• Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Afro~Asian non~aligned conference ends... • Armenian Genocide... • Library of Congress is born... • Easter rebellion starts... • Anti Vietnam War demonstrations... • Willa Cather dies... • US~Spain war starts... • Nazis attack Warsaw Ghetto... • Easter Rebellion begins... • Those against Vietnam War are unpatriotic... • North Vietnamese attack South Vietnamese... • Violent miners' strike... • Britain begins its evacuation of Greece... • Defoe dies... • Trollope is born... • Erich Raeder is born... • Grafton is born...
a 24 April:
2011 The latest Easter Sunday until 2095 on this same date, which is the latest possible.
2007 Despite strong appeals by Catholic leaders and massive protest demonstrations, the legislative assembly of Mexico City's federal district (1547 square kilometers, surrounded by extensive suburbs) votes 46-19 to legalize abortion in the first trimester. The bill takes effect after being signed by the district's Mayor Marcelo Ebrard, but it will be appealed to the Supreme Court of Mexico. Abortions had only been legal in cases of rape, presumed fetal defects or in cases endangering the mother's life. The new law will permit hospitals to perform them during the first trimester and the measure would open the door for abortion clinics. Parental consent will be required for girls under 18. —(070426)
2005 Presidential elections in Togo rigged in favor of Faure Gnassingbé [06 Jun 1966~], one of the more than 100 children of dictatorial president Gnassingbé Eyadéma [26 Dec 1937 – 05 Feb 2005]. The main opposition candidate, Emmanuel Bob-Akitani [18 Jul 1930~], is in hiding, for fear of being assassinated.
2004 The United Nations' plan for the reunification of Cyprus fails to be approved in a referendum, because 76% of votes in the Greek part are against it (the plan would have limited their right of return), even though 65% of the votes in the north (occupied by Turkey after the success of its invasion started on 20 July 1974) are for it. Thus when Cyprus joins the European Union on 01 May 2004, its recognized govermment (in the Greek south) will still lack control of the Turkish-occupied northern third of the island, the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” proclaimed independent in November 1983 and recognized only by Turkey.
2003 The previous evening NeoRx (NERX) announced that the FDA has lifted the clinical hold on the company's Skeletal Targeted Radiotherapy product candidate for multiple myeloma. On the NASDAQ, 5.2 million of the 27 million NERX shares are traded, surging from the previous day's close of $1.66 to open at $3.48, reaching an intraday high of $4.17, and closing at $3.10. They had traded as low as $0.24 as recently as 01 October 2002, and spiked as high as $54.75 on 06 March 2000. [5~year price chart >]
2001 To replaced dismissed Yoshiro Mori, Junichiro Koizumi is elected president of Japan's majority Liberal Democratic Party (conservative) by 293 to 155 to the favorite of the party's old guard, Ryutaro Hashimoto. Koizumi would be voted in as prime minister by parliament on 26 April 2001. He has promised to bust up the ruling party's cliques, cure the economy and get the jaded public excited about politics.
2001 Successful rescue from Antarctica.
A New Zealand air force plane returns safely after retrieving four ill and seven other US staffers from a frigid research station near Antarctica's coast the first of two perilous rescue missions planned before Antarctica's harsh, dark winter sets in, precluding flights in or out.
Their hand forced by the health emergency, the rescuers and their C130 Hercules plane braved a landing and takeoff on McMurdo Antarctic Base's ice runway on the last day of sunshine before the black polar winter. The plane returns safely to Christchurch, New Zealand, late in the day, 15 hours after it had begun its round-trip journey. Two of the evacuees were suffering from "critical conditions". The two are transferred to a hospital in Christchurch.
The mission got a lucky break, leaving an hour earlier than scheduled and avoiding deteriorating weather conditions in Antarctica. At McMurdo, the plane spent just one hour on the ground to pick up the evacuees and refuel. Its engines were kept running throughout the stopover to prevent them freezing in the 30ºC air.
All 11 evacuated staffers are employees of Raytheon Polar Services, which provides support services at the McMurdo Base. The mass evacuation was "unprecedented." The seven evacuees who weren't ill had "family emergencies." There are 211 Americans left at the base following the evacuation, where they will winter until the next flights, scheduled in late August as Antarctica's spring begins. The evacuation flight carried fresh fruit and vegetables and personal mail to the ice-and-snow-bound base staff.
At the geographic South Pole, 1300 km inland, meanwhile, a sick American doctor was awaiting improved weather so a separate rescue mission could be mounted. Blowing snow, high winds and low visibility prevented an emergency airlift on 23 April. Ronald S. Shemenski, the only physician among 50 researchers working at the Amundsen Scott-South Pole station, recently suffered a gall bladder attack and has been diagnosed with the potentially life-threatening condition known as pancreatitis. An eight-seat, twin-engine plane fitted with skis for landing gear was scheduled to fly from the Rothera research station on the Antarctic peninsula to pick up the 59-year-old doctor. The plane arrived at Rothera the previous week after a flight from Punta Arenas, Chile, accompanied by a backup aircraft. Flights to the South Pole station are normally halted from late February until November because of the extreme winter cold and darkness. But the rescuers worried that Shemenski's condition would worsen in the coming months, when an airlift out of the South Pole would be virtually impossible. Aviation experts say that a landing at the South Pole now is especially dangerous with the temperature now about 60ºC, and the sky nearly pitch-black some 20 hours of the day.
The rescue effort is the second in two years. In October 1999, Dr. Jerri Nielsen, the lone physician at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, was evacuated after she discovered a breast tumor that was diagnosed as cancerous.
Antarctica has nearly 90% of the ice and 70% of the fresh water on Earth. The third-largest continent, it is one and a half the size of the US. Nations including the United States, Britain, Australia, New Zealand, France and Argentina carry out experiments at bases dotted across the continent. They are regularly serviced by flights during the summer months but batten down the hatches and reduce staffing for the polar winter. McMurdo is a few kilometers from the coast and close to Mount Erebus, Antarctica's only active volcano, into which an Air New Zealand sightseeing plane plowed in 1979, killing all 257 people on board.
| 2000 Concerned about the disappearance of a laptop computer
with highly sensitive documents, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announces
a five-point plan to help guard against such lapses in the future.
2000 La multinacional de informática Microsoft sufre pérdidas por valor de 10 billones de pesetas en Wall Street, tras hacerse pública la propuesta del Departamento de Justicia estadounidense de segregar la empresa en dos o tres sociedades separadas.
1998 After threats from President Yeltsin and two negative votes, the Russian Duma approves Yeltsin's nomination of Sergei Kiriyenko as the nation's premier.
1997 With ratification by the Senate, the United States becomes the 75th country to approve the Chemical Weapons Convention.
1996 The Palestinian National Council, main assembly of the Palestine Liberation Organization, votes to revoke clauses in its charter that called for an armed struggle to destroy Israel.
1996 US President Clinton signs into law a bill to fight terrorism.
1995 The last Chevrolet Corvette ZR-1 is produced. A total of 6939 ZR-1s were built from 1990 to 1995. With its top speed of 180 mph, the ZR-1 was the fastest production Corvette ever built. Its LT5 engine was an all-aluminum, dual-overhead cam engine, with 32 valves; 405 hp in the car's last years.
1991 A Kurdish rebel leader announces that the guerrillas had reached an agreement in principle with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to end the Kurds' two-week rebellion.
1991 The first UN peacekeeping forces are deployed along the Kuwait-Iraq border.
1990 Securities law violator Michael Milken pleads guilty to 6 felonies
1990 West and East Germany agree to merge currency and economies on July first
1990 The space shuttle Discovery blasts off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, carrying the $1.5 billion Hubble Space Telescope, later found to be defective.
1988 Se celebra un simulacro de elecciones generales en Camerún para apoyar el proyecto de reformas económicas del presidente y candidato único Paul Biya.
1987 Genetically altered bacteria, designed to prevent frost damage, are sprayed on a California strawberry field in the first test of such biotechnology in nature.
1984 La obra Teledéum, del grupo de teatro catalán Els Joglars, causa encendidas polémicas en Segovia. Algunos grupos intentaron boicotear la representación y anunciaron acciones judiciales contra Albert Boadella i Oncins, director del grupo.
1983 El Partido Socialista Austriaco (SPÖ), en el poder durante los últimos trece años, pierde la mayoría absoluta en el Parlamento.
1981 El presidente estadounidense, Ronald Reagan, levanta el embargo de trigo impuesto a la URSS.
1980 El Parlamento catalán elige presidente de la Generalitat a Jordi Pujol i Soley.
1980 The United States starts an abortive attempt to free the US hostages in Iran, a mission that would result in the deaths of eight US servicemen.
1976 Un informe de la ONU sobre el terremoto de Guatemala estima en 22'836 el número de víctimas.In 1990, junk-bond king Michael Milken avoided trial on in- sider trading and racketeering charges by pleading guilty to six less serious felony violations, agreeing to pay fines and penalties totaling $600 million.
1972 UNESCO's Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property enters into force. It was adopted on 14 November 1970.
1970 The People's Republic of China launche- its first satellite, which repeatedly transmits a song, "The East is Red."
1969 Nigeria toma la ciudad biafreña de Umuahia, evacuada por la población civil el pasado día 14 Apr.
|1965 Un pastor español encuentra, cerca
de Badajoz, los cadáveres del líder de la oposición
portuguesa, Humberto Delgado, y de su secretario.
1962 In the first US coast-to-coast satellite telecast, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory station in California transmitts an image to the orbiting weather balloon Echo I. The signal is received at Millstone Hill, Westford, Massachusetts.
1961 JFK accepts "sole responsibility" following Bay of Pigs.
1960 Con el seudónimo de Jakim Boor, Francisco Franco Bahamonde publica, en el diario Arriba, un artículo sobre "Masonería y descristianización". [Franco was a boor all right, and a bore too.]
1958 El artículo 6 de la ley española de vagos y maleantes de 1933 incorpora un nuevo párrafo, donde se prevén medidas contra los "gamberros" [in English: libertines]
1949 Las tropas comunistas chinas entran en Nankín.
1948 The Berlin airlift begins to relieve the surrounded city of Berlin.
1944 In deciding the legal case United States v. Ballard, the US Supreme Court upheld the general principle that "the truth of religious claims is not for secular authority to determine."
1944 United Negro College Fund incorporates ("A mind is a terrible thing to waste"]
1943 Comienza la ofensiva general aliada en Túnez.
1932 En las elecciones al parlamento prusiano, los nacionalsocialistas obtienen 160 escaños, 154 más de los que poseían.
1931 El Gobierno español fija en 23 años la edad para obtener derecho a emitir sufragios.
1926 Se firma en Berlín un tratado germano-soviético de amistad, que da continuidad al tratado de Rapallo.
1918 En la transcurso de la Primera Guerra Mundial, se libra en el norte de Francia la primera batalla de la historia con carros armados, entre tres tanques ingleses y tres alemanes.
1916 El Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Marina alemana, gran almirante Henning von Holtzendorff, cursa la orden para que la guerra submarina sólo se lleve a cabo de acuerdo con el derecho de presa que incluye el aviso, registro y salvamento de los pasajeros.
The Easter Rebellion begins
Some 1600 Irish nationalists start the Easter Rising by seizing several key sites in Dublin. The uprising would be brutally put down by British forces within a few days.
On Easter Monday in Dublin, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret organization of Irish nationalists led by Patrick Pearse, launches the Easter Rebellion, an armed uprising against British rule. Assisted by militant Irish socialists under James Connolly, Pearse and his fellow Republicans riot and attack British provincial government headquarters across Dublin, and seize the Irish capital's General Post Office.
Although the British authorities quickly suppressed the uprising, the execution of the Easter Rebellion's leaders, of unarmed prisoners, of innocent bystanders, and other harsh reprisals served to increase support for the nationalist cause in Ireland. In 1919, the Irish Volunteers, a prototype of the Irish Republican Army (IRA), launched a widespread and effective guerrilla campaign against British forces.
In 1921, a cease-fire was declared, and in 1922, nationalist leaders signed a historic treaty with Britain, calling for the partition of Ireland, with the south becoming autonomous and the six northern counties of the island remaining in Great Britain. Civil war immediately broke out in Ireland over the partition. In 1923, nationalist Eamon De Valera's Irish Republican soldiers were defeated by forces from the Irish Free State, which later grew into the modern Republic of Ireland. Several years later, the IRA was reorganized as an underground movement that continued its struggle for Northern independence.
At four minutes past noon on Easter Monday 24 April 1916, a sudden hush fell over the O’Connell Street. From the steps of the General Post Office Patrick Pearse read the Proclamation of the Republic:
THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT OF THE
TO THE PEOPLE OF IRELAND
IRISHMAN AND IRISHWOMEN: In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, Ireland, through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom.
Having organized and trained her manhood through her secret revolutionary organization, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, and through her open military organizations, the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army, having patiently perfected her discipline, having resolutely waited for the right moment to reveal itself, she now seizes that moment, and, supported by her exiled children in America and by gallant allies in Europe, but relying in the first on her own strength, she strikes in full confidence of victory.
We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland, and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished except by the destruction of the Irish people. In every generation the Irish people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty; six times during the past three hundred years they have asserted it in arms. Standing on that fundamental right and again asserting it in arms in the face of the world, we hereby proclaim the Irish Republic as a Sovereign Independent State. And we pledge our lives and the lives of our comrades-in-arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and of its exaltation among the nations.
The Irish Republic is entitled to, and hereby claims, the allegiance of every Irishman and Irish woman. The Republic guarantees religious and civil liberty, equal rights and equal opportunities of all its citizens, and declares its resolve to pursue the happiness and prosperity of the whole nation and of all its parts, cherishing all the children of the nation equally, and oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by an alien government, which have divided a minority in the past.
Until our arms have brought the opportune moment for the establishment of a permanent National Government, representative of the whole people of Ireland and elected by the suffrages of all her men and women, the Provision Government, hereby constituted, will administer the civil and military affairs of the Republic in trust for the people.
We place the cause of the Irish Republic under the protection of the Most High God, Whose blessing we invoke upon our arms, and we pray that no one who serves that cause will dishonour it by cowardice, inhumanity, or rapine. In this supreme hour the Irish nation must, by its valour and discipline and by the readiness of its children to sacrifice themselves for the common good, prove itself worthy of the august destiny to which it is called.Signed on behalf of the Provisional Government,
SEAN MAC DIERMADA THOMAS MACDONAGH
P.H.PEARSE EAMONN CEANNT
JAMES CONNOLLY JOSEPH PLUNKETT
When Pearse finished, the beaming Connolly took his hand and shook it vigorously. A few ragged cheers hung in the air, but the poet, Stephen McKenna, who listened to Pearse read these words, recorded later that he felt sad for him, for the response from the crowd was chilling. There were no wild hurrahs, no scenes reminiscent of the excitement which had gripped the French mob before they stormed the Bastille. The Irish simply listened and shrugged their shoulders, or sniggered a little, and then glanced round to see if the police were coming.
Nearby young insurgents were posting copies of the Proclamation, or handing them round among the crowd. One copy, weighted down with stones, was placed on the ground at the foot of Nelson Pillar so that everybody could read it.
Slowly the crowd broke up. Some strolled across to the Pillar, where
they idly read the Proclamation; others just stood and stared up at the
unfamiliar flags (the green flag on the left at the corner of Princes
Street and the Tricolor on the right at the corner of Henry Stree) from
the roof of the G.P.O. Quite a few, bored with the whole affair, simply
turned and wandered away.
1892 En una demostración ante el emperador alemán Guillermo II, un cañón construido por las acerías Krupp logra disparar un proyectil a 20 km de distancia.
1891 Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure The Final Problem
1877 US Federal troops are ordered out of New Orleans, ending the North's post-Civil War rule in the South.
1877 Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1870 At the Vatican I Ecumenical Council, the dogmatic constitution "Dei filius" was published. Explaining the relationship between faith and reason, it declared that God could be known by human thought processes.
1867 Black demonstrators stage ride-ins on Richmond Va streetcars
1863 Confederate government passes a tax in-kind on one-tenth of all produce
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Federal fleet passes forts below New Orleans, Louisiana
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1805 US Marines attack and capture the town of Derna in Tripoli.
1799 La Asamblea Nacional Francesa encarga al ingeniero Étienne Lenoir la construcción de un prototipo de platino iridiado con dos marcas paralelas, cuya distancia es el metro, unidad de longitud.
1794 HENRY Barbe, âgée de 17 ans, fille de Henry, président du bailliage de Verdun, née et domiciliée à Verdun,. est condamnée à 20 ans de détention, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complices d'un complot tendant à livrer à l'ennemi la place de Verdun (Meuse).
1794 TABOUILLOT Claire, âgée de 17 ans, née et domiciliée à Verdun, est condamnée à 20 années de détention, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir coopéré aux manœuvres et intelligences tendantes à livrer aux Prussiens la ville de Verdun.
1701 Felipe V, nombrado rey de España el año anterior entra en Madrid e instaura la Casa de Borbón en la monarquía española.
1547 Las tropas de Carlos I, rey de España, derrotan a las protestantes del príncipe de Sajonia Juan Federico, el Magnánimo, en la Batalla de Mühlberg. La victoria convierte al monarca español en Carlos V, emperador de Alemania.
1505 La reina Juana de Castilla otorga al navegante italiano Américo Vespucio la carta de naturaleza castellana.
0858 Saint Nicholas I begins his reign as Pope
0387 Augustine of Hippo, 32, is baptized on this Eve of Easter [???]. He told the story of his Christian conversion from a profligate life in his Confessions, written between 397 and 401 SAINT AUGUSTINE ONLINE: Confessiones de Civitate Dei de Trinitate de Dialectica de Fide et Symbolo de Catechizandis Rudibus Sermones Regula Sancti Augustini // (in English translations): The City of God Confessions Confessions Confessions Confessions De Dialectica Enchiridion Expositions on the Book of Psalms On Christian Doctrine
2006 Some 35 persons by three terrorist explosions from 19:15 to 19:20 (17:20 UT) at the Nelson Restaurant, then the Aladdin Cafe, and then the Ghazala Supermarket, in the shopping district of the seaside resort Dahab, Egypt. Some 130 persons are injured. — (60425)
2005 At least 25 persons including two suicide car bombers in succession, in a crowd gathered in front of an ice cream shop in Baghdad's al-Shoulah neighborhood. 41 persons are wounded.
2005 Six Iraqis, by two remotely detonated car bombs outside a police academy, in Tikrit, Iraq, from which recruits were about to leave for training in Jordan. 33 Iraqis are wounded.
2005 One US soldier, in a convoy in Baghdad, Iraq, by a roadside bomb. Two US soldiers and two civilians are wounded.
2005 Ezer Weizman, born Ezer Weizmann on 15 July 1924; Israeli Air Force soldier and politician, 7th president of Israel (1993–2000), nephew of the first (1949-1952) president, Chaim Weizmann [27 Nov 1874 – 09 Nov 1952].
2003 Eugene Segro, 51 [photo >], principal of Red Lion Area Junior High School, 200 Country Club Road, Red Lion, Pennsylvania, after being shot in the chest by 8th-grader James Robert Sheets, 14, who then shoots himself in the head, in the cafeteria, at 07:38, shortly before the start of classes. Sheets had come to school with, hidden in his backpack, three loaded handguns — a .22-caliber revolver, a .44 Magnum, and a .357 Magnum — which he had taken from the safe of his stepfather, Arthur Baker.
2003 Palestinians Osama Arar, 30, taxi driver; and Faker Arar, 17, high school student, as Israeli troops shoot at stone-throwing high school students in village Qarawat Bani Zeit, near Ramallah, West Bank.
2003 Israeli security guard Alexander Kostyuk, 23, and Palestinian suicide bomber Ahmed al-Khatib, 18, at 07:20, as Kostyuk blocks his way into the new train station at Kfar Sava, Israel. 14 persons are injured. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 2007 Palestinians and 734 Israelis.
2002 Ismith Khan, 77, US college teacher and author, descended from ethnic Pathans expelled from India by the British, born in Trinidad. Author, using colorful dialect, of novels The Jumbie Bird (1961, semi-autobiographical), The Obeah Man (1964), The Crucifixion (1987), and a collection of short stories A Day in the Country (1990).
2002 Rudolph de Harak, of bladder cancer, exhibit designer, painter of hard-edged geometric forms, which, he said, were not abstract because geometry is as real as faces and landscapes. He was born on 10 April 1924.
1998:: 22 condenados por el genocidio de 1994 en Ruanda en el que murieron alrededor de 800'000 personas en tan sólo tres meses, ejecutados en presencia de decenas de miles de ruandeses.
1997 Luis Andrés Samperio Sañudo, de 37 años, policía nacional español, asesinado en Bilbao por el "comando Vizcaya" de ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna).
1995 Gilbert Murray, president of the California Forestry Association, in Sacramento, by a mail bomb sent by the “UNAbomber”.
1992, Four persons, by a car driven by an elderly New York woman, which careens through a crowded Greenwich Village park. 27 are injured.
1964 Wenceslao Fernández Flórez, escritor y periodista español.
1918 José Menéndez Menéndez, millonario español, llamado rey de la Patagonia.
1903 Walter Frederick Osborne, British painter born on 17 June 1859. — more with links to two images.
1901 Daniel Israel, Austrian artist born in 1859.
1891 Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke, mariscal y estratega militar alemán.
1803 Adélaïde Vincent Labille-Guiard, French Neoclassical painter born on 11 April 1749, specialized in Portraits. MORE ON LABILLE~GUIARD AT ART 4 APRIL 11 with links to images.
1546 Jofre García de Loaisa, cardenal y confesor del emperador Carlos V, que fue presidente del Consejo de Indias.
1521 Juan Bravo, [Juan de Padilla y Francisco Maldonado, cabecillas de la revuelta comunera (Guerra de las Comunidades), ejecutados en Villalar.
1484 (or 24 March 1476, or in 1496) Antonio Vivarini da Murena, Italian painter born in 1415 MORE ON VIVARINI AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1479 Jorge Manrique, poeta y escritor palentino, en Cuenca, durante el asalto al castillo de Garcimuñoz.
1947 Josep Borrel Fontelles, ingeniero aeronáutico y político español.
1942 Richard M. Daley, son of Chicago mayor, would grow up to be Chicago mayor too.
1931 Bridget Riley, British abstract painter, specialized in Optical Art. MORE ON RILEY AT ART 4 APRIL with images and links to more images.
1930 José Sarney, político, abogado y periodista brasileño.
1919 Clavkcos John Clerides, político grecochipriota.
1918 Fernando Díaz Plaja, historiador y escritor español.
1906 William Joyce Lord Haw Haw, English (Irish?) radio propagandist for Germany during World War II. Executed as a traitor by the British on 03 January 1946.
1905 Robert Penn Warren, US novelist, first poet laureate of the US, critic and teacher. He died on 15 September 1989.
1904 Willem de Kooning, Dutch-born US Abstract Expressionist painter who died on 19 March 1997. MORE ON DE KOONING AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1899 Asher Zaritzky “Oscar Zariski”, Jewish Belarus US mathematician who died on 04 July 1986. His specialty was the foundations of algebraic geometry using algebraic methods. He worked on the theory of normal varieties, local uniformisation and the reduction of singularities of algebraic varieties.
1897 Benjamin Lee Whorf, US linguist noted for his hypotheses regarding the relation of language to thinking and cognition and for his studies of Hebrew and Hebrew ideas, of Mexican and Mayan languages and dialects, and of the Hopi language.
1889 Sir Stafford Cripps, English chancellor of the exchequer (1947-1950). He died on 21 April 1952.
1889 Liubov' Sergeyevna Popova, Moscovite painter and designer who died on 25 May 1924. MORE ON POPOVA AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1888 Eastman Kodak forms.
1867 Fannie Thomas, who would become the oldest known person in the US (113 y 273 d at death on 22 January 1981) (Check how close to that you are likely to get with this Life Expectency Calculator.)(the oldest verified human was Jeanne Calment, of France, who died on 04 August 1997 at 122)
1863 Giovanni Vailati, Italian mathematician who died on 14 May 1909.
Henri Philippe Pétain, future French hero then villain.
Pétain is born in Cauchy-à-la-Tour. General Pétain became a military hero during World War I and was promoted to maréchal, He was appointed vice premier of France on 18 May 1940 to boost morale in a country crumbling under the force of the Nazi invasion. Instead, Pétain, realizing that defeat was inevitable, decided to sign an armistice with the Nazis. The armistice went into effect on 25 June, and more than half of France was occupied by the Germans. On 10 July, Pétain was given full powers as chief of state in Vichy, a city in unoccupied France. The Vichy government under Pétain collaborated with the Nazis, and French citizens suffered on both sides of the divided nation.
On 18 April 1942, Pierre Laval, an opportunistic French Fascist and dutiful Nazi collaborator, who won the trust of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler forms a new Vichy government and the elderly Pétain becomes merely a figurehead in the regime.
On 06 June 1944, the Allies successfully landed in Normandy and in late August, Pétain and Laval were forced to flee to German protection to the east.
On 26 April 1945, with Germany days away from surrender, Pétain crossed into France from Switzerland and turned himself in to the by Free French authorities to stand trial on treason charges.. He was subsequently found guilty of treason by the High Court of Justice and sentenced to death, but French President Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. Pétain died in the Île d'Yeu prison on 23 July 1951.
| 1854 Felipe Angulo, abogado y político
1817 La draisina, primer prototipo de lo que hoy es la bicicleta, que todavía no tenía pedales, es presentada por el barón Carlos Federico von Drais, en Karlsruhe (Alemania).
1766 Robert Bailey Thomas (founder, editor: The Farmer's Almanac)
1750 Simon Antoine Jean Lhuilier, Geneva Huguenot mathematician who died on 28 March 1840.
1718 Nathaniel Hone, Irish painter who died on 14 August 1784. MORE ON HONE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1704 The Boston News Letter becomes the first American newspaper to be published on a regular basis.
1703 José Francisco Isla de la Torre, jesuita y literato español.
1660 Cornelis Dusart (or Dusaert, du Sart), Dutch painter who died on 01 October 1704. He studied under Adriaen van Ostade. MORE ON DUSART AT ART 4 OCTOBER with links to images.
1624 Jan Peeters I, Flemish artist who died between 1677 and 1680.
1620 John Graunt statistician, founder of science of demography.
1581 Saint Vincent De Paul, French founder of the Congregation of the Mission. He went to Heaven on 27 September 1660.