• Tea Act... • Magellan killed... • Plus d'esclaves des français... • Papal interdict on Venice... • 1500 returning POWs die as riverboat explodes... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Morse is born... • To the shores of Tripoli... • UAW separates from AFL... • Milton sells copyright to Paradise Lost... • Penn Central formed by merger... • Microsoft can't buy Intuit... • Computer mouse... • Prodigy president quits... • Afghan president murdered in Communist coup... • Explorer, general Pike killed... • North Vietnamese attack Quang Tri... • Humphrey's presidential candidacy... • Grandmother of Frankestein is born...
a 27 April:
| 1992 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is proclaimed
in Belgrade by the two republics of Serbia and of Montenegro.
1992 Russia and 12 other former Soviet republics are admitted into the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
1989 Beijing students take over Tiananmen Square.
1987 The US Justice Department bars Austrian Chancellor Kurt Waldheim from entering the US, due to his aid to the Nazis in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.
1982 Trial of John W Hinckley Jr., attempted assassin of Reagan, begins. Hinckley would be acquitted by reason of insanity and confined to a mental hospital.
1975 Saigon is encircled by North Vietnamese troops.
1973 During the Watergate crisis, acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray resigns.
1960 France grants Togo independence (Natl Day).
1953 The US offered $50'000 and political asylum to any Communist pilot who delivers a MIG fighter jet.
1950 The modern state of Israel is officially recognized by the British government.
1950 South Africa passed the Group Areas Act, which segregates races.
1948 Arab legion attacks Gesher bridge on Jordan River
1945 2nd Republic of Austria forms
1941 The German army enters Athens, ending Greek resistance. All mainland Greece and all the Greek Aegean islands except Crete are under German occupation by May 11. In fending off the Axis invaders, the Greeks suffer the loss of 15'700 men. Greece will not be liberated until 1944, by British troops from the Mediterranean theater.
1937 First US Social Security payment made.
| 1931 100ºF (38ºC), Pahala, Hawaii (state
1922 Yakut ASSR formed in Russian SFSR
1909 Sultan of Turkey Abdul Hamid II is overthrown.
1865 Explosion of the riverboat Sultana
1863 Streight's Raid through northern Alabama begins.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1861 West Virginia secedes from Virginia after Virginia secedes from US.
1861 US President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus.
| 1794 (8 floréal an II) BISSOT Pierre François,
âgé de 43 ans, maître de musique, adjudant major de la section des Invalides,
BONIE Pierre, âgé de 33 ans, officier de santé, et ROCHE Jean Baptiste,
âgé de 43 ans, limonadier, natif de Rheims (Marne), domiciliés à Paris,
sont condamnés à 6 années de gêne par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris,
comme convaincus d'avoir sciemment et à dessein attesté de faux certificats
de résidence, pour les conspirateur Mortet (ou Mortel, ou Morlet), agent
de l'infâme Condé, et Manssion (ou Maussion), émigrés qui ont été frappés
du glaive de la loi.
1794 (8 floréal an II) NAUDET Henri, menuisier, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, est condamné à mort par contumace, le 8 floréal an 2, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine, comme fabricateur de faux assignats.
2005 Lamia Abed Khadouri al-Sagri, an Iraqi National Assembly legislator, shot by terrorist intruders, in her home in the Hay Aour neighborhood of Baghdad.
2005 Some 40 persons on a bus hit by a train at 08:30 (02:30 UT) as the bus was racing through a crossing in Polgahawela, Sri Lanka. Some 40 others on the bus are injured. The bus driver survives and is arrested.
2004 More than 120 persons in machete and arson attacks on the villages of Old Sarkin Kudu, New Sarkin Kudu, Auoshima One, Auoshima Two, Angon Masu, and Sabon Layi, on the border between the central Plateau and Taraba states of Nigeria. Some 1000 persons are wounded. 25'000 persons flee from their homes, 4 of whom die from snake bites and complications during childbirth. This brings to at least 350 the number of dead since mid-February in sporadic fighting over land and cattle between the Muslim Fulani people, nomads who live principally from cattle herding, and the Christian Tarok, who are subsistence farmers. The rivalry has been aggravated by irresponsible allocation of land by government and by rising crime levels. A similar outbreak of intertribal fighting in Plateau state capital Jos in 2001 killed at least 1000 persons. More than 10'000 people have been killed in ethnic, religious, and political violence in Nigeria since the 1999 election made Olusegun Obasanjo [05 Mar 1937~] the first civilian president in 15 years, though he is a former general and was military ruler from 1976 to 1979 when he became the first military leader in Africa to hand over power to civilian rule. The civil strife hampers the efforts he promised to alleviate poverty, reduce state corruption, establish a democratic system, and to reform the military and the police.
Ruth Handler, 85, a founder of Mattel with her husband Elliot
Handler and Harold Matt Matson in 1945, creator of the Barbie
doll (which first
went on sale on 13 Feb 1959, and of which over a billion had been
sold, in 150 countries, by the time Mrs. Handler died), resigned from Mattel
and pleaded no contest to charges of stock fraud in 1978, founded Ruthton
Corporation to design and market artificial breasts. [Mattel
official history]. The first Mattel products, in 1945, were picture
frames made in a garage workshop in southern California. Elliot soon developed
a side business in dollhouse furniture made from picture frame scraps. Matson
soon sold out to his partners and the Handlers turned the company's emphasis
2002 Arik Becker, 22, Katrina Greenberg, 43 [<<<], Danielle Shefi, 5 [>>>], and Ya'akov Katz, 51, Israelis in Adura enclave settlement, West Bank, shot in their homes by three Palestinian infiltrators in Israeli uniforms (who escape), at about 09:00. An armed Palestinian thought to be one of the three is later killed by Israeli troops.
2002 At least 25 civilians in Gardez, Afghanistan, subjected to a rocket assault by the troops of warlord Bacha Khan Zardran. US troops at the southern edge of the city let it all happen, saying that it is not their primary mission to stop such carnage.
2002 Sixteen Maoist rebels killed by Nepalese government forces, 12 at a rebel base in Khotang district, and 4 rebels at a guerrilla training camp in Sindhupalchowk district.
2002 A Nepalese soldier in a convoy ambushed by Maoist rebels. Another 10 soldiers are wounded.
2001 Greg Chan, Kayla Rosenberg, Stephen Glidden, 7th-graders, and Melissa Leung, 8th-grader, in bus that overturns in Canada, in the early hours, on the way to a band competition in Halifax, with 42 kids from Oak Hill Middle School, Newton, Massachusetts, 5 chaperones and two bus drivers. 36 others are injured, mostly lightly.
1997 Jeffrey Trail, beaten to death with a claw hammer, in Minneapolis, by Andrew Cunanan, who goes on a killing spree. On 29 April he kills David Madson with two shots to the head, in East Rush Lake. Then in Chicago he binds millionaire Lee Miglin, 72, with duct tape, stabs him with garden shears, and cuts his throat with a saw. On 09 May he kills another person in New Jersey. On 14 July he kills designer Gianni Versace outside his mansion in the South Beach section of Miami. On 25 July Cunanan shoots himself in the head on a houseboat in Miami Beach, when the police is alerted to his presence.
1979 Gheorghe Vranceanu, Romanian mathematician born on 30 June 1900..
1972 Kwame Nkrumah, 62, president of Ghana.
1964 11 personas fallecen en Córdoba, España, al caer al río Guadalquivir el autobús en el que viajaban. —(080426)
1957 George Barker Jeffrey, English mathematician born on 09 May 1891.
1952 Guido Castelnuovo, Italian mathematician born on 14 August 1865.
1938 Edmund Husserl, German philosopher born on 08 April 1859. He founded Phenomenology, a method for the description and analysis of consciousness through which philosophy attempts (in vain) to gain the character of a strict science. The method reflects an effort to resolve the opposition between Empiricism, which stresses observation, and Rationalism, which stresses reason and theory, by indicating the origin of all philosophical and scientific systems and developments of theory in the interests and structures of the experiential life.
1936 Karl Pearson, 78, English mathematician born on 27 March 1857. He applied statistics to biological problems of heredity and evolution.
1936 Joseph “Dutch” Bowers, 40, an Alcatraz prisoner, is shot by guards during the first attempted escape since the Alcatray became a federal prison in 1934. Bowers was serving a 25-year sentence for stealing $16 from a store that was connected to a post office (making this a federal offense). At 11:00, Bowers finishes working on the prison incinerator. Instead of going back to the prison, he heads out towards the surrounding wire fence. The guards order him twice to stop, he refuses. They shoot twice at the ground. He continues until he reached the fence, then scales it and drops down on the other side. The guards shoot twice and hit him in the neck and his right thigh. He is propelled head first over the cliff and down 20 meters to the rocks. He dies from a bullet lodged into his lungs.
1932 Hart Crane, 32, US poet, drowns after jumping from a steamer while en route to New York.
1886 Louis Gabriel Eugène Isabey, French artist born on 22 July 1803. MORE ON ISABEY AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1878 Charles Victor Thirion, French artist born on 30 March 1833.
1827 Michel-François Damane-Demartrais, French artist born in 1763.
1793 ROBIN Etienne, laboureur, domicilié à Aiguillon, département de la Vendée, est condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, le 27 avril 1793, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1656 Gerrit van Honthorst. Gherardo della Notte, Dutch painter addicted to night scenes, born on 04 November 1590. MORE ON VAN HONTHORST AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1605 Pope Leo XI, born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici in 1535; elected Pope on 01 April 1605 and sick ever since. Since then the shortest pontificate has been that of John Paul I [17 Oct 1912 – 28 Sep 1978], elected on August 1979. But before Leo XI, there were shorter pontificates: Urban VII [04 Aug 1521 – 27 Sep 1590] was elected on 15 September 1590, and the all-time record is held by Stephen II [–26 Mar 752] who was elected on 23 March 752.
1978 Herri Batasuna is founded as a coalition of Basque independentist parties.
^ 1966 Penn Central Railroad formed by merger.
For much of their respective histories, the Pennsylvania and New York Central Railroads stood as two of the mightiest rail concerns in the nation. Indeed, for a number of years the companies vied for dominance of the lucrative East Coast markets. But, following the close of World War II, a variety of factors, including the rise of the automobile as the vehicle of choice for a vast majority of Americans, toppled both railroads from their once-lofty perches. By 1966, the Pennsylvania and New York Railroads laid down their arms and merged. The deal, which was approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission, marked what was then the single biggest merger in US corporate history. Flush with $4 billion in assets, the newly christened Pennsylvania and New York Central Transportation Company (Penn Central) instantly became one of the ten biggest non-fiscal companies in America. Despite these gaudy numbers, and a subsequent acquisition of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Rail Company, Penn Central foundered; mismanagement and financial difficulties pushed Penn Central to file for bankruptcy in 1970.
1960 First atomic powered electric-drive submarine launched (Tullibee)
1927 Coretta Scott King, civil rights activist, wife of Martin Luther King Jr.
1904 Arthur F. Burns economist/chairman (Federal Reserve Board).
1896 Wallace Hume Carothers, US chemist; he developed nylon. He died on 29 April 1937.
1892 Louis Victor de Broglie physicist (studied electrons)
1856 Richard Thomas Moynan, British artist who died on 10 April 1906.
1842 Emil Jakob Schindler, Austrian Impressionist painter specialized in Landscapes who died on 09 August 1892. MORE ON SCHINDLER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1837 Paul Albert Gordan, Prussian mathematician who died on 21 December 1912. He worked with Clebsch [19 Jan 1833 – 07 Nov 1872] on invariant theory and algebraic geometry. He also gave simplified proofs of the transcendence of e and p (pi).
1829 Benjamin Marc Louis Vautier, German artist who died on 25 April 1898.
1822 Ulysses Simpson Grant (18th US President [1869 - 1877]) [as a lieutenant recently graduated from West Point, 1843 >]
1820 Herbert Spencer Derby England, Victorian philosopher (Social Statics). He died on 08 December 1903. SPENCER ONLINE: : First Principles The Man Versus the State
1744 (Julian date: go to 08 May for Nikolay Novikov).
1737 (Julian date: go to 08 May for Edward Gibbon)
1673 Claude Gillot, French painter, engraver and theatrical designer, who died on 04 May 1722.
1642 Jean-François Francisque Millet, French painter who died on 03 June 1679. Not to be confused with the better known Jean-François Millet [04 Oct 1814 20 Jan 1875] MORE ON MILLET AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1537 Geneva's first Protestant catechism is published. Based on Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion, it was compiled by John Calvin, 27, and/or by fellow French reformer, Guillaume Farel, 48.