miranda, Departamento del Cauca, Colombia. Era afiliada a la Asociación Nacional de Trabajadores y Empleados de Hospitales, Clínicas, Consultorios y Entidades Dedicadas a Procurar La Salud de la Comunidad (ANTHOC- CUT), laboraba en el Hospital de Miranda, donde había sido trasladada hacia 10 meses para protegerle su vida debido a amenazas de grupos paramilitares, pero esta reubicación laboral no evito que fuera asesinada por quienes la había sentenciado a muerte. · El día 15 de agosto de
2002 Francisco Méndez Díaz, asesinado en la vía que conduce del Municipio de Chalán hacia la Ciudad de Sincelejo en el Departamento de Sucre, Colombia. Era afiliado a la Asociación de Educadores de Sucre (ADES-FECODE-CUT). Los hechos criminales se presentaron cuando se desplazaba de su sitio de residencia hacia su trabajo, fue contactado por hombres armados que lo bajaron de su vehículo junto con otros compañeros y minutos más tarde lo asesinaron. Los responsables de esta ejecución son los grupos paramilitares.
2002 Michael Wayne Short, 50, his wife Mary Hall Short, 36, and their daughter, Jennifer Renée Short, 9. The parents are found at 09:00 in their Bassett (at 10820 Virginia Avenue, along US 220 in the Oak Level area), Virginia, home, shot in the head earlier in the morning; Michael, a self-employed mobile home mover (M.S. Mobile Home Movers Inc.), on a couch in an enclosed carport; Mary in bed. The murder weapon is not found. Their daughter is also shot in the head before or after being taken away. Her bones would be found only on 25 September, 50 km south of her home. The news media report as likely murderer the carpenter Garrison Storm Bowman, 60, whose mobile home was nearby, who had threatened to kill someone in a dispute about moving the mobile home, and who would disappear on 16 August, only to be found in Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, where he would be arrested about 03 October 2002 for having entered Canada illegally a month earlier, then deported to the US but there released on 30 October 2002. No other suspect would be discovered, at least in the next two years. [Photos below. Most recent photo of Jennifer is at right]
| 2001 Emad Abu Sneineh, 25, ambushed and shot by Israeli
undercover troops in a parked truck, as he gets out of a car near his home.
The Israelis blamed him of being a militia leader heavily involved in shooting
attacks on Israelis in Hebron. There was no attempt to arrest him.
2001 Whale beached on Bar Beach, Lagos, Nigeria, torn apart for its meat by locals.
1998:: 30 persons: Sean McLaughlin, 12; Oran Doherty, 8, his near-neighbor in Buncrana, County Donegal, Republic of Ireland, from where was also James Barker, 12; and where was staying Fernando Blasco Baselga, 12, one of a group of Spanish exchange students led by Rocío Abad Ramos, 23; Deborah Anne Cartwright, 20; Gareth Conway, 18; Breda Devine, 20 months; Aidan Gallagher, 21; Esther Gibson, 36; Olive Hawkes, 60; Julia Hughes, 21; Brenda Logue, 17; Anne McCombe, 45; her friend and co-worker Geraldine Breslin, 43; Brian McCrory, 54; Samantha McFarland, 17; her best friend Lorraine Wilson, 15; Jolene Marlow, 17; Mary Grimes, 65; her daughter Avril Monaghan , 30; Avril's twins due to be born in 2 months, and her daughter Maura Monaghan, 18 months; Alan Radford, 17; Elizabeth “Libby” Rush, 57; Veda Short, 46 or 56; Philomena Skelton, 39; Frederick White, 60; his son Brian White, 27;
by a 225-kg car bomb in Omagh, Northern Ireland. Some 200 persons are wounded, including Seán McGrath, 61, who would die on 05 September 1998. A splinter group calling itself the Real IRA claims responsibility; it opposes the 1997 cease-fire called by the mainstream IRA. On 02 September 2005 electrician Sean Hoey [1969~] would become the first person charged with the crime, being accused of making the bomb. Against him are made 58 charges related to this bombing and other attacks carried out by the “Real IRA”. — more (050902)
1996 Three engineering professors, shot by Frederick Martin Davidson, a graduate student at San Diego State University (Davidson was later sentenced to three life terms in prison).
1935 Paul Signac, Parisian pointilliste painter, printmaker, etcher, lithographer, born on 11 November 1863. MORE ON SIGNAC AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1935 Will Rogers and Wiley Post, in
US humorist Will Rogers, born on 04 Nov 1879, and famous aviator Wiley Post, born on 22 Nov 1899, are killed in an airplane accident near Point Barrow, Alaska. The aircraft, piloted by Post, was in the midst of a promotional journey across the North Pole to the USSR when it crashed just a few minutes after take-off. Post, a great innovator of long-distance flight, flew around the northern part of the earth in 1931 with pilot Harold Gatty (described in the book Around the World in Eight Days). Two years later, he repeated the feat alone, winning a permanent place in the annals of aviation history.
Post made his first around-the-world flight from 23 June to 01 July 1931, accompanied by Harold Gatty as navigator; later that year their account of the trip was published as Around the World in Eight Days. Post achieved his solo record two years later—July 15–22, 1933. He covered a total of 15,596 miles (25,089 kilometres) in 7 days, 18 hours, 49 minutes. On this flight Post proved the value of navigation instruments, including the automatic pilot.
His passenger, the world-renowned humorist Will Rogers, was also an enthusiast of air travel, and had taken several other long-distance flights. An Oklahoma native, Rogers worked as a cowboy in his youth before joining the vaudeville stage as a wisecracking rope-twirler in 1902. In 1915, he became a national sensation when he joined the Ziegfeld Follies, a popular stage revue. In the tradition of Mark Twain, Rogers offered profound observations from behind his rustic facade, and practically invented topical humor. The so-called "cowboy philosopher" gained a wide audience through a syndicated newspaper column, books, the radio, and starring roles in hit movies such as A Connecticut Yankee (1931), State Fair (1933), and David Harum (1934).
A philanthropist, a family man, and an old cowboy who never took himself too seriously, he was the model of how Americans liked to think of themselves. Three years after his tragic death in Alaska, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated a memorial to Rogers, praising the humorist's success in keeping in Americans smiling during the hard times of the Great Depression , and for doing it all without saying a disparaging word about anyone (however Rogers had said:"I don't belong to any organized political party I'm a Democrat"). The Will Rogers Memorial, which features a museum and a famous statue of Rogers in a cowboy pose, was built on his property in Claremore, Oklahoma.
Rogers, born in Oklahoma before it became a state, became an immensely popular entertainer in the early 1900s. An expert rider and rope-twirler since childhood, he traveled abroad with a Wild West show. Later, he appeared at fairs and vaudeville shows, sprinkling his act with his gentle, folksy humor. In 1912, Rogers began appearing in musical comedies, and by 1917 he was starring in the Ziegfeld Follies. His folk wisdom won the hearts of the nation. He appeared in a few early films, but silent movies failed to do justice to his verbal talents. With the dawn of talking pictures in the late 1920s, Rogers became a top box-office draw. His films included Happy Days (1929), A Connecticut Yankee (1929), and Ambassador Bill (1931). In 1930, William S. Paley persuaded Rogers to try radio. Although Rogers was skeptical of the medium and disliked the microphone, his 12-episode show-full of his trademark humor and thoughtful political observations-was a hit. Later, he returned to radio, hosting Gulf Headliners in the early 1930s. Rogers declined a nomination as governor of Oklahoma but later served as mayor of Beverly Hills.
Will Rogers' published works include Rogerisms the Cowboy Philosopher on Prohibition (1919), Illiterate Digest (1924), and There's Not a Bathing Suit in Russia (1927).
Will Rogers quotes:
| 1922 Boutroux,
1909 Laura Alma-Tadema, British painter born in April 1852. — more with links to images.
1874 Henry Bryan Ziegler, British painter born on 13 February 1793.
1873 Fritz Bamberger, German painter born on 17 October 1814.
1789 Jacob(II) Bernoulli, mathematician
1758 Bouguer, mathematician
1643 Cornelis-Jacobszoon Delff, Dutch painter born in 1571.
1557 Agnes Prest, burned at the stake in Launceton, Cornwall, for expressing her Protestant convictions. Her husband and children were Catholics.
1935 Vernon Eulion Jordan Jr civil rights activist
1924 Estela Casas, who, in her later years would be director of volunteers at Southwestern General Hospital in El Paso,Texas, until it went bankrupt and closed in August 2007. She continued to be an active member of the parish of Our Lady of the Assumption, leading the singing at most weekday Masses. —(081013)
1913 Heinz Trökes, German painter who died in 1997.
1901 Arnulfo Arias 3 time president of Panama (1940-41, 49-51, 68)
1901 Novikov, mathematician
1893 Harlow H Curtice president of General Motors (1953-8)
1892 Louis-Victor duc de Broglie, France, physicist (Nobel 1929) and mathematician. —(081013)
1890 Jacques Ibert Paris France, composer (Escales)
1889 Jan Mankes, Dutch painter who died in 1920.
Krylov, mathematician |
1862 Adam Emory Albright, US painter who died in 1957.
1845 Walter Crane, English painter and illustrator who died on 15 March 1915 MORE ON CRANE AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1838 Franz Richard Unterberger, German artist who died on 25 May 1902.
1828 Frank Buchser, Swiss painter who died on 22 November 1890. — links to two images.
1803 Eugène-Napoléon Flandin, French painter who died in 1876.
1795 Léger, mathematician.
1785 Thomas De Quincey Eng, writer. DEQUINCEY ONLINE: Confessions of English Opium Eater, Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (another site), Levana and Our Ladies of Sorrow
1702 Francesco Zuccarelli, Florentine landscape painter who worked principally in Venice and England. He died on 30 December 1788. MORE ON ZUCCARELLI AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1688 Frederick-William I king of Prussia (1713-1740)
1666 Jean-Pierre Abesch (Joan Petrus von Esch), Swiss painter who died in 1740, 1741, or 1742.
1613 Jeremy Taylor, Anglican clergyman and devotional writer. Two of his works became classic expressions of Anglican spirituality: JEREMY TAYLOR ONLINE: The Rule and Exercise of Holy Living (1650) and The Rule and Exercise of Holy Dying. (1651).