• Mussolini killed... • Mutiny on the Bounty... • Amerindians agree to loose their land... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Cars manufacturers organize... • De Gaulle resigns... • Nixon approves Cambodian incursion... • North Vietnamese offensive... • US invades Dominican Republic... • Crosley minicar... • Ike quits NATO to run for President... • Baader~Meingoff gang leaders sentenced... • Battle of Eluthumadduval... • T. S. Eliot gets job at publisher... • Jim Baker is born... • Tiny processors announced... . • PC Theater... • Slate syndicates for print... • Prominent Argentines die in plane crash... • Racist murders 5 non~Whites...
a 28 April:
2003 Noven Pharmaceuticals (NOVN) announces that it has received notification from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that the New Drug Application (NDA) for its methylphenidate (the active ingredient in Ritalin) transdermal system (to treat the symptoms of ADHD, attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder) is not approvable at this time. On the NASDAQ, 9 million of the 22.6 million NOVN shares are traded, dropping from their previous close of $14.45 to an intraday low of $8.10 and closing at $8.97. They had traded as low as $7.30 on 31 January 2003, but then, when Noven licensed its anti-ADS patch for world-wide distribution to the British firm Shire, the NOVN shares, from an intraday low of $7.75 on 26 February 2003 had risen to an intraday high of $14.69 on 28 March 2003. Prior to that, they had traded as high as $27.51 on 11 June 2002, and $60.25 on 23 October 2000. [5~year price chart >]
2002 Gross crimes are remembered at the Vienna ceremony of burial of the last remains of at least 789 deformed or mentally handicapped children experimented upon and then killed with large doses of barbiturates from 1940 to 1945 at the Am Spiegelgrund children's clinic, under the Nazis' program to rid the society of "lebensunwertes Leben". Their brains were kept and used for research as late as 1998, helping to make the postwar reputation of a former doctor at the clinic, neurologist Heinrich Gross, now 86, on whom justice has not been done, though the director of the clinic, Dr. Ernst Illing, was hanged as a war criminal in 1946. Two of the children killed (these two at age 4) were Leonhard Opdenberg (in September 1943) and Annemarie Tanner. One rare survivor is Alois Kaufmann who spent three terrifying years at the clinic after being brought there, in 1942 at age 9, by his foster mother who thought he needed mental treatment just because misbehaved at school. Few of the Spiegelgrund children were Jewish (most Austrian Jews who did not flee were sent to death camps). About 4300 handicapped adults and children were killed at the clinic, 3200 others were sent to the death camps.
2001 The US Navy conducts its second day of dummy ammunition practice on its firing range on the Puertorican island of Vieques, with some delays to remove from the range protestors, including personalities, who say that the health of the Vieques inhabitants is endangered. Puertoricans in New York City also demonstrate against the Navy.
1999 The US House of Reprensentatives rejects on a tie vote of 213-213 a measure expressing support for NATO's five-week-old air campaign against Yugoslavia. The House also votes to limit the president's authority to use ground forces in Yugoslavia.
| 1996 US President Clinton gives 4 1/2 hours of videotaped
testimony as a defense witness in the criminal trial of his former Whitewater
1994 Former CIA official Aldrich Ames, who had betrayed US secrets to the Soviet Union and then Russia, pleads guilty to espionage and tax evasion, and is sentenced to life in prison without parole.
1980 US President Carter accepts the resignation of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, who had opposed the failed rescue mission aimed at freeing American hostages in Iran.
1947 A six-man expedition led by Thor Heyerdahl sails from Peru aboard a balsa wood raft, the Kon-Tiki, on a 101-day journey to Polynesia.
1952, war with Japan officially ended as a treaty that had been signed by the United States and 47 other nations took effect.
1944 allocution radiodiffusée de Pétain : "La prétendue libération est le plus trompeur des mirages auxquels vous pourriez être tentés de céder... Grâce à la défense du continent par l'Allemagne..., notre civilisation sera définitivement à l'abri du danger que fait peser sur elle le bolchevisme"
1942 Wartime nightly "dim-out" begins along the US East Coast
1937 first commercial flight across the Pacific, Pan Am
1932 Yellow fever vaccine for humans announced
1910 first night air flight (Claude Grahame-White, England)
1899 Cameraman G.W. "Billy" Bitzer films Professor Leonidas and his troupe of dogs and cats in the film short Stealing a Dinner, at the Biograph studio at 841 Broadway in New York City. Here is a summary of the film: A man sits at the dinner table, with a row of dogs behind him and a black dog sitting near the table in the foreground. When the master rings a bell for service, a dog enters on her hind legs dressed in a servant's cap and apron. As she hops toward the table, however, a cat jumps upon the surface. The master tosses the cat off the table as the serving dog exits. The man rings the bell again but gets no response, so he takes off his dinner napkin and leaves the stage. Seeing this, the black dog turns and jumps on the table, where he promptly eats his master's dinner. The black dog then grabs the cat in his mouth and places it on the table. As the man returns to the table, he sees his empty plate and the cat crouched nearby. Thus blaming the cat for the stolen dinner, the man first scolds the feline and then draws a pistol aimed at the "thief." When the black dog sees the gun, however, he jumps on the table between the pistol and the cat, begging on his hind legs for the master to spare its life. The man grabs the dog by the collar, dragging him to the floor, and instead shoots the unlucky dog. A large dog--perhaps a Great Dane--in a policeman's uniform enters on his hind legs, grabs the man by the shoulders from behind, and chases him offstage. The other dogs follow in an excited pack.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1789 Mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty
In the Pacific Ocean, Fletcher Christian, the first mate on the H.M.S. Bounty, leads a successful mutiny against Captain William Bligh [drawing; right -->] and his supporters.
The British naval vessel was transporting breadfruit saplings from Tahiti for planting on British colonies in the Caribbean. The voyage was difficult, and ill feelings were rampant, although probably no more than on other long sea voyages of the period.
However, Captain Bligh’s famous temper pushed his men over the edge, and on 28 April, mutineers under Fletcher Christian capture the vessel, and the captain and eighteen of his crew are set adrift in a small open boat. By remarkable seamanship, they would traveled 5100 km and reached Timor in June, and then be transported back to England.
Meanwhile, Christian and his men traveled back to Tahiti on the Bounty, and, fearing the British authorities, most elected to flee to a remoter Pacific location. Six Tahitian men and twelve women decided to go with them. The dozen or so mutineers who stayed on Tahiti were eventually captured and court-martialed in England. Three of these men were executed.
In 1790, the Bounty settled at unpopulated Pitcairn Island, and the mutineers and Tahitians burned the ship and founded a colony. However, the colony suffered through a decade of turmoil and violence, and, by 1800, all the Tahitian and European men were dead, except one, Englishman John Adams.
Nevertheless, the men had reproduced prolifically with the Tahitian women before their demise by murder and disease, and Pitcairn’s population soon reached a healthy level. John Adams served as leader of the colony until his death in 1829.
The population of the English-speaking community peaked in 1937, with 233 people living on Pitcairn Island, which became a British possession in 1839. Descendants of the Bounty mutineers and the Tahitians still live on the island today.
William Bligh's Log entry for 28 April 1789 reads... Just before Sunrise Mr Christian and the Master at Arms... came into my cabin while I was fast asleep, and seizing me tyed my hands with a Cord & threatened instant death if I made the least noise. I however called sufficiently loud to alarm the Officers, who found themselves equally secured by centinels at their doors.- There were three men at my cabin door & two[?] inside. Mr Christian had a Cutlass & the others were armed with Musquets & bayonets. I was now carried on deck in my Shirt, in torture with a severe bandage round my wrists behind my back, where I found no man to rescue me...
Three weeks into a journey from Tahiti to the West Indies, the HMS Bounty is seized in a mutiny led by Fletcher Christian, the master's mate. Captain William Bligh and 18 of his loyal supporters were set adrift in a small, open boat, and the Bounty set course for Tubuai south of Tahiti.
In December 1787, the Bounty left England for Tahiti in the South Pacific, where it was to collect a cargo of breadfruit saplings to transport to the West Indies. There, the breadfruit would serve as food for slaves. After a 10-month journey, the Bounty arrived in Tahiti in October 1788 and remained there for more than five months. On Tahiti, the crew enjoyed an idyllic life, reveling in the comfortable climate, lush surroundings, and the famous hospitality of the Tahitians. Fletcher Christian fell in love with a Tahitian woman named Mauatua.
On 04 April 1789, the Bounty departed Tahiti with its store of breadfruit saplings. On 28 April, near the island of Tonga, Christian and 25 petty officers and seamen seized the ship. Bligh, who eventually would fall prey to a total of three mutinies in his career, was an oppressive commander and insulted those under him. By setting him adrift in an overcrowded 7-meter-long boat in the middle of the Pacific, Christian and his conspirators had apparently handed him a death sentence. By remarkable seamanship, however, Bligh and his men reached Timor in the East Indies on 14 June 1789, after a voyage of about 5800 km. Bligh returned to England and soon sailed again to Tahiti, from where he successfully transported breadfruit trees to the West Indies.
Meanwhile, Christian and his men attempted to establish themselves on the island of Tubuai. Unsuccessful in their colonizing effort, they sailed the Bounty north to Tahiti, and 16 crewmen decided to stay there, despite the risk of capture by British authorities. Christian and eight others, together with six Tahitian men, a dozen Tahitian women, and a child, decided to search the South Pacific for a safe haven. In January 1790, the Bounty settled on Pitcairn Island, an isolated and uninhabited volcanic island more than 1600 km east of Tahiti. The mutineers who remained on Tahiti were captured and taken back to England where three were hanged. A British ship searched for Christian and the others but did not find them.
In 1808, an American whaling vessel was drawn to Pitcairn by smoke from a cooking fire. The Americans discovered a community of children and women led by John Adams, the sole survivor of the original nine mutineers. According to Adams, after settling on Pitcairn the colonists had stripped and burned the Bounty, and internal strife and sickness had led to the death of Fletcher and all the men but him. In 1825, a British ship arrived and formally granted Adams amnesty, and he served as patriarch of the Pitcairn community until his death in 1829.
In 1831, the Pitcairn islanders were resettled on Tahiti, but unsatisfied with life there they soon returned to their native island. In 1838, the Pitcairn Islands, which includes three nearby uninhabited islands, was incorporated into the British Empire. By 1855, Pitcairn's population had grown to nearly 200, and the five-square-kilometer island could not sustain its residents. In 1856, the islanders were removed to Norfolk Island, a formal penal colony 6000 km to the west. However, less than two years later, 17 of the islanders returned to Pitcairn, followed by more families in 1864. Today, about 40 persons live on Pitcairn Island, and all but a few are descendants of the Bounty mutineers. About a thousand residents of Norfolk Island (half its population) trace their lineage from Fletcher Christian and the eight other Englishmen.
| 1788 Maryland becomes the 7th state to ratify the US
1686 First volume of Isaac Newton's Principia is published.
1635 Virginia Governor John Harvey accused of treason and removed from office.
2007 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker [28 Jun 1912–], German physicist and philosopher, last survivor of the research team which tried and failed to develop a nuclear weapon in Nazi Germany during WW II. He the son of the German diplomat Ernst von Weizsäcker [25 May 1882 – 04 Aug 1951], and the elder brother of the German President (01 Jul 1984 - 30 Jun 1994) Richard von Weizsäcker [15 Apr 1920~], and father of the physicist and politician Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker [25 Jun 1939~], and father-in-law of Konrad Raiser [25 Jan 1938~], General Secretary of the World Council of Churches (1992-2004). —(070504)
2006 Some 400 bottlenose dolphins wash up dead along a 4km stretch of the touristic coast between Kendwa and Nungwi in the north of Tanzania.. — (060429)
2005 Mario Giovanni Centobie, 39, by lethal injection in Alabama, for the 27 June 1998 murder of Moody policeman Keith Turner, 29, during a two-state crime spree that followed Centobie's escape from a prison in his native Mississippi. .
2005 A US soldier, by a roadside bomb in Hawija, Iraq, late in the evening. Four US soldiers are wounded. This bring to 1572 the AP's body count of US soldiers killed in the Iraq war started in March 2003. The body count of Iraqis, whether pro or anti US or merely innocent bystanders, is not given any publicity.
2005 At least 37 people, by floods in western areas of Jeddah and Assir, Saudi Arabia.
2004 Three policemen, two soldiers, and some 120 attackers of security posts in Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat, Thailand's only Muslim majority provinces. The attackers, organized in groups of up to 20, are mostly teenagers armed with no more than machetes, intent on stealing weapons, as was done successfully on 04 January 2004 by the Pattani Islamic Mujahedeen at a military camp in Narathiwat province, where four soldiers were killed and nearly 400 guns stolen. But this time the authorities had been tipped off. The attacks start before dawn and the fighting continues during 8 hours, and ended when, at one site in Pattani, police fires tear gas and rocket-propelled grenades into a mosque, killing 32 militants who had fled there. In all, 17 attackers are arrested. Muslims in the region have long complained that Thailand's Buddhist majority subjects them to discrimination in jobs and education, and that the state schools teach in Thai language instead of the Muslims' Yawi, a dialect of Malay. The decades-old separatist struggle subsided after an amnesty in the late 1980s but is resuming now. The Thai military also crushed unrelated pro-democracy uprisings in 1973, 1976 and 1991, killing dozens.
2003 Walter Reid Morrill, 78, of arsenic poisoning, having drunk coffee the previous day at a church council meeting at the Gustaf Adolph Lutheran Church in New Sweden, Maine, of which he was the caretaker. 15 other persons who drank the coffee are sick with arsenic poisoning. Another member of the church, Daniel Bondeson, 53, would commit suicide on 02 May 2003.
2002 Gordon R. Willey, 89, US archaeologist of Pre-Columbian America (SW US, Mayan Central America, Viru Valley of Peru). Author of such scholarly works as Archeology of the Florida Gulf Coast (1949), and of archeological mystery novels starting with Selena.
2002 Alexandr I. Lebed and 6 others among the 19 aboard helicopter that hits a power line and crashes south of Abakan in the Krasnoyarsk oblast of Siberia. A Cossack born on 20 April 1950, Lebed embarked on a military career in 1970, becoming a major-general in 1990. Though contemptuous of democracy, he refused to kill Russians in support of the August 1991 hard-line coup against Gorbachev. In 1995, Lebed retired from the military and was elected to the Duma in December 1995. In the 1996 presidential elections he got 15% of the vote, behind Communist Gennady Zyuganov and winner Yeltsin. Yeltsin made Lebed head of his presidential security council and fired him after 4 four months, but not before Lebed had negotiated an end to Russia's first war (1994-1996) with separatist Chechnya. Later Lebed founding the non-governmental organization Peacekeeping Mission in the North Caucasus, which negotiated freedom for hostages. In May 1998, Lebed was elected governor of Krasnoyarsk.
2002 Seven persons by a terrorist bomb in a market in Vladikavkaz, capital of North Ossetia. In November 2001 five people died in an explosion in the same city. Russian authorities, as usual, blamed separatist guerrillas from nearby Chechnya..
2002 Twelve Maoist rebels killed by Nepalese government forces, 11 in a guerilla training camp in the Banke district, and one in the village Parbat.
2002 Fourteen Christians massacred in mainly Christian village Soya on outskirts of Ambon, Indonesia, by a dozen assailants in black masks, presumably from militant Islamic group Laskar Jihad, which, on 26 April, rejected the February 2002 peace agreement meant to end three years of Muslim vs. Christian fighting in the area, which has left 9000 dead. Six of the Soya dead, including a 6-month-old baby, were stabbed, six others died in some of the 30 homes set on fire, two were shot.
2001 Shlomo Almakeis, 20, Israeli sergeant, shot at the Umm al-Fahm junction as he made his way back to Netanya. The incident occured on the road connecting Afula and Hadera through Wadi Ara, at about 22:00, when the vehicle driven by Almakeis stopped at a traffic light at the Umm al-Fahm junction. A car stopped to the left of the vehicle in which Almakeis, his girl friend, Adi Mizrahi, 17, and three others were riding. The passengers of the car exchanged a number of words with Almakeis, and then he was shot. The gunmen then sped into Umm al-Fahm.
2001 Eight members of the Macedonian elite unit "Wolves," by mortars and rocket-propelled grenades fired at their patrol from the village of Vejce near the town of Tetovo, just outside Kosovo, at about 12:00, by ethnic Albanian militants.
1995: 101 in Taegu, South Korea, as a gas line explodes in the middle of an intersection crowded with morning traffic.
1988 A flight attendant, as part of the roof of an Aloha Airlines Boeing 737 peeled back during a flight from Hilo to Honolulu. 61 are injured.
1986 First victims of Chernobyl, USSR site of world's worst nuclear power plant disaster.
1975 Hans Arnold Heilbronn, Jewish German Canadian mathematician born on 08 October 1908.
1968: 4-year-old strangled by 11 year-old Mary Bell.
1962 Gianna Beretta Molla [04 Oct 1922–], Italian pediatrician, who refused both an abortion and a hysterectomy when she was pregnant with her fourth child Gianna Emanuela Molla [21 Oct 1962~], despite warnings that continuing with the pregnancy could result in her death, which it did, after the birth of the healthy baby, who would grow up to be a physician and would be present at the canonization of her mother on 16 May 2004. Gianna Beretta received a good Christian education from her excellent parents. During the years of her secondary and university education she performed apostolic service among the youth of Catholic Action and charitable work among the elderly and needy as a member of the St. Vincent de Paul Society. After earning degrees in Medicine and Surgery from the University of Pavia in 1949, she opened a medical clinic in 1950. She specialized in Pediatrics at the University of Milan in 1952 and thereafter gave special attention to mothers, babies, the elderly, and the poor. She practiced medicine as a “mission” and at the same time increased her service to Catholic Action, especially among the “very young”. Through her prayers and those of others, she got to know that her vocation was marriage. She married Pietro Molla on 24 September. In November 1956 she became the mother of Pierluigi, in December 1957 of Mariolina; in July 1959 of Laura. In September 1961 towards the end of the second month of pregnancy, she had developed a painful fibroma in her uterus. Before the required surgical operation, and conscious of the risk that her continued pregnancy brought, she pleaded with the surgeon to save the life of the child she was carrying. The life was saved. A few days before the child was due, she said “If you must decided between me and the child, do not hesitate: choose the child - I insist on it. Save him”. Gianna Emanuela was born by Caesarean section. But on 28 April 1962, amid unspeakable pain and after repeated exclamations of “Jesus, I love you.”, the mother died. —(081027)
1955 Stephanie Bryan, 14, abducted and murdered by Burton Abbott , in Berkeley, California. Abbott would be executed in the gas chamber at 11:15 on 14 March 1957.
1915 Salvador Viniegra y Lasso, Spanish artist born on 23 November 1862. — more with link to an image.
1905 Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait, English US painter born on 05 August 1819, specialized in Animals. MORE ON TAIT AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1903 Josiah Willard Gibbs, Connecticut mathematical physicist born on 11 February 1839. He is best-known for the Gibbs Effect seen when Fourier-analyzing a discontinuous function.
1883 Jules-Adolphe Goupil, French painter born on 07 May 1839. — links to images.
1843 William Wallace, Scottish mathematician and astronomer born on 23 September 1768. He worked on geometry and in 1799 discovered the so-called Simson Line of a triangle [diagram >], which is the straight line (DEF in the diagram) on which are the feet of the perpendiculars to the three sides of a triangle from any point P on the circle circumscribed to the triangle [a proof]. Wallace invented the pantograph. He is the author of A New Book of Interest containing Aliquot Tables and Geometrical Theorems and Analytical Formulae.
1825 Gerrit Jan van Leeuwen, Dutch artist born on 29 June 1756.
1807 Jacob Philippe Hackert, German painter born on 15 September 1737, specialized in Landscapes. MORE ON HACKERT AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1793 PEROCHEAU Joseph, maçon, domicilié, à Chaume (Vendée), condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1793 GUESDON Mathurin, domicilié à Marennes (Charente Inférieure), condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1754 Giambattista Piazzetta, Venitian painter and drafstman born on 13 February (12 December?) 1682. MORE ON PIAZZETTA AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1716 Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort [31 Jan 1673–], French priest, missionary in Brittany and Vendée, canonized on 20 July 1947. Author of: Traité de la Vraie Dévotion à la Sainte Vierge — Le Secret admirable du très saint Rosaire — L'Amour de la Sagesse éternelle — Lettre circulaire aux amis de la Croix — Maximes et leçons de la Divine Sagesse — Le Secret de Marie sur l'esclavage de la Sainte Vierge — Aux Associés de la Compagnie de Marie — Contrat d'alliance avec Dieu — Lettre ouverte aux Habitants de Montbernage — Prière embrasée — Les Règlements — Règles des prêtres missionnaires de la Compagnie de Marie — Règles des Filles de la Sagesse (ou de la Providence) — Le testament de Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort –(080428)
1606 Heinrich Goedig (or Götting, Godiger, Göddeck), German artist.
He would become leader of the Baath party, dictator of Iraq with the title of President since 1979 and for more than ten years before that, murderer of individuals (including two sons-in-law on 23 Feb 1996) and of masses, fomentor of international terrorism. (date celebrated with blatant cult of personality)
Saddam (meaning confronter) was born in the Tikrit region of Iraq to an impoverished farm family, abandoned by the father before Saddam's birth.
In 1947 Saddam leaves his mother and abusive stepfather to live with uncle Khairullah Tulfah, a devout Sunni Muslim who would later be governor of Baghdad, and author of the pamphlet Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews and Flies."
When Gamal Abdel Nasser topples Egypt's British-installed monarchy in 1952, he becomes a hero and political inspiration to 15-year-old Saddam Hussein.
Saddam joins in 1957 the Baath (Renaissance) Party, foes of European colonialism who hope to form a single Arab socialist state. Saddam murders a Communist activist, his brother-in-law. In 1959 he attempts to assassinate Iraqi prime minister Abdul Kassem, but fails. Wounded, he disguises himself as a donkey and flees to Syria on a woman [... wait! it's the other way around. Don't try cracks like that at home, if your home is in Iraq. The Sturgeon General has determined that they could be hazardous to your health. make that the Surgeon General, he is not a source of caviar. Cracks like that are innocuous, even in Iraq, but possibly not in Iran.]. Then, in 1962, he enrolls in a Cairo law school.
After the first Baath regime comes into power in February 1963, Saddam returns to Baghdad to run a torture center. The Baath regime falls in November 1963, but Saddam begins to build a secret police force, Jihaz Haneen, and starts the rise to party leadership. He has an arranged marriage with his first cousin, Sajida Khayrallah. They would have five children (including the two girls whose husbands Saddam would have treacherously murdered).
On 17 July 1968 a bloodless coup by senior Arab Nationalist officers and retired Baathist officers overthrows the regime of President Abd al-Rahman Aref. Saddam, who has escaped from brief imprisonment, is the Deputy Secretary-General of the Baath party at the time, but plays a minor role in the coup. Ahmed Hassan Al-Bakr, a relative of Saddam, becomes president and chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council.
The 2nd Ba'th regime completes its takeover by 30 July when Saddam carries out a plot to oust the rival faction (Arab Nationalist officers) in the coup. Among others, minister of Defense Ibrahim Dawood is sent to Jordan and Prime Minister Abd al-Razzah Nayif is sent to Morocco.
In the fall of 1968 Saddam begins to purge the government and society of all non-Baathists, non-Arabs, and other potential dissidents, by forced retirement, exile, imprisonment, torture, or execution.
Nasir al-Hani, former Foreign Minister and co-plotter of the 17 July 1968 coup is abducted from his home in November 1968, under the pretext that President Bakr wants to consult with him. A few days later his body is discovered dumped in a ditch.
In November 1969 President al-Bakr appoints Saddam Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) and Vice-President. Controling the internal security and intelligence agencies Saddam becomes the real power in the regime, Bakr having been reduced to a mere figurehead even before he suffered a non-lethal heart attack in 1976.
In January 1969 17 alleged "spies" (including 13 Jews) are hanged in Liberation Square. On 08 August 1969 the Kurdish village of Dakan in the Mosul governorate is site of a massacre performed by the army. In October 1969, Abd al-Rahman al-Bazzaz, former prime minister, is imprisoned on charges of being a Zionist agent, he is tortured and sentenced to 15 years imprisonment. In March 1970 hundreds of Communists are arrested and tortured. On 15 October 1970, Hardan al-Tikriti, Minister of defense, Deputy Premier, and former member of the RCC, is dismissed from all his functions, he would be assassinated in Kuwait on 30 March 1971.
On 11 March 1970 an "autonomy agreement" is concluded between the Kurds, under Mulla Mustafa Barzani, and the central Iraqi government, but it would never be implemented.
A failed September 1971 assassination of Kurdish leader Mulla Mustapha Barzani results in the death of several others.
Abd al-Karim al-Shaikhli, Foreign Minister and member of RCC, is dismissed on 28 September 1971 and appointed to a position at the UN. He would later be assassinated.
The first wave of deportations (to Iran) of Iraqi Arab, Turkoman, and Kurdish families, stripped of their citizenship, takes place in 1972.
On 08 July 1973, Chief of Internal Security Nadhim Kzar is executed along with 35 others after reports of a coup and conspiracy.
The war against the Kurds rages again in 1974 and 1975. Phosphorus shells are used against the Kurds. In March 1974 the Kurdish towns of Zakho and Qala'at Diza are razed to the ground. 8000 Kurds disappear from the village of Barzan.
Five Shi'a 'ulama are executed in December 1974.
On 06 March 1975, Saddam signs the Algiers Accord with the Shah of Iran. The Accord defines the border with Iran and ends Iranian support for Iraqi Kurds. A major exodus to Iran of Kurds including leader Mulla Mustapha Barzani follows in March and April 1975.
In February 1977 begin mass deportations to Iran of Iraqi Shi'ites, with confiscation of their property and disappearances of sons. By the early 1980's, 200'000 Iraqis have been stripped of nationality and property, and deported to Iran.
In February and March 1977 eight Shi'ite dignitaries, 5 clergy and 3 laymen, are executed and there are mass purges of Shi'ites suspected of belonging to the Da'wa Party.
Some 7000 Iraqi Communists are eliminated
in 1978 and 1979. The Communist party offices are closed down in all the
Iraqi provinces in May 1979.
|1934 The heavy cruiser USS Astoria is commissioned, with Captain Edmund S. Root in command. The Astoria would be sunk, along with the Quincy [09 June 1936–] and the Vincennes, [24 Feb 1937–] during Operation Watchtower, the landing of 16'000 soldiers on Guadalcanal, on 09 August 1942.|
1930 James Addison Baker
III, US Secretary of State.
US secretary of state (1989-1992), political leader, and public official. He was born in Houston, Texas, and educated at Princeton University. After serving in the Marine Corps from 1952 to 1954, Baker studied law at the University of Texas. Admitted to the bar in 1957, he worked for a corporate law firm in Houston, where he became a partner and practiced until 1975.
Baker helped manage the 1970 campaign for United States Senate of his longtime friend George Bush. In 1975 Baker was appointed the undersecretary of commerce by President Gerald Ford, and the following year he joined Ford's reelection campaign. Baker made an unsuccessful bid to become attorney general of Texas in 1978, and in 1979 he managed Bush's campaign for the Republican presidential nomination. When Bush became the party's 1980 nominee for vice president, Baker joined presidential nominee Ronald Reagan's campaign as a senior adviser. Baker's exceptional skills as a tactician and political manager were considered instrumental in the Republican victory.
Serving as White House chief of staff from 1981 to 1985, Baker was also a member of the National Security Council and a senior foreign policy adviser. Baker was highly influential in policy formulation and legislative strategy, and was widely considered to have masterminded Reagan's 1984 reelection campaign. Exchanging jobs with Donald Reagan, Baker served as secretary of the treasury from 1985 until 1988, when he became chairman of Bush's presidential election campaign.
Appointed secretary of state under Bush, Baker pursued the administration's long-term foreign policy goals in the Middle East, particularly during the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath. In 1991 he organized the first comprehensive Middle East peace conference. He left his position as secretary of state in 1992 to run Bush's unsuccessful reelection campaign. Baker later became a business consultant.
| 1929 Avigdor Arikha, Romanian-born Israeli French artist.
— more with links
1928 Yves Klein, French Conceptual artist who died on 06 June 1962. — more with links to images.
1926 Harper Lee, author (To Kill a Mockingbird)
1916 Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian car manufacturer who died on 20 February 1993.
1914 Air conditioner is patented by Willis Haviland Carrier [26 Nov 1876 – 07 Oct 1950] who, to manufacture it, would found the Carrier Corporation in 1915.
1906 Bart Jan Bok, Dutch-born US astronomer; expert on the Milky Way. He died on 07 August 1983.
1906 Richard Rado, Jewish German English mathematician who died on 23 December 1989.
1906 Kurt Gödel, Austrian-born US mathematician and logician, who died on 14 January 1978. He is best known for his proof of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems in Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme (1931), showing that, in any axiomatic mathematical system, there are propositions that cannot be proved or disproved within the axioms of the system. In particular “...a consistency proof for [any] system ... can be carried out only by means of modes of inference that are not formalized in the system ... itself.”
1902 Johan Borgen, Norwegian novelist, dramatist, essayist and short-story writer. He died on 16 October 1979.
1900 Maurice Thorez, coal miner, leader of French Communist Party.
1896 Gérard Schneider, Swiss French artist who died in 1986. — links to images.
1895 Ottone Rosai, Italian artist who died in 1957. — more with links to images.
1879 Edgard Tytgat, Belgian artist who died in 1957. — more with links to images.
1868 Georgy Fedoseevich Voronoy, Russian mathematician who died on 20 November 1908..
1838 Tobias Asser, Dutch jurist who won the 1911 Nobel Prize for Peace for his role in The Hague treaties. He died on 29 September 1913.
1831 Peter Guthrie Tait, Scottish mathematician who died on 04 July 1901.
1773 Robert Woodhouse, English mathematician who died on 28 December 1827.
1765 Sylvestre Lacroix, French mathematician who died on 24 May 1843. He is the author of Traité de Calcul differéntiel et intégral (3 volumes, 1797-1800) and Cours de Mathématique (10 volumes, 1797-1799).
1764 Marie-Joseph Chenier, French poet, dramatist, politician, and revolutionary, who died on 10 January 1811.
1758 James Monroe (D-R) 5th US president (1817-1825), in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He would die on 04 July 1831.
1697 Maximilian Joseph Schinagl, German artist who died on 22 March 1762.
1442 Edward IV king of England (1461-1470, 1471-1483)