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Events, deaths, births, of APR 22
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” APR 22     wikipedia
• Oklahoma Land Rush... • Elián González captured in commando raid... • Hostage and hostage takers killed... • Gas warfare... • Earth Day... • Montenegrin elections... • Condamnés à mort par la Révolution... • Critic of Reason is born... • Fielding is born... • Ellen Glasgow is born... • Hitler knows he lost... • New Guinea landing... • Chinese students want to meet Premier... • Moscow Olympics boycot... • Perot unfazed by $450 million loss... • McCarthy Army hearings... • Increased South Vietnamese combat capabilities... • Anti Vietnam War demonstrations... • Unbundling Windows and IE overruled... • ISPs not responsible for content... • $13 back to monitor buyers... • Cyber prankster confesses... • Ansel Adams dies...
^  On a 22 April:
2003 In conquered Baghdad, Iraq, US reservists from the 354th Civil Affairs Brigade find $112 million in US currency, in $100 bills stacked inside galvanized aluminum boxes sealed with blue strapping tape and green seals stamped "Bank of Jordan.", hidden in seven dog kennels sealed off with cinder blocks. On 18 April 2003, in the same Baghdad neighborhood, US troops had already found another $656 million, similarly packed, in four barricaded cottages.
2003 In four barricaded cottages in conquered Baghdad, Iraq, US troops find $656 million in US currency, in $100 bills stacked inside galvanized aluminum boxes sealed with blue strapping tape and green seals stamped "Bank of Jordan." On 22 April 2003, in the same Baghdad neighborhood, US troops would find another $112 million, similarly packed, hidden in seven dog kennels.
2001  La coalición 'Victoria para Montenegro', liderada por el presidente montenegrino Milo Djukanovic y favorable a la opción secesionista para promover la creación de un estado soberano en la pequeña república yugoslava, logra un ajustado triunfo en las elecciones parlamentarias.
^ 2001 Vietnam Communist Party picks leader.
      At the close of the its four-day national congress, Vietnam's ruling Communist Party officially announces the naming to the country's most powerful post a moderate who has long been rumored to be an illegitimate son of the late revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh. Nong Duc Manh, an ethnic minority member, replaces an aging conservative as the Communist Party's general secretary. The 60-year-old Manh has been speaker of the National Assembly for nine years. Under his leadership, the assembly, which once rubber-stamped decisions made behind closed doors, became a forum for televised discussions of policy issues. Manh was elected to his new position on 17 April in a closed-door meeting of the Communist Party's Central Committee.
      Manh's predecessor, conservative Le Kha Phieu, 69, fought a bruising battle to remain in power. Phieu, an army commissar, had been heavily criticized over allegations of ineffective leadership and charges he used military intelligence to spy on rival Politburo members. Reforms to open the country's economy further and reduce the role of state enterprises bogged down under Phieu's direction. Manh is the first member of a minority group to head the party. His mother, an ethnic Tay, was Ho Chi Minh's servant in Bac Kan province and died shortly after giving birth. Manh has never directly confirmed or denied rumors that he was the late revolutionary leader's son.
Nong Duc Manh      The choice of Manh is expected to help ease ethnic tensions that flared in February 2001 with rare anti-government protests in the Central Highlands over land grievances, poverty and religious repression. But he faces an uphill battle in trying to improve the image of the Communist Party, which in recent years has been tarnished by allegations of widespread corruption and red tape. "This is a pride and an honor but also a very big responsibility. I know myself my competence and knowledge are limited," Manh says in a brief speech to the congress.
      A highly touted two-year campaign against corruption, launched by Phieu, was regarded as largely unsuccessful, with only a handful of senior officials singled out for reprimands. In a sharply worded speech to the congress, Huu Tho, head of the Central Committee's Ideology and Cultural Commission, also warned of the dangers of increasing abuse of power within the party. "If opportunism is allowed to develop, the nature of the party will be threatened and traditional cultural values will be shaken," he said.
      Manh has the reputation of being a savvy politician who is effective in seeking consensus - a skill that could be put to good use since Vietnam remains divided on its political and economic path. While many officials believe reforms need to be accelerated to keep Vietnam from lagging even further behind its Asian neighbors economically, many also fear the Communist Party will lose its grip on power if reforms go too far. The party congress, however, approved an economic report endorsing a continuation of free-market reforms. Analysts believe Manh will be more supportive than Phieu of economic reforms. However, even party reformers caution that Vietnam is unlikely to deviate too much from its current policy of cautious reform. "Anyone who assumes the new leadership will continue to follow the current economic policies," said Foreign Minister Nguyen Dy Nien. "There will be continuity."
[< photo: Nong Duc Manh talks to reporters at a news briefing after the closing ceremony of the 9th Party Congress in Hanoi >]
Djukanovic votes^ 2001 Elections in Montenegro.
     Montenegrins voting for a new Parliament back a pro-independence coalition that promises to push for the final breakup of Yugoslavia. President Milo Djukanovic's "Victory Belongs to Montenegro" wins — as most pre-election surveys predicted — after it pledged to organize an independence referendum in the 2001 summer, despite warnings from the West that redrawing borders could stir up more trouble in the Balkans.
[Djukanovic and wife at the polls >]
      Djukanovic says that Montenegro, because of its size, can never be equal to Serbia in a joint state. Serbia has 9 million people, Montenegro just 600'000. They are the only republics remaining in a Yugoslavia that also used to include Croatia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Bosnia before those republics broke away in the early 1990s, precipitating a series of bloody ethnic wars.
      Before Slobodan Milosevic's ouster as Yugoslav president, Montenegro's leadership had argued that the republic needed to escape his heavy-handed rule. After he was gone, the independence drive continued despite US and other Western warnings that the reshaping of borders could trigger more bloodshed in the Balkans by encouraging separatists in neighboring Kosovo and Macedonia.
      Djukanovic's coalition wins the parliamentary vote with about 47%, compared to 36% for the anti-independence "Together For Yugoslavia" bloc. The rest goes to 13 other parties and groups running in the elections. "The independent Montenegro is a done deal," said Miodrag Vukovic, Djukanovic's top adviser,. Zoran Zizic,
      About 448'000 Montenegrins were registered to vote at about 1000 polling stations. About 3000 monitors — 2800 domestic and 200 foreign — observed the elections. Turnout in the capital of Podgorica was heavy despite rainy weather.
      Montenegro's secession would mark the final end of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia was first formed as a kingdom for Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918, at the end of World War I. Montenegro at that time gave up its sovereignty and name to join the southern Slav state. In 1943, during World War II, the late communist leader Josip Broz Tito formed the second Yugoslavia, controlling its diverse ethnic groups with a combination of autocratic rule and foreign loans that made it the most prosperous country in Eastern Europe. But when Milosevic came to power in Serbia in 1989, his ultranationalism quickly disrupted the nation's fragile ethnic balance, leading to the secessionist wars and shrinking Yugoslavia to only Serbia and Montenegro.
Elian taken at gunpoint 000422 about 04:00 local time 2000 Commando raid snatches 6-year-old from Miami home.       ^top^

[< Miami, about 05:10 local time — Terrified Elian Gonzalez tries to hide in a closet, in the arms of his rescuer, Donato Dalrymple, as commando bursts into the home of his great-uncle Lazaro Gonzalez, who took the boy in after he was shipwrecked fleeing Cuba].

[Elian is taken at gunpoint >]




[< Agents hustle screaming Elian into a waiting van, past flags and signs supporters had placed, hoping for a better outcome.  >]
[< Elian's mothering cousin Marisleysis is disconsolate, now that the US government has made it impossible for the little boy to have a future in the US, as his mother intended when she fled Cuba with him and lost her life in the attempt as their flimsy boat overturned two days before Elian was rescued at sea on Thanksgiving 1999.]

[Elian's great-uncle Lázaro, who made a home for the boy, is equally devastated >]

Elian happily reunited with dad
[Andrews Air Force Base, near Washington DC, a few hours later — Elian's tears have been replaced by smiles as he is reunited with his dad Juan Miguel González, who has brought from Cuba his new wife and baby.]
1999  El paleontólogo estadounidense Tim White descubre los fósiles de una especie humana desconocida en Etiopía.
1999 El enviado ruso a Belgrado Viktor Chernomirdin, fracasa en su reunión con Slobodan Milosevic para encontrar una solución a la crisis de Kosovo.
1998 Netscape announces that it will offer free e-mail at its NetCenter Web site.
1998 Unbundling Windows 95 and IE overruled.
      A panel of three federal judges decided that a judge who had ordered a preliminary injunction requiring Microsoft to make a version of Windows 95 that did not include its Web browser had overstepped his authority. However, Microsoft's antitrust woes were far from over, as the company was then embroiled in a Justice Department investigation into many of its business practices, which would culminate in a long trial in late 1998 and early 1999.
1998 ISPs ruled exempt from defamation laws.
      A federal judge ruled that Internet service providers were exempt from laws holding newspapers, magazines, and broadcasters accountable for the accuracy of their information. A White House advisor had brought a $30 million defamation suit against America Online and other defendants over a report by online gossip columnist Matt Drudge. Drudge had alleged that the aide had abused his wife. Although Drudge retracted the item and apologized, the aide accused Drudge and AOL of recklessness. However, the judge ruled that interactive computer services were not responsible for material published on their services by others.
^ 1997 Computer makers settle monitor size lawsuit
      Computer makers including IBM, Compaq, and Apple settled a class action lawsuit and agreed to give rebates to millions of computer buyers, who claimed they were misled about the screen size of their monitors. In monitor advertisements, computer makers typically cited the diagonal distance of the glass monitor screen—the same way television screens are measured. However, they did not account for the fact that a portion of the screen is hidden in the monitor's plastic casing. About forty-five million buyers of PCs between 01 May 1991, and 01 May 1995, were entitled to a $13 cash rebate on new purchases.
1997 Cyber-stalker confesses
     Billy Tamai, age fifteen, confessed to being the "cyber-stalker" who had harassed his family for months. The Tamais, who lived in a small town near Detroit, had been plagued by lights and appliances mysteriously turning on and off, phone calls interrupted with the babble of a strange voice, and other irritating intrusions. Investigations by the phone company, the electric company, and even a team of intelligence experts hired by two television stations failed to identify the culprit. The mystery had gained national media attention, and the family had gone so far as to put the house up for sale to escape the stalker. On 22 April 1997, the family's son, Billy, confessed to being the hacker who was controlling the mysterious phenomena in the custom-built home. In a public statement, Tamai's mother apologized for her son and said it was a teenage prank that ran out of control.
1996 After 11 days of focusing on Hezbollah guerrillas, Israeli warplanes turned to a new target in Lebanon, attacking the heavily fortified base of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
1994  La Audiencia de Madrid condena a seis acusados a más de 12 años de prisión por el incendio de la discoteca Alcalá 20, ocurrido en diciembre de 1983 y en el que murieron 81 personas, y declara la responsabilidad civil subsidiaria del Estado.. 
1993  Dimite el primer ministro italianio Giuliano Amato.
^ 1989 Chinese students demand meeting with Premier Li Peng.
      The previous day, six days after the death of Hu Yaobang, the deposed reform-minded leader of the Chinese Communist Party, some 100'000 students had gathered at Beijing's Tiananmen Square to commemorate Hu and voice their discontent with China's authoritative Communist government. On 22 April, an official memorial service for Hu Yaobang is held in Tiananmen's Great Hall of the People, and student representatives carry a petition to the steps of the Great Hall and demand to meet with Premier Li Peng. The Chinese government refuses.
     This leads to a general boycott of Chinese universities across the country and widespread calls for democratic reforms. Ignoring government warnings of violent suppression of any mass demonstration, students from more than forty universities began a march to Tiananmen on 27 April. The students were joined by workers, intellectuals, and civil servants, and by mid April over a million people filled the square, the site of Communist leader's Mao Zedong's proclamation of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
      On 20 April, the government formally declared martial law in Beijing, and troops and tanks were called in to disperse the dissidents. However, large numbers of students and citizens blocked the army's advance, and by 23 April, government forces had pulled back to the outskirts of Beijing.
      On 03 June, with negotiations to end the protests stalled and calls for democratic reforms escalating, the troops received orders from the Chinese government to reclaim Tiananmen at all cost. By the end of the next day, Chinese troops had forcibly cleared Tiananmen Square and Beijing's streets, killing hundreds of demonstrators and arresting thousands of protestors and other suspected dissidents.
      In the weeks after the government crackdown, an unknown number of dissidents were executed and hard-liners in the government took firm control of the country. The international community was outraged at the incident, and economic sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries sent China's economy into decline. However, by late 1990, international trade had resumed, thanks in part to China's release of several hundred imprisoned dissidents.
1986 The US Consumer Price Index drops .04% for 2nd month in a row.
1983  La URSS y EE.UU. se acusan mutuamente del virtual fracaso de la Conferencia de Seguridad y Cooperación Europea (CSCE), celebrada en Madrid.
1981  Unos 10'000 mineros chilenos se declaran en huelga.
1980 US to boycott Moscow Olympics.
      In protest of the Soviet Union's 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, the US Olympic Committee voted 1604 to 797 to boycott the Summer Olympic Games to be held in Moscow later in the year. The next day, a number of disappointed US athletes and coaches filed a class-action suit in a US District Court to block the boycott, but the suit was dismissed in mid May.
      The boycott came at the urging of US President Jimmy Carter, who in January had canceled grain shipments to the USS.R. and postponed the expansion of US-Soviet diplomatic relations in protest of the December 1979 invasion. Sixty other nations eventually joined the US in refusing to send their athletes to the Moscow Games, which carried on without the presence of Western or Islamic athletes.
      Four years later, the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc nations retaliated by boycotting the 1984 Summer Olympic Games to be held in Los Angeles, California. Although the Soviet government was allegedly concerned with the safety of its athletes in what it considered a hostile and anti-Communist environment, the boycott was more likely a result of a general cooling of Cold War relations stemming from anger at America’s generous arms support of Muslim rebels in Afghanistan.
1977  El Parlamento Europeo condiciona la integración de España en la CEE a la existencia de un régimen "auténticamente democrático".
^ 1972 Demonstrations against Vietnam War.
      Antiwar demonstrations prompted by the accelerated US bombing in Southeast Asia draw somewhere between 30'000 to 60'000 marchers in New York; 30'000 to 40'000 in San Francisco; 10'000 to 12'000 in Los Angeles; and smaller gatherings in Chicago and other cities throughout the country. The new bombing campaign was in response to the North Vietnam's massive invasion of South Vietnam in March. As the demonstrations were happening, bitter fighting continued all over South Vietnam. In the Mekong Delta, for example, the fighting was the heaviest it had been in 18 months.
1970 Perot loses $450 million in one day.
      The Texas billionaire, later known for his attempts at the White House, had but a few years earlier decided to go public with his computer systems company, E.D.S. The initial offering of E.D.S.'s stock stirred a frenzy on Wall Street and Perot, already rather successful, became one of the half-dozen wealthiest Americans (Perot's riches were so recently acquired that as of 1970 he was not listed in the almanac of affluence, Poor's Register). The good times kept rolling for the company's stock and, as traders hit the pit on the morning of 22 April, there was scant reason to think that E.D.S.'s fortunes would change. But, by the end of the day, E.D.S.'s stock had plummeted a whopping fifty to sixty points, a loss which, on paper, cost Perot roughly $450 million. However, the stock's sudden decline remains something of a mystery, though many believe that E.D.S. suffered from "organized" bear raid. Whatever the cause, Perot didn't seem particularly fazed by the event; he reasoned that the loss, as well as the company's previous gains, had only existed on paper. Years later, Perot mentioned that he felt little if anything after hearing the news about his stock; in his eyes, the loss was "purely abstract."
^ 1970 The First Earth Day,
a national event to increase public awareness of the world's environmental problems, was celebrated across the country for the first time. An estimated twenty million Americans, including students from some 2000 colleges and universities and 10'000 high schools, participated in rallies, marches, and educational programs.
      Earth Day was the brainchild of Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin, a staunch environmentalist who hoped to provide unity to the grassroots environmental movement and increase ecological awareness. "The objective was to get a nationwide demonstration of concern for the environment so large that it would shake the political establishment out of its lethargy," Senator Gaylord said, "and, finally, force this issue permanently onto the national political agenda."
      Earth Day indeed increased environmental awareness in America, and in July, the Environmental Protection Agency was established by executive order to regulate and enforce national pollution legislation. On 22 April 1990, the twentieth anniversary of Earth Day, more than 200 million people in 141 countries participated in Earth Day celebrations.
     Earth Day was the creation of Senator Gaylord Nelson. As he described it, a number of senators were concerned about the state of the country's environment in the early 1960s. In a move intended to bring national visibility to the issue of environmental deterioration, the senators persuaded President John F. Kennedy to take on a nationwide conservation tour, "spelling out in dramatic language the serious and deteriorating condition of our environment." The tour was a failure. Senators Hubert Humphrey, Gene McCarthy, Joe Clark, and Nelson himself accompanied Kennedy on the first leg of his trip to Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Though the tour failed to rouse interest of any significant level in the environment as a political issue, Nelson credits the mission with being the seed from which Earth Day would eventually flower. The idea for a grassroots effort gestated in Nelson's head until July of 1969, when, according to Nelson, the anti-war teach-ins of the Vietnam Era inspired him to conceive of a nationwide environmental "teach-in." Nelson returned to Washington and began to raise funds for the event. In addition, he and his staff sent letters to fifty governors, and to the mayors of major cities, requesting them to make Earth Day Proclamations.
      In a speech in Seattle in September of 1969, Nelson formally announced that a nationwide environmental teach-in would take place in the spring of the coming year. All of the major wire services ran the story, and the response was dramatic. From that point on, says Nelson, Earth Day was the product of the populace. By December, the number of inquiries had so overwhelmed Nelson's Senate office that an Earth Day Clearing House was set up in Washington to plan for the event. In the end, an estimated twenty million people participated in Earth Day events of some kind. Ten thousand grade schools and high schools, two thousand colleges, and one thousand communities across the country held official events. Earth Day is responsible for establishing the efficacy of grassroots environmental advocacy. A by-product of Earth Day that directly effected the automobile industry was the public's heightened awareness of the environmental dangers of gasoline exhaust emissions.
1968 South Vietnamese have increased combat capabilities.
      In a news conference, Defense Secretary Clark Clifford declares that the South Vietnamese have "acquired the capacity to begin to insure their own security [and] they are going to take over more and more of the fighting." Clifford, who had succeeded Robert McNamara, had taken office with more than a little skepticism about the way the United States was conducting the war in Vietnam. This skepticism increased after the communists launched their massive offensive during the Tet (Chinese New Year) holiday earlier in 1968. Clifford set up a Vietnam task force to reassess the situation. He learned that US military leaders could offer no plan for victory or assurance of success. Accordingly, he told President Lyndon B. Johnson that victory was probably impossible and recommended that the president initiate a bombing halt of North Vietnam and try to negotiate an end to the war. Clifford's comments about the combat capabilities of the South Vietnamese were part of his effort to set the stage for US disengagement from the war. Johnson would follow Clifford's advice on the bombing halt in October 1968 when he called an end to Operation Rolling Thunder, the bombing campaign against North Vietnam that had been ongoing since March 1965. Clifford left office in 1969 with the rest of the Johnson administration. The next president, Richard M. Nixon, instituted a new policy that echoed many of the things that Clifford had recommended. In June 1969, Nixon announced his "Vietnamization" policy, a strategy built around two main objectives: increasing South Vietnamese combat capability and withdrawing US troops.
1960 At a constitutional convention in Minneapolis, three major Lutheran bodies in the US merged to form the American Lutheran Church, with a combined membership of about two million.
^ 1954 McCarthy Army hearings begin
      Senator Joseph McCarthy begins hearings investigating the United States Army, which he charges with being "soft" on communism. These televised hearings gave the American public their first view of McCarthy in action, and his recklessness, indignant bluster, and bullying tactics quickly resulted in his fall from prominence. In February 1950, Senator McCarthy charged that there were over 200 "known communists" in the Department of State. Thus began his dizzying rise to fame as the most famous and feared communist hunter in the United States. McCarthy adeptly manipulated the media, told ever more outrageous stories concerning the communist conspiracy in the United States, and smeared any opponents as "communist sympathizers" to keep his own name in the headlines for years. By 1954, however, his power was beginning to wane. While he had been useful to the Republican Party during the years of the Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman, his continued attacks on "communists in government" after Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower took over the White House in 1953 were becoming political liabilities.
      In an effort to reinvigorate his declining popularity, McCarthy made a dramatic accusation that was a crucial mistake: in early 1954, he charged that the United States Army was "soft" on communism. McCarthy was indignant because David Schine, one of his former investigators, had been drafted and the Army, much to McCarthy's surprise, refused the special treatment he demanded for his former aide. In April 1954, McCarthy, chairman of the Government Operations Committee in the Senate, opened televised hearings into his charges against the Army. The hearings were a fiasco for McCarthy. He constantly interrupted with irrelevant questions and asides; yelled "point of order" whenever testimony was not to his liking; and verbally attacked witnesses, attorneys for the Army, and his fellow senators. The climax came when McCarthy slandered an associate of the Army's chief counsel, Joseph Welch. Welch fixed McCarthy with a steady glare and declared evenly, “Until this moment, Senator, I think I never really gauged your cruelty or your recklessness...Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last?” A stunned McCarthy listened as the packed audience exploded into cheers and applause. McCarthy's days as a political power were effectively over. A few weeks later, the Army hearings dribbled to a close with little fanfare and no charges were upheld against the Army by the committee. In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure McCarthy for his conduct. Three years later, having become a hopeless alcoholic, he died.
1951  Se produce una contraofensiva chino-coreana al sur del paralelo 38.
1945 Hitler admits defeat.
      Adolf Hitler, learning from one of his generals that no German defense was offered to the Russian assault at Eberswalde, admits to all in his underground bunker that the war is lost and that suicide is his only recourse.
      Almost as confirmation of Hitler's assessment, a Soviet mechanized corps reaches Treuenbrietzen, 60 km southwest of Berlin, liberates a POW camp and releases, among others, Norwegian Commander in Chief Otto Ruge.
1948  Las fuerzas judías toman la ciudad de Haifa, en Palestina, y Francia pide urgentemente la tutela de la ONU, para proteger los santos lugares.
^ 1944 Allies land in New Guinea.
      Operation Persecution: Allied forces land in the Hollandia area of New Guinea. The Japanese occupiers, only 15'000 in number, many of whom are on administrative duty, fight for more than three months against ludicrous odds at great cost: When the battle for the northern coast of New Guinea is finally won by the Allies, 12'811 Japanese are dead, as are 527 US soldiers.
1940  Los aliados sufren una derrota en Lillehammer (Noruega).
1934  La compañía aérea alemana Lufthansa realiza en tiempo récord (2 días y 23 horas) el trayecto Berlín-Brasil.
1931 Egypt signs a treaty of friendship with Iraq.
1930  Concluye en Londres la Conferencia Naval con la firma de un acuerdo entre Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Japón.
1928  Un terremoto en Grecia provoca la completa destrucción de Corinto y deja a más de 200'000 personas sin hogar.
1927  Se producen importantes inundaciones en la cuenca del río Mississippi.
1924  Se imponen en el campo de la moda, los sombreros pequeños de colores atrevidos.
1922  Las Juventudes Socialistas protestan contra la acción militar de España en Marruecos. 
1922 Un bando del alto comisario español de Marruecos, general Dámaso Berenguer y Fuste, prohíbe la difusión de textos escritos que puedan favorecer al enemigo.
1922 South Ossetian Autonomous Region established in Georgian SSR.
1920  Los sindicatos convocan una huelga general en Alsacia-Lorena.
1919  Un informe sobre la evolución demográfica alemana refleja que aunque la población creció en 834'000 personas en 1913 y en 546'000 en 1914, se redujo en 58'000 en 1915, en 309'000 en 1916, en 611'000 en 1917 y en 885'000 en 1918 [¿por causa de la Gran Guerra?].
^ 1915 First military use of poison gas (chlorine).
     It is the Germans who use it in the WW I battle of Ypres, in violation of the prohibitions of The Hague Conference
     Gas as a weapon of war is first deployed on a large scale by Germany in the second Battle of Ypres, in Belgium, triggering its widespread use in World War I. By the time of this photo, within a year of the first attack, gas masks were issued widely. By the end of the war, gas shells made up one-fourth of artillery fired. Although extensively used, chemical agents may have been responsible for few fatalities. The most serious impediment to troops under gas attack at this time was the mobility lost by wearing protective clothing and masks, which decreased effectiveness by only 30 percent at most.
      Statistically, chemical warfare may not have made a sizable difference in the first World War, but contemporary and firsthand testimony describes panic and terror unknown before the advent of "gas war." The New York Tribune reported of the attack at Ypres, "Its effect on the French was a violent nausea and faintness, followed by an utter collapse. It is believed that the Germans, who charged in behind the vapor, met no resistance at all, the French at their front being virtually paralyzed" (27 April 1915). Although daunted initially, the Allies were quick to develop defenses like masks, protective clothing, and special shelters against chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas as each was introduced by Germany, and to produce their own chemicals.
     German forces shock Allied soldiers along the western front by firing more than 150 tons of lethal chlorine gas against two French colonial divisions at Ypres, Belgium. This was the first major gas attack by the Germans, and it devastated the Allied line. Toxic smoke has been used occasionally in warfare since ancient times, and in 1912 the French used small amounts of tear gas in police operations. At the outbreak of World War I, the Germans began actively to develop chemical weapons. In October 1914, the Germans placed some small tear-gas canisters in shells that were fired at Neuve Chapelle, France, but Allied troops were not exposed. In January 1915, the Germans fired shells loaded with xylyl bromide, a more lethal gas, at Russian troops at Bolimov on the eastern front. Because of the wintry cold, most of the gas froze, but the Russians nonetheless reported more than 1000 killed as a result of the new weapon.
      On 22 April 1915, the Germans started their first and only offensive of the year. Known as the Second Battle of Ypres, the offensive began with the usual artillery bombardment of the enemy's line. When the shelling died down, the Allied defenders waited for the first wave of German attack troops but instead were thrown into panic when chlorine gas wafted across no-man's land and down into their trenches. The Germans targeted four miles of the front with the wind-blown poison gas and decimated two divisions of French and Algerian colonial troops. The Allied line was breached, but the Germans, perhaps as shocked as the Allies by the devastating effects of the poison gas, failed to take full advantage, and the Allies held most of their positions. A second gas attack, against a Canadian division, on 24 April, pushed the Allies further back, and by May they had retreated to the town of Ypres. The Second Battle of Ypres ended on 25 May, with insignificant gains for the Germans. The introduction of poison gas, however, would have great significance in World War I. Immediately after the German gas attack at Ypres, France and Britain began developing their own chemical weapons and gas masks. With the Germans taking the lead, an extensive number of projectiles filled with deadly substances polluted the trenches of World War I. Mustard gas, introduced by the Germans in 1917, blistered the skin, eyes, and lungs, and killed thousands. Military strategists defended the use of poison gas by saying it reduced the enemy's ability to respond and thus saved lives in offensives. In reality, defenses against poison gas usually kept pace with offensive developments, and both sides employed sophisticated gas masks and protective clothing that essentially negated the strategic importance of chemical weapons.
      The United States, which entered World War I in 1917, also developed and used chemical weapons. Future president Harry S. Truman was the captain of a US field artillery unit that fired poison gas against the Germans in 1918. In all, more than 100'000 tons of chemical weapons agents were used in World War I, some 500'000 soldiers were injured, and almost 30'000 died, including 2000 US servicemen. In the years following World War I, Britain, France, and Spain used chemical weapons in various colonial struggles, despite mounting international criticism of chemical warfare. In 1925, the Geneva Protocol of 1925 banned the use of chemical weapons in war but did not outlaw their development or stockpiling. Most major powers built up substantial chemical weapons reserves. In the 1930s, Italy employed chemical weapons against Ethiopia, and Japan used them against China. In World War II, chemical warfare did not occur, primarily because all the major belligerents possessed both chemical weapons and the defenses — such as gas masks, protective clothing, and detectors — that rendered them ineffectual. In addition, in a war characterized by lightning-fast military movement, strategists opposed the use of anything that would delay operations. Germany, however, did use poison gas to murder millions in its extermination camps. Since World War II, chemical weapons have only been used in a handful of conflicts — the Yemeni conflict of 1966-67, the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88 — and always against forces that lacked gas masks or other simple defenses. In 1990, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to cut their chemical weapons arsenals by 80 percent in an effort to discourage smaller nations from stockpiling the weapons. In 1993, an international treaty was signed banning the production, stockpiling (after 2007), and use of chemical weapons. It took effect in 1997 and has been ratified by 128 nations.
1913  Se localizan en el puerto de Tolón 163 fumaderos de opio, procedente de fábricas financiadas por el Estado francés en Indochina.
1898 First Spanish-American War action: USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship off Key West, Florida.
^ 1889 The Oklahoma Land Rush.
      At noon, in Indian Territory, a pistol shot signaled the opening of nearly two million acres in central Oklahoma for settlement, and thousands of settlers raced in to stake their claims. Those who had already made illegal entry to beat the starting gun were called "Sooners," hence Oklahoma's nickname.
      Oklahoma, with a name derived from the Choctaw Indian words "okla," meaning people, and "humma," meaning red, was first set aside as Indian Territory in 1834. By 1880, dozens of tribes, forced into relocation by European immigration and the US government, had moved to the territory.
      In 1889, under pressure by cattlemen and land-hungry frontier farmers, a large strip of land formerly belonging to the relocated Creek and Seminole tribes was opened for settlement. The Oklahoma land rush was scheduled to begin at noon on 22 April, although over the previous days, thousands of Sooners had grabbed some of the best land in the region. In fact, two hours before the starting gun was fired along the territorial border, Guthrie, the pre-designated capital of the new territory had already swelled with settlers.
      In 1890, the Indian and Oklahoma territories were formally established as separate entities, but in 1907, after much of the rest of Indian Territory had opened for settlement, the two territories were united as the State of Oklahoma.
     At precisely high noon, thousands of would-be settlers make a mad dash into the newly opened Oklahoma Territory to claim cheap land. The nearly eight thousand square kilometers of land opened up to white settlement was located in Indian Territory, a large area that once encompassed much of modern-day Oklahoma. Initially considered unsuitable for white colonization, Indian Territory was thought to be an ideal place to relocate Amerindians who were removed from their traditional lands to make way for white settlement. The relocations began in 1817, and by the 1880s, Indian Territory was a new home to a variety of tribes, including the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Cheyenne, Commanche, and Apache. By the 1890s, improved agricultural and ranching techniques led some white Americans to realize that the Indian Territory land could be valuable, and they pressured the US government to allow white settlement in the region. In 1889, President Benjamin Harrison agreed, making the first of a long series of authorizations that eventually removed most of Indian Territory from Indian control. To begin the process of white settlement, Harrison chose to open a 7700-square-kilometer section of Indian Territory that the government had never assigned to any specific tribe. However, subsequent openings of sections that were designated to specific tribes were achieved primarily through the Dawes Severalty Act (1887), which allowed whites to settle large swaths of land that had previously been designated to specific Indian tribes.
      On 03 March 1889, Harrison announced that the US government would open the 7700-square-kilometer tract of Indian Territory for settlement precisely at noon on 22 April. Anyone could join the race for the land, but no one was supposed to jump the gun. With only seven weeks to prepare, land-hungry Americans quickly began to gather around the borders of the irregular rectangle of territory. Referred to as "Boomers," by the appointed day more than 50'000 hopefuls were living in tent cities on all four sides of the territory. The events that day at Fort Reno on the western border were typical. At 11:50, soldiers called for everyone to form a line. When the hands of the clock reached noon, the cannon of the fort boomed, and the soldiers signaled the settlers to start. With the crack of hundreds of whips, thousands of Boomers streamed into the territory in wagons, on horseback, and on foot. All told, from 50'000 to 60'000 settlers entered the territory that day. By nightfall, they had staked thousands of claims either on town lots or quarter section farm plots. Towns like Norman, Oklahoma City, Kingfisher, and Guthrie sprang into being almost overnight. An extraordinary display of both the pioneer spirit and the American lust for land, the first Oklahoma land rush was also plagued by greed and fraud. Cases involving "Sooners" — people who had entered the territory before the legal date and time — overloaded courts for years to come. The government attempted to operate subsequent runs with more controls, eventually adopting a lottery system to designate claims. By 1905, white Americans owned most of the land in Indian Territory. Two years later, the area once known as Indian Territory entered the Union as a part of the new state of Oklahoma.
1864 US Congress mandates the use of the phrase “In God We Trust” on US coins. It first appears on a bronze two-cent piece. [No coins add: “All others pay cash.”]
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1861 Robert E Lee named commander of Virginia forces.
1834  Con el tratado de la Cuádruple Alianza, España consigue el apoyo de las potencias liberales (Portugal, Inglaterra y Francia) contra los carlistas.
1811  Un decreto de las Cortes de Cádiz suprime el tormento como instrumento de presión en el procedimiento penal.
1792 President George Washington proclaims US neutrality in the war in Europe.
1659  Richard Cromwell disuelve el Parlamento inglés.
1529 Spain and Portugal divide eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa.
1509 Henry VIII ascends to throne of England, following the death of his father, Henry VII. Henry VIII would be named Defender of the Faith by the Pope and later lead the Church of England to break from the Pope who would not countenance Herny VIII's cavalier attitude towards marriage. Henry VIII would have six wives, repudiate some and behead others; the last wife would be lucky: Henry VIII would die before he does either to her.
1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovers Brazil
1145 19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet
TO THE TOP
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 22 April:

2006 Cpl. Randy Payne [29 May 1973–]; Cpl. Matthew David James Dinning [15 Mar 1983–]; Lieut. William Turner, 44; Bombardier (=Cpl) Myles Stanley John Mansell [05 Aug 1980–]; Canadian soldiers when their light-armored Mercedes G-Wagon is hit at 07:30 (03:30 UT) by a roadside bomb near Gumbad, Afghanistan. — (060507)
2005 A US Marine, in a “noncombat incident” at Camp Delta, just northwest of Baghdad, Iraq. This brings the body count of the US military dead in this war to 1567. There is no comparably publicized count of the tens of thousands of innocent Iraqis killed, nor even of the Iraqi puppet police and army, or of the anti-US combatants and terrorists.
2005 (Friday) Ten persons including a suicide car bomber near the Shiite mosque al-Subaih Mosque in the Jedida neighborhood of Baghdad, among people leaving the mosque after prayers. 24 persons are wounded.
2005 One US soldier, by a roadside bomb north of Tal Afar, Iraq, where he was on a combat logistics patrol of the 1st Corps Support Command. Another soldier of the patrol is injured.
2004 An Afghan militia soldier and Patrick Daniel “Pat” Tillman, born on 06 November 1976, killed near village Sperah, Afghanistan, following the explosion of a landmine, in a mistaken exchange of gunfire between a patrol of the second battalion of the US 75th Ranger Regiment (in which Tillman was) and an allied Afghan patrol. The US Army lied that Tillman was killed in an ambush by insurgent, until finally admitting the truth on 28 May 2004. Tillman was a well-known, highly paid football player before enlisting in the Army in May 2002. — (060622)
2004 Perhaps some 200 persons after a huge 13:00 explosion in Ryongchon, North Korea, some 20 km from the Chinese border, at the train station, where the are some 500 railway employees and passengers, many of them in a stopped international train. Perhaps some 1300 persons are injured, some of which die in the following days. Within a 150-meter radius, all buildings are destroyed, including the train station, a school (where 76 children die), and perhaps some 2000 apartments. Further out within a 4-km radius buildings including a hospital and perhaps some 7000 apartments are severely damaged. The explosion perhaps occured when two train cars loaded with explosive ammonium nitrate for fertilizers touched electrical transmission cables as they were being shunted to another train carrying petroleum and chemicals. (All this is is unreliable as it is based mostly on the little information North Korea belatedly gave two days later as it sought international aid.)
2003 Juan Rodriguez Chavez, 34, by lethal injection to which he was sentenced for one of five murders he was accused of having commited in one 1995 night in Dallas.
2002 Lee Eun-yong, 55, South Korean, by a land mine in the newspeak-named “Demilitarized Zone“ (DMZ) between North and South Korea, close to which he had been living for more than 30 years. He had said he was going to pick herbs.
2002 Marwan Zaloum and Samir Abu Rajoub, by two helicopter-launched Israeli missiles hitting the car in which they were, shortly before midnight. Zaloum was the leader of the Fatah-related Tanzim militia in Hebron, believed to be responsible for numerous shooting attacks and bombings, including the 26 March 2001 murder of Shalhevet Pas, a 10-month-old infant killed by a Palestinian sharpshooter in Hebron. Zaloum was on a list of 33 activists the Israelis turned over to the Palestinians several months earlier, demanding that they be arrested. Rajoub was Zaloum's assistant and a member of Force 17 (Arafat's personal guard)
2001 Mario Goldin, 53, Israeli doctor, and suicide bomber, shortly after 09:00, at stopped bus in Kfar Saba, suburb northeast of Tel Aviv, a few kilometers from the Palestinian-controlled city of Kalkilya, in the West Bank Some 50 persons are injured, few seriously. This bring the al-Aqsa intifada body count to 478: 394 Palestinians, 65 Israeli Jews, and 19 others.
2001 Madhi Khalil Madhi, 35, of injuries received on 16 April when an Israeli artillery shell hit the security compound in the Gaza Strip where he was as a member of Palestinian security forces.
Also, the body of an Israeli man was found in the trunk of his car in a Palestinian-controlled area in the West Bank, near Ramallah. Israeli police said they suspected the man,
2001 Stanislav Sandomirski, 38, Israeli whose body is found in the trunk of his car in a Palestinian-controlled area in the West Bank, near Ramallah.
^ 1997 Carlos Giusti, Peruvian Supreme Court Justice, hostage;
Nestor Cerpa and 13 of his followers
, hostage takers,
killed i
n the Japanese ambassador's home in Lima, Peru, in the commando assault ordered by President Alberto Fujimori, hoping to free seventy-two hostages held by the fourteen armed members of the Tupac Amaru leftist rebel movement for over four months.
      On 16 December 1997, Nestor Cerpa and 13 other Tupac Amaru terrorists, disguised as waiters and caterers, slipped into the home of Japanese Ambassador Morihisa Aoki, where a reception honoring the birthday of the Japanese emperor was being held, and took 490 people hostage. Police promptly surrounded the compound, and the rebels agreed to release approximately 170 women and elderly guests, but declared that they would kill the remaining two hundred if their demands were not met.
      The Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) was founded in 1984 as a militant organization calling for Communist revolution in Peru. Within a few days of the beginning of the hostage crisis, the rebels released all but seventy-two hostages in the Japanese ambassador's home, refusing to free these remaining captives until after the approximately four hundred members of the MRTA imprisoned in Peru were released. Among the important government officials remaining in the Japanese ambassador's home were the brother of President Fujimori, Foreign Minister Francisco Tudela, supreme court judges, members of the ruling party, and a number of foreign ambassadors from Japan and elsewhere.
      President Fujimori, who was known for taking a hard-line against leftist guerillas in Peru, did not give in to the key points of the rebels' demands, and on 22 April 1997, ordered an assault on the complex by a 140-man special forces team. After secretly warning the hostages ten minutes before the attack, the commandos set off a blast in a tunnel underneath the building and surprised the rebels, killing or injuring eight of the fourteen immediately. The rest of the elite soldiers subsequently attacked from several other directions, overwhelming the remaining rebels. All fourteen rebels were killed in the assault, including the rebels' leader Nestor Cerpa, who was shot multiple times. Only one hostage, Giusti, died (of a heart attack) in the attack, and of the several soldiers wounded, two later died from their injuries.
1997:: 93 persons in the insurgency of extremist Muslims that continues in Algeria in a town south of Algiers.
1995  Unos 2000 refugiados hutus del campamento de Kibeho masacrados por Ejército gubernamental ruandés, controlado por la etnia tutsi.
1996 Erma Bombeck, 69, in San Francisco; homemaker-humorist.
1994 Richard Milhous Nixon, 81, 37th US president and the only one to resign, in a New York hospital four days after suffering a stroke.
1991 Sixty persons in earthquake in Costa Rica and Panama.
1989 Huey Newton, 47, black activist, shot.
1988 Tres gendarmes franceses en incidentes provocados por el Frente de Liberación Nacional Kanako y Socialista (FLNKS) de Nueva Caledonia.
1986  Mircea Eliade, investigador de las religiones, historiador y escritor francés nacido en Rumanía 09 Mar 1907.
1985  Tancredo Neves, político y presidente de Brasil.
^ 1984 Ansel Adams, Western photographer.
      Adams' dramatic black and white images of Yosemite and the US West are some of the most widely recognized and admired photographs of the 20th century. Born on 20 February 1902, Ansel Adams discovered his love of photography and the West during a family trip to Yosemite when he was 14 years old. He made his first photographs of the dramatic Yosemite Valley during that trip, and he returned to photograph the park every year thereafter for the rest of his life.
      Adams soon developed a tremendous passion and talent for photography, though it remained only a hobby for many years. From childhood, Adams had studied piano, and as a young man he embarked on a promising career as a concert pianist. It was only when he was in his late 20s that Adams decided to abandon music and make a career out of photography instead, choosing to make the West the focus of his work.
      During the next 20 years, Adams' distinctive treatment of the western landscape won him a dedicated following, especially among the growing community of outdoor enthusiasts in California. Today his majestic portraits of the snow-covered Yosemite Valley and haunting images of Saguaro cacti under an Arizona moon are so familiar as to almost be visual clichés. It is hard to remember that when Adams first published them, the pictures had a crystalline purity that few other nature photographers had achieved.
      A dedicated conservationist, Adams deliberately used his photos to inspire a semi-religious reverence for the natural world that he hoped would encourage more people in the US to protect and preserve wilderness. A lifelong member of the Sierra Club, Adams provided images for many of the club's early publications in the 1960s. He received the 1966 ASMP Award.
      Besides being a brilliant artist, Adams was also a technical innovator and a teacher. Along with several other photographers, Adams founded "Group f/64," which was dedicated to promoting deep-focus photography and the use of "straight" images free from darkroom trickery. He created a number of innovative photographic techniques that he introduced to the general public through a series of books and an annual workshop in Yosemite. In recognition of his lifelong efforts supporting the national park system, Mount Ansel Adams in Yosemite was named in his honor shortly after he died.
LINKS TO HIS PHOTOS. — Rae Lakes, plate 34 in the book Sierra Nevada, The John Muir Trail (1938, half-tone reproduction of a photograph 16x21cm) — Grassy valley, tree covered mountain side and snow covered peaks, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming.
1957  Roy Campbell, escritor y traductor sudafricano.
1948 Herbert William Richmond, English mathematician born on 17 July 1863.
1945 Käthe Kollwitz, German Expressionist printmaker and sculptor born on 08 July 1867, specialized in Self-Portraits. — MORE ON KOLLWITZ AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1939  Doctor Rafael Battestini Gallup, fusilado en Tarragona.
1821 John Crome “Old Crome”
, British etcher and painter of landscapes who founded the Norwich Society of artists. He was born on 22 December 1768. — MORE ON CROME AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
^ 1794 (3 floréal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
CHODKERWECQ Rosalie, femme du prince Alexandre Lubomirski, princesse de Pologne, âgée de 23 ans, née à Osnobil en Ukraine, domiciliée à Chaillot, près de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire .
CHOISEUIL Béatrix, femme de l'ex duc de Granmont, âgée de 64 ans, native de Lunéville (Meurthe), domiciliée à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, .
DUVAL-DESPREMENIL Jacques, ex noble, âgé de 48 ans, né à Pondichery, conseiller au ci-devant parlement de Paris, ex député à l'assemblée constituante, domicilié à Maréfosse (Seine Inférieure), comme conspirateur.
HELL François, âgé de 63 ans, né à Kirsenheim (Bas-Rhin), ci-devant procureur général des états d’Alsace, ex constituant, chevalier de l’empire romain, ancien grand bailly de Landser, syndic de la noblesse, administrateur du département de la Seine, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
LECHAPELLIER Isaac René Guy, âgé de 39 ans, ex constituant, né et domicilié à Rennes (Ille-et-Vilaine), comme contre-révolutionnaire, s'étant rendu au mois d'octobre 1792 en Angleterre, sous prétexte d'une association pour l'achat d'une grande quantité de riz.
LAMOIGNON-MALESHERBES Chrétien Guillaume, ex noble et ministre d'état jusqu'en 1788, ci-devant président de la cour des aides de Paris, âgé de 72 ans, natif de Paris, domicilié à Malesherbes (Loiret), comme complice d'une conspiration qui a existé depuis 1789 contre la souveraineté du Peuple.
LEPELLETIER-ROZAMBO Aline Thérèse, femme Châteaubriant, âgée de 23 ans, née à Paris, domiciliée à Malesherbes (Loiret). [sans doute pour être parente de Louis Lepelletier-Rozambo, condamné à mort le 1 floréal].
MOUSSET Pierre, âgé de 42 ans, charpentier, et procureur de la commune de Donnery, né à St Marceau-d'Orléans (Loiret), domicilié à Chaudron (Loiret), comme complice d'une conspiration contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple français.
PARMENTIER Pierre, commis chez Dumont, receveur des rentes, âgé de 29 ans, né et domicilié à Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir favorisé, les efforts des ennemis de la république
ROCHECHOUART Diane Adélaïde, veuve Duchâtelet, âgée de 62 ans, née et domiciliée à Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant fait passer des fonds à son fils émigré.
THOURET Jacques Guillaume, ex constituant et ex présidant du tribunal de cassation, âgé de 48 ans, natif de Pont-l'Evêque, département du Calvados, domicilié à Paris, comme ayant conspiré dans la maison d'arrêt du Luxembourg où il était détenu.
A Arras:
LEFEVRE Florence, âgée de 29 ans, célibataire, domestique de ladite Simon, guillotinée à Arras
BETREMIEUX Jean Baptiste, jardinier, âgé de 61 ans, domicilié à Arras, département du Pas-de-Calais, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Arras, comme ennemi du gouvernement républicain, et ayant aidé et favorisé l'émigration des filles de Lallert, dit (Delebucquière), en les conduisant hors le territoire de la République.
HOYER Amand Fidèle, âgé de 61 ans, né à Cambrai, horloger, veuf de Pruvost N., guillotiné à Arras
Comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés à St Lumine-du-Coutay (Loire Inférieure), par la commission militaire de Nantes:
LEFORT Julien — DUGUY René, — FOUCHE Guillaume — LUSTOT Jean — PERDRIOT Jean, — ROCHELUS Eloi — SALAN Pierre — SALAN Jacques.
Par le tribunal criminel des Bouches du Rhône:
CARTIER Vincent, propriétaire, domicilié à Beaucaire, département du Gard, comme émigré.
     ... domiciliés à Tarascon (Bouches du Rhône):
          ... comme contre-révolutionnaires:
AUBERT Marguerite (femme Lambert)GILLER Marthe, femme Fontaine. — RACLET François, cultivateur — TEMPIE Madeleine, veuve d'Assac.
          ... comme fédéralistes
MONET Simon Thomas, cabaretier — PASCAL Jean, propriétaire.
1793 Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
COUTAND François, hussard du septième régiment, domicilié à Fontaine-les-Croisilles, département du Pas-de-Calais, . comme émigré, par la commission militaire établie à Arras.
Comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés dans le département de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables:
BOIZARD Charles, tisserand, domicilié à Avrillé.
CAVOIS André Ephrem, officier municipal, domicilié à St Gilles.
GOUINEAU Augustin, tisserand, domicilié à Lemelevielle.
POISSONNET André, marchand, domicilié à Challans.
1739 Charles François Nivard, French artist who died on 06 January 1821.
1705  Abadías Maurel, calvinista francés.
0536 Saint Agapetus I, Pope (the 57th) since 13 May 535. Of noble birth, he was an archdeacon at the time of his election. At the urging of the Ostrogothic king Theodahad [–Dec 536], he headed an unsuccessful mission to Constantinople to deter the emperor Justinian I [483 – 14 Nov 565] from his plans to reconquer Italy. While there he secured the election of, and consecrated, Mennas as successor to the patriarch Anthimus I, whom he deposed for his Monophysite beliefs (that Christ had but one nature). Agapetus' remains were brought back from Constantinople, where he died, and were buried in Rome.
0296 Saint Gaius, Pope (the 28th) since 17 December 283. Supposedly a relative of the Roman emperor Diocletian [245-316], he conducted his pontificate at a period of Diocletian's reign when Christians were tacitly tolerated. Gaius is said, nevertheless, to have carried on his religious work for his last eight years concealed in the catacombs. His epitaph was found in the Cemetery of Calixtus.
 
< 21 Apr 23 Apr >
^  Births which occurred on a 22 April

1948  Romance gitano, de Joaquín Dicenta, se estrena en el Teatro Cómico de Madrid.
1939  Theo Waigel, político y ministro de Finanzas alemán.
1929 Michael Francis Atiyah, English mathematician.
^ 1929 Guillermo Cabrera Infante, Cuban novelist, short-story writer, film critic, and essayist who died on 21 February 2005. He was the most prominent Cuban writer living in exile and the best-known spokesman against the Castro regime. In 1998 he was awarded Spain's Cervantes Prize, the most prestigious and remunerative award for Spanish-language writers.
Cabrera Infante      In the 1940s Cabrera Infante moved to Havana with his impoverished family. At first he worked as a proofreader in a newspaper; later, using the pseudonym “Cain,” he became a movie critic for Carteles, a weekly with a wide circulation. Cabrera Infante was essentially self-taught; cinema was one of his most important teachers. In the late 1940s he was among the founders of Nueva Generación, a journal opposing the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. (Cabrera Infante's father was an early member of the Cuban Communist Party.) With the triumph of the revolution, Cabrera Infante vaulted into a position of power as founder and editor of Lunes, the literary weekly of the newspaper Revolución. The Castro regime soon closed the magazine, and Cabrera Infante was sent as cultural attaché to Brussels. In 1965 he broke with the Castro government and remained abroad, eventually settling in London, where he died.
      Cabrera Infante's first noteworthy collection of short stories was Así en la paz como en la guerra (1960). But he acquired international renown with Tres tristes tigres (1964), winner of the Bibliotheca Breve Prize given by the Spanish publisher Seix Barral. In the manner of Ulysses of James Joyce, this highly successful novel chronicles the adventures of several young characters in Havana's prerevolutionary nightlife. It is a funny book, bristling with the textual games and puns of all sorts that characterize Cabrera Infante's work. His politics, but perhaps mostly his achievements, made him persona non grata with the Cuban cultural establishment. Among his many later publications is La Habana para un infante difunto (1979), but even it fell short of Tres tristes tigres. His film criticism was collected in Un oficio del siglo veinte (1963), his essays in Mea Cuba (1992), and some more of his short stories in Delito por bailar el chachachá (1995).
1922  Emilio Alarcos Llorach, filólogo, escritor y académico español.
1922 Richard Diebenkorn, US artist who had a fixation on the Ace of Spades and who died on 30 March 1993. — MORE ON DIEBENKORN AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1916 Yehudi Menuhin NYC, violinist / conductor (Bartok's Sonata)
1914  La malquerida, de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en Barcelona.
1909 Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italian+US neurologist who shared with Stanley Cohen the 1986 Medicine Nobel Prize (announced on 13 Oct 1986) for her discovery of a bodily substance that stimulates and influences the growth of nerve cells. Author of autobiographical In Praise of Imperfection (1988).
1909  Indro Montanelli, periodista e historiador italiano.
1904 Robert J. Oppenheimer, US physicist, head of the Manhattan (A-bomb) Project. He died on 18 February 1967.
1899 Vladimir Nabokov, Russian-born US novelist and critic who died on 02 July 1977.
1891 Harold Jeffreys, English mathematician who died on 18 March 1989.
1887 Harald August Bohr, Danish mathematician who died on 22 January 1951. Harald Bohr worked on Dirichlet series, and he applied analysis to the theory of numbers. He is the only mathematician know to have won an Olympic medal (silver for soccer in 1908). He was the brother of Niels Bohr [07 Oct 1885 — 18 Nov 1962] who also played soccer, but is more famous as a Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
1884 David Enskog, Swedish mathematician and physicist who died on 01 June 1947.
^ 1873 Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, Pulitzer Prize-winning US novelist.
      Southern writer Ellen Glasgow is born in Richmond, Virginia. The daughter of a sadly mismatched couple, Glasgow felt pulled between her father's stern pioneering background and her mother's aristocratic Virginia family. The ninth of 10 children, the young Glasgow felt isolated growing up, and her mother was constantly in poor health. Her father worked in manufacturing, and she attended private schools. At the age of 16, Glasgow began to lose her hearing, which increased her sense of isolation. She retreated into the world of books and began to write seriously at the age of 18. She had started work on two novels before she was 20 but destroyed much of her work after her mother's death in 1893. Her first novel, The Descendants, was published in 1897 to instant critical success. Glasgow wrote 19 novels, a collection of stories, an autobiography, and other works, many centered on the oppression of women in the South. Among her major works are Barren Ground (1925), Veins of Iron (1935), and In This Our Life (1941). Although involved in several passionate romances with men, Glasgow never married. She suffered heart trouble in her late 60s and did not live to see her work win the 1942 Pulitzer Prize.
GLASGOW ONLINE: The Battle-GroundThe Deliverance: A Romance of the Virginia Tobacco FieldsThe Deliverance: A Romance of the Virginia Tobacco FieldsVirginiaThe Voice of the People
Lenin, orator1870 (10 April Julian) Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov “Lenin”, leader of the Bolshevik Revolution and first dictator of the Soviet Union, who died on 21 January 1924. — Read MORE ABOUT “LENIN”
1846 Henry Woods, British artist who died on 27 October 1921.
1840 Odilon Redon, French Symbolist painter and lithographer who died on 06 July 1916. — MORE ON REDON AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1830 Thomas Archer Hirst, English mathematician and physicist who died on 16 February 1892.
1822 Bengt Nordenberg, Swedish artist who died on 18 December 1902. — more with links to images.
1811 Ludwig Otto Hesse, Prussian mathematician who died on 04 August 1874. He worked on the development of the theory algebraic functions and the theory of invariants. He is remembered particularly for introducing the Hessian matrix and its Hessian determinant.
1766 Anne-Louise-Germaine Necker (future Madame de Stael), French-Swiss literary critic and novelist who died on 14 July 1817. — MADAME DE STAEL ONLINE: Corinne, ou l'Italie (PDF)
^ 1724 Immanuel Kant, Prussian philosopher (Zum ewigen Frieden). He would die on 12 February 1804 in Königsberg, Prussia.
KANT ONLINE (in English translations):
  • Critique of Aesthetic Judgement
  • Critique of Judgement
  • Critique of Judgement
  • Critique of Judgment
  • Critique of Practical Reason
  • Critique of Practical Reason
  • Critique of Practical Reason
  • Critique of Practical Reason
  • Critique of Pure Reason
  • Critique of Pure Reason
  • Critique of Pure Reason
  • Critique of Pure Reason
  • Critique of Pure Reason
  • Critique of Pure Reason
  • Critique of Pure Reason
  • Science of Right
  • Science of Right
  • The Science of Right
  • Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic Of Morals
  • Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
  • Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
  • Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
  • Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
  • Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals
  • Introduction to the Metaphysic of Morals
  • Introduction to the Metaphysics of Morals
  • Metaphysical Elements of Ethics
  • Metaphysical Elements of Ethics
  • Metaphysical Elements of Ethics
  • Metaphysical Elements Of Ethics
  • The Metaphysical Elements of Ethics
  • Perpetual Peace
  • Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
  • Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
  • Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone
  • What is Enlightenment?
  • What is Enlightenment?
  • An Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of Jurisprudence as the Science of Right (in two parts)
  • An Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of Jurisprudence as the Science of Right (in two parts)
  • Four Neglected Essays (on earthquakes volcanos the moon's influence on the weather
  • Philosophy of Law: An Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of Jurisprudence as the Science of Right
  • Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven (English and German)
  • Introduction to Metaphysical Foundations of the Science of Nature (German)
  • On Comprehension and Transcendental Consciousness (German)
  • Über Pädagogie (1803) (German)
  • ^ 1707 Henry Fielding, English novelist.
          Fielding was born in Somerset, England, and attended Eton. However, he dropped out at age 17 and lost his family's financial support. He went to London to become a playwright and met some success with more than two dozen plays. However, his career as a playwright ended when his satire Historical Register of the Year 1736 earned him the prime minister's ire. The play gives a critical survey of English manners and morals, it exposes the corruptness of political life and the false values of the beau monde. It also satirizes some influential figures of the London theatre of its time. In form, the play is a series of unrelated episodes, given a coherence by a rehearsal framework: An author, Medley, presents his play to the "critic", Sourwit and our Lady Dapper, two characteristic figures of London high society. Medley, who can be regarded as Fieldings spokesman, explains: "... my design is to ridicule the vicious and foolish customs of the age, and that in a fair manner, without fear, favour or ill nature, and without scurrility, ill manners, or commonplace. I hope to expose the reigning follies in such a manner that men shall laugh themselves out of them before they feel that they are touched." The play involves "a humming deal of satire" and farce, referring exclusively to the year 1736.
          In search of a new livelihood, Fielding studied law and edited a newspaper for several years. Meanwhile, in 1740, Samuel Richardson's epistolary novel Pamela or Virtue Rewarded was published and became enormously popular. A spoof on the book, called Shamela (1741), was generally credited to Fielding, though he never admitted authorship. He did admit to writing Joseph Andrews, another satire, in 1742.
          In 25 October 1748, Fielding was appointed justice of the peace for Westminster and Middlesex. He played an important role in breaking up criminal gangs. The next year, Fielding published his masterpiece The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. The novel, serialized in 10 small volumes, told the humorous story of the attempts of the illegitimate but charming Tom Jones to win his neighbor's daughter. The novel boasted a vast cast of characters and provided a sweeping comic portrait of 18th-century England. Fielding published one more novel, Amelia (1751), before his death in Lisbon, Portugal, on 08 October 1754.
    FIELDING ONLINE: The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, The Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon, A Journey From This World to the Next
    1602  José Pellicer de Ossau Salas y Tovar, escritor y cronista de los reinos de Castilla y Aragón.
    1592 Wilhelm Schickard, Württemberger Lutheran minister, biblical languages scholar, engraver, astronomer, and mathematician who died on 24 October 1635. In 1623 he invented the first known mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. He also invented other mechanical devices, for example a portable planetarium (which could be used for the demonstration of the geocentric as well as the heliocentric system) and the rota hebraea, a device for the automation of Hebrew verb inflection.
    1451 Isabel I de Castilla, Queen of Spain (1474-1504), patron of Columbus. She died on 26 November 1504.
    0988  Cataluña
    : fecha en la que en 1988 el rey Juan Carlos I de España presidirá en Barcelona la apertura de los actos conmemorativos del milenario.
     
    Religious Observances RC : St Soter, pope (166-75), martyr / RC : St Caius, pope (283-96), martyr / Santos José, Parmenio, Lucio, Santiago y León.
    Easter Sunday in 1962, 1973, 1984, 2057, 2068, 2114.
    Good Friday in 2011, 2095 (latest possible date).
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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Of all the ills that men endure, hope is the only cheap and universal cure.”
    “History is an accumulation of errors.”
    — Norman Cousins, US editor [1912-1990]. {we are supposed to learn from those errors}
    “Don't bite the hand that feeds you, bite the bullet that shoots you.”
    “Guns don't kill people, bullets kill people.”
    — {So don't bite the gun, bite the bullet}
    “He who calls the tune must face the music and pay the piper.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE to HISTORY 4 2DAY
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4apr/h4apr22.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4apr/h4apr22.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/7aujourdhui/history/h4apr/h4apr22.html
    updated Tuesday 22-Apr-2008 2:04 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.30 Sunday 22-Apr-2007 3:07 UT
    v.6.50 Thursday 22-Jun-2006 16:42 UT
    Saturday 23-Apr-2005 15:11 UT
    Sunday 25-Apr-2004 15:55 UT

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