a 02 August:
2005 Air France Flight 538 from Paris, an Airbus A340, lands too far down a runway at Toronto’s Lester B. Pearson airport, during a thunderstorm, skids of the end of the runway at 150 km/h down a tall embankment into into Etobicoke Creek, bursts into flames, but all 309 persons aboard (297 passengers and 12 crew members) get out alive in less than two minutes. 43 of them are injured. On 05 August 2005, passenger Suzanne Deak of Toronto would file a $75-million class action lawsuit, on behalf of all the passengers, accusing Air France, the Greater Toronto Airports Authority and Nav Canada of negligence.
2002 The previous evening, San Diego maker of sports medicine products Dj Orthopedics (DJO) reported a 2nd-quarter loss of $4.9 million, or 27 cents a share, on revenue of $45.7 million. This is due to charges totaling $7.6 million related to increases in estimated reserves for accounts receivable, excess inventory, and asset impairment. In the 2nd quarter of 2001, the company earned $1.3 million. Dj Orthopedics also said it plans to implement a restructuring program, and that it has named Jack Blair chairman. Thereupon USB Piper Jaffray downgrades the stock from Outperform to Underperform. On the New York Stock Exchange, DJO drops from its previous close of $5.02 to an intraday low of $2.70 and closes at $2.94. It had dropped steadily ever since it high of $17.23 the day it went public, 15 November 2001 and, as recently as 28 June 2002, traded at $8.70. [< 9~month price chart]
Butcher of Srebenica sentenced to 46 years in prison.
The Yugoslav war crimes tribunal hands down its first conviction for genocide, finding a Bosnian Serb general guilty for the deaths of up to 8000 Muslims at the UN-protected enclave of Srebrenica. The verdict and 46-year sentence for Gen. Radislav Krstic [photo, listening to verdict >] could be a harbinger of more genocide trials. A suggestion that the defendant by sentenced to the added penalty of deprivation of his one remaining vowel was rejected as cruel and unusual, considering that, even in the best of times, Serbs suffer from an acute shortage of vowels. As it is the judges had to pronounce the man guilty without being able to pronounce his name.
It was the first time that the UN court, established in 1993 to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia, convicted a suspect of genocide. The crime, introduced in international law by the 09 December 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, after the Nazi slaughter of 6 million Jews in World War II, refers to "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group." [Article 2]. So it would not be genocide to destroy, without discriminating as to nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion, other groups, such as professional or occupational (lawyers? CEOs? tax collectors? drug dealers? drug enforcement agents? advertisers? tobacco farmers? saloon keepers? politicians? abortionists? aluminum siding sales agents? insurance agents? lobbyists?), political or ideological (Communists? Socialists? Republicans? Democrats? Greens? White Suprematists? Neo-Nazis? Protectionists? Free Traders? Freudians?), physical or mental condition (Down's Syndrome? Alzheimers? HIV? cancer?), economic condition (billionaires? welfare recipients?), habits (smokers? cell phone users? slow drivers in the fast lane?), etc.
The 255-page verdict recounted emotional scenes of family separations at Srebrenica in 1995, of bound and blindfolded victims slaughtered within sight of the bulldozers preparing their graves, of widows and children haunted by memories of their men, and of an operation to hide mutilated corpses.
Krstic, 53, received the longest sentence yet passed by the tribunaln. He was also convicted of persecution and inhumane treatment for the forceable transfer of 30'000 refugees, mostly women and the elderly, who had sought protection at a Dutch-manned UN base in Potocari near Srebrenica.
Reading a summary of the judgment, Judge Almiro Rodrigues said even though Krstic may have received orders to execute the men and deport women and children, he bore responsibility for genocide. "You were there, General Krstic," Rodrigues said. "You are guilty of the murder of thousands of Bosnians Muslims. ... You are guilty of inflicting incredible suffering," he said. "In July 1995, General Krstic, you agreed to evil."
Referring to Mladic and Karadzic, both of whom have been indicted on genocide charges for Srebrenica, Rodrigues said the order to kill thousands of innocent people had likely come from Krstic's superiors. "Someone else probably decided to order the execution of all the men of fighting age," the judge said. Rodrigues quoted from a directive issued by Karadzic in March 1995 ordering the creation of "an unbearable situation of total insecurity with no hope of further survival or life for the inhabitants of Srebrenica and Zepa."
In July 1995, some 15'000 soldiers under Krstic's command launched an offensive on Srebrenica that cleared the region of non-Serb inhabitants. In a week of bloodshed, his soldiers rounded up thousands of men and teen-age boys and transported them to execution sites throughout eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In its summary, the tribunal said a deliberate decision had been made to kill all the men of Srebrenica after Serb forces seized the strategic town in eastern Bosnia, overrunning a Dutch UN garrison, and deported thousands of women, children and old people. "The result was inevitable - the destruction of the Bosnian Muslim people in Srebrenica," said the verdict. "What was ethnic cleansing became genocide," it said.
The Srebrenica killings were Europe's worst civilian massacre since World War II. And the genocide verdict places the tragedy in the historical record much as the 1946 Nuremberg trials endure as an official condemnation of Nazi genocide.
The term genocide entered international law after the 1948 Genocide Convention, which took effect in 1951.
Judgement of Trial Chamber I in the Krstic case The events of the nine days from 10 July to 19 July 1995 in Srebrenica defy description in their horror and their implications for humankind’s capacity to revert to acts of brutality under the stresses of conflict. In little over one week, thousands of lives were extinguished, irreparably rent or simply wiped from the pages of history.
Related Press release The Trial Chamber stated that it was "convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that a crime of genocide was committed in Srebrenica" and that General Radislav Krstic is guilty of genocide.
| 2001 Netzero will limit its free Internet access (which
it was the first to offer, in 1996, unrestricted) to 10 hours a month (down
from 40) starting on 01 October 2001, it is announced by news media (but
not by the Netzero web site).
2000 US President Clinton postpones the scheduled execution of Juan Raul Garza, a Texas drug kingpin and murderer (Garza would be executed on 19 June 2001).
1996 Dow Industrial average closes up 80.72 points on the good news that. unemployment is climbing and consumer spending is dropping. What's good about it is that interest rates wont go up.
1994 El presidente dominicano, Joaquín Balaguer, es oficialmente declarado vencedor en las elecciones celebradas el 16 de mayo último.
1992 Croacia celebra elecciones presidenciales y parlamentarias, que ganan Franjo Tudjman y su partido, Comunidad Democrática Croata (HDZ), respectivamente.
1991 Argentina y Chile resuelven sus problemas limítrofes pendientes desde 1902, a excepción del que existe sobre Laguna del Desierto, que lo hará un tribunal arbitral.
1989 Teodoro Obiang jura su cargo de presidente de Guinea Ecuatorial.
1987 El presidente peruano, Alan García, anuncia la nacionalización de 10 bancos, 17 compañías de seguros y 6 entidades financiera
1984 El Alto Volta se convierte en la República Democrática de Burkina Faso.
1982 Firma de un acuerdo colectivo de seguridad entre los países árabes del golfo Pérsico.
1972 Gold hits record $70 an ounce in London
1964 Race riot in Jersey City NJ
1934 first airborne train: plane tows 3 mail gliders behind it.
|1934 Hitler becomes Führer
Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes sole master of Germany, following the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. The German Army swore allegiance to the Führer, who was intent on the rearmament of Germany and territorial expansion. In less than a decade, the Nazis had risen from a splinter party to a dominant ruling party that had won a 90% approval vote in 1932, allowing Hitler to seize powers previously divided among president, chancellor, and the Reichstag.
With the death of German President Paul von Hindenburg, Chancellor Adolf Hitler becomes absolute dictator of Germany under the title of Führer, or "Leader." The German army took an oath of allegiance to its new commander-in-chief, and the last remnants of Germany's democratic government were dismantled to make way for Hitler's Third Reich. The Führer assured his people that the Third Reich would last for a thousand years, but Nazi Germany collapsed just 11 years later.
Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on 20 April 1889. As a young man he aspired to be a painter, but he received little public recognition and lived in poverty in Vienna. Of German descent, he came to detest Austria as a "patchwork nation" of various ethnic groups, and in 1913 he moved to the German city of Munich in the state of Bavaria. After a year of drifting, he found direction as a German soldier in World War I, and was decorated for his bravery on the battlefield. He was in a military hospital in 1918, recovering from a mustard gas attack that left him temporarily blind, when Germany surrendered.
He was appalled by Germany's defeat, which he blamed on "enemies within" chiefly German communists and Jews and was enraged by the punitive peace settlement forced on Germany by the victorious Allies. He remained in the German army after the war, and as an intelligence agent was ordered to report on subversive activities in Munich's political parties. It was in this capacity that he joined the tiny German Workers' Party, made up of embittered army veterans, as the group's seventh member. Hitler was put in charge of the party's propaganda, and in 1920 he assumed leadership of the organization, changing its name to Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers' party), which was abbreviated to Nazi.
The party's socialist orientation was little more a ploy to attract working-class support; in fact, Hitler was fiercely right-wing. But the economic views of the party were overshadowed by the Nazis' fervent nationalism, which blamed Jews, communists, the Treaty of Versailles, and Germany's ineffectual democratic government for the country's devastated economy. In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler's Bavarian-based Nazi party swelled with resentful Germans. A paramilitary organization, the Sturmabteilung (SA), was formed to protect the Nazis and intimidate their political opponents, and the party adopted the ancient symbol of the swastika as its emblem.
In November 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch" an attempt at seizing the German government by force. Hitler hoped that his nationalist revolution in Bavaria would spread to the dissatisfied German army, which in turn would bring down the government in Berlin. However, the uprising was immediately suppressed, and Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for treason.
Imprisoned in Landsberg fortress, he spent his time there dictating his autobiography, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), a bitter and rambling narrative in which he sharpened his anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist beliefs and laid out his plans for Nazi conquest. In the work, published in a series of volumes, he developed his concept of the Führer as an absolute dictator who would bring unity to German people and lead the "Aryan race" to world supremacy.
Political pressure from the Nazis forced the Bavarian government to commute Hitler's sentence, and he was released after nine months. However, Hitler emerged to find his party disintegrated. An upturn in the economy further reduced popular support of the party, and for several years Hitler was forbidden to make speeches in Bavaria and elsewhere in Germany.
The onset of the Great Depression in 1929 brought a new opportunity for the Nazis to solidify their power. Hitler and his followers set about reorganizing the party as a fanatical mass movement, and won financial backing from business leaders, for whom the Nazis promised an end to labor agitation. In the 1930 election, the Nazis won six million votes, making the party the second largest in Germany. Two years later, Hitler challenged Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency, but the 84-year-old president defeated Hitler with the support of an anti-Nazi coalition.
Although the Nazis suffered a decline in votes during the November 1932 election, Hindenburg agreed to make Hitler chancellor in January 1933, hoping that Hitler could be brought to heel as a member of his cabinet. However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of the new chancellor's first acts was to exploit the burning of the Reichstag (parliament) building as a pretext for calling general elections. The police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on dictatorial power through the Enabling Acts.
Chancellor Hitler immediately set about arresting and executing political opponents, and even purged the Nazis' own SA paramilitary organization in a successful effort to win support from the German army. With the death of President Hindenburg on 02 August 1934, Hitler united the chancellorship and presidency under the new title of Führer. As the economy improved, popular support for Hitler's regime became strong, and a cult of Führer worship was propagated by Hitler's capable propagandists.
German remilitarization and state-sanctioned anti-Semitism drew criticism from abroad, but the foreign powers failed to stem the rise of Nazi Germany. In 1938, Hitler implemented his plans for world domination with the annexation of Austria, and in 1939 Germany seized all of Czechoslovakia. Hitler's invasion of Poland on 01 September 1939, finally led to war with Germany and France. In the opening years of World War II, Hitler's war machine won a series of stunning victories, conquering the great part of continental Europe. However, the tide turned in 1942 during Germany's disastrous invasion of the USSR.
By early 1945, the British and Americans were closing in on Germany from the west, the Soviets from the east, and Hitler was holed up in a bunker under the chancellery in Berlin awaiting defeat. On April 30, with the Soviets one kilometer from his headquarters, Hitler committed suicide with Eva Braun, his mistress whom he married the night before.
Hitler left Germany devastated and at the mercy of the Allies, who divided the country and made it a major battlefield of Cold War conflict. His regime exterminated nearly six millions Jews and an estimated 250'000 Gypsies in the Holocaust, and an indeterminable number of Slavs, political dissidents, disabled persons, homosexuals, and others deemed unacceptable by the Nazi regime were systematically eliminated. The war Hitler unleashed upon Europe took even more lives close to 20 million persons killed in the USSR alone. Adolf Hitler is reviled as one of history's greatest villains.
| 1931 El pueblo catalán aprueba en referéndum el Estatuto
de autonomía de Cataluña.
1921 Cesa la resistencia española en Nador, triste episodio de la guerra de Marruecos.
1921 Lenin llama a los trabajadores de los países industrializados para que se movilicen urgentemente en ayuda de Rusia, amenazada por el hambre tras varios años de cosechas catastróficas.
1921 A jury in Chicago acquits several former members of the Chicago White Sox baseball team and two others of conspiring to defraud the public in the notorious "Black Sox" scandal.
1918 A British force lands in Archangel, Russia, to support White Russian opposition to the Bolsheviks.
1914 Sherlock Holmes Adventure His Last Bow
1914 Germany invades Luxembourg.
1909 Army Air Corps formed as Army takes first delivery from Wright Brothers
1909 first Lincoln head pennies minted
1907 The Vatican issued the decree Ne temere, declaring that marriages of Catholics were valid only if celebrated before a duly qualified priest and at least two witnesses.
1903 Unsuccessful uprising of Macedonians against Turkey
1863 Siege of Fort Wagner, Charleston Harbor, South Carolina continues
1862 Union General John Pope captures Orange Court House, Virginia.
1862 The Army Ambulance Corps is established by Maj. Gen. George McClellan.
1861 First national income tax passed by the United States Congress to raise revenues for the Civil War effort. Although never enacted, it was an important fiscal innovation that paved the way for growth of the government in the 20th century.
1847 William A. Leidesdorff launches the first steam boat in San Francisco Bay.
1814 Estalla en Cuzco un movimiento rebelde indio que estuvo a punto de conseguir la independencia de Perú.
1802 Napoléon Bonaparte is proclaimed "Consul for Life" by the French Senate after a plebiscite from the French people.
1798 British under Adm Horatio Nelson beat French at Battle of Nile
1776 Formal signing of the Declaration of Independence
1718 Se firma la Cuádruple Alianza, tratado entre Inglaterra, Holanda, Francia y Austria, para frenar la ambición de España y mantener el statu quo de los tratados de Utrecht y Radstadt.
1704 Tropas anglo-holandesas inician el ataque del peñón de Gibraltar durante la Guerra de Sucesión española.
1553 An invading French army is destroyed at the Battle of Marciano in Italy by an imperial army.
1552 The treaty of Passau gives religious freedom to Protestants living in Germany.
1492 Jews are expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
1483 Bula de Sixto IV nombrando a fray Tomás de Torquemada inquisidor general de Castilla y León, cargo que hizo extensivo a Aragón, Cataluña y Valencia por bula de 17 de octubre del mismo año, con lo que fue el primer inquisidor general para toda España.
1385 Primera corrida de toros en Pamplona: un cristiano y un moro, llegados de Zaragoza, lidian y matan dos toros en presencia del rey Carlos II de Navarra.
1375 first roller skating rink opens (London)
47 BC Caesar defeats Pharmacies ... er ... make that Pharnaces, at Zela in Syria and declares, "veni, vidi, vici," (I came, I saw, I conquered).
216 BC Hannibal Barca wins his greatest victory over the Romans at Cannae. Las tropas romanas son derrotadas en la batalla de Cannas por el ejército cartaginés de Aníbal durante la II Guerra Púnica.
2007 Chauncey Bailey, 58, editor of The Oakland Post Black weekly newspaper, shot while walking to work at 07:30 (14:30 UT) on 14th Street near Alice Street in Oakland, California, by Devaughndre Broussard, 19, of the Your Black Muslim Bakery, on the pending bankruptcy of which Bailey was preparing an article. —(070807)
2005 Steven Vincent, US freelance writer, abducted in the evening and shot, in Basra, Iraq. His Iraqi woman interpreter, Noor al-Khal, is also shot, but survives.
2005 Staff Sgt. James D. McNaughton, 27, a US Army reservist, by sniper fire while he was in a guard tower in Baghdad, Iraq.
2003 Ali Hussein Saleh, by a bomb exploding in his car, in Lebanon south of Beirut. The bomb had been placed there by Israeli agents. Saleh was a Hezbollah security officer.
2002 Nathan Maddox, 25, struck in the head by lightning at 20:35 as he watched, from the roof of a six-story building on Broome Street on the edge of Chinatown in Manhattan, a thunderstorm unusually strong for New York. He was the lead singer of experimental rock group Gang-Gang Dance in lower Manhattan.
2001 Firas Abdel Haq, 23, Palestinian shot dead near Nablus, West Bank, by Israeli troops, who say that he was one of two trying to plant a bomb and that the other escaped.
1994 Oscar Viale, Argentinian actor and playwright.
1988 Raymond Carver, 50, poet and short story writer (e.g. Furious Season)
1985: 137 persons in crash of a Delta Air Lines jetliner attempting to land at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport.
1980 84 personas, en un atentado realizado por neofascistas en la estación ferroviaria de Bolonia (Italia). Más de 200 personas resultan heridas
1978 Carlos Chávez, compositor mexicano
1976 László Kalmár, Hungarian mathematician born on 27 March 1905. He worked on mathematical logic and theoretical computer science. He was ackowledged as the leader of Hungarian mathematical logic.
1947 Tomás Berreta, presidente de Uruguay.
1908 John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, English Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 20 January 1829. MORE ON STANHOPE AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1884 Carlo Bossoli, Italian artist born in 1815.
1883 Pierre Auguste Cot, French artist born on 17 February 1837. LINKS
1880 Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch, escritor español.
1832, Sauk Indian men, women, and children, followers of Black Hawk, massacred by 1300 Illinois militia under General Henry Atkinson, at the Bad Axe River in Wisconsin.
1823 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot, born on 13 May 1753, dies a fugitive in exile. He was a French engineer, military officer, revolutionary and bonapartist politician, mathematician. He is best known as a geometer. In 1803 he published Géométrie de position in which sensed magnitudes were first systematically used in geometry. He was the father of Sadi Carnot [01 Jun 1796 – 24 Aug 1832]..
1788 Thomas Gainsborough, English Rococo era and Romantic painter, specialized in Portraits, baptized as a newborn on 14 May 1727 MORE ON GAINSBOROUGH AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1678 Guillam Gabron, Belgian artist who born on 28 October 1619. [Gabron, not Cabrón]
1644 Bernardo Strozzi il prete Capucino Genovese, Genoese Baroque Era painter born in 1581. MORE ON STROZZI AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1589 King Henry II of France, stabbed by a fanatical monk, during religious war.
1576 Lorenzo Sabbatini da Bologna, Italian artist born in 1530. — more with links to images.
1075 John VIII Xiphilinus theologian/patriarch of Constantinople
0686 John V, Pope
0640 Severinus, Pope for just over 2 months, having been consecrated on 28 May 640.
0257 Saint Stephen I, Pope.
2005 Susan Anne Catherine Torres [next to father's hand >], two months premature, by caesarean section, to Susan Torres [23 Nov 1978 – 03 Aug 2005], brain dead since a 07 May 2005 stroke due to melanoma spreading to her brain, and to her husband Jason Torres, who had obtained that his wife be kept on life support so that the baby would live and be born. Life support is withdrawn and Susan Torres dies the next day. (See www.susantorresfund.org)
1934 Francisco Regueiro, director de cine, guionista, pintor y dibujante español.
1925 Jorge Rafael Videla Almorzo, político y militar argentino.
1925 George Habash, secretario general del Frente Popular para la Liberación de Palestina (FPLP)
1924 James Baldwin US writer whose works include Go Tell it on the Mountain, Notes of a Native Son, Another Country.
1919 Ángel Palomino, escritor y periodista español.
1913 Joaquín Ruiz-Giménez, abogado y político español.
1902 Mina Spiegel Rees, US mathematician who died on 25 October 1997.
1899 Ernesto Giménez Caballero, escritor español.
1892 Jack Leonard Warner (movie mogul: one of Hollywood's famed Warner Brothers)
1887 Oskar Johann Viktor Anderson, born in Russia, German mathematical statistician who died on 12 February 1960.
1887 Otto Morach, Swiss artist who died in 1973.
1884 Margarete Marg Moll, German artist who died in 1977.
1881 Gustaaf van de Woestijn, Belgian artist who died in 1947.
1871 John Sloan, US Ashcan School painter, etcher and lithographer, cartoonist, and illustrator, who died on 07 September 1951. MORE ON SLOAN AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1856 Ferdinand Rudio, German mathematician who died on 21 June 1929. He worked on group theory, algebra and geometry. He is best remembered for his work in the history of mathematics.
1820 John Tyndall, British physicist and the first scientist to explain why the sky is blue. [A very simple explanation]. TYNDALL ONLINE: Faraday as a discoverer.
1754 Pierre Charles L'Enfant France, architect, engineer, Revolutionary War officer: designed the plan for city of Washington DC.
1696 Mahmud I Ottoman sultan, fought Austrians and Russians
1674 Felipe de Orleáns, regente de Francia.
1627 Samuel van Hoogstraten, Dutch (or Flemish?) Baroque era painter who died on 19 October 1678. MORE ON VAN HOOGSTRATEN AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.