a 09 August:
2003 The temperatures surpass all previously recorded in the UK (at Heatrow airport in London: 37.9ºC) and in Germany (in Roth, Bavaria: 40.5ºC).
2001 USurper President George Bush (Jr.) tries not to break one more electoral campaign promise: that of opposing embryonic stem cell research. He says he will allow funding of research on the 60 existing stem cell lines derived from embryos already killed, but not new killing of embryos for their stem cells, at least not until further consideration.
2001 According to a survey of 1640 dial-up modem users by Consumer Reports magazine (available online only for $3.95 a month), among 8 major Internet service providers, the world's two largest, AOL Time Warner Inc. and Microsoft Corp.'s MSN, come out last in customer satisfaction. AT&T WorldNet, BellSouth Corp. and EarthLink Inc. get high marks for overall satisfaction. [free ISPs are becoming few and far between and more and more restrictive. About the only one available in most of the US is address.com, but it has commercial breaks and its software is trouble-full].
2000 Bridgestone/Firestone Inc. announced it was recalling 6.5 million tires that had been implicated in hundreds of accidents and at least 46 deaths.
1996 A weary-looking Boris Yeltsin was sworn into his second term as president of Russia.
| 1993 Alberto de Sajonia-Coburgo, príncipe de Lieja,
se convierte en sexto rey de los belgas con el nombre de Alberto II.
1991 In South Africa, hundreds of police battled neo-Nazis as pro-apartheid extremists tried to stop a speech by President F.W. de Klerk.
1990 12 Arab leaders agree to send pan-Arab forces to protect Saudi Arabia
1990 El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU aprueba por unanimidad la resolución que declara "ilegal, nula y sin efecto" la anexión de Kuwait por Irak. .
1989 Lanzado al espacio el cohete europeo "Ariane 4", desde la base de Kourou, en la Guayana francesa.
1988 President Reagan nominated Lauro Cavazos to be secretary of education; Cavazos became the first Hispanic to serve in the Cabinet.
1987 Comienza la mayor huelga legal en la historia de Sudáfrica, en la que toman parte más de 200.000 mineros negros y que se prolongó hasta el 1 de Septiembre.
1987 Bomb attack on the USIS Library in Calcutta.
1978 Marruecos rechaza la creación de un estado saharaui.
1968 Vietnam: 96 US servicemen are reported killed the previous week, lowest number since 12 August 1967:
1967 Vietnam: First Marine Division launches Operation Cochise in the Que Son valley. Meanwhile, the First Cavalry Division continues with Operation Pershing, a major clearing operation in the Binh Dinh province designed to improve the security situation in support of the ongoing pacification effort.
1965 Singapore proclaimed its independence from the Malaysian Federation. . (National Day)
1962 The Chrysler Corporation sets an industry milestone by announcing for 1963 a five-year, 50'000-mile warranty covering all of its cars and trucks.
| 1960 Race riot in Jacksonville Florida
1958 El contralmirante Américo Deus Rodrigues Thomaz es investido presidente de Portugal.
1956 South African women demonstrate against pass laws
1945 EEUU lanza su segunda bomba atómica, que destruyó la ciudad de Nagasaki causando millares de víctimas, provocó la rendición de Japón y puso fin a la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
1942 British arrests Indian nationalist Mohandas K Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi es arrestado junto con otros dirigentes del Congreso Nacional Indio.
1941 President Franklin Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill meet at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. The meeting produces the Atlantic Charter, an agreement between the two countries on war aims, even though the United States is still a neutral country.
1934 Heinrich Himmler, jefe de las SS (Schutz Staffeln) y de la Gestapo bávara, asume el mando de los campos de concentración.
1921 Guerra de Marruecos: Capitulación del general Navarro tras diez días de heroica resistencia en el monte Arruit. La mayoría de los soldados fueron asesinados.
1918 The US government orders automobile factories to convert to military production by 01 January 1919, and manufacture shells, warplane engines, staff cars, and ambulances.
1910 The first complete, self-contained electric washing machine is patented.
1904 El Congreso Internacional de Mineros, reunido en París, exige jornada de ocho horas y el establecimiento de un salario mínimo.
1902 Edward VII of England crowned after death of his mother Victoria
1864 Confederates detonate bomb aboard ship at City Point, Virginia
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1859 The escalator is patented. However, the first working escalator appeared in 1900. Manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company for the Paris Exposition, it was installed in a Philadelphia office building the following year.
1855 Battle of Acapulco during Mexican Liberal uprising
1849 Hungarian Republic crushed by Austria and Russia
1849 Vencida por el hambre y el cólera, Venecia se rinde, con lo que termina la primera guerra que Italia sostuvo por su independencia.
1848 Barnburners (anti-slavery) party merges with the Free Soil Party nominating Martin Van Buren for president
1842 The Webster-Ashburn treaty fixes the border between Maine and Canada's New Brunswick.
1831 1st US steam engine train run (Albany to Schenectady, NY)
1814 Andrew Jackson and the Creek Indians sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving the whites 23 million acres of Creek territory.
1805 Austria joins Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the third coalition against France.
1803 El ingeniero estadounidense Robert Fulton consigue hacer navegar un barco por el Sena con un motor movido por vapor.
1803 1st horses arrive in Hawaii
1790 The Columbia returns to Boston Harbor after a three-year voyage, becoming the first US-flagged ship to voyage around the world
1786 1st ascent of Mt Blanc
1778 Capt Cook passes through Bering Strait
1673 Dutch recapture NY from English; regained by English in 1674
1645 Settlers in New Amsterdam gain peace with the Indians after conducting talks with the Mohawks
1638 Jonas Bronck of Holland becomes 1st European settler in what will be the "Bronx."
1549 England declares war on France.
1483 Pope Sixtus IV celebrates the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which is named in his honor.
- 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus. Julius Caesar defeats Gnaius Pompey. Julio César derrota a Pompeyo en la batalla de Farsalia, lo que puso fin a la Guerra Civil del Imperio Romano.
- 480 -BC- Battle of Thermopylae, The Persian army defeats Leonidas and his Spartan army.
2005 Mr. Jun Fukusho, 44, and Ms. Shinobu Hasegawa, 30, Japanese teachers, murdered in Afghanistan, which they had entered from Pakistan the previous day, as tourists. Their corpses are found near Kandahar on 01 September 2005. —(050903)
2003 Michèle Caffin, 58 ans, percutée par une moto. Peu avant 09:00, l’heure de conduire un troupeau de vaches vers les pâtures, elle sortait de sa ferme au hameau de la Liégette à Marquise (Boulonnais), France, pour rattraper une vache qui avait pris de l’avance sur le troupeau et se trouvait déjà sur la route qui relie Marquise à Wierre-Effroy. Au même moment, deux motos sont arrivées, venant de Wierre-Effroy. Le premier motard a évité la vache en passant par la droite. Le second l’a évitée en passant par la gauche et a violemment heurté l’agricultrice, qui a été tuée sur le coup. Le conducteur de la moto a été grièvement blessé.
2002 Four Pakistani nurses: Alishah, Nazeeran, Bashiran, Uoil; and attacker Kamran Mir, one of three who, at 07:45 (01:45 UT) throw hand grenades at women leaving church on the Presbyterian hospital grounds in Taxila, Pakistan. Some 25 persons are wounded.
2002:: 26 persons in 12:30 explosion at a maintenance facility of company Afghan Construction and Logistics Unit on the west side of Jalalabad, Afghanistan. 80 persons are injured.
2001 A 19-year-old Israeli woman was killed and three other Israelis were wounded when their car was hit in ambush shooting near the dividing line between Israel proper and the West Bank,
2000 Fatemeh Ahangaran, 24, and their daughter Melika, 19 months, Hasan Feelom, murdered by their husband and father, Hasan Feelom, 39, so as to elope with his lover. For this, he would be hanged in public in Tehran, Iran, on 7 January 2001
1999 Mario Paz, 65, shot twice in the back in front of his wife in their bedroom after SWAT officers raided the house in the Los Angeles suburb of El Monte. Police have said Paz, a father of six and grandfather of 14, was shot because he appeared to be trying to reach for a gun.. Up to 20 officers shot the locks off the doors and entered the home as the family was sleeping at about 23:00. No drugs were found, but officers seized three pistols, a .22-caliber rifle and $10'000 in cash. The guns were for protection and the money was Paz' life savings, which he had taken from his bank account because of concerns over potential Y2K computer problems. Nobody at the home was arrested, although seven family members were questioned, including Paz' widow, Maria Luisa, who was taken from the home in panties and handcuffs. Police went to the home to seek evidence for use in a case against a Chino drug suspect who had been released on bail the morning of the raid. A high-risk entry was used because high-powered rifles had been found along with 400 pounds of marijuana at other homes linked to the man. The Compton home was targeted in a search warrant because phone bills and other mail with the address was found in those other raids. The Paz family said that the suspected drug dealer targeted in the raid had lived near them in the 1980s and occasionally used their address to receive mail. The search warrant didn't name any Paz family members. Officers didn't have information of the Paz family being involved in narcotics trafficking.
1994 Helena Rasiowa, mathematician born on 20 June 1917. She worked in algebraic logic and the mathematical foundations of computer science.
1975 Dmitry Dmitriyevich Shostakovich, 68, Russian composer, renowned particularly for his 15 symphonies, numerous chamber works, and concerti, many of them written under the pressures of government-imposed standards of Soviet art. He was born on 25 September 1906.
Tate, 26, her child to be born in 2 weeks, Abigail Foldger, 25, Wojtek
Frykowski, 32, Jay Sebring, 35, Steven Parent, 18, gruesomely murdered
The sx are killed in film director Roman Polanski's home in Hollywood, California, by members of a cult. Less than two days later, they would kill Leno and Rosemary LaBianca in their home. At both scenes, the killers scrawled messages in blood on the walls. The city of Los Angeles was in a state of panic until the leader of the cult, Charles Manson, was identified and arrested.
Manson, who had been neglected as a child and spent virtually his entire life behind bars for murder, was eventually released from prison in 1967 at the age of 33. His strange brand of charisma attracted a group of hippies, who followed him and settled down at the Spahn Ranch on the outskirts of Los Angeles, where heavy drug use and orgies were common. Manson began telling his "family," as they called themselves, that a war between blacks and whites was coming and that their cult would be the leaders of the new world order that would follow. In support for this theory, Manson claimed that the Beatles' White Album, and, in particular, the song "Helter Skelter," backed him up. Manson decided that they should try to instigate the war by killing white people in a way that would implicate the black radicals.
Manson directed his followers, including Tex Watson and Susan Atkins, to kill certain prominent, wealthy whites. They chose Polanski's home because Manson had unsuccessfully attempted to get a recording deal from a producer who used to live there. Polanski happened to be overseas at the time, but his actress wife, Sharon Tate, and her friends, including coffee heiress Abigail Folger, were brutally slaughtered by the Manson cult. Some were shot, while others were stabbed to death. Manson did not go into the Polanski home and refrained from participating in the LaBianca murders two days later.
Manson and his gang were uncovered when one of his followers, who was jailed on a different charge, began bragging about the murders. Manson was charged with murder on the basis that he had influenced the "family" and directed the murders. His subsequent trial became a national spectacle. Manson came into court one day with an "X" carved in his forehead, explaining, "I have X-ed myself out of your world." His followers copied him and did the same. Another day, Manson lunged at the trial judge and tried to assault him.
On an estate in Hollywood Hills, California, Sharon Tate, pregnant actress wife of film director Roman Polanski, is brutally murdered shortly after midnight, along with her unborn child, and four others, by cult leader Charles Manson, 33, and his followers Susan Atkins, 21, Leslie Van Houten, 22, Patricia Krenwinkle, 20.
The cultists also murdered Rosemary, 38, and Leno, 44, LaBianca, a Los Angeles couple, in a separate attack less than two days later.
In 1967, Manson, a lifetime criminal, was released from a federal penitentiary in Washington State and traveled to San Francisco, California, where he attracted a following among rebellious young women with troubled emotional lives. Manson established a cult based on his concept of "Helter Skelter" an apocalyptic philosophy predicting that out of an imminent racial war in America would emerge five ruling angels: himself, who would have taken on the role of Jesus Christ, and the four members of the Beatles, the popular British rock group. Manson convinced his followers that it would be necessary to murder celebrities in order to attract attention to the cult, and in 1969, they targeted Sharon Tate, a marginally successful actress and wife of Roman Polanski.
On August 7, 1969, Manson's followers murdered a Los Angeles married couple, and late the next night, under Manson's detailed instructions, four of his followers drove up to Cielo Drive above Beverly Hills and burst into Polanski and Tate's home. Over the next few hours, they engaged in a murderous rampage that left five dead, including 8-1/2-month pregnant Tate, three of her friends, and an eighteen-year-old man who was visiting the caretaker of the estate. Polanski was away from Los Angeles at the time.
The case went unsolved for over a year before the Los Angeles Police Department discovered the Manson connection, and, following confessions by various members of his cult, Manson and five others were indicted on charges of murder and conspiracy to commit murder. On 25 January 1972, Manson and and three followers, Susan Atkins, Leslie Van Houten, and Patricia Krenwinkle, were found guilty and, on 29 March, all four were sentenced to death. The trial of another defendant, Charles "Tex" Watson, was delayed by extradition proceedings, but he was likewise found guilty and sentenced to death. In 1972, the California Supreme Court abolished the death penalty in California, and Manson and his followers' death sentences were commuted to life imprisonment. Manson remains a criminal icon to this day. He periodically comes up for parole, but there is no indication that California will ever release him.
| 1963 Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, 39 hours old (was born
premature), second son of president John F. Kennedy, 46, and Jacqueline
(Bouvier) Kennedy, 34.
1962 Hermann Hesse, escritor alemán, Premio Nobel de Literatura.
1950 Karl Rudolf Fueter, Swiss mathematician who born on 30 June 1880. Author of Synthetische Zahlentheorie (1917), Vorlesungen über die singulären Moduln und die komplexe Multiplikation der elliptischen Funktionen (2 volumes: 1924, 1927), Das mathematische Werkzeug des Chemikers, biologen und Statistikers (1926).
1932 John Charles Fields, Ontario mathematician born on 14 May 1863. He provided funds for an international medal for mathematical distinction: the mathematical equivalent of a Nobel prize. Fields Medals are awarded to no fewer than two and no more than four mathematicians under 40 years of age every four years (from 1950) at the International Congress of Mathematicians.
1919 Robert Thegerström, Swedish artist born on 06 January 1857.
1919 Ernst Haeckel, zoólogo y filósofo alemán.
1915 Frank Bramley, English painter born on 06 May 1857. MORE ON BRAMLEY AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1914 Roque Sáenz Peña, presidente de la República Argentina.
1546 (or 06 Feb 1549) Martin Schaffner, German painter and medallist born in 1478.
1458 Pietro di Francesco degli Orioli, Italian artist born in 1458.
1922 Philip Larkin Coventry England, writer (North Ship, Jill)
1921 J James Exon (Sen-D-Neb)
1920 Manuel Lozano Garrido [–03 Nov 1971], holy Spanish journalist. On 19 May 2008 a Vatican decree recognized his heroic virtues. —(080522)
1919 Emilio Vedova, Italian painter who died in 1995. — much more with links to images.
1913 Herman Talmadge (Sen-D-Ga, Watergate Committee)
1911 William A Fowler US, astrophysicist (Nobel 1983)
1899 P.L. Travers, author of the Mary Poppins books.
1896 Jean Piaget Swiss pioneer developmental psychologist/zoologist
1892 The two-way telegraph, which allows messages to be simultaneously sent and received over one wire, is patented in the US by Thomas Edison, who had already patented it in Britain, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia.
1884 Kenneth Scott Latourette, Baptist church historian. Teaching at Yale from 1921-1953, his greatest writings were his 7-volume History of the Expansion of Christianity (1937-1945) and 5-volume Christianity in a Revolutionary Age (1958-1962). Latourette died a bachelor.
1881 Ramón Pérez de Ayala, escritor español.
1861 Luigi Boccardo, in Testona di Moncalieri (Turin), Italy, the seventh of nine children. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1884, and served as assistant pastor to his brother and godfather, Father Giovanni Maria Boccardo, who was beatified on 24 May 1998. Father Luigi Boccardo then served as vice rector and spiritual director at the Consolata College for young priests, and as a theology professor at the diocesan seminary. The priest also spent hours hearing confessions at the Shrine of the Consolata and visiting prisoners. Father Luigi became the superior general of the Poor Sisters of San Gaetano, after the death of the founder, his brother Father Giovanni Maria Boccardo [20 Nov 1848 – 30 Dec 1913]. In 1919, Father Luigi became director of an institute for the blind. In that time he built the Shrine to Jesus Christ, King and Priest. In 1932, he founded the Order of Sisters of Christ the King, a contemplative branch of the order founded by his brother. He died on 09 June 1936. His charism as educator and founder was to reveal the merciful love of Jesus, priest and king, to his brothers, especially in the education of the clergy and in the spiritual direction of so many that approached him in the confessional. He was a teacher and guide for the young clergy, confessor and spiritual guide for all types of people. A contemplative and an apostle, he had an knowledge of delicate charity in understanding that even blind people can live a religious life. He was beatified on 15 April 2007. —(070417}
1819 William Thomas Green Morton dentist, used ether (HOF 1920)
1806 Eugène Pierre François Giraud, French artist who died in 1881.
1776 Amedeo Avogadro Turin Italy, 6.0221367 x 10 ^ 23 molecules per gram-mole (molecular weight in grams) of any substance (Avogadro's Law)
1606 Theodoor van Thulden, Flemish painter, engraver and designer of tapestries, who died in 1669. — a bit more with links to images.
1387 Henry V, British king famous for his victory at Agincourt, France.