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Events, deaths, births, of APR 30
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[For Apr 30 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: May 101700s: May 111800s: May 121900~2099: May 13]
• Saigon falls... • WWW creators give it away free... • Hitler murders pet dogs, kills self... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • OAS is formed... • Digital calculator pioneer is born... • Annie Dillard is born... • Dodge company sold... • Date of Louisiana Purchase... • Explosion kills Palestinian children... • PDP7 computer... . • Land Rover... • 1st US presidential inauguration... • Women's prison...
^  On a 30 April:
2002 Pakistan's general Pervez Musharraf, who made himself President by a bloodless coup on 12 October 1999, wins a referendum for him to extend his term of office for five years, past the October 2002 parliamentary elections, when the 3-year term which the Supreme Court allowed him runs out and the new parliament is supposed to elect a President.
2001 US warplanes conducting routine patrols in the no-fly zone of northern Iraq bomb air defense systems after coming under anti-aircraft fire northwest of Mosul.
2001 Chandra Levy, 24, is last seen alive. She is a former US Bureau of Prisons intern, allegedly romantically connected to married Congressman Gary Condit, 53, who has represented her hometown of Modesto, California, since 1989.
1994  El ministro del Interior español, Antoni Asunción, dimite por su responsabilidad política en la huida de Luis Roldán Ibáñez, ex director general de la Guardia Civil, acusado de diversos delitos.
1992  Militares amotinados en Sierra Leona toman el poder, tras la huida del presidente Joseph Saidu Momoh a Guinea.
^ 1992 WWW creators make it free to all
      CERN, the European particle physics lab in Geneva, Switzerland, releases a milestone document, declaring that World Wide Web technology (developed by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN) would be free to anyone, with no fees due to CERN. Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist on fellowship at CERN, proposed a hypertext project in 1989. By 1990, he had created the basic underpinnings of the World Wide Web, which were made available to the public over the Internet in the summer of 1991. Berners-Lee continued to develop the design for the Web through 1993, working with feedback from Internet users.
1990  El Vaticano y Rumanía reanudan sus relaciones, rotas 42 años antes.
1986 Más de 1000 personas resultan detenidas en Santiago de Chile en una redada masiva practicada por militares con la cara tiznada de negro, policías y fuerzas de seguridad.
1986  Se inaugura en Palma de Mallorca el Segundo Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Catalana.
1980 Queen Beatrix of Netherlands ascends to the throne.
1980 Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London.
1978  El Partido Socialista Popular (PSP) de Enrique Tierno Galván y el Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) se fusionan.
1978 Según un informe del New York Times, el 1% de los adolescentes estadounidenses sufre anorexia nerviosa. [a site that fights anorexia: http://adiosbarbie.com/]
^ 1975 Saigon falls.
      North Vietnamese and Vietcong forces capture Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, and Duong Van Minh, president of South Vietnam for only nine days, surrenders unconditionally to the Communists. The same day, US forces complete the largest helicopter evacuation in history, airlifting select South Vietnamese officials and troops and the last few Americans still in Vietnam to the safety of US aircraft carriers offshore. At 19:52 the last US Marines in the country are lifted off the roof of the US Embassy in Saigon. Hours later, the city is renamed Ho Chi Minh City.
      The reunification of Vietnam under the North Communist regime came two years after representatives of the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement in Paris, ending the US military involvement in the Vietnam War. By the end of 1973, the US contingent in Vietnam had shrunk to only fifty military advisors. On 30 April 1975, the last of these and other Americans were airlifted out of Vietnam and the war came to end. North Vietnamese Colonel Bui Tin, accepting the surrender of South Vietnam, remarked, "You have nothing to fear. Between Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans have been defeated." The Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular foreign war in US history, and cost fifty-eight thousand American lives.
      By dawn, Communist forces move into Saigon, where they meet only sporadic resistance. The South Vietnamese forces had collapsed under the rapid advancement of the North Vietnamese. The most recent fighting had begun in December 1974, when the North Vietnamese had launched a major attack against the lightly defended province of Phuoc Long, located due north of Saigon along the Cambodian border, overrunning the provincial capital at Phuoc Binh on 06 January 1975. Despite previous presidential promises to provide aid in such a scenario, the United States did nothing. By this time, Nixon had resigned from office and his successor, Gerald Ford, was unable to convince a hostile Congress to make good on Nixon's earlier promises to rescue Saigon from communist takeover.
      This situation emboldened the North Vietnamese, who launched a new campaign in March 1975. The South Vietnamese forces fell back in total disarray, and once again, the United States did nothing. The South Vietnamese abandoned Pleiku and Kontum in the Highlands with very little fighting. Then Quang Tri, Hue, and Da Nang fell to the communist onslaught. The North Vietnamese continued to attack south along the coast toward Saigon, defeating the South Vietnamese forces at each encounter. The South Vietnamese 18th Division had fought a valiant battle at Xuan Loc, just to the east of Saigon, destroying three North Vietnamese divisions in the process. However, it proved to be the last battle in the defense of the Republic of South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese forces held out against the attackers until they ran out of tactical air support and weapons, finally abandoning Xuan Loc to the communists on 21 April.
      Having crushed the last major organized opposition before Saigon, the North Vietnamese got into position for the final assault. In Saigon, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu resigned and transferred authority to Vice President Tran Van Huong before fleeing the city on 25 April. By 27 April, the North Vietnamese had completely encircled Saigon and began to maneuver for a complete takeover. When they attacked at dawn on 30 April, they met little resistance. North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace and the war came to an end. North Vietnamese Col. Bui Tin accepted the surrender from Gen. Duong Van Minh, who had taken over after Tran Van Huong spent only one day in power. Tin explained to Minh, "You have nothing to fear. Between Vietnamese there are no victors and no vanquished. Only the Americans have been beaten. If you are patriots, consider this a moment of joy. The war for our country is over."
1974  Richard Milhous Nixon entrega a la comisión investigadora las cintas magnetofónicas del asunto Watergate.
1973 US President Nixon announces the resignations of top aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, along with Attorney General Richard G. Kleindienst and White House counsel John Dean (Watergate affair).
1972 The North Vietnamese launched an invasion of the South.
1970 US troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas. The announcement by US President Nixon leads to widespread protests.
1968 US Marines attack a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do
1963 Francia anuncia la construcción de una base de pruebas nucleares en el atolón de Mururoa.
1970 President Nixon announced the US is sending troops into Cambodia. Widespread protests ensue.
1961  Sudáfrica se retira de la Commonwealth.
1960  Manifestaciones antigubernamentales en las ciudades turcas de Ankara y Estambul obligan a la proclamación de la ley marcial.
1955  Tras un fallido golpe de Estado, Bao Dai es destituido por el primer ministro Ngo Dinh Diem, en Vietnam del Sur.
^ 1948 OAS established
      At an international conference in Bogotá, Colombia, representatives from twenty-one North, South, and Central American nations agreed to establish the Organization of American States (OAS) to promote peace and economic development in the Americas. Designed to work in congruence with the United Nations, the OAS absorbed the Pan-American Union, a less centralized international American organization established in 1890. In 1962, in response to Fidel Castro’s Communist revolution in Cuba, the OAS adopted a resolution to expel the country from its ranks, citing the Cuban government’s attempted subversion of other OAS countries. Although the OAS has traditionally been dominated by the United States, it has condemned US policy in the Americas on several occasions, especially in regard to US policy in Nicaragua. Today, the OAS has thirty-five member states, and is the oldest regional agency of its type in the world.
1947 Boulder Dam renamed in honor of Herbert Hoover.
1946  Un comité británico-estadounidense aboga a favor de la pronta inmigración de 100'000 judíos a Palestina.
1943  Adolf Hitler recibe a su títere francés Pierre Laval para darle órdenes.
1943 The British submarine HMS Seraph drops 'the man who never was,' a dead man on which the British planted false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain.
1940  Bolivia suspende sine die los permisos de inmigración a los judíos.
1937  Estados Unidos aprueba la cuarta Neutrality Act, de carácter permanente, que incluye la cláusula de cash and carry.
1934  Queda aprobada la nueva Constitución austriaca.
1934  En España, Severiano Martínez Anido, Callejo, Guadalhorce, Magaz y Calvo Sotelo quedan excluidos de la ley de amnistía por rebeldía.
1932  Se inaugura en Venecia el primer Congreso Internacional "Arte en el presente".
^ 1927 The first US federal prison for women opens
      The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, the first women's federal prison, opens in Alderson, West Virginia. All women serving federal sentences of more than a year were to be brought here. Run by Dr. Mary B. Harris, the prison's buildings, each named after social reformers, sat atop 200 hectares.
      One judge described the prison as a "fashionable boarding school." In some respects the judge was correct; the overriding purpose of the prison was to reform the inmates, not punish them. The prisoners farmed the land and performed office work in order to learn how to type and file. They also cooked and canned vegetables and fruits. Other women's prisons had similar ideals. At Bedford Hills in New York, there were no fences, and the inmates lived in cottages equipped with their own kitchen and garden. The prisoners were even given singing lessons.
      Reform efforts had a good chance for success since the women sent to these prisons were far from hardened criminals. At the Federal Industrial Institute, the vast majority of the women were imprisoned for drug and alcohol charges imposed during the Prohibition era. Only one of the inmates was imprisoned for homicide.
1918 Dodge^ 1925 Dodge sold
The Dodge heirs sold Dodge Brothers Inc. to the New York City banking firm of Dillon, Read and Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity. At the time the sale was reported to be the largest single cash sale in US history.
      The sale of Dodge was not the result of a downturn in the company's fortune, as Dodge still enjoyed a firm position in the marketplace due to its reputation for quality and reliability. Dodge cars contained more heavy steel by percentage than their competitors; they were prized by doctors and traveling salesmen, who couldn't afford a breakdown during the long trips that were often called of them.
      Rather, the company's sale resulted from the Dodge Brothers' offspring's unwillingness to manage the firm's affairs. Both Horace and John Dodge died in 1920. During their lifetimes they had run the company personally, explicitly excluding their family members from participation in the company's management. After the brothers' deaths a brief depression in the stock market in 1921 scared the family members into "cashing out" of the company's affairs.
1921 Pope Benedict XV encyclical On Dante.
1918  Guatemala declara la guerra a Alemania.
1917  El general Henri Philippe Pétain asume la jefatura del Estado Mayor del Ministerio de la Guerra francés para reemplazar a Robert Georges Nivelle.
1915  Ataque aéreo alemán en las costas inglesas.
1911  Una sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional de Portugal reconoce a las mujeres el derecho al voto.
1909  Queda reconocido oficialmente en España el derecho a la huelga.
1900  Hawaii is made a US territory.
1897  El físico británico Joseph John Thomson descubre el electrón, cuya existencia había predicho ya en 1891 su compatriota George Johnstone Stoney.
1889 First US national holiday, on centennial of Washington's inauguration
1864 Engagement at Jenkins' Ferry, Arkansas on Steele's Camden Expedition
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1861 New York Yacht Club offers their vessels to the Federal government
1838 Nicaragua declares independence from Central American federation. —   Se proclama la independencia de Nicaragua en Chinandega.
1812 Exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase was dated as signed, the first of thirteen states to be carved from the territory — Louisiana — is admitted into the Union as the eighteenth US state.
^ 1803 The Louisiana Purchase document date.
      On 02 May 1803, representatives of the United States and Napoleonic France signed a treaty dated 30 April approving the Louisiana Purchase, a massive land purchase that more than doubled the size of the young American republic.
      Three years earlier, Spain had ceded the territory to France in the secret treaty of San Ildefonso. However, France, embroiled in the French Revolutionary Wars, did not begin administering the territory until just before its transfer to the US
      In its first territorial acquisition since the end of the Revolutionary War, the US government paid France approximately fifteen million dollars, or ten cents a hectare, for some 2'145'000 square kilometers of land. On 20 October, Congress approved the purchase, and, on 20 December 1803, France formally transferred authority over the region to the United States.
      The acquisition of the territory of Louisiana, encompassing the entire region of the Mississippi-Missouri river valleys, was Thomas Jefferson's most notable achievement as president. American expansion westward into the new lands began immediately, and in 1804, a territorial government was established. On 30 April 1812, exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase was signed, the first of thirteen states to be carved from the territory — Louisiana — was admitted into the Union as the eighteenth US state.
     Representatives of the United States and Napoleonic France conclude negotiations for the Louisiana Purchase. What was known as Louisiana Territory comprised most of modern-day United States between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains, with the exceptions of Texas, parts of New Mexico, and plots of land already controlled by the United States. A formal treaty for the Louisiana Purchase, antedated to 30 April, was signed two days later. Beginning in the 17th century, France explored the Mississippi River valley and established scattered settlements in the region. By the middle of the 18th century, France controlled more of the modern United States than any other European power: from New Orleans northeast to the Great Lakes and northwest to modern-day Montana. In 1762, during the French and Indian War, France ceded its America territory west of the Mississippi River to Spain and in 1763 transferred nearly all of its remaining North American holdings to Great Britain. Spain, no longer a dominant European power, did little to develop Louisiana Territory during the next three decades. In 1796, Spain allied itself with France, leading Britain to use its powerful navy to cut off Spain from America.
      In 1801, Spain signed a secret treaty with France to return Louisiana Territory to France. Reports of the retrocession caused considerable uneasiness in the United States. Since the late 1780s, people from the US had been moving westward into the Ohio and Tennessee River valleys, and these settlers were highly dependent on free access to the Mississippi River and the strategic port of New Orleans. US officials feared that France, resurgent under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte, would soon seek to dominate the Mississippi River and access to the Gulf of Mexico. In a letter to the US minister to France, Robert Livingston, President Thomas Jefferson stated, “The day that France takes possession of New Orleans...we must marry ourselves to the British fleet and nation.” Livingston was ordered to negotiate with French minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand for the purchase of New Orleans. France was slow in taking control of Louisiana, but in 1802 Spanish authorities, apparently acting under French orders, revoked a US-Spanish treaty that granted Americans the right to store goods in New Orleans. In response, President Jefferson sent future president James Monroe to Paris to aid Livingston in the New Orleans purchase talks.
      On 11 April 1803, the day before Monroe's arrival, Talleyrand asked a surprised Livingston what the United States would give for all of Louisiana Territory. It is believed that the failure of France to put down a slave revolution in Haiti, the impending war with Great Britain and probable Royal Navy blockade of France, and financial difficulties may all have prompted Napoleon to offer Louisiana for sale to the United States. Negotiations moved swiftly, and at the end of April the US envoys agreed to pay $11'250'000 and assumed claims of its citizens against France in the amount of $3'750'000. In exchange, the United States acquired the vast domain of Louisiana Territory, some 2'145'000 square kilometers of land. In October, Congress ratified the purchase, and in December 1803 France formally transferred authority over the region to the United States. The acquisition of the Louisiana Territory for the bargain price of seven cents a hectare was Thomas Jefferson's most notable achievement as president. US expansion westward into the new lands began immediately, and in 1804 a territorial government was established. On 30 April 1812, exactly nine years after the Louisiana Purchase agreement was made, the first of 13 states to be carved from the territory — Louisiana — was admitted into the Union as the 18th US state.
—  Napoleón Bonaparte vende la Luisiana a EE.UU. por 80 millones de francos.
click for portraits and text of address^ 1789 The first US Presidential Inauguration
      In New York City, George Washington, leader of the War of Independence of the US, is inaugurated as the first president of the modern United States. The ceremony is held on the balcony of the Senate Chamber at Federal Hall, located on the corner of Wall and Broad streets. After he took the oath of office with his right hand resting on a Mason’s bible, Washington delivered his inaugural address in the Senate Chamber, a quiet speech in which the president spoke of “the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people.
      In 1774, Washington, a former member of the Virginia colonial militia, had represented Virginia at the Continental Congress, which was convened in protest of Britain’s repressive policies in the colonies. After the American Revolution erupted in 1775, Washington, who had served in the Seven Years’ War between Britain and France, was appointed commander-in-chief of the newly established Continental Army.
      With this inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers, Washington led an effective war of harassment against British forces in America, while employing his extraordinary diplomatic skills to encourage the intervention of the French into the conflict on behalf of the colonists.
      On 19 October 1781, British General Charles Lord Cornwallis surrendered his massive British army at Yorktown, Virginia. One of the most powerful nations on earth had been defeated. After the war, the victorious revolutionary general retired to his estate at Mount Vernon, but, in 1787, heeded his nation’s call and returned to politics to preside over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
      On 04 February 1789, he was unanimously elected the first president of the United States by all sixty-nine presidential electors. The electors, representing ten of the eleven states that had ratified the US Constitution, were chosen by popular vote one month before the election. On 30 April he is inaugurated to his first term, and in 1792, he would be reelected. While in office, he sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. In 1797, Washington retired to Mount Vernon, where he died of natural causes two years later.
1774 Pope Clement XIV proclaims a universal jubilee.
1725  Se firma el Tratado de Viena, por el que Felipe V, rey de España, firma la paz con Carlos VI, emperador de Alemania.
1598 In a ceremony at a site near present San Elizario, Texas, Juan de Oñate takes formal possession for Spain of the entire territory drained by the Rio Grande. This is near the location of future twin border cities, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, on the south or right bank of the Rio Grande and El Paso, Texas, on the opposite side of the river.
1563 Jews are expelled from France by order of Charles VI.
1531  El portugués Martín Alonso de Souza desembarca en el lugar donde, más tarde, se alzaría Río de Janeiro.
1508  Nicolás de Ovando, administrador de las Indias Occidentales, recibe de Fernando el Católico (Fernando II, Rey de Aragón y V de Castilla) la orden de construir iglesias.
1492  Los Reyes Católicos expiden a favor de Cristóbal Colón los títulos de almirante, virrey y gobernador de las tierras que descubriere.
1006 Brightest supernova in recorded history is observed
0642  Chindasvinto es coronado como monarca de la España visigoda.
0418 Roman Emperor Honorius (who ruled 395-423) issued a decree denouncing Pelagianism, which taught that humanity can take the initial and fundamental steps toward salvation by its own efforts, apart from divine grace.
< 29 Apr 01 May >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 30 April:

2006 Jean-François Revel, born Jean-François Ricard on 19 January 1924, conservative French politician, journalist, author, prolific philosopher and member of the Academie Française since June 1998. . — (060523)
2006 K Suryanarayana, 41, telecom engineer from Hyderabad, India, beheaded in Afghanistan by the Taliban, less than 48 hours after they abducted him from Zabul province on the main highway linking Kabul and Kandahar. Suryanarayana was working for Bahrain company Al Moayed on a project for Roshan Telecom, an Afghan mobile telephone service provider. He is survived by his aged parents, his wife, Manjula, and three children aged between 5 and 13. Indian authorities have announced a Rs 5 lakh (1 lakh = 100'000; $1 = 45 rupees) grant and a job for the family, of which the engineer was the sole earning member. — (060430)
2005 Ron Todd, born on 11 March 1927, who, from 1985 to 1992, was general secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union, one the biggest unions in the UK.
2004 Libby Libra, 21, killed by order of her employers, the officials of the Community Library in Haysville, Kansas, because that is cheaper than treating her for her thyroid problems. Libby was abandoned outside the library when she was a few months old, in April 1983, after being thrown from a car. The library adopted her and soon put her to work in various capacities, in recent years principally as a greeter, a job she took very seriously. Libby worked without pay, just for room and board. She liked to eat banana bread, sip spring water from library staff member's cups, and tiptoe across their keyboards. In 1990, Libby was run over by a car while sunbathing in the library parking lot, and in 1992 she was abducted. She was gone for more than two weeks before escaping and returning in the midst of a hailstorm. There wasn't any part of her body that wasn't bruised. In May 1999 Libby was in the library when a tornado destroyed much of downtown Haysville, damaging part of the library building and its roof. After that, she was afraid of storms. Libby gained some renown, being featured in a book entitled The Kingdom of the Cat (2000) by British author Roni Jay. In earlier years Libby worked principally as an exterminator. She cleared the old school building, killing and eating the hordes of mice that infested it.
2003 Two Iraqi civilians, among some 1000 demonstrating against US occupation soldiers and their 28 April massacre of civilians, in Fallujah, as US troops fire at the crowd, allegedly because some of the demonstrators were throwing rocks and firing guns, which is denied by Iraqis. 14 Iraqis are wounded.
2003 Three Israelis: Yanai Weiss, 46; Ran Baron, 24; Dominique Caroline Hess, 29; and suicide bomber Asif Mohammed Hanif, 21, a Muslim with a British passport, at 01:10, as security guard Avi Taviv (who survives seriously wounded) prevents him from entering the pub Mike's Place on the seafront walkway Herbert Samuel Esplanade in Tel Aviv, Israel. 60 persons are wounded, including 11 Israeli soldiers and 2 tourists. Another would-be suicide bomber was accompanying the first, but, noticing a defect in his explosives, flees; he is Omar Khan Sharif, 27, also a Muslim with a British passport. In May, Sharif's body is found off a beach, apparently drowned.
^ 2001 Malak Barakat, 4, Shahid Barakat, 7, and Hassan al-Qady, Palestinians, by explosion.
     In the evening, an explosion levels a two-story apartment building near headquarters of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah. Hassan al-Qady, a leading member in the Fatah movement, was suspected by Israel of killing, earlier in 2001, Israeli Ofir Nahum, 16, lured to Ramallah by a Palestinian woman in an exchange of e-mail messages, dragged out of the car, and killed by gunmen.
     Three others are injured in the Ramallah explosion, including Abeer Barakat, 25, the mother of the two children killed, daughter Wahed, 5. A man who shares the ground floor apartment with al-Qady is also injured.
      Israel denies that the explosion is part of its campaign of assassinations of Palestinian terrorrists, claiming instead that it is an accident in a Palestinian bomb-making operation.
2000  Poul Hartling, político danés.
1999  Dos personas mueren y 37 resultan heridas en un atentado perpetrado por un grupo neonazi contra un conocido pub del centro de Londres, frecuentado por homosexuales.
1999 A shepherd, 6 members of his family, and 101 sheep, in Kuban village, 30 km from Mosul, Iraq, in attack by US warplanes.
1998  Nizar Qabbani, poeta sirio.
1991 Some 125'000 by cyclone in Bangladesh.
1984  Karl Rahner, teólogo alemán.
1977 Charles Fox, English Canadian mathematician born on 17 March 1897.
1956 Alben W Barkley, 78, VP-D-1949-53
1947  Françesc Cambó i Battle
, político catalanista español.
^ 1945 Adolph Hitler and Eva Braun, suicide; dog Blondi and pups, murdered.
      Der Führer, Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany, burrowed away in a refurbished air-raid shelter, consumes a cyanide capsule, then shoots himself with a pistol, as his "1000-year" Reich collapses above him.
      Hitler had repaired to his bunker on January 16, after deciding to remain in Berlin for the last great siege of the war. 17 m under the chancellery (Hitler's headquarters as chancellor), the shelter contained 18 small rooms and was fully self-sufficient, with its own water and electrical supply. He left only rarely (once to decorate a squadron of Hitler Youth) and spent most of his time micromanaging what was left of German defenses and entertaining such guests as Hermann Göring, Heinrich Himmler, and Joachim von Ribbentrop.
      At his side were Eva Braun, whom he married only two days before their double suicide, and his dog, an Alsatian named Blondi. Warned by officers that the Russians were only a day or so from overtaking the chancellery and urged to escape to Berchtesgarden, a small town in the Bavarian Alps where Hitler owned a home, the dictator instead chose suicide. Both he and his wife swallow cyanide capsules (which had been tested for their efficacy on his "beloved" dog and her pups). For good measure, he shoots himself with his service pistol.
      Because Hitler's body was never found, conspiracy theorists have conjecture that Der Führer escaped (usually to Argentina). In fact, the bodies of Hitler and Eva were cremated in the chancellery garden by the bunker survivors (as per Der Führer's orders). Charred remains believed to be theirs were found in a bomb crater. A German court finally officially declared Hitler dead, but not until 1956.
1933  Erwan Bergot, novelista e historiador francés.
1900 John Luther “Casey” Jones, engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad, in a wreck near Vaughan, Mississippi, after staying at the controls in an effort to save the passengers. When he was in his teens, his family moved across the Mississippi River to Cayce, Kentucky, the town name (pronounced the same as Casey) providing his nickname. An engineer with a penchant for speed and virtuoso use of the whistle, he was making up time when his fireman warned him of a train ahead. After telling the fireman to jump, Casey died in the collision, one hand on the brake, the other on the whistle. An engine wiper, Wallace Saunders, wrote the first ballad about him. Another version was published by Lawrence Siebert and Eddie Newton in 1909 and became a popular hit in vaudeville. Other versions appear in railroad, construction, hobo, radical, and World War I song collections, and there are versions in French, German, and Afrikaans. Later versions transferred Casey to Western railroads, and some made him into a roistering ladies' man, to his widow's distress.
1898 Philip Hermogenes Calderon, English painter born on 03 May 1833. — MORE ON CALDERON AT ART “4” MAY with links to images. —(070429)
1888: 246 by hailstones, in Moradabad India.
1883 Édouard Manet, French Realist Impressionist painter and printmaker born on 23 January 1832. — MORE ON MANET AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
^ 1847 Karl, Austrian Erzherzog (“archduke”), field marshal, army reformer, and military theoretician, born on 05 September 1771 in Florence, Italy. He was one of the few Allied commanders capable of defeating the French generals of the Napoleonic period. He modernized the Austrian army during the first decade of the 19th century, making it a formidable fighting force that contributed materially to the defeat of Napoléon [15 Aug 1769 – 05 May 1821] in 1813–1815.
      The third son of the future Holy Roman emperor Leopold II [05 May 1747 – 01 Mar 1792], Karl grew up in Italy. Taking part in the war against Revolutionary France beginning in 1792, he was victorious at Aldenhoven and Neerwinden in 1793 and became governor-general of the Austrian Netherlands the same year. He was appointed commander in chief of the Austrian Rhine army in 1796 and was also named field marshal general of the Holy Roman Empire. His campaign of 1796, in which he repeatedly defeated the French commanders Jean-Baptiste Jourdan [29 Apr 1762 – 23 Nov 1833] and Jean-Victor-Marie Moreau and drove them back across the Rhine, distinguished him as one of Europe's best commanders.
      Again commanding the Rhine front in the War of the Second Coalition against France (1798–1802), Karl defeated Jourdan and André Masséna but could not stop Moreau's advance on Vienna after the Austrian defeat at Hohenlinden (1800). During the war of 1805 Karl commanded the main Austrian army in Italy and again crushed Masséna at Caldiero, but Austrian defeats in Germany decided the struggle in Napoleon's favor.
      After the Treaty of Lunéville (1801), Karl became president of the Austrian Hofkriegsrat (“Supreme War Council”) and generalissimo with wide powers. The only general who had vanquished the French, he discarded Austria's old military system and initiated a far-reaching program of reforms that included the adoption of the “nation-in-arms” principle, the utilization of French military organization and tactics, and the founding of military academies.Not yet ready but nevertheless a formidable force, the Austrian army under Karl crushed Napoleon at Aspern-Essling but was again defeated in the desperately fought Battle of Wagram on 05 and 06 July 1809.
     Retiring during that year, Karl took no further part in the Napoleonic struggles. His military writings, especially his Grundsätze der Strategie erläutert durch die Darstellung des Feldzuges von 1796 in Deutschland, (3 vol., 1814), had much influence on his contemporaries. In contrast to his aggressive and daring conduct of actual operations, Karl's writings emphasized caution and the importance of strategic points and were somewhat antiquated even in his own time.
^ 1794 (11 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Comme émigrés, par la commission extraordinaire de Bayonne:
DANGEST Louis Gabriel, âgé de 48 ans, natif de Rumigny département des Ardennes, Mousquetaire, chevalier du ci-devant ordre de St Louis, grenadier du bataillon des filles St Thomas à Paris, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'un complot qui a existé entre Capet et sa femme..
GIVRE ou LEGIVRE Jean François Claude, ex chapelain de la ci-devant chapelle aux Images, à Metz (Moselle), domicilié à Thionville même département, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
SAMARY Mathias, tricoteur de bas, domicilié à Forbach (Moselle), comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
JANOT François, cultivateur, domicilié à Cournol (Oise), par le tribunal criminel du département du Puy-de-Dôme, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
^ 1793 Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Domiciliés à Limoges, département de la Haute Vienne, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
MAILHOT Léonard, commis marchand, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
     ... comme distributeurs de faux assignats:
BORDIER Jean Baptiste, père, boulanger. — BORDIER Joseph, fils, praticien. — BORDIER Etienne, fils, élève dans le génie. — PINCHOT Léonarde, femme Bordier. — VACQUAND Catherine, veuve Renoir, marchande quincaillière.
Comme brigands de la Vendée:
LEUSSIER François Marie, né en 1720, vraisemblablement de Moisdon ou Belle Rivière, Notaire apostolique et royal, guillotiné sur la place du village de Chateaubriand.
      ... domiciliés dans le département de la Vendée, par la commission militaire des Sables:
COUTUMEAU Louis, laboureur, domicilié à St Hilaire-de-la-Forêt.
MARCETEAU Charles, maréchal, domicilié à la Chaise-Girard.
MARCHAND Pierre Renou, domicilié à St Hilaire-de-Rié.
PETIOT Jacques, maire et curé de St Reverand, domicilié à Reverand.
RENOU Pierre, marchand, domicilié à St-Hilaire-en-Rié.
RORTHAIS René Louis, ex noble, domicilié à Beaulieu.

1755 Jean-Baptiste Oudry, French artist specialized in Animals, born on 17 March 1686. — MORE ON OUDRY AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1657 Jacques de Stella, French painter born in 1596. — MORE ON DE STELLA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1655 Eustache Le Sueur, French painter born on 19 November 1617. — MORE ON LE SUEUR AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
^ 1030 Yamin Al-daula Abu'l-qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebüktigin, born in 971, since 998 sultan of the kingdom of Ghazna, originally comprising modern Afghanistan and northeastern modern Iran but, through his conquests, eventually including northwestern India and most of Iran. He transformed his capital, Ghazna, into a cultural center rivaling Baghdad.
      Mahmud was the son of Sebüktigin [942 – Aug 997], founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty, which ruled much of the area of present-day Afghanistan for more than 150 years. Once a Turkish slave, Sebüktigin married the daughter of the governor of the town of Ghazna (modern Ghazni), which was under the control of the Samanid dynasty. He succeeded the governor in 977 and later rejected Samanid control. In the next 20 years Sebüktigin extended his rule over much of what is now Afghanistan. At his own request, he was succeeded in 977 by a younger son, Isma'il. Many of the nobles, however, preferred his eldest son, Mahmud, as their sovereign. Mahmud was able to defeat his brother in battle (and imprison him for the rest of his life) and to ascend the throne in 998, to become the great Mahmud of Ghazna.
      When Mahmud ascended the throne in 998 at the age of 27, he already showed remarkable administrative ability and statesmanship. At the time of his accession, Ghazna was a small kingdom. The young and ambitious Mahmud aspired to be a great monarch, and in more than 20 successful expeditions he amassed the wealth with which to lay the foundation of a vast empire that eventually included Kashmir, the Punjab, and a great part of Iran.
      During the first two years of his reign Mahmud consolidated his position in Ghazna. Though an independent ruler, for political reasons he gave nominal allegiance to the 'Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, and the caliph, in return, recognized him as the legitimate ruler of the lands he occupied and encouraged him in his conquests.
      Mahmud is said to have vowed to invade India once a year and, in fact, led about 17 such expeditions. The first large-scale campaign began in 1001 and the last ended in 1026. The first expeditions were aimed against the Punjab and northeastern India, while in his last campaign Mahmud reached Somnath on the southern coast of Gujarat.
      His chief antagonist in northern India was Jaipal, the ruler of the Punjab. When, in 1001, Mahmud marched on India at the head of 15'000 cavalry soldiers, Jaipal met him with 12'000 cavalry soldiers, 30'000 foot soldiers, and 300 elephants. In a battle near Peshawar the Indians, though superior in numbers and equipment, fell back under the onslaught of the Muslim horsemen, leaving behind 15'000 dead. After falling into the hands of the victors, Jaipal, with 15 of his relatives and officers, was finally released. But the Raja could not bear his defeat, and after abdicating in favor of his son, Anandpal, he mounted his own funeral pyre and perished in the flames.
      Anandpal appealed to the other Indian rajas for help. Some replied in person, others sent armies. The Indian women sold their jewels to finance a huge army. When, at last, in 1008, Mahmud met the formidable force thus raised, the two armies lay facing each other between Und and Peshawar for 40 days. The Sultan finally succeeded in enticing the Indians to attack him. A force of 30,000 Khokars, a fierce, primitive tribe, charged both flanks of the Sultan's army with such ferocity that Mahmud was about to call a retreat. But at this critical moment Anandpal's elephant, panic-stricken, took flight. The Indians, believing that their leader was turning tail, fled from the battlefield strewn with their dead and dying. This momentous victory facilitated Mahmud's advance into the heart of India.
      After annexing the Punjab, and returning with immense booty, the Sultan set about to transform Ghazna into a great center of art and culture. He patronized scholars, established colleges, laid out gardens, and built mosques, palaces, and caravansaries. Mahmud's example was followed by his nobles and courtiers, and Ghazna soon was transformed into the most brilliant cultural center in Central Asia.
      In 1024 the Sultan set out on his last famous expedition to the southern coast of Kathiawar along the Arabian Sea, where he sacked the city of Somnath and its renowned Hindu temple. Mahmud returned home in 1026. The last years of his life he spent in fighting the Central Asian tribes threatening his empire. Mahmud was the first to carry the banner of Islam into the heart of India. To some Muslim writers he was a great champion of his faith, an inspired leader endowed with supernatural powers. Most Indian historians, on the other hand, emphasize his military exploits and depict him as “an insatiable invader and an intrepid marauder.” Neither view is correct. In his Indian expeditions he kept his sights set mainly on the fabulous wealth of India stored in its temples. Though a zealous champion of Islam, he never treated his Indian subjects harshly nor did he ever impose the Islamic religion on them. He maintained a large contingent of Hindu troops, commanded by their own countrymen, whom he employed with great success against his co-religionists in Central Asia. Conversion to Islam was never a condition of service in the Sultan's army.
      Great as a warrior, the Sultan was no less eminent as a patron of art and literature. Attracted by his munificence and encouragement, many outstanding scholars settled in Ghazna, among them al-Biruni, the mathematician, philosopher, astronomer, and Sanskrit scholar, and Ferdowsi, the Persian author of the great epic poem Shah-nameh. Mahmud's conquest of northern India furthered the exchange of trade and ideas between the Indian subcontinent and the Muslim world. It helped to disseminate Indian culture in foreign lands. Similarly, Muslim culture, which by now had assimilated and developed the cultures of such ancient peoples as the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, and the Syrians, found its way into India, and many Muslim scholars, writers, historians, and poets began to settle there.

[image below: 1936 miniature by Hadi Tajvidi showing Ferdowsi (holding book) and other poets at the court of Mahmud]
Abu Ol-qasem Mansur [935-1023], pseudonym Ferdowsi (or Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdousi) was a Persian poet, the author of the Shah-nameh (“Book of Kings”), the Persian national epic, to which he gave its final and enduring form,although he based his poem mainly on an earlier prose version.
      Ferdowsi was born in a village on the outskirts of the ancient city of Tus. In the course of the centuries many legends have been woven around the poet's name but very little is known about the real facts of his life. The only reliable source is given by Nezami-ye 'Aruzi, a 12th-century poet who visited Ferdowsi's tomb in 1116 or 1117 and collected the traditions that were current in his birthplace less than a century after his death.
      According to Nezami, Ferdowsi was a dehqan (“landowner”), deriving a comfortable income from his estates. He had only one child, a daughter, and it was to provide her with a dowry that he set his hand to the task that was to occupy him for 35 years. The Shah-nameh of Ferdowsi, a poem of nearly 60'000 couplets, is based mainly on a prose work of the same name compiled in the poet's early manhood in his native ?us. This prose Shah-nameh was in turn and for the most part the translation of a Pahlavi (Middle Persian) work, the Khvatay-namak, a history of the kings of Persia from mythical times down to the reign of Khosrow II (590–628), but it also contained additional material continuing the story to the overthrow of the Sasanians by the Arabs in the middle of the 7th century.
      The first to undertake the versification of this chronicle of pre-Islamic and legendary Persia was Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi, a poet at the court of the Samanids and one of the most important figures in early Persian poetry. A panegyrist, he wrote poems praising various Samanid princes, and much lyrical poetry, but he is remembered chiefly for paving the way for Ferdowsi with his epic dealing with the introduction of Zoroastrianism and the conflicts and exploits of mythical heroes from the Persian past. Daqiqi had completed only 1000 verses when he was murdered in 979 by his Turkish slave. Although Daqiqi cannot be wholly credited with originating the meter and style that became dominant in Persian epic literature, he most certainly contributed a great deal to its creation.
      Daqiqi's verses were afterward incorporated by Ferdowsi, with due acknowledgements, in his Shah-nameh, which, finally completed in 1010, was presented to the sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, who by that time had made himself master of Ferdowsi's homeland, Khurasan. Information on the relations between poet and patron is largely legendary. According to Nezami-ye 'Aruzi, Ferdowsi came to Ghazna in person and through the good offices of the minister Ahmad ebn Hasan Meymandi was able to secure the Sultan's acceptance of the poem. Unfortunately, Mahmud then consulted certain enemies of the minister as to the poet's reward. They suggested that Ferdowsi should be given 50'000 dirhams, and even this, they said, was too much, in view of his heretical Shi'ite tenets. Mahmud, a bigoted Sunnite, was influenced by their words, and in the end Ferdowsi received only 20'000 dirhams. Bitterly disappointed, he went to the bath and, on coming out, bought a draft of foqa' (a kind of beer) and divided the whole of the money between the bath attendant and the seller of foqa'.
      Fearing the Sultan's wrath, he fled first to Herat, where he was in hiding for six months, and then, by way of his native Tus, to Mazanderan, where he found refuge at the court of the Sepahbad Shahreyar, whose family claimed descent from the last of the Sasanians. There Ferdowsi composed a satire of 100 verses on Sultan Mahmud that he inserted in the preface of the Shah-nameh and read it to Shahreyar, at the same time offering to dedicate the poem to him, as a descendant of the ancient kings of Persia, instead of to Mahmud. Shahreyar, however, persuaded him to leave the dedication to Mahmud, bought the satire from him for 1000 dirhams a verse, and had it expunged from the poem. The whole text of this satire, bearing every mark of authenticity, has survived to the present.
      It was long supposed that in his old age the poet had spent some time in western Persia or even in Baghdad under the protection of the Buyids, but this assumption was based upon his presumed authorship of Yusof o-Zalikha, an epic poem on the subject of Joseph and Potiphar's wife, which, it later became known, was composed more than 100 years after Ferdowsi's death. According to the narrative of Nezami-ye 'Aruzi, Ferdowsi died inopportunely just as Sultan Mahmud had determined to make amends for his shabby treatment of the poet by sending him 60'000 dinars' worth of indigo. Nezami does not mention the date of Ferdowsi's death. The earliest date given by later authorities is 1020 and the latest 1026; it is certain that he lived to be more than 80.
      The Persians regard Ferdowsi as the greatest of their poets. For nearly a thousand years they have continued to read and to listen to recitations from his masterwork, the Shah-nameh, in which the Persian national epic found its final and enduring form. Though written about 1000 years ago, this work is as intelligible to the average, modern Iranian as the King James version of the Bible is to a modern English-speaker. The language, based as the poem is on a Pahlavi original, is pure Persian with only the slightest admixture of Arabic. European scholars have criticized this enormous poem for what they have regarded as its monotonous meter, its constant repetitions,and its stereotyped similes; but to the Iranian it is the history of his country's glorious past, preserved for all time in sonorous and majestic verse.
^ 0065 Lucius Annaeus Séneca and his nephew Marcus Annaeus Lucanus.
     Seneca “the Younger”, born in 4 BC, was a Roman philosopher, statesman, orator, and tragedian. He was Rome's leading intellectual figure in the mid-1st century AD, and, with his friends, was virtual ruler of the Roman world between 54 and 62 during the first phase of the emperor Nero's reign.
     Seneca was the second son of a wealthy family. The father, Lucius Annaeus Seneca “the Elder” [55 BC – 0039 AD], had been famous in Rome as a teacher of rhetoric; the mother, Helvia, was of excellent character and education; the older brother was Gallio, met by St. Paul in Achaea in AD 0052; the younger brother was the father of the poet Lucan [0039-0065]. An aunt took Lucius as a boy to Rome; there he was trained as an orator and educated in philosophy in the school of the Sextii, which blended Stoicism with an ascetic neo-Pythagoreanism. Seneca's health suffered, and he went to recuperate in Egypt, where his aunt was the wife of the prefect, Gaius Galerius. Returning to Rome about the year 31, he began a career in politics and law. Soon he fell foul of the emperor Caligula [31 Aug 0012 — 24 Jan 0041], who was deterred from killing him only by the argument that his life was sure to be short.
      In 41 the emperor Claudius [01 Aug 10 BC – 13 Oct 0054 AD] banished Seneca to Corsica on a charge of adultery with the princess Julia Livilla, the Emperor's niece. In that uncongenial milieu he studied natural science and philosophy and wrote the three treatises entitled Consolationes. The influence of Agrippina, the Emperor's wife, had him recalled to Rome in 49. He became praetor in AD 50, married Pompeia Paulina, a wealthy woman, built up a powerful group of friends, including the new prefect of the guard, Sextus Afranius Burrus [–62], and became tutor to the future emperor Nero [15 Dec 0037 – 09 Jun 0068].
      The murder of Claudius pushed Seneca and Burrus to the top. Their friends held the great army commands on the German and Parthian frontiers. Nero's first public speech, drafted by Seneca, promised liberty for the Senate and an end to the influence of freedmen and women. Agrippina the Younger [0015-0059], Nero's mother, was resolved that her influence should continue, and there were other powerful enemies. But Seneca and Burrus, although provincials from Spain and Gaul, understood the problems of the Roman world. They introduced fiscal and judicial reforms and fostered a more humane attitude toward slaves. Their nominee Corbulo defeated the Parthians; in Britain a more enlightened administration followed the quashing of the rebellion of Boudicca [–0060]. But as Tacitus [0056–0117], the historian, wrote, “Nothing in human affairs is more unstable and precarious than power unsupported by its own strength.” Seneca and Burrus were a tyrant's favorites. In 0059 they had to condone, or to contrive, the murder of Agrippina. When Burrus died in 62 Seneca knew that he could not go on. He received permission to retire, and in his remaining years he wrote some of his best philosophical works. In 65, Seneca's enemies denounced him as having been a party to the conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso. Ordered to commit suicide, he met death with fortitude and composure.
      The Apocolocyntosis divi Claudii (“The Pumpkinification of the Divine Claudius”) stands apart from the rest of Seneca's surviving works. A political skit, witty and unscrupulous, its theme is the deification (or “pumpkinification”) of Claudius. The rest divide into philosophical works and the tragedies. The former expound an eclectic version of “Middle” Stoicism, adapted for the Roman market by Panaetius [180 BC – 109 BC] of Rhodes, and developed by his compatriot Poseidonius [135 BC – 51 BC]. Poseidonius lies behind the books on natural science, Naturales quaestiones, where lofty generalities on the investigation of nature are offset by a jejune exposition of the facts. Of the Consolationes, Ad Marciam consoles a lady on the loss of a son; Ad Helviam matrem, Seneca's mother on his exile; Ad Polybium, the powerful freedman Polybius on the loss of a son but with a sycophantic plea for recall from Corsica. The De ira deals at length with the passion of anger, its consequences, and control. The De clementia, an exhortatory address to Nero, commends mercy as the sovereign quality for a Roman emperor. De tranquillitate animi, De constantia sapientis, De vita beata, and De otio consider various aspects of the life and qualities of the Stoic wise man. De beneficiis is a diffuse treatment of benefits as seen by giver and recipient. De brevitate vitae demonstrates that our human span is long enough if time is properly employed, which it seldom is. Best written and most compelling are the Epistulae morales, addressed to Lucilius. Those 124 brilliant essays treat a range of moral problems not easily reduced to a single formula.
      Of the 10 “Senecan” tragedies, Octavia is certainly, and Hercules Oetaeus is probably, spurious. The others handle familiar Greek tragic themes, with some originality of detail. Attempts to arrange them as a schematic treatment of Stoic “vices” seem too subtle. Intended for play readings rather than public presentation, the pitch is a high monotone, emphasizing the lurid and the supernatural. There are impressive set speeches and choral passages, but the characters are static, and they rant. The principal representatives of classical tragedy known to the Renaissance world, these plays had a great influence, notably in England. Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, John Webster's The Duchess of Malfi, and Cyril Tourneur's Revengers Tragaedie, with their ghosts, witches, cruel tyrants, and dominant theme of vengeance, are the progeny of Seneca's tragedies.
     Hostile propaganda pursued Seneca's memory. Quintilian [0035-0097], the 1st-century AD rhetorician, criticized his educational influence; Tacitus was ambivalent on Seneca's place in history. But his views on monarchy and its duties contributed to the humane and liberal temper of the age of the Antonines (AD 0138–0192): Antoninus Pius [19 Sep 0086 – 07 March 0161], Marcus Aurelius [26 Apr 0121, – 17 March 0180], and Commodus [31 Aug 0161 – 31 Dec 0192]. Meanwhile, the spread of Stoicism kept his philosophy alive: new horizons opened when it was found to have Christian affinities. There was a belief that he knew St. Paul and a spurious collection of letters to substantiate it. Studied by Augustine and Jerome, Seneca's works consoled Boethius in prison. His thought was a component of the Latin culture of the Middle Ages, often filtered through anthologies. Known to Dante [05 Jun 1265 – 13 Sep 1321], Chaucer [1343 – 25 Oct 1400], and Petrarch [20 Jul 1304 – 18 Jul 1374], his moral treatises were edited by Erasmus [27 Oct 1469 – 12 Jul 1536]; the first complete English translation appeared in 1614. In the 16th to 18th century Senecan prose, in content and style, served the vernacular literatures as a model for essays, sermons, and moralizing. Calvin [10 Jul 1509 – 27 May 1564], Montaigne [28 Feb 1533 – 23 Sep 1592], and Rousseau [28 Jun 1712 – 02 Jul 1778] are instances. As the first of “Spanish” thinkers, his influence in Spain was always powerful. Nineteenth-century specialization brought him under fire from philosophers, scientists, historians, and students of literature. But later scholarly work and the interest aroused by the bimillenary commemorations of his death in Spain in 1965 suggested that a Senecan revival might be under way. In his 40 surviving books the thoughts of a versatile but unoriginal mind are expressed and amplified by the resources of an individual style.

SENECA ONLINE: Epistulae Morales ad LuciliumQuaestiones Naturalesde Providentiade Consolatione ad Polybiumde Consolatione ad Marciamde Consolatione ad HelviamDe Constantiade Otiode Brevitate Vitaede Tranquillitate Animide Vita Beatade Irade ClementiaApocolocyntosisMedeaPhaedraHercules [Oetaeus]AgamemnonOedipusThyestesOctaviaProverbs
In English translation: On Benefits

Lucan, was a Roman poet and republican patriot whose historical epic, the Bellum civile, better known as the Pharsalia (English translation) because of its vivid account of that battle, is remarkable as the single major Latin epic poem that eschewed the intervention of the gods.
     Lucan was the nephew of Seneca the Younger. Trained by the Stoic philosopher Cornutus and later educated in Athens, Lucan attracted the favorable attention of the emperor Nero owing to his early promise as a rhetorician and orator. Shortly, however, Nero became jealous of his ability as a poet and halted further public readings of his poetry. Already disenchanted by Nero's tyranny and embittered by the ban on his recitations, Lucan became one of the leaders in the conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso in 0065 to assassinate Nero. When the conspiracy was discovered, he was compelled to commit suicide by opening a vein. According to Tacitus, he died repeating a passage from one of his poems describing the death of a wounded soldier.
      The Bellum civile, his only extant poem, is an account of the war between Julius Caesar [12 Jul 100 BC – 15 Mar 44 BC] and Pompey [29 Sep 106 BC – 28 Sep 48 BC], carried down to the arrival of Caesar in Egypt after the murder of Pompey, when it stops abruptly in the middle of the 10th book. Lucan was not a great poet, but he was a great rhetorician and had remarkable political and historical insight, though he wrote the poem while still a young man. The work is naturally imitative of Virgil [15 Oct 70 BC – 21 Sep 19 BC], though not as dramatic. Although the style and vocabulary are usually commonplace and the metre monotonous, the rhetoric is often lifted into real poetry by its energy and flashes of fire and appears at its best in the magnificent funeral speech of Cato [95 BC – 46 BC] on Pompey. Scattered through the poem are noble sayings and telling comments, expressed with vigor and directness. As the poem proceeds, the poet's republicanism becomes more marked, no doubt because as Nero's tyranny grew, along with Lucan's hatred of him, he looked back with longing to the old Roman Republic. It has been said that Cato is the real hero of the epic, and certainly the best of Lucan's own Stoicism appears in the noble courage of his Cato in continuing the hopeless struggle after Pompey had failed.
      Lucan's poetry was popular during the Middle Ages. Christopher Marlowe [bap. 26 Feb 1564 – 30 May 1593] translated the first book of the Bellum civile (1600), and Samuel Johnson [18 Sep 1709 – 13 Dec 1784] praised the 1718 translation of Nicholas Rowe [20 Jun 1674 – 06 Dec 1718] as “one of the greatest productions of English poetry.” The English poets Robert Southey [12 Aug 1774 – 21 Mar 1843] and Percy Bysshe Shelley [04 Aug 1792 – 08 Jul 1822] in their earlier years preferred him to Virgil. His work strongly influenced Pierre Corneille [06 Jun 1606 – 01 Oct 1684] and other French classical dramatists of the 17th century.

< 29 Apr 01 May >
^  Births which occurred on a 30 April

1967  La torre de televisión de Ostankino, de 533 metros de alto, se inaugura en Moscú.
^ 1964 PDP-7 computer
      Digital's PDP line, launched in the late 1950's, would evolve into a popular series of computers. Company founder Ken Olsen believed that computers should be easy and relatively fun to use. The PDP (Programmed Data Processors) line worked independently or in conjunction with a larger mainframe computer. The PDP-7 immediately preceded PDP-8, the first computer to use integrated circuits. The machine, unveiled in 1965, became a phenomenal success. Because it was smaller than a mainframe-it could fit in a closet instead of a garage-DEC called the PDP-7 a "minicomputer." By the 1970's, DEC ranked behind IBM as the world's second-largest computer company.
1963  El puente de arco de la línea que une Schleswig-Holstein y la isla de Fehmarn, situada en el mar Báltico, queda terminado, después de cuatro años en construcción.
^ 1948 Land Rover
is introduced at the Amsterdam Auto Show on this day in 1948. Brothers Maurice and Spencer Wilks, then the Rover Company's managing director, developed the truck as a result of a conversation about Maurice's American 4x4. Realizing the gap in the British market for such a vehicle, they quickly produced a prototype out of aluminum and steel, metals that were still rationed in England at the time. They used interior components from their Rover saloon cars.
      The first prototype was completed in 1947, but it wasn't launched until the Amsterdam show the following year. The vehicle featured four-wheel drive and a 1.6-liter engine from the Rover P3 60 saloon. It was shown with a canvas top and optional doors. Doors eventually became standard, as did a system where two- and four-wheel drive could be selected in the high range with permanent four-wheel drive in the low range.
      In 1952, the engine was enlarged to 2 liters and the wheelbase was extended to 86 inches. Land Rover would become immensely successful in endurance races and off-road rallies, making it the standard operating vehicle for British Commonwealth wilderness territories. Heavy and easy to repair, the Land Rover earned its name for toughness and reliability.
1946 Carl XVI Gustav king of Sweden (from 19 Sep 1973- )
^ 1945 Annie Dillard, in Pittsburgh, poet, essayist, and novelist.
      At age 28, Dillard would become the youngest American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize, for her collection of essays Pilgrim at Tinker Creek (1974). The book, often compared with Henry David Thoreau's Walden, collected her meditations during a year spent living on the shores of a creek. She also wrote a collection of poetry, Tickets for a Prayer Wheel, the same year. Dillard began reading avidly as a child and studied writing at Hollins College in Roanoke, Virginia, where she took her bachelor's and master's. In 1965, she married her creative writing professor, R.H.W. Dillard. Between 1975 and 1978, she was a scholar-in-residence at Western Washington University in Bellingham, Washington. She moved to Connecticut in 1979 and became a professor at Wesleyan University after her second marriage. She wrote prolifically, publishing five more books by 1989 and writing essays, poems, memoirs, and reviews. Her first novel, The Living (1992), a detailed chronicle of Pacific Northwest pioneers, was a critical success.
1944  Félix de Azúa, poeta y novelista español.
1937 Richard Farina, US folksinger and novelist who died on 30 April 1966.
1932  Antonio Tejero Molina, militar golpista español.
1929 Automatically Controlled Transmission for Motor Vehicles US Patent # 1,710,991 is received by Charles F. Kettering [29 Aug 1876 – 25 Nov 1958] who had applied for it on 06 August 1925.
1927  El segador, de José Ruiz Martínez “Azorín”, se estrena en Santander.
1916 Claude Elwood Shannon Jr., US electrical engineer and mathematician who died on 24 February 2001. He founded the subject of information theory and he proposed a linear schematic model of a communications system.
1912  Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado, militar y vicepresidente del Gobierno español.
1909 Queen Juliana of Netherlands (1948-80)
^ 1904 George Stibitz
     He would grow up to develop an early digital calculator to make his job easier. In 1940, Stibitz worked on relay switching equipment for Bell Telephone Laboratories, a job that required him to perform complex mathematical computations very quickly. One night at home, Stibitz rigged up an electronic adding machine with dry cell batteries, metal strips from a tobacco can, and flashlight bulbs. The adding machine, called the Model I Complex Calculator, was used at Bell for the next nine years. Stibitz later taught physiology at Dartmouth Medical School, where he pioneered computer applications in the biomedical arena.
1904 Las tres casas de Jerez, de Fernández Shaw y Pedro Muñoz Seca, se estrena en el teatro Eslava.
1904  Un aparato capaz de recibir una onda emitida por un barco es patentado por Christian Hismeyes.
1902 Theodore William Schultz, in South Dakota, US economist who shared the 1979 Nobel Economics Prize with Sir Arthur Lewis of the UK “for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”. He died on 26 February 1998.
1901 Simon Kuznets, Russian-born US Nobel Prize-winning economist and statistician who died on 08 July 1985.
1893 Joachim von Ribbentrop, German foreign minister under the Nazi regime (1933-45). He was chief negotiator of the treaties with which Germany entered World War II. Ribbentrop's greatest diplomatic coup was the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 23 August 1939, which cleared the way for Hitler's attack on Poland on 01 September 1939, thus beginning World War II. Together with nine other top Nazis, Ribbentrop was executed for war crimes on 16 October 1946.
1888 John Crowe Ransom, US poet and critic who died on 04 July 1974.
1885 Guido Luigi Russolo, Italian artist who died in 1947.
1883  Indalecio Prieto y Tuero, político español, que fue varias veces ministro en la II República española.
1857 Eugen Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist who pioneered the study of schizophrenics. He died on 15 July 1939.
1835 Franz von Defregger, Austrian painter who died on 02 January 1921. MORE ON DEFREGGER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1826  Jerónimo Martínez Sánchez, grabador, fotógrafo, dibujante y pintor venezolano.
1823 William Bradford, cool US painter and photographer who died on 25 April 1892. MORE ON BRADFORD AT ART “4” APR 25 with links to images.
1808 First practical typewriter completed by Italian Pellegrini Turri for his blind friend Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizzono, though. typewriter patents date back to 1713. Commercial production, however, would begin only with the "writing ball" of Danish pastor Malling Hansen (1870).
1804 Richard Redgrave, British artist who died on 14 December 1888. MORE ON REDGRAVE AT ART “4” DECEMBER with links to images.
1798 Charles-Auguste van den Berghe, Belgian artist who died on 17 November 1853. — more with links to two images.
1777 Johann Karl Friedrich Gauss, German, one of the world's great mathematicians and physicists. He died on 23 February 1855. He worked in a wide variety of fields in both mathematics and physics incuding number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy and optics.
1651 Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, French philanthropist and founder of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. He died on 07 April 1719.
1729 chevalier Jacques Antoine Volaire, French painter who died before 1802. MORE ON VOLAIRE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1504 Francesco Primaticcio di Bologna, Italian Mannerist painter and sculptor who died in 1570. MORE ON PRIMATICCIO AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
Holidays Switzerland : May Day Eve/Maitag Vorabend / Netherland, Neth Antilles, Surinam : Queen Juliana's Birthday / Louisiana : Admission Day (1813) / Vietnam: Victory day (1975)

Religious Observances Witch : Walpurgis Night or Bealtaine, sabbat / RC : St Pius V, pope / RC, Luth : St Catherine of Siena, virgin/doctor / RC : St Pius V, pope (1566-72) (opt) / Nuestra Señora del Villar; santos Pío V y Luis.
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Thoughts for the day:
“To get ahead and stay ahead, use your head.”
“To get acknowledged and stay acknowledged, use your knowledge.”
“You're never too old to die.”
“Upper classes are a nation's past; the middle class is its future.”
— Ayn Rand, Russian-born author [1905-1982]. {and the lower class gets no present}
updated Sunday 27-Apr-2008 20:51 UT
Principal updates:
v.7.30 Monday 30-Apr-2007 3:49 UT
v.6.40 Tuesday 23-May-2006 16:25 UT
v.5.40 Sunday 01-May-2005 13:59 UT
Tuesday 04-May-2004 20:38 UT

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