<< Apr 18|      HISTORY “4” “2”DAY     |Apr 20 >>
Events, deaths, births, of APR 19
While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs)
[For Apr 19 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Apr 291700~1799: Apr 301800~1899: May 011900~2099: May 02]
• Shot heard around the world... • Waco massacre... • Oklahoma City bombing... • Warsaw ghetto uprising... • Zapata dies murdered ... • Artistic gorilla dies... • US Volkswagen... • Secessonist riots at start of US Civil War... • Lord Byron dies... • PARC Xerox reseach center... • Hourly rates at Prodigy... • Gates redefines e-mail... • Vietnam Veterans Against the War... • Born to defeat Al Capone... • “Old soldiers never die...”... • A Pope is elected...”... • A Pope dies...”
^  On a 19 April:
Habemus Papam

Benedict XVI2005 Benedict XVI is the name taken by the Pope elected today to succeed John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005]. He is Joseph Ratzinger [16 Apr 1927–]. Benedict XVI is the first German pope since Victor II [1018 – 28 Jul 1057] who, chosen by the Holy Roman emperor Henry III [28 Oct 1017 – 05 Oct 1056] in 1054, was consecrated pope on 13 April 1055. Benedict XV [21 Nov 1854 – 22 Jan 1922] became pope in September 1914.
     Benedict XVI is the oldest man to become pope since Clement XII [07 Apr 1652 – 06 Feb 1740], who, when he became pope on 12 July 1730, was 66 days older than Benedict XVI is today. To this date, the oldest of all popes, at the time of their election, was Celestine III [1106 – 08 Jan 1198] who was elected on 30 March 1191 and consecrated on 14 April 1191. The pope who died the oldest is thought to be Adrian I [–25 Dec 795], who was probably 80 when he was elected on 01 February 772.
the book      The first words of Benedict XVI to the crowd in Saint-Peter's plaza are:
“Cari fratelli e sorelle, dopo il grande Papa Giovanni Paolo II, i signori cardinali hanno eletto me, un semplice e umile lavoratore nella vigna del Signore. Mi consola il fatto che il Signore sa lavorare ed agire anche con strumenti insufficienti e soprattutto mi affido alle vostre preghiere. Nella gioia del Signore risorto, fiduciosi nel suo aiuto permanente, andiamo avanti. Il Signore ci aiuterà e Maria sua Santissima Madre starà dalla nostra parte. Grazie.”
      Presumably Cardinal Ratzinger did not consult Google before choosing his name as Pope. If he had, he would have found out that many web sites (not including this one), some long in advance, had predicted that the immediate successor to John Paul II would take the name Benedict XVI, and give many other details about his personality, his pontificate, his death, his successor, etc. None of those details fit Joseph Ratzinger, nor does the complete story told in the book Benedict XVI by Paul Wiebe, which does not claim to be a prophecy, but only a farcical novel. Or perhaps cardinal Ratzinger did consult Google. Pope Benedict XVI may have a great sense of humor, which was not seen by many in cardinal Ratzinger.
     The hero of the novel is a US Amish foundling, Benny Good, who becomes in succession an evangelist, overland trucker, radio talk show host, and then Pope. Becoming the first US pope, Benny finds, is not difficult. With luck, the will of God, and the help of an agent with her eye on the holdings of the Catholic Church, all he has to do is to allow himself to be reinvented by her think tank and then let his magnetism and verbal skills loose on the world. But once elected, he must compose encyclicals and, in his case, keep an outrageous secret hidden and the media at bay. He succeeds beyond his wildest expectations. [read Chapter I (PDF)]
Obasanjo2003 Presidential election in Nigeria. President Olusegun Obasanjo [05 Mar 1937~] [12 Apr 2003 photo >], who came to power through a military-rigged election in 1999, thanks to widespread fraud, wins 2-to-1 over the other 19 candidates. Steve Hodel He might have won, more narrowly, without fraud, but he and his supporters wanted to be sure.

2002 Catholic Bishop Jerzy Mazur, a Pole who has been leading a diocese in eastern Siberia since 1998, is declared persona non grata by Russia after being stopped when he flew into Moscow from Warsaw. The Russian government espouses the anti-Catholic stance of the Russian Orthodox Church.

2002 In Montenegro, Prime Minister Filip Vujanovic asks parliament to accept his resignation, blaming unsuccessful attempts to preserve a coalition government. The previous week, four of the pro-independence ministers, including Foreign Minister Branko Lukovac, resigned to protest an accord, brokered in March 2002 by the European Union, signed by President Milo Djukanovic and Yugoslav President Vojislav Kostunica, and endorsed by both parliaments, which would restructure Yugoslavia under the name “Serbia and Montenegro”. The agreement allows the republics to vote on full independence in three years, meanwhile they would share defense and foreign policies and a seat at the United Nations but maintain separate economies, currencies and customs services, which is too little and too late for Montenegrin independentists. Yugoslavia, former four other republics; Bosnia, Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia, broke away — most of them violently — under then-President of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milosevic in the 1990s.
^ 2002 UN Security Council adopts a resolution on Jenin:
      Resolution 1405 (2002)

      Adopted by the Security Council at its 4516th meeting, on 19 April 2002

      The Security Council,
its resolutions 242 (1967) of 22 November 1967, 338 (1973) of 22 October 1973, 1397 (2002) of 12 March 2002, 1402 (2002) of 30 March 2002, 1403 (2002) of 4 April 2002, and the Statement of its President of 10 April 2002 (S/PRST/2002/9),
      Concerned by the dire humanitarian situation of the Palestinian civilian population, in particular reports from the Jenin refugee camp of an unknown number of deaths and destruction,
      Calling for the lifting of restrictions imposed, in particular in Jenin, on the operations of humanitarian organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross and United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East,
      Stressing the need for all concerned to ensure the safety of civilians, and to respect the universally accepted norms of international humanitarian law,
      1. Emphasizes the urgency of access of medical and humanitarian organizations to the Palestinian civilian population;
      2. Welcomes the initiative of the Secretary-General to develop accurate information regarding recent events in the Jenin refugee camp through a fact-finding team and requests him to keep the Security Council informed;
      3. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
2001  El ELN rompe el diálogo con el Gobierno colombiano.
^ 2001 Good role model sentenced to prison.
      Tung Kam-hon, 54, is sentenced in Hong Kong to 3 years in prison. He had turned himself in and admitted conspiring to traffic in dangerous drugs in June 1977, despite his lawyer's advice that the prosecution's case was weak. Tung had failed to show up for trial in March 1978, when he had just separated from his wife, because he feared for the welfare of his then 11-year-old son if he was jailed. Since jumping bail, he has lived the life of a respectable citizen and operated a restaurant in Hong Kong. Now he wanted to show his son, now 34, that he was a good role model.
2000 A US federal appeals court rules that 6-year-old Cuban refugee Elián González may stay in the United States until the court hears the full appeal from his Miami relatives, who seek to retain custody of the boy, whose mother drowned while bringing him to the US.
2000 Los embajadores de España y el Reino Unido ante la Unión Europea firman un acuerdo por el que Londres se compromete a ser la autoridad competente en las relaciones entre Gibraltar y la UE.
1999  La firma italiana Telecom y la alemana Deutsche Telekom crean el primer operador mundial de telefonía.
1999 The German parliament inaugurates its new home in the restored Reichstag in Berlin, its prewar capital.
1998 China frees Wang Dan, one of the leaders of the 1989 pro-democracy movement that had been brutally suppressed in Beijing's Tiananmen Square. —   El disidente Wang Dan, de 29 años, héroe de las manifestaciones por la democracia de 1989 en la plaza de Tiananmen de Pekín, es autorizado a viajar a Estados Unidos para recibir tratamiento médico. 
1998 El conservador Thomas Klestil se proclama vencedor de las elecciones presidenciales austríacas.
1997  Seis mausoleos incas son descubiertos por investigadores del Instituto Nacional de Cultura (INC) de Perú, en un paraje conocido como "Laguna de los Cóndores".   
1997 Las Fuerzas Democráticas Unidas (ODS), facción derechista, ganan, por mayoría absoluta, las elecciones legislativas anticipadas en Bulgaria.
1997 Flooding from the Red River forced more than 50'000 residents to abandon Grand Forks, North Dakota.
1996 The leaders of the G-7 nations met in Moscow.
1995  José María Aznar López [25 Feb 1953~] sale ileso de un atentado con coche-bomba perpetrado cerca de su domicilio madrileño por tres terroristas de Euskadi Ta Askatasuna.
1994 A federal jury awards $3.8 million dollars in compensatory damages from the city of Los Angeles to police beating victim Rodney King.
1994 Gates redefines e-mail.
      In a speech to an e-mail association in Anaheim, California, Bill Gates [28 Oct 1955~] announced that Microsoft was planning an e-mail system that included electronic forms, schedules, and other formats for shared information. By broadening the definition of e-mail to include document sharing and interoffice collaboration, Gates foreshadowed the introduction of Microsoft Exchange, collaboration software designed to compete with Lotus Notes.
^ 1993 Prodigy introduces hourly rates
      Prodigy announces that it will move to hourly pricing for some services, angering many subscribers. The company, a joint venture of IBM and Sears, said it would charge hourly fees for premium features, including bulletin boards, airline schedules, and some financial information. The company, which had failed to turn a profit since it was founded in 1985, said the hourly fee structure would help offset increased costs.
1992 A series of watercolors depicting members of the British royal family nude caused a stir with London's Fleet Street newspapers. The queen is not amused.
1991  El pueblo de Puerto Rico es galardonado con el premio Premio Príncipe de Asturias de las Letras 1991 por su "defensa ejemplar del español, que ha sido declarado único idioma oficial del país".
1990 The US-backed Contra rebels and the outgoing Nicaraguan government agreed to an immediate cease-fire and a formula to disarm and demobilize the Contras by 10 June.
1990  Tras varias semanas de disturbios y huelgas, el rey nepalí Birendra nombra jefe de Gobierno al líder de la oposición Krishna Prasad Bhattarai.
1989 Republic Day in Sierra Leone.
1989 Pro-Democracy demonstrations begin in Beijing's Tiananmen Square.
1989  La Comisión de Cultura, Educación y Juventud del Parlamento Europeo declara el idioma catalán como una lengua oficial más de las instituciones europeas. 
1989 Tras el fin de la tregua de ETA, el Gobierno español inicia la expulsión de etarras de Argel, empezando por los negociadores.
1989 A giant asteroid passed within 800'000 km of Earth.
1989 In New York's Central Park, a woman jogger, investment banker Trisha Meilli, 28, is brutally attacked, raped, and left for dead. Several other people are attacked in the park by a gang of teenagers. The jogger is found the next day, comatose and suffering from hypothermia; one of the lasting effect on her is amnesia: she would have no recollection of the attack. Five young men, aged 14 to 16, on no other evidence than coerced and inaccurate confessions, would be sentenced to prison: Yusef Salaam, Raymond Santana, Antron McCray, convicted of rape and assault and acquitted of attempted murder on 18 August 1990; and, in a second trial, Kharey Wise convicted of assault, sexual abuse, and riot; and Kevin Richardson convicted of attempted murder, rape, sodomy, robbery, assault, and riot, both on 12 December. After serving their sentences, they would be released, McCray on 24 September 1996, Salaam on 21 March 1997, Richardson on 24 June 1997, Santana on 12 June 1998, Wise on 12 August 2002. In January 2002, 31, Matias Reyes, serving a life term in prison for rapes the murder of a pregnant woman (crimes committed on 17 April — in Central Park, 11 June, 14 June, 19 July, and 05 August 1989), would say that he alone raped and beat the jogger (a crime for which the statute of limitations had expired). DNA tests would confirm that. After months of delay, at long last on 19 December 2002, the convictions of the five wrongly convicted, would be vacated. Thrisha Meilli's identity would remain secret until 28 March 2003 when she announces the April 2003 publication of her book I Am the Central Park Jogger: A Story of Hope and Possibility.
1988  El dirigente democristiano italiano Ciriaco de Mita pronuncia ante el Parlamento su discurso de investidura como nuevo presidente del Gobierno.
1985  Se producen negociaciones secretas en Lisboa entre Marruecos y el Frente Polisario.
1984  El papa Juan Pablo II, con motivo del Año Jubilar de la Redención, pide "un estatuto internacional garantizado para Jerusalén".
1979  Se constituyen los primeros ayuntamientos democráticos en España tras las elecciones, en las que UCD obtiene la mayoría de concejales.
1978  Tiene lugar el I Congreso del PCE en la legalidad desde la época de la República.
1978 Yitzhak Navon es elegido presidente del estado de Israel.
1978 Se aprueba el régimen preautonómico de Andalucía.
1976  Aparece en un talego de plástico el cadáver de José Raquel Mercado, secuestrado por el M19 colombiano el 15 febrero.
1975 India launches its first satellite with help of USSR.
1971 Sierra Leone becomes a republic (National Day)
^ 1971 Vietnam Veterans Against the War demonstrate.
      As a prelude to a massive antiwar protest, Vietnam Veterans Against the War begin a five-day demonstration in Washington DC. The generally peaceful protest, called Dewey Canyon III in honor of the operation of the same name conducted in Laos, ended on 23 April with about 1000 veterans throwing their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms on the Capitol steps, along with toy weapons. Earlier, they had lobbied with their congressmen, laid wreaths in Arlington National Cemetery, and staged mock "search and destroy" missions. On 24 April, a massive rally of about 200'000 took place on the Mall in Washington, DC. A simultaneous protest was held by 156'000 demonstrators in San Francisco, but that rally, described as the largest such protest to date on the West Coast, ended prematurely when militants took over the stage and protest coordinators were forced to cancel the last few speeches. The comparatively orderly demonstrations in Washington DC, ended on 26 April when the demonstrators changed their tactics to aggressive "people lobbying," with the avowed purpose of "shutting down the government." Five thousand police officers, backed by 12'000 soldiers, out-maneuvered the demonstrators and prevented them from blocking access to government buildings.
1971 USSR Salyut 1 launched; first manned lab in orbit.
^ 1970 Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) announced
      The New York Times reports that Xerox had formed a new research center in Palo Alto. The research center, Xerox PARC, would kick off the personal computer revolution. Management at Xerox founded PARC in an attempt to develop new office technologies. The center quickly hired an elite corps of the country's top computer scientists. Hunkered down on beanbag chairs in the conference room, PARC engineers quickly developed a revolutionary computer called the Alto. The Alto adopted revolutionary interface features introduced by Stanford Research Institute scientist Doug Engelbart, including a windows system for multitasking, a mouse, and a point-and-click interface. The machine added overlapping windows and bitmapping that could display complex imagines. PARC scientists also invented the phenomenally successful desktop metaphor for the computer interface. The Alto eventually evolved into the Xerox STAR, an office workstation priced at $16'500, which failed commercially. Perhaps most importantly, the Alto influenced a group of young engineers visiting from Apple Computer one day in December 1979. The group, which included Apple cofounder Steve Jobs, returned to Apple and immediately began work on the Macintosh computer, which would revolutionize computer interfaces after its 1984 release.
1970  Misael Pastrana Borrero es elegido presidente de Colombia tras unas elecciones rodeadas de acusaciones de fraude.
1969  Irán denuncia el tratado fronterizo irano-iraquí de 1937.
1962 NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 46'900 m altitude.
1961  España adopta el horario laboral europeo, permitiéndose la jornada continua.
1956  El secretario general de la ONU, Dag Hammarskjold, media en el armisticio entre Egipto e Israel.
1955 Volkswagen established in the US.
      Volkswagen of America, Inc. is established in Englewood, New Jersey, as a sales division for the German car company. This was a banner year for Volkswagen, as the company produced its one-millionth car and exceeded, for the first time, the production benchmark of one thousand cars per day on average. Nineteen fifty-five also saw the introduction of the Karmann Ghia Coupe, a joint venture between Volkswagen and Karmann. The sporty Karmann Ghia enjoyed great success in the United States. It wasn't until almost a decade after the formation of Volkswagen of America, that Volkswagen provided serious competition for Detroit's Big Three. The establishment of an American sales group paved the way for the success of the VW Bug in America. By the mid-1960s, the VW Bug had almost single-handedly ended the years of "virtual monopoly" that Detroit manufacturers had previously enjoyed.
^ 1951 “Old soldiers never die, they just fade away.”
     General Douglas MacArthur bids farewell to the US Congress, ending with a line from a ballad: "Old soldiers never die; they just fade away." On 11 April 1951, US President Harry S. Truman removed General Douglas MacArthur from his post as commander of U.N. forces in Korea, and ordered the general home. The dismissal followed MacArthur's public disclosure of Truman's refusal to allow him to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
      MacArthur, born on 26 January 1880, son of a top-ranking army general, was commissioned as a lieutenant in 1903, and during World War I, served as a commander of the famed Eighty-Fourth Infantry Brigade. During the 1920s, he was stationed primarily in the Philippines, a US commonwealth, and in the first half of the 1930s, served as US army chief of staff. In 1935, with Japanese expansion underway in the Pacific, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed MacArthur military adviser to the government of the Philippines. In 1941, five months before Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, he was named commander of all US armed forces in the Pacific.
      After the US got into the war, MacArthur conducted the defense of the Philippines against great odds. On March of 1942, with Japanese victory imminent, Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to Australia but the American general promised the Philippines--his adopted home--that "I shall return." Five months later, the great US counter-offensive against Japan began, and on 20 October 1944, after advancing island by island across the Pacific, MacArthur waded ashore onto the Philippines. Eleven months later, he officiated the Japanese surrender and after the war served as effective ruler of Japan during a highly productive five-year occupation.
      After North Korea invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950, MacArthur was, on 08 July 1950, appointed supreme commander of the US-led UN force sent to aid the South. In September, the UN force successfully landed at Inchon, and by October, North Korean forces had been driven back across the Thirty-Eighth Parallel. With President Truman's approval, U.N. forces crossed into North Korea and advanced all the way to the Yalu River--the border between North Korea and Communist China--despite warnings that this would provoke Chinese intervention.
      When China did intervene, forcing UN forces into a desperate retreat, MacArthur pressed for permission to bomb Chinese bridges and bases across the border. President Truman, fearing the Cold War implications of an expanded war in the Far East, refused. MacArthur made the dispute public, leading Truman to fire him on 11 April 1951. However, MacArthur was given a hero's welcome upon returning to America, and on 19 April, he addressed a joint meeting of Congress, declaring "Old heroes never die, they just fade away." After unsuccessfully running for the Republican nomination in 1952, MacArthur faded from the public view. And he eventually did die.
      In perhaps the most famous civilian-military confrontation in the history of the United States, President Harry S. Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of command of the US forces in Korea. The firing of MacArthur set off a brief uproar among the US public, but Truman remained committed to keeping the conflict in Korea a "limited war." Problems with the flamboyant and egotistical General MacArthur had been brewing for months. In the early days of the war in Korea (which began in June 1950), the general had devised some brilliant strategies and military maneuvers that helped save South Korea from falling to the invading forces of communist North Korea. As US and United Nations forces turned the tide of battle in Korea, MacArthur argued for a policy of pushing into North Korea to completely defeat the communist forces. Truman went along with this plan, but worried that the communist government of the People's Republic of China might take the invasion as a hostile act and intervene in the conflict. In October 1950, MacArthur met with Truman and assured him that the chances of a Chinese intervention were slim. Then, in November and December 1950, hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops crossed into North Korea and flung themselves against the American lines, driving the US troops back into South Korea. MacArthur then asked for permission to bomb communist China and use Nationalist Chinese forces from Taiwan against the People's Republic of China. Truman flatly refused these requests and a very public argument began to develop between the two men.
      On 11 April 1951, President Truman fired MacArthur and replaced him with Gen. Matthew Ridgeway. On 11 April Truman addressed the nation and explained his actions. He began by defending his overall policy in Korea, declaring, "It is right for us to be in Korea." He excoriated the "communists in the Kremlin [who] are engaged in a monstrous conspiracy to stamp out freedom all over the world." Nevertheless, he explained, it "would be wrong-tragically wrong-for us to take the initiative in extending the war. ...Our aim is to avoid the spread of the conflict." The president continued, "I believe that we must try to limit the war to Korea for these vital reasons: To make sure that the precious lives of our fighting men are not wasted; to see that the security of our country and the free world is not needlessly jeopardized; and to prevent a third world war." General MacArthur had been fired "so that there would be no doubt or confusion as to the real purpose and aim of our policy."
      MacArthur returned to the United States to a hero's welcome. Parades were held in his honor, and he was asked to speak before Congress (where he gives his famous "Old soldiers never die, they just fade away" speech). Public opinion was strongly against Truman's actions, but the president stuck to his decision without regret or apology.
      Eventually, MacArthur did "just fade away," (and, on 05 April 1964, die) and the US people began to understand that his policies and recommendations might have led to a massively expanded war in Asia. Though the concept of a "limited war," as opposed to the traditional US policy of unconditional victory, was new and initially unsettling to many people in the US, the idea came to define the US Cold War military strategy.
1949  Estados Unidos destina 5430 millones de dólares al programa de ayuda a Europa.
1945  Las tropas británicas llegan a orillas del Elba en el transcurso de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
^ 1943 Warsaw ghetto uprising begins.       ^top^
     In Warsaw, Poland, Nazi forces attempting to clear out the city’s Jewish ghetto were met by gunfire from Jewish resistance fighters, and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising began. Shortly after the German occupation of Poland began, the Nazis forced the city's Jewish citizens into a "ghetto" surrounded by barbed wire and armed S.S. guards. The Warsaw ghetto had an area of only 340 hectares but soon held almost 500'000 Jews in deplorable conditions (about 7 sq.m per person!). Disease and starvation killed thousands every month and, beginning in July of 1942, six thousand Jews per day were transferred to the Treblinka concentration camp. [even without counting those who died, at the rate of 6000 per day leaving, the ghetto would have been empty before the end of October, unless another half-million Jews were brought in to last until 18 January]
      Although the Nazis assured the remaining Jews that their relatives and friends were being sent to work camps, word soon reached the ghetto that deportation to the camp meant extermination. An underground resistance group was established in the ghetto — the Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB). — and limited arms were acquired at great cost. On 18 January 1943, when the Nazis entered the ghetto to prepare a group for transfer, a ZOB unit ambushed them. Fighting lasted for several days, and a number of Germans soldiers were killed before the rest of them withdrew.
      On 19 April, Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler announces that the ghetto is to be cleared out in honor of Hitler's birthday the following day, and over a thousand S.S. soldiers entered the confines with tanks and heavy artillery. Although many of the ghetto's remaining 60'000 Jewish dwellers attempted to hide themselves in secret bunkers, over a thousand ZOB members met the Germans with gunfire and homemade bombs.
      Suffering moderate casualties, the Germans initially withdrew but soon returned, and on 24 April launched an all-out attack against the Warsaw Jews. Thousands were slaughtered as the Germans systematically moved down the ghettos, blowing up the buildings one by one. The ZOB took to the sewers to continue the fight, but on 08 April their command bunker fell to the Germans and Mordecai Anielewicz and the other resistant leaders committed suicide. By 16 April, the ghetto was firmly under Nazi control and mass deportation of the last Warsaw Jews to Treblinka began.
      During the uprising some 300 hundred German soldiers were killed and some seven thousand Warsaw Jews who were massacred. Virtually all of those who survived to reach Treblinka had been killed by the end of the war.
Another account:
Waffen SS attacks Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto. Shortly after the German invasion of Poland, in September 1939, nearly 400'000 Polish Jews were confined to a 9-square-kilometer area that normally housed about 250'000. The "ghetto" was sealed off with a 3-meter-high wall. Anyone caught leaving was shot on sight. As if this weren't bad enough, the Nazis strictly controlled the amount of food that was brought into the ghetto, forcing Jews to live on a bowl of soup a day. By July 1942, about 80'000 Jews had died. On 22 July 1942, Heinrich Himmler ordered that Jews be "resettled" to extermination camps, such as Treblinka. Two months later, more than 300'000 Jews had been sent to the gas chambers. Less than two years after the internment in the ghetto, only 60'000 Jews remained. But those who survived formed a Jewish Fighting Organization, called ZOB, which managed to smuggle in weapons from anti-Nazi Poles. Armed, they were able to resist further deportations by attacking Germans from rooftops, cellars, and attics. A severe winter and a shortage of trains also prevented the SS from deporting more Jews to death camps. But spring brought Nazi retaliation. On 19 April, 1943, Passover, Himmler sends more than 2000 Waffen SS soldiers to combat the Jewish resistance. German tanks, howitzers, machine guns, and flamethrowers were met with Jewish pistols, rifles, homemade grenades, and Molotov cocktails. The Jews were able to fend off the German assault for 28 days. Finally, SS General Jurgen Stroop set the entire ghetto block, now reduced to an area 1000 by 300 meters, on fire and blew up the synagogue. By May, 56'065 Jews were dead. It is estimated that the Germans lost 300, with 1000 wounded.
1940  Suiza da a conocer unas directivas de movilización militar de la población en caso de que el país sea agredido.
1939 Connecticut approves the Bill of Rights of the US Constitution, 148 years late.
1938 As an experiment, RCA-NBC starts its first regular TV.broadcasts, from the Empire State Building, five hours a week.
1934 Shirley Temple appears in her first movie, Stand Up and Cheer.
1933 FDR announces that the US will leave the gold standard.
1932  Los alcaldes vascos aprueban el anteproyecto de Estatuto.
1929  Se produce el bombardeo de las posiciones de los rebeldes mexicanos en la llamada "guerra de los cristeros"
1929  El haz, símbolo del partido de Mussolini, es incorporado al escudo italiano.
1928  La aviación militar española adquiere su primer avión de bombardeo.
1927 In China, Hankow Communists declared war on Chiang Kai-shek.
1923  El rey egipcio Fuad I promulga la nueva Constitución del país.
1923  El general francés Maxime Weygand es nombrado alto comisionado en Siria.
1921  El Gobierno uruguayo prohíbe terminantemente el trabajo por la noche; los panaderos cierran los establecimientos como protesta.
1920  Se firma un tratado germano-soviético relativo a la repatriación de los prisioneros de guerra.
1919  Los marinos rusos del mar Negro se amotinan.
1917  Álvaro Figueroa y Torres, conde de Romanones, presenta la dimisión de su Gabinete al rey de España Alfonso XIII.
1916  Los ejércitos italianos toman el collado de Di Lana, cerca de Merano, en el transcurso de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1914  La Cámara de París vota el levantamiento de un empréstito de 800 millones de francos destinado a armamento.
1909  Se firma un tratado entre Rusia y Bulgaria por el que se reconoce la independencia de esta última.
1904  Tras la incorporación a la Unión de los territorios de Arizona, Nuevo México y Oklahoma, Estados Unidos cuenta ya con 48 estados.
1902  Son apedreados en La Coruña dos misioneros en plena prédica.
1898  El Gobierno de Estados Unidos envía a España un ultimátum para que abandone en 48 horas la isla de Cuba.
1892 Charles Duryea later falsely claimed that on this day he first drove the first gasoline-powered US-built automobile in a rented loft space in Springfield, Massachusetts. (Duryea's brother Frank and newspapers said that it was on 20 September 1893).
1865 Armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) taken.
1864 Pratt Street Riots in Baltimore, Maryland.
1863 Confederate attack on Plymouth, North Carolina continues.
1862 Nebraska territory admitted into the Union.
1861 US President Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865] declares a blockade of the ports of the Confederate States from South Carolina to Texas.
1861 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1861 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues.
1839 Treaty of London constitutes Belgium an independent kingdom.
1825 En "la Cruzada Libertadora" destinada a liberar Uruguay del dominio del Imperio del Brasil, independizado de Portugal, “Treinta y Tres Orientales”, organizados sigilosamente, y bajo el mando del jefe artiguista [seguidor de José Gervasio Artigas, fundador de la nacionalidad uruguaya] Juan Antonio Lavalleja, desembarcan en la Playa de la Agraciada, reuniéndose con los patriotas que les aguardaban y desplegando su bandera de “Libertad o Muerte”. Esta gesta patria culminará, luego de diferentes acontecimientos y luchas, en la declaratoria de la Independencia el 25 Aug de 1825, declarando el territorio nacional “Libre de todo poder extranjero”, constituyéndose el 08 Octubre de 1828 el Estado Oriental del Uruguay. El 18 julio de 1830 se jura la primera Constitución de la República, siendo el primer Presidente constitucional el General Fructuoso Rivera. Le seguirá en la presidencia Manuel Oribe, uno de los jefes de los “Treinta y Tres Orientales”, generándose en ambas personalidades respectivamente, los partidos políticos tradicionales de Uruguay: el Partido Colorado y el Partido Blanco.
1810  En un cabildo extraordinario celebrado en Caracas se forma la Junta Suprema conservadora de los derechos del rey de España Fernando VII y se destituye al capitán general Emparán de su cargo.
1802 The Spanish reopen the New Orleans port to US merchants.
1783  Se firma la Paz de Versalles, entre Gran Bretaña, Estados Unidos, Francia y España. Por él se reconoce la independencia de las colonias británicas americanas; Gran Bretaña devuelve Sumatra a las Provincias Unidas de Holanda, Tobago y Senegal a Francia y Menorca a España.
1782 Netherlands recognizes US independence.
1587  El corsario inglés Sir Francis Drake ataca el puerto y la costa de Cádiz con una escuadra de 30 navíos, puestos a su disposición por la reina Elizabeth I.
1529 In Germany at the Diet of Spires (Speyer), a document signed by Lutheran leaders in fourteen cities lodged a "protest" which demanded a freedom of conscience and the right of minorities. Henceforth, the German Lutheran Reformers were known as "Protestants."
1528  El príncipe Felipe (futuro rey Felipe II) es jurado heredero de los reinos de España en las Cortes de Madrid.
< 18 Apr 20 Apr >

^  Deaths which occurred on a 19 April:

2008 Alfonso Lòpez Trujillo [ 1935–], Columbian cardinal.. He entered the Bogota major seminary when he was a university student. Sent to study in Rome, he earned a degree in philosophy from the Angelicum, where he also took courses in theology and sociology and studied Marxism. After being ordained a priest on 13 November 1960, he continued studying in Rome for another two years, and then returned to Bogota, where he taught philosophy in the local major seminary for four years. On 25 March 1971 he was consecrated a bishop, auxiliary of Bogotá. He was appointed coadjutor archbishop of Medellín on 22 May 1978, and succeeded as archbishop on 02 June 1979 (he resigned on 09 January 1991), at the retirement of archbishop Tulio Botero Salazar, C.M. [09 Mar 1904 – 01 Mar 1981]. López was made a cardinal on 02 February 1983, and on 08 November 1990 he was appointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Family. Under his direction the council organized the first five World Encounters of Families: in Rome (1994), Río de Janeiro (1997), Rome (2000, for the Jubilee of Families), Manila (2003) and Valencia (2006). His successor (if he lives long enough) will be in charge of the next meeting in January 2009 in Mexico City. Cardinal Lòpez is survived by 195 cardinals, of which 118 are electors, because they are less than 80 years old. —(080421)
2006 Darwin Bassie, 20, shot several times at 20:30 (01:30 UT on 20 Apr) in the 1800 block of Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard in the New Orleans working class neighborhood Central City. —(060619)

2003 Ellen Bilger, 37, and her husband Myron Bilger, 40, both shot in the abdomen by shotgun at 21:20 (01:20 UT on 20 Apr) in their Pocono Lake, Pennsylvania, home, in the evening, by the husband of Myron's sister, Robert Lee Hixson, 42, who abducts their daughter Hadley Bilger, 13 (he would release her the next day at 11:25 while pursued by police and be arrested a few hours later). Her sister, 5, runs away to the house of a relative, who calls police.

2003 Nazih Darwazeh, 45 [photo >], Palestinian TV cameraman, shot in the face by Israeli soldiers as he was filming Palestinian youths who were throwing stones at the Israeli's armored vehicle, which was participating in an incursion into the Casbah of Nablus, West Bank. The Israelis claim they were returning fire from gunmen, but Palestinian eyewitnesses, including a Reuters camaraman and photographer, say that there was no Palestinian gunfire. At least 18 Palestinians are wounded. The Reuters body count of the al-Aqsa intifada is now “at least” 1998 Palestinians and 732 Israelis.

2002 Los militares venezolanos: general de división Luis Acevedo Quintero, comandante general de la Aviación; general de brigada Pedro Torres Finol, comandante de Operaciones Aéreas; general de brigada Rafael Quintana Bello, comandante de Operaciones de Personal; general de brigada Julio César Ochoa Omaña, director de Telemática del Estado Mayor General de la Aviación; capitán Jesús Viera Rodríguez, ayudante personal del comandante general de la Aviación; teniente Gerso Jorges Pereira, piloto del Grupo Aéreo de Transporte N° 5, y la tripulación del helicóptero Superpuma en que viajaban: teniente Wilmer Ramírez Ramírez, piloto; teniente Ervis Lorenzo Tovar Prieto, copiloto; sargento técnico de primera Gianni José González Dugarte, jefe de máquina; aerotécnico de segunda Henry Gómez Guerra, asistente de vuelo, al caerse el helicóptero a unos 15 km al norte de Caracas, se dice que por el mal tiempo..
2001: 8 Tzotziles of “Alianza Fray Bartolomé” (PRI supported paramilitaries), killed near Venustiano Carranza, Chiapas, by Tzotziles of the leftist “Casa del Pueblo y Emiliano Zapata”.
2001 Massinissa Guermah, 19, shot 27 times by gendarmes, in the Eni Douala the station house, to which they had taken him after beating him semiconscious. He had just heard a fight and gone outside his home to investigate. This unpunished cold-blooded murder of a Berber, would make Berber resentment of mistreatment and neglect by the Algerian government break out into violent demonstrations in Kabylie, that, by year's end, would have left some 60 people dead and more than 2000 wounded. Kabylie is home to Algeria's Berber minority, who make up 10% of Algeria's 30 million people.
2000 Robert Glen Coe [15 Apr 56–], executed by lethal injection in Tennessee for the rape and murder of Cary Ann Medlin [09 Oct 1970 – 01 Sep 1979]. —(060629)
2000 Michael, 27, lowland gorilla who knew about 500 gestures in American Sign Language, dies at the Gorilla Foundation's preserve 40 km south of San Francisco. Michael was a talented and prolific painter and a lover of classical music. — MORE ON MICHAEL GORILLA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
2000: 131 persons in crash of an Air Philippines Boeing 737-200, worst air crash in Philippine history.
2000  Una joven empleada del restaurante de la cadena McDonald's en Quévert, cerca de Dinan (Bretaña), por una bomba colocada en el restaurante. La policía francesa atribuye el atentado al denominado Ejército Revolucionario Bretón (ARB).
1998  Octavio Paz Lozano, born 31 March 1914, Mexico City poet, writer, and diplomat, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1990.
^ 1995 Three unborn babies and 168 other persons, in the Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, including:
Drug Enforcement Administration

Shelly D. Bland, 25;
Carrol June "Chip" Fields, 48;
Rona Linn Kuehner-Chafey, 35;
Carrie Ann Lenz, 26;
Kenneth Glenn McCullough, 36;
U.S. Secret Service
Cynthia L. Brown, 26;
Donald Ray Leonard, 50;
Mickey B. Maroney, 50;
Linda G. McKinney, 47;
Kathy Lynn Seidl, 39;
Alan G. Whicher, 40;
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Ted L. Allen, 48;
Peter R. Avillanoza, 56;
David Neil Burkett, 47;
Donald Earl Burns, Sr., 63;
Kimberly Kay Clark, 39;
Susan Jane Ferrell, 37;
Dr. George Michael Howard, 45;
Antonio "Tony" C. Reyes, 55;
Lanny Lee David Scroggins, 46;
Leora Lee Sells, 57;
Jules A. Valdez, 51;
David Jack Walker, 54;
Michael D. Weaver, 54;
Frances "Fran" Ann Williams, 48;
Clarence Eugene Wilson, Sr. 49;
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Diane E. (Hollingsworth) Althouse, 45;
Andrea Yvette Blanton, 33;
Kim R. Cousins, 33;
Diana Lynne Day, 38;
Castine Brooks Hearn Deveroux, 49;
Judy J. (Froh) Fisher, 45;
Linda Louise Florence, 43;
J. Colleen Guiles, 59;
Thompson Eugene "Gene" Hodges, Jr., 54;
Ann Kreymborg, 57;
Teresa Lea Taylor Lauderdale, 41;
Mary Leasure-Rentie, 39;
James A. McCarthy II, 53;
Betsy J. (Beebe) McGonnell, 47;
Patricia Ann Nix, 47;
Terry Smith Rees, 41;
John Thomas Stewart, 51;
John Karl Van Ess III, 67;
Jo Ann Whittenberg, 35;
U.S. Marine Corps Recruiting

Sgt. Benjamin LaRanzo Davis, USMC, 29;
Capt. Randolph A. Guzman, USMC, 28;
U.S. Department of Agriculture

Olen Burl Bloomer, 61;
James E. Boles, 50;
Dr. Margaret L. "Peggy" Clark, 42;
Richard "Dick" Cummins, 55;
Doris "Adele" Higginbottom, 44;
Carole Sue Khalil, 50;
Rheta Bender Long, 60;
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Paul Gregory Beatty Broxterman, 42;
U.S. Customs Office
Paul D. Ice, 42;
Claude Authur Medearis, S.S.A., 41;
U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Highway

Lucio Aleman, Jr., 33;
Mark Allen Bolte, 28;
Michael Carrillo, 44;
Larry James Jones, 46;
James K. Martin, 34;
Ronota Ann Newberry-Woodbridge, 31;
Jerry Lee Parker, 45;
Michelle A. Reeder, 33;
Rick L. Tomlin, 46;
Johnny Allen Wade, 42;
John A. Youngblood, 52;
U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion
Sgt. 1st Class Lola Bolden, U.S. Army, 40;
Karen Gist Carr, 32;
Peggy Louise Holland, 37;
John C. Moss III., 50;
Victoria (Vickey) L. Sohn, 36;
Dolores (Dee) Stratton, 51;
Kayla Marie Titsworth, 3 1/2;
Wanda Lee Watkins, 49;
Defense Security Service

Harley Richard Cottingham, 46;
Peter L. DeMaster, 44;
Norma "Jean" Johnson, 62;
Larry L. Turner, 42;
Robert G. Westberry, 57;
Federal Employees Credit Union
Woodrow Clifford "Woody" Brady, 41;
Kimberly Ruth Burgess, 29;
Kathy A. Finley, 44;
Jamie (Fialkowski) Genzer, 32;
Sheila R. Gigger-Driver, 28;
Linda Coleen Housley, 53;
Robbin Ann Huff, 37;
Christi Yolanda Jenkins, 32;
Alvin J. Justes, 54;
Valerie Jo Koelsch, 33;
Kathy Cagle Leinen, 47;
Claudette (Duke) Meek, 43;
Frankie Ann Merrell, 23;
Jill Diane Randolph, 27;
Claudine Ritter, 48;
Christy Rosas, 22;
Sonja Lynn Sanders, 27;
Karan Howell Shepherd, 27;
Victoria Jeanette Texter, 37;
Virginia M. Thompson, 56;
Tresia Jo "Mathes" Worton, 28;
America's Kids Child Development Center

Baylee Almon [18 Apr 1994–];
Danielle Nicole Bell, 15 months;
Zachary Taylor Chavez, 3;
Dana LeAnne Cooper, 24;
Anthony Christopher Cooper II, 2;
Antonio Ansara Cooper Jr., 6 months;
Aaron M. Coverdale, 5 1/2;
Elijah S. Coverdale, 2 1/2;
Jaci Rae Coyne, 14 months;
Brenda Faye Daniels, 42;
Taylor Santoi Eaves, 8 months;
Tevin D'Aundrae Garrett, 16 months;
Kevin "Lee" Gottshall II, 6 months;
Wanda Lee Howell, 34, Spencer
Blake Ryan Kennedy, 1 1/2;
Dominique Ravae (Johnson)-London, 2;
Chase Dalton Smith, 3;
Colton Wade Smith, 2;
Scott D. Williams, 24;
Social Security Administration

Teresa Antionette Alexander, 33;
Richard A. Allen, 46;
Pamela Cleveland Argo, 36;
Saundra G. (Sandy) Avery, 34;
Calvin Battle, 62;
Peola Battle, 56;
Oleta C. Biddy, 54;
Casandra Kay Booker, 25;
Carol Louise Bowers, 53;
Peachlyn Bradley, 3;
Gabreon D.L. Bruce, 3 months;
Katherine Louise Cregan, 60;
Ashley Megan Eckles, 4;
Don Fritzler, 64;
Mary Anne Fritzler, 57;
Laura Jane Garrison, 61;
Margaret Betterton Goodson, 54;
Ethel L. Griffin, 55;
Cheryl E. Hammon, 44;
Ronald Vernon Harding, Sr., 55;
Thomas Lynn Hawthorne, Sr., 52;
Dr. Charles E. Hurlburt, 73;
Jean Nutting Hurlburt, 67;
Raymond "Lee" Johnson, 59;
LaKesha Richardson Levy, 21;
Aurelia Donna Luster, 43;
Robert Lee Luster, Jr., 45;
Rev. Gilbert X. Martinez, 35;
Cartney J. McRaven, 19;
Derwin W. Miller, 27;
Eula Leigh Mitchell, 64;
Emilio Tapia, 50;
Charlotte Andrea Lewis Thomas, 43;
Michael George Thompson, 47;
LaRue A. Treanor, 55;
Luther H. Treanor, 61;
Robert N. Walker, Jr., 52;
Julie Marie Welch [12 Sep 1971–];
W. Stephen Williams, 42;
Sharon Louise Wood-Chesnut, 47;
General Services Administration
Steven Douglas Curry, 44;
Michael L. Loudenslager, 48;
Rescue Worker

Rebecca Needham Anderson, 37;
Athenian Building (Job Corps)
Anita Christine Hightower, 27;
Kathryn Elizabeth “Kathy” Ridley, 24;
Oklahoma Water Resources Board Building
Robert N. Chipman, 51;
Trudy Jean Rigney, 31;

Baylee dead, carried by fireman      Just after 09:00 central time, a massive truck bomb explodes outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The blast collapsed the north face of the nine-story building, instantly killing over a hundred people, trapping dozens more in the rubble, and injuring some 500. Emergency crews raced to Oklahoma City from across the country, and when the rescue effort finally ended two weeks later, the death toll stood at 171 persons killed, including 3 unborn and 15 infants and young children who were in the building's America's Kids Day Care Center at the time of the blast. [photo: Baylee Almon's corpse, carried out by fireman Chris Fields >]
      On 21 April, the massive manhunt for suspects in the worst terrorist attack ever committed until then on US soil resulted in the capture of Timothy McVeigh, a twenty-seven-year-old former US Army soldier who matched an eyewitness description of a man seen at the scene of the crime. On the same day, Terry Nicholas, an associate of McVeigh's, surrendered at Herington, Kansas, after learning that the police were looking for him. Both men were found to be members of a radical right-wing survivalist group based in Michigan, and on 09 August, John Fortier, who knew of McVeigh's plan to bomb the federal building, agreed to testify against McVeigh and Nichols in exchange for a reduced sentence. Two days later, a grand jury indicted McVeigh and Nichols on murder and conspiracy charges.
      While still in his teens, Timothy McVeigh acquired a penchant for guns, and began honing survivalist skills that he believed would be necessary in the event of a Cold War showdown with the Soviet Union. Lacking direction after high school, he enlisted in the US Army, and proved a disciplined and meticulous soldier. It was during this time that he befriended Terry Nichols, a fellow soldier who, although thirteen years his senior, shared his survivalist interests. In early 1991, McVeigh served in the Persian Gulf War, and was decorated with several medals for a brief combat mission. Despite these honors, he was discharged from the US Army at the end of the year, one of many casualties of the US military downsizing that came after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
      Another result of the Cold War's end was that McVeigh shifted his ideology from a hatred of foreign Communist governments to a suspicion of the US federal government, especially as its new elected leader, Democrat Bill Clinton, had successfully campaigned for the presidency on a platform of gun control. The August 1992 shootout between federal agents and survivalist Randy Weaver at his cabin in Idaho, in which Weaver's wife and son were killed, followed by the 19 April 1993, inferno near Waco, Texas, that killed some eighty Branch Davidians, deeply radicalized McVeigh, Nichols, and their associates.
      In early 1995, Nichols and McVeigh planned an attack on the federal building in Oklahoma City, which housed, among other federal agencies, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) — the agency that had launched the initial raid on the Branch Davidian compound in 1993.
      On 19 April 1995, the two-year anniversary of the disastrous end to the Waco standoff, McVeigh parked a Ryder rental truck loaded with a diesel fuel-fertilizer bomb outside the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and fled. Minutes later, the massive bomb exploded, killing 168 innocent people.
      On 02 June 1997, McVeigh was convicted on fifteen counts of murder and conspiracy, and on August 14, under the unanimous recommendation of the jury, was sentenced to die by lethal injection. Michael Fortier was sentenced to twelve years in prison and fined $200'000 for failing to warn authorities about McVeigh's bombing plans. Terry Nichols was found guilty on one count of conspiracy and eight counts of involuntary manslaughter, and was sentenced to life in prison.
     A massive explosion at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, kills 168 persons and injures hundreds more. The bomb, contained in a Ryder truck parked outside the front of the building, went off at 09:04 as people were preparing for the workday. Among the victims of America's worst incident of domestic terrorism were 19 children who were in the daycare center on the first floor of the building. A little over an hour after the explosion, Oklahoma state trooper Charles Hangar pulled over a car without license plates in the town of Perry. Noticing a bulge in the driver's jacket, Hangar arrested the driver, Timothy McVeigh, and confiscated his concealed gun. McVeigh was held in jail for gun and traffic violations. Meanwhile, a sketch of the man who was seen driving the Ryder truck in Oklahoma City was distributed across the country.
      On 21 April, Hangar saw the sketch and managed to stop McVeigh's impending release. This was a great break for law enforcement officials, whose reputations were soiled after completely unsubstantiated rumors that the terrorists were Arabs led to the harassment of many innocent Arab-Americans. When investigators looked into McVeigh's background, they quickly learned that he had ties to militant right-wing groups and was particularly incensed by the Branch Davidian incident in Waco, Texas.
      The Oklahoma City bomb exploded exactly two years after David Koresh and his followers were killed in the federal government's raid of the cult compound. Soon, three friends of McVeigh-Terry and James Nichols, and Michael Fortier-were also arrested for their involvement in the bombing. McVeigh and Terry Nichols had gone through basic training together after joining the Army on the same day in 1988. Although Nichols was discharged in 1989, McVeigh had served in Operation Desert Storm before quitting the Army when he was rejected for the Special Services. Acquaintances of McVeigh knew that he was obsessed with a book called The Turner Diaries, a fictional account of a race war caused by right-wing extremists in the United States. The book begins with the bombing of the FBI headquarters. McVeigh also told his sister Jennifer that he planned on doing "something big" in April 1995. With Nichols and Fortier's assistance, McVeigh assembled a bomb that contained nearly 2250 kg of ammonium nitrate, fuel oil, and acetylene.
      After Fortier testified against his former friend, McVeigh was convicted in June 1997. The jury imposed a death sentence. Terry Nichols was convicted of being an accessory to the mass murder, and he received a life sentence. Late in 2000, McVeigh asked that no further appeal be made on his behalf, that a date be set for his execution, and that it be televised nationally. The date was set for 16 May 2001, but televising limited to a closed circuit for some 300 relatives of victims.On 10 May 2001 the FBI turned up over 3000 documents it ought to have provided for McVeigh's trial, so the execution was postponed to 11 June 2001.
1994 John Luttig, 63, in his Dallas driveway, shot twice in the head by Napoleon Beazley, 17, who with brothers Cedric and Donald Coleman steals Luttig's Mercedes car. Mrs. Luttig escapes injury by falling to the ground and playing dead. The three assailants would be arrested seven weeks later. Beazley would be sentenced to death and despite international appeals on his behalf (because he is Black and was below age 18 at the time of the crime, and the victim's son J. Michael Luttig, a federal appeals judge in Virginia, came to the Tyler, Texas, trial and unduly influenced it, and the jury had no Black on it) after exhausting all legal maneuvers, would be executed on 28 May 2002.
^ 1993, 22 children and some 60 adults incinerated as the Branch Davidian compound burns
     At Mount Carmel in Waco, Texas, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) launches a tear-gas assault on the Branch Davidian compound, ending a tense fifty-one-day standoff between the federal government and an armed religious cult. By the end of the day, the compound had been burned to the ground, and some eighty Branch Davidians, including twenty-two children, had died in the inferno. Nine of the Branch Davidians there survived.
      On 28 February 1993, agents of the US Treasury Department's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) launched a raid against the Branch Davidian compound as part of an investigation into illegal possession of firearms and explosives by the Christian cult. As the agents attempted to penetrate the complex, gunfire erupted, beginning an extended gun battle that left four ATF agents dead and fourteen wounded. Six Branch Davidians were fatally wounded, and several more were injured, including David Koresh, the cult's founder and leader. A cease-fire was eventually declared and the ATF agents withdrew. Exactly who fired the first shot is still in dispute, although, after the raid, an ATF agent told an investigator that a fellow agent may have fired first when he killed a barking dog near the compound. This statement was later recounted and both sides contended that the other began firing first.
      A few hours after the raid, the FBI became the lead agency in charge of the standoff, and telephone conversations between Koresh and the outside authorities began. David Koresh was born Vernon Wayne Howell in Houston, Texas, in 1959. In 1981, he joined the Branch Davidians, a sect of the Seventh Day Adventist Church founded in 1934 by a Bulgarian immigrant named Victor Houteff. Koresh, who possessed an exhaustive knowledge of the Bible, rapidly rose in the hierarchy of the small religious community, eventually entering into a power struggle with the Davidians' leader, George Roden. For a short time, Koresh retreated with his followers to eastern Texas, but in late 1987, he returned to Mount Carmel with seven armed followers and raided the compound, severely wounding Roden. Koresh went on trial for attempted murder, but the charge was dropped after his case was declared a mistrial. By 1990, he had become the leader of the Branch Davidians and legally changed his name to David Koresh, with David representing his status as head of the biblical House of David, and Koresh standing for the Hebrew name for Cyrus, the Persian king who allowed the Jews held captive in Babylon to return to Israel.
      Koresh took several wives at Mount Carmel, and fathered at least twelve children from these women, several of whom were as young as twelve or thirteen when they became pregnant. There is also evidence that Koresh April have harshly disciplined some of the hundred or so Branch Davidians living inside the compound, particularly his children. A central aspect of Koresh's religious teachings was his assertion that the apocalyptic events predicted in the Bible's Book of Revelation were imminent, making it necessary for the Davidians to stockpile weapons and explosives in preparation.
      Following the unsuccessful ATF raid, the standoff between the Branch Davidians and the FBI stretched into seven weeks, with little progress made in the negotiations, as the Davidians had stockpiled years of food and other necessities before the raid. On 18 April 1993, US Attorney General Janet Reno approved a tear-gas assault on the compound, and at approximately 06:00 on 19 April, the Branch Davidians were informed of the attack and asked to surrender. A few minutes later, two FBI combat vehicles began inserting gas into the building and were joined by Bradley tanks, which fired tear-gas canisters through the compound's windows. The Branch Davidians, many of whom had donned gas masks, refused to evacuate, and by 11:40, the last of at least one hundred tear-gas canisters had been fired into the compound.
      Just after noon, a fire erupted at one or more locations on the compound, and minutes later nine Davidians fled the rapidly spreading blaze. Gunfire was reported, but ceased as the compound was completely engulfed by fire. Koresh and at least eighty of his followers, including twenty-two children, were killed during the federal government's second disastrous assault on Mount Carmel. The FBI and Justice Department maintained that there was conclusive evidence that the Branch Davidian members ignited the fire, citing an eyewitness account and various forensic data. On the gunfire reported during the fire, the government argued that the Davidians were either killing each other or themselves as part of a suicide pact, or were killing dissenters who were attempting to escape the Koresh-ordered mass suicide by fire.
      Most of the surviving Branch Davidians contested this official position, as did some critics in the press and elsewhere, whose charges against the ATF and FBI's handling of the Waco standoff ranged from incompetence to pre-meditated murder. In 1999, after six years of denials, the FBI admitted that they used incendiary tear-gas grenades in the assault, which theoretically could have ignited the compound's wooden walls.
1993 South Dakota Gov. George S. Mickelson, 52. and seven other persons, in a plane crash in Iowa.
^ 1989 In the explosion of gun turret #2 aboard the battleship USS Iowa [22 Feb 1943 – 26 Oct 1990]
Tung Thanh Adams, 25, Fire Controlman 3rd class (FC3)
Robert Wallace Backherms, 30, Gunner's Mate 3rd class (GM3)(FC3)
Dwayne Collier Battle, 21, Electrician's Mate, Fireman Apprentice (EMFA)
Walter Scot Blakey, 20, Gunner's Mate 3rd class (GM3)
Pete Edward Bopp, 21, Gunner's Mate 3rd class (GM3)
Ramon Jarel Bradshaw, 19, Seaman Recruit (SR)
Philip Edward Buch, 24, Lieutenant, Junior Grade (LTjg)
Eric Ellis Casey, Seaman Apprentice (SA)
John Peter Cramer, 28, Gunners Mate 2nd class (GM2)
Milton Francis Devaul Jr., 21, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GM3)
Leslie Allen Everhart Jr., 31, Seaman Apprentice (SA)
Gary John Fisk, 24, Boatswains Mate 2nd class (BM2)
Tyrone Dwayne Foley, 27, Seaman (SN)
Robert James Gedeon III, 22, Seaman Apprentice (SA)
Brian Wayne Gendron, 20, Seaman Apprentice (SA)
John Leonard Goins, 20, Seaman Recruit (SR)
David L. Hanson, 23, Electricians Mate 3rd class (EM3)
Ernest Edward Hanyecz, 27, Gunners Mate 1st class (GM1)
Clayton Michael Hartwig [1964–], Gunners Mate 2nd class (GM2)
Michael William Helton, 31, Legalman 1st class (LN1);
Scott Alan Holt, 20, Seaman Apprentice (SA);
Reginald L. Johnson Jr., 20, Seaman Recruit (SR);
Nathaniel Clifford Jones Jr., Seaman Apprentice (SA);
Brian Robert Jones, 19, Seaman (SN);
Michael Shannon Justice, 21, Seaman (SN);
Edward J. Kimble, 23, Seaman (SN);
Richard E. Lawrence, 29, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GM3);
Richard John Lewis, 23, Fire Controlman, Seaman Apprentice (FCSA);
Jose Luis Martinez Jr., Seaman Apprentice (SA);
Todd Christopher McMullen, 20, Boatswains Mate 3rd class (BM3);
Todd Edward Miller, 25, Seaman Recruit (SR);
Robert Kenneth Morrison, 36, Legalman 1st class (LN1);
Otis Levance Moses, 23, Seaman (SN);
Darin Andrew Ogden, 24, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GM3);
Ricky Ronald Peterson, 22, Seaman (SN) ;
Mathew Ray Price, 20, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GM3);
Harold Earl Romine Jr., 19, Seaman Recruit (SR);
Geoffrey Scott Schelin, 20, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GMG3);
Heath Eugene Stillwagon, 21, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GM3);
Todd Thomas Tatham, 19, Seaman Recruit (SR);
Jack Ernest Thompson, 22, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GM3);
Stephen J. Welden, 24, Gunners Mate 2nd class (GM2);
James Darrell White, 22, Gunners Mate 3rd class (GM3);
Rodney Maurice White, 19, Seaman Recruit (SR);
Michael Robert Williams, Boatswains Mate 2nd class (BM2);
John Rodney Young, 21, Seaman (SN);
Reginald Owen Ziegler, 29, Senior Chief Gunners Mate (GMCS).

    The USS Iowa (BB-61) was engaged in an exercise (FLEETEX 3-89) in the Caribbean. Turret One had fired a split salvo of BL&P (Dummy) rounds and the order was given for Turret Two to fire. At 09:55, seconds after it was communicated to "plot" that Turret Two was not ready to fire, an explosion killed all 47 of the turret's crew members. The cause of the explosion was probably a static electricity spark igniting the ether gas given off by deteriorating gunpowder manufactured in the 1930's.
1989  Daphne du Maurier, escritora británica.
1987 Maxwell D Taylor, 85, US commander 101st airborne (WW II)
1980 Alfred Hitchcock, 80, in California.
1977  12 niños en Orense al caer un autobús por un terraplén.
1974 Alexander Dinghas, Turkish mathematician whose career was in Germany. He was born on 09 February 1908.
1967  Konrad Adenauer, canciller de la República Federal de Alemania.
1966 Albert Servaes, Belgian artist born on 04 April 1883. — more with link to an image.
1957 Charles Funk, 76, of Funk and Wagnalls.
1956 Siete personas por un terremoto en Granada (España); resultan heridas más de 50.
1939 Rudolf Wacker, Austrian artist born on 25 February 1893.
1933 Ernest William Hobson, English mathematician born on 27 October 1856. He wrote Theory of Functions of a Real Variable (1907), the first English book on the measure theory and integration of Baire [21 Jan 1874 – 05 Jul 1932], Borel [07 Jan 1871 – 03 Yeb 1956], and Lebesgue [28 Jun 1875 – 26 Jul 1941].
^ 1919 Emiliano Zapata, from wounds inflicted in Mexican government ambush.
     He would become a revolutionary, peasant leader, champion of agrarianism, who fought in guerrilla actions during and after the Mexican Revolution (1911–17).
     Born a peasant in Anenecuilco, Mexico, on 08 August 1879, Zapata was forced into the Mexican army in 1908 following his attempt to recover village lands taken over by a rancher. After the revolution began in 1910, he raised an army of peasants in the southern state of Morelos under the slogan "Land and Liberty." Demanding simple agrarian reforms, Zapata and his guerrilla farmers opposed the central Mexican government under Francisco Madero, later under Victoriano Huerta, and finally under Venustiano Carranza. Zapata and his followers never gained control of the central Mexican government, but they redistributed land and aided poor farmers within the territory under their control. On 10 April 1919, Zapata was ambushed and mortally shot in Morelos by government forces. He died on 19 April 1919.
      Zapata's influence has endured long after his death, and his agrarian reform movement, known as zapatismo, remains important to many Mexicans today. In 1994, a guerrilla group calling itself the Zapata Army of National Liberation launched a peasant uprising in the southern state of Chiapas.
Plus que Mao, Lénine ou les GI’s, le symbole, en ce siècle, du libérateur et du défenseur de la veuve et de l’orphelin, c’est lui. Emiliano Zapata. En 1910, au Mexique, lui et l’autre grand révolutionnaire de légende, Pancho Villa, s’insurgent contre le dictateur Porfirio Diaz, qui venait d’enlever leurs terres à de pauvres paysans. Rapidement, les rebelles prennent une partie importante du pays. Ils renversent le dictateur Diaz qui quitte le Mexique. Ils prennent la capitale. Zapata est le héros du peuple. Il est assassiné en 1919 par un contre-révolutionnaire (photo). Les révolutionnaires, eux, n’arriveront pas à garder le pouvoir. Mais le Mexique était entré dans l’histoire des grandes révolutions de ce siècle.
1914 Charles S. Peirce, 74, US mathematician born on 10 Sep 1839, son of Benjamin Peirce [04 April 1809 – 06 Oct 1880].
1906  Pierre Curie, científico francés, premio Nobel de Física en 1903.
^ 1882 Charles Robert Darwin.
      On 27 December 1831, British naturalist Charles Darwin had set out from Plymouth, England, aboard the HMS Beagle, on a five-year surveying expedition of the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Visiting such diverse places as Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands. This information proves invaluable in the development of his theory of evolution, first put forth in his groundbreaking scientific work of 1859, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin's theory of natural selection argues that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants. The Origin of Species is the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and is greeted with great interest in the scientific world, although it is also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeds in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
     The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life would be published in England on 24 November 1859. Darwin's theory of natural selection argues that species are the result of a gradual biological evolution of living organisms in which nature encourages, through natural selection, those species best suited to their environments to propagate future descendants.
     The first printing of 1250 copies sells out in a single day. By 1872, it would have run through six editions, and become one of the most influential books of modern times. Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages. He traveled around South America for five years as an unpaid botanist on the HMS Beagle. By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage. Fearing the fate of other scientists, like Copernicus and Galileo, who had published radical scientific theories, Darwin held off publishing his theory of natural selection for years. He secretly developed his theory during two decades of surreptitious research following his trip on the Beagle. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. He died in 1882.
      Darwin, who was influenced by the work of French naturalist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, and later by English scientist Alfred Russel Wallace, acquired most of the evidence for his theory during a five-year surveying expedition aboard the HMS Beagle during the 1830s. Visiting such diverse places as Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, wildlife, and geology of many lands. This information, along with his experiments with variation and interbreeding after returning to England, proved invaluable in the development of his theory of natural selection. His On the Origin of Species is the first significant work on the theory of evolution, and is greeted with great interest in the scientific world, although it is also violently attacked because it contradicts the account of creation given in the Bible. Nevertheless, the work, unquestionably one of the most important in the history of science, eventually succeeds in gaining acceptance from almost all biologists.
      Darwin, born on 12 February 1809 the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages, including the HMS Beagle's trip.
      By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage, while also secretly working on his radical theory of evolution.
      Knowing that scientists who had published radical theories before had been ostracized or worse, Darwin held off on publishing his theory of natural selection for nearly two decades. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published On the Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. His book laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics.
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
  • The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms, With Observations on Their Habits
  • The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants
  • On the Origin of Species
  • On the Origin of Species
  • On the Origin of Species (zipped PDF)
  • On the Origin of Species (6th edition)
  • The Voyage of the Beagle
  • The Voyage of the Beagle
  • The Descent of Man
  • The Descent of Man
  • The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication) volume 1 , volume 2
  • The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (PDF)
  • The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs
  • The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin volume I , volume II
  • The Autobiography of Charles Darwin (in The Life and Letters...)
  • More Letters of Charles Darwin volume I: , volume II
  • 1881 Benjamin Disraeli “Dizzy” earl of Beaconsfield, Viscount Hughenden of Hughenden, born on 21 December 1804 in England to a Jewish family of Italian origin. But, at the age when he would have been expected to have his Bar Mitzvah, he was baptized into the Church of England on 31 July 1817, after his father quarreled with his synagogue (had Benjamin remained a Jew he would have been barred from British politics). British statesman and novelist who was the favorite prime minister of Queen Victoria (twice: 1868, 1874-80) implacable adversary of the Liberal party leader William E. Gladstone (29 Dec 1809 – 19 May 1898) [whom Disraeli would have been glad to see turned to stone]. Disraeli provided the Conservative Party with a twofold policy of Tory democracy and imperialism. — DISRAELI ONLINE: Sybil, or, The Two Nations
    1881 Karl Mikhailovich Peterson, Russian mathematician born on 25 May 1828. His main work was in differential geometry.
    1870 Andreas Schelfout, Dutch artist born on 16 February 1787.
    1865 Charles C. Wood, British-born (25 April 1792) painter who emigrated to the US (1817) and then to Chile (1820). — más con dos imágenes.
    ^ 1861: 4 soldiers, 9 civilians, in Baltimore riots, first victims of US Civil War.
          The first blood of the US Civil War is shed when a secessionist mob in Baltimore attacks Massachusetts troops bound for Washington DC. Four soldiers and 12 rioters were killed. One week earlier, on 12 April, the Civil War began when Confederate shore batteries opened fire on Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina's Charleston Bay. During a 34-hour period, 50 Confederate guns and mortars launched more than 4000 rounds at the poorly supplied fort. The fort's garrison returned fire, but lacking men, ammunition, and food, it was forced to surrender on 13 April. There were no casualties in the fighting, but one federal soldier was killed the next day when a store of gunpowder was accidentally ignited during the firing of the final surrender salute. Two other federal soldiers were wounded, one mortally. On 15 April, President Abraham Lincoln issued a public proclamation calling for 75'000 volunteer soldiers to help put down the Southern "insurrection." Northern states responded enthusiastically to the call, and within days the 6th Massachusetts Regiment was en route to Washington.
          On 19 April, the troops arrive in Baltimore, Maryland, by train, disembarked, and boarded horse-drawn cars that were to take them across the city to where the rail line picked up again. Secessionist sympathy was strong in Maryland, a border state where slavery was legal, and an angry mob of secessionists gathered to confront the Yankee troops. Hoping to prevent the regiment from reaching the railroad station, and thus Washington, the mob blocked the carriages, and the troops were forced to continue on foot. The mob followed close behind and then, joined by other rioters, surrounded the regiment. Jeering turned to brick and stone throwing, and several federal troops responded by firing into the crowd. In the ensuing mayhem, the troops fought their way to the train station, taking and inflicting more casualties. At the terminal, the infantrymen were aided by Baltimore police, who held the crowd back and allowed them to board their train and escape. Much of their equipment was left behind. Four soldiers and 12 rioters were killed in what is generally regarded as the first bloodshed of the Civil War.
          Maryland officials demanded that no more federal troops be sent through the state, and secessionists destroyed rail bridges and telegraph lines to Washington to hinder the federal war effort. In May, Union troops occupied Baltimore, and martial law was declared. The federal occupation of Baltimore, and of other strategic points in Maryland, continued throughout the war. Because western Marylanders and workingmen supported the Union, and because federal authorities often jailed secessionist politicians, Maryland never voted for secession. Slavery was abolished in Maryland in 1864, the year before the Civil War's end. Eventually, more than 50'000 Marylanders fought for the Union while about 22'000 volunteered for the Confederacy.
    ^ 1824 George Gordon, 6th Baron Byron
         He dies in what is now Greece, where he had traveled to support the Greek struggle for independence from Turkey. Even today, he is considered a Greek national hero. Byron's scandalous history, exotic travels, and flamboyant life made such an impression on the world that the term "Byronic" was coined to mean romantic, arrogant, dark, and cynical. Byron was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1788. His clubfoot and his impoverished environment made his childhood difficult, but at age 10 he inherited his great uncle's title. He attended Harrow, then Trinity College, Cambridge, where he ran up enormous debts and pursued passionate relationships with women and men. His first published volume of poetry, Hours of Idleness (1807), was savaged by critics, especially in Scotland, and his second published work, English Bards and Scotch Reviewers (1809), attacked the English literary establishment. After getting his master's degree in 1809, he traveled in Portugal, Spain, and the Near East for two years.
          His experiences fed into his later works, including Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812), which brought him almost instant acclaim in England. As he said at the time, he "awoke one morning and found myself famous." His poetry, manners, fashion, and tastes were widely imitated. In 1815, he married Anne Isabella Milbanke, and the couple had a daughter, August Ada, the following year. Ada proved to be a mathematical prodigy and is considered by some to be the first computer programmer, thanks to her work on Charles Babbage's computing machine. The marriage quickly foundered, and the couple legally separated. By this time, scandal had broken out over Byron's suspected incest with his half-sister, Augusta Leigh, and he was ostracized from society and forced to flee England in 1816. He settled in Geneva, near Percy Bysshe Shelley and his wife, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. There, he became intimately involved with Mary's half-sister, Claire Clairmont, who bore his daughter Allegra in January 1817. Byron moved to Venice that year and entered a period of wild debauchery. In 1819, he began an affair with the Countess Teresa Guiccioli, the young wife of an elderly count, and the two remained attached for many years. Byron, always an avid supporter of liberal causes and national independence, supported the Greek war for independence. He joined the cause in Greece, training troops in the town of Missolonghi, where he died just after his 36th birthday.
    1794 (30 germinal an II) BRICHE Jean Nicolas, âgé de 77 ans, né et demeurant à Boulogne, décédé en la maison de détention rue des Baudets, condamné à mort à Arras.
    1794 (30 germinal an II) JAMMES Jean Louis, prêtre, domicilié à Belmont, département du Cher, condamné à mort par le tribunal criminel du département du Lot, comme réfractaire à la loi.
    1793 GROLLIER Louis, laboureur, domicilié à Longeville, département de la Vendée, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
    1793 MARTINEAU François, journalier, domicilié à St Vincent-sur-Jarre département de la Vendée, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire des Sables.
    1790 Nicolas-Jacques Juliard, French artist born in 1715.
    1775 Eight Patriots, as “shot heard around the world” starts the US War of Independence.       ^top^
    Battle of Lexington re-enactment      At about 05:00, several hundred British soldiers, on a mission to capture Patriot leaders and seize a Patriot arsenal, marched into Lexington to find about seventy armed minutemen under Captain John Parker waiting for them on the town's common green. British Major John Pitcairn ordered the outnumbered Patriots to disperse, and after a moment's hesitation the Americans began to drift off the green. Suddenly, the "shot heard around the world" was fired from an undetermined gun, and a cloud of musket smoke soon covered the green. When the brief Battle of Lexington ended, eight Americans lay dead or dying and ten others were wounded. Only one British soldier was injured, but the US War of Independence had begun. By 1775, tensions between the American colonies and the British government had reached the breaking point, especially in Massachusetts, where Patriot leaders formed a shadow revolutionary government and trained militias to prepare for armed conflict with the British troops occupying Boston.
          In the spring of 1775, General Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, received instructions from England to seize all stores of weapons and gunpowder accessible to the American insurgents. On April 18, he ordered British troops to march against the Patriot arsenal at Concord, and to capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock, known to be hiding at Lexington. The Boston Patriots had been preparing for such a military action by the British for some time, and upon learning of the British plan, Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes were ordered to set out to rouse the militiamen and to warn Adams and Hancock.
          When the British troops arrived at Lexington, Adams, Hancock, and Revere had already fled to Philadelphia, and a group of militiamen were waiting.[photo 1: Re-enactors, playing the part of American colonists, tend to a fallen Minuteman on the Lexington Green 000415]. The Patriots were routed within minutes, but the first shots of the American Revolution had been fired, leading to calls to arms across the Massachusetts countryside.
          When the British troops reached Concord at about 07:00, they found themselves encircled by thousands of armed Patriots. They managed to destroy the military supplies that the Americans had collected, but were soon advanced against by a gang of minutemen, who inflicted numerous casualties. [photo 2: British Redcoat reenactors march to Meriams Corner in Concord 000415]
          Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, the overall commander of the British force, ordered his men to return to Boston without directly engaging the Americans. As the British retraced their 26-km journey, their lines were constantly beset by Patriot marksmen firing at them Indian-style from behind trees, rocks, and stone walls. At Lexington, Captain Parker's militia had its revenge, killing several British soldiers as the Red Coats hastily marched through his town. By the time the British finally reached the safety of Boston, nearly three hundred British soldiers had been killed, wounded, or were missing in action. The Patriots suffered less than one hundred casualties. The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first battles of the American Revolution, a conflict that would escalate from a colonial uprising into a world [???] war that, seven years later, would give birth to the independent United States of America.
    1686  Antonio de Solís y Rivadeneyra, cronista mayor de las Indias.
    1567 Michael Stifel, German mathematician born in 1487. He was ordained an Augustinian priest in 1511 but, in 1522, followed Luther into heresy.
    ^ 1054 Pope Saint Leo IX, during whose reign the papacy became the focal point of western Europe, and the great East–West Schism of 1054 became inevitable.
          He was born Bruno, graf von Egisheim und Dagsburg on 21 June 1002 in Alsace. He was educated at Toul, where he first became canon and then was consecrated bishop on 09 September 1027. Dynamic, purposeful, and zealous in the cause of reform, he began to raise the moral standards of important monasteries in his diocese, as well as those of the secular diocesan clergy, by holding frequent meetings and by constant exhortations. In accordance with prevailing practice, he was appointed pope at the age of 47 by the emperor Henry III. He insisted, however, upon being elected by the people and clergy of Rome, an action that implicitly indicated his opposition to the firmly entrenched lay intervention, especially by the emperors, in purely ecclesiastical matters. After having obtained approval by the Romans, he was enthroned as pope on 12 February 1049.
          Leo IX's aim was the eradication of what he saw as the chief evils of the time—that is, concubinage (clerical marriage), simony (buying and selling of ecclesiastical offices), and lay investiture (conferment of an ecclesiastical office by a lay ruler). In order to achieve these ends it was necessary for the Roman Church itself to be made the center of Christian society and life. Leo therefore called to Rome men whom he had known in his capacity as bishop of Toul. They not only were aware of the pressing need for reform but were also first-class scholars and administrators as well as men who realized the difficulties with which they were to be confronted. Among them were Humbert of Moyenmoutier, Frederick of Lorraine (later Pope Stephen IX) [1000 – 29 Mar 1058], and Hugh of Remiremont, all of whom became cardinals. A notable monk at Cluny, Hildebrand [1020 – 25 May 1085], also obeyed the call to Rome, where he was destined to play a historic role as Pope Saint Gregory VII (elected on 22 April 1073), becoming the consummator of the reform initiated by Leo. These men and their assistants infused new blood into the Roman Church. Leo also entertained regular contact with other leading churchmen, such as Peter Damian and Abbot Hugh of Cluny, who by virtue of their reputations exercised great influence upon their immediate surroundings and thus prepared the way for the acceptance of measures to reform Christian society.
          These men succeeded in transforming the papacy from a local Roman institution into an international power. This farsighted and able group was determined to make papal ideology a social reality. The pivotal point in this ideology was the primatial position of the pope as successor of Saint Peter. The organizational apparatus of the papacy experienced a great expansion at this time, notably the chancery, which became the nerve center of the papacy in which the universally valid and applicable law and the instructions and mandates to distant ecclesiastical officers were drafted.
          Although the effect of these legal measures was not immediately conspicuous, they nevertheless prepared the ground for their subsequent successful implementation. During Leo IX's pontificate the cardinals became more and more prominent as the most intimate counselors of the pope, and within a few years they were to form the body known as the Sacred College of Cardinals.
          The validity of priestly ordinations administered by simoniac bishops proved a serious problem, because most theologians held that simony prostituted the sacrament of ordination. Leo IX ordered a number of simoniacally ordained priests to be “reordained.” This order called forth a great spate of controversial literature, but the problem was not solved until several decades later. A synod that was under Leo's presidency condemned as heretical in 1050 the views propounded by Berengar of Tours [–1088] on the Eucharist (that the bread and wine only symbolically became the body and blood of Christ).
          Leo IX was intent on making the primatial position of the pope real by his own physical presence outside Rome. To this end he held more than a dozen councils in Italy, France, Germany, and Sicily, which reenacted the decrees of earlier councils and popes and initiated practical measures to eliminate the worst excesses from which Christian society suffered. The personal attendance of Saint Peter's successor and his chairmanship of these councils were factors that powerfully contributed to the accelerated ascendancy of the papacy. The frequent journeys enabled the Pope to establish direct contact with the higher and lower clergy as well as with leading secular personages.
         The most significant consequence of Leo IX's pontificate, the actual break with the Eastern Church, was caused, at least partially, by an ill-fated military involvement.
          After their settlement in Sicily in the second decade of the 11th century, the Normans presented considerable dangers to the existence of the papal state. In their marauding expeditions they plundered and devastated many churches and monasteries. In conjunction with Emperor Henry III, Leo resolved to undertake a military campaign against the Normans; but Henry withdrew and, with a weak and inexperienced army under his command, Leo had to face the Normans alone. They inflicted a crushing defeat upon the papal army, and on 18 June 1053, they took the Pope prisoner. He was, nevertheless, allowed to maintain contact with the outside world and to receive visitors. After nine months he was released.
          The Norman venture, however, brought the papacy into conflict with the Eastern Church centered in Constantinople, which, since the 8th century, had exercised jurisdiction over large areas of southern Italy and Sicily. The forcefully enunciated papal theme of primacy in Leo's pontificate complicated the relations between Rome and Constantinople still further because the patriarch of Constantinople, Michael I Cerularius, considered this sheer provocation.
          He closed the Latin (Western) churches in Constantinople and raised serious dogmatic charges against the Roman Church, notably in connection with the Eucharist. Cardinal Humbert attacked the Patriarch in a vitriolic and passionate manner by arguing the case for Roman primacy and also quoting extensively from the forged “Donation of Constantine” (allegedly bestowing sovereignty in the West on the papacy). A legation under Humbert's leadership left for Constantinople in April 1054, but, despite several meetings between Patriarch, Emperor, and legates, no concrete results emerged. On July 16, 1054, in the full view of the congregation, Humbert put the papal bull of excommunication—already prepared before the legation left Rome—on the altar of the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. Thereupon the Patriarch excommunicated the legation and its supporters. This marked the final breach between Rome and Constantinople. This schism was to last, with short interruptions, until the modern age.
          Whether the excommunication of Michael I Cerularius was valid, because Leo had been dead for three months, is merely a technical problem. The Roman legates were legates of the papacy, and the bull of excommunication had been a measure of the reigning pontiff. In any case, the excommunication merely formalized in a dramatic and spectacular manner a state of affairs that had long existed. Although this occurred after the death of Leo IX, the outbreak of the formal schism correctly belongs to his pontificate, which in several ways therefore took a new direction in the history of the papacy in medieval times.
    < 18 Apr 20 Apr >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 19 April:

    1970  Szusza Polgar, ajedrecista húngara.
    1948  Francisco Calvo Serraller, catedrático, escritor y crítico español.
    1941  Madre coraje, de Bertolt Brecht  se estrena en Zürich.
    1937  Joseph Estrada, político y presidente de Filipinas.
    1937  La Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalistas (JONS) se crea bajo la jefatura única y suprema de Francisco Franco Bahamonde.
    1936  Wildfried Martens, político belga.
    1934  El 7 CV Citroën, con tracción delantera, uno de los principales modelos de la década, se presenta.
    1932 Fernando Botero, Colombian painter, draftsman, and sculptor, with a preference for grossly overweight women, clothed or not.. — links to an image.
    1921  Yitzhak Navon, político israelí.
    1914  Ugo Poletti, cardenal y presidente de la Conferencia Episcopal italiana.
    1912 Glenn T. Seaborg, US Nobel Prize-winning nuclear chemist (1951) who died on 25 February 1999.
    1905 Charles Ehresmann, French mathematician who died on 22 Sep 1979.
    ^ 1903 Eliot Ness, Treasury agent who defeated Al Capone.
         He would become known for using the tax code to take down Al Capone. At the age of twenty-six, Ness was chosen to serve as a special agent for the Prohibition office that the US Department of Justice had set up in his hometown of Chicago. Ness was charged with an especially tough assignment: investigating and impeding the efforts of underworld kingpin, Al Capone. Working alongside other agents who matched his dedication and moral rectitude (hence the team's pop culture tag as the "Untouchables"), Ness led the charge against gin joints, speakeasies and other illegal institutions that flaunted the dry code of Prohibition. Along the way, the Treasury agents eventually scrounged up the information that led to Capone's conviction for tax evasion. A Chicago native, Ness was tabbed as a special agent for the city. In the years following his career-making capture of Capone, Ness held a handful of government posts, including a stint at the helm of the alcohol-tax division of the US Treasury. Ness headed into the private sector before dying on 07 May 1957.
    1901 Kiyoshi Oka, Japanese mathematician who died on 01 March 1978. He solved some important problems in the theory of functions of several complex variables.
    1896 Niklaus Stöcklin, Swiss artist who died in 1982.
    1883 Getulio Dornelles Vargas, brutal dictator of Brazil (1930-45, 1951-54), modernizer. He first took power following a 03 October 1930 coup and the 24 October 1930 establishment of a military junta. He was overthrown by a coup on 29 October 1945. He was elected President in October 1950 by an overwhelming majority. He died on 24 August 1954.
    1883 Richard von Mises, Austrian-born US applied mathematician and aerodynamicist who died on 14 July 1953. He worked on fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, aeronautics statistics and probability theory. He gave the first university course on powered flight in 1913.
    1880 Evgeny Evgenievich Slutsky, Russian mathematical statistician who died on 10 March 1948. He was important in the application of mathematical methods in economics.
    1880 El Partido Liberal-Fusionista es fundado en Madrid por “Praxedes” Mateo Sagasta.
    1877 Ole Evinrude, Norwegian-US inventor. Not old, Ole died on 12 July 1934.
    1869 Jozef Mehoffer, Polish artist who died in 1946. — MORE ON MEDOFFER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1854 Arturo Ricci, Italian artist who died in 1919.
    1849 Eva Gonzalès, Mme Henri Guérard, French Impressionist painter who died on 05 May 1883. — MORE ON GONZALÈS AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1832 José Echegaray y Eizaguirre, Spanish mathematician, statesman, and Nobel Prize-winning dramatist (1904) who died on 04 September 1916.
    1795 Jean Charles Joseph, French artist who died on 15 July 1875.
    1753 Caspar Johann Schneider, German artist who died on 24 February 1839.
    1748 D'Amondans Chales de Tinseau, French mathematician who died on 21 March 1822.
    Feasts which occur on a 19 April:
    2114 Holy Thursday
    2109 Good Friday

    2082 Easter Sunday
    2076 Easter Sunday
    2071 Easter Sunday
    2068 Holy Thursday
    2057 Holy Thursday
    2052 Good Friday
    2041 Good Friday
    2030 Good Friday
    2019 Good Friday
    1992 Easter Sunday
    1987 Easter Sunday
    1984 Holy Thursday
    1981 Easter Sunday
    1973 Holy Thursday
    1962 Holy Thursday
    1957 Good Friday
    1946 Good Friday
    1935 Good Friday
    1908 Easter Sunday
    1889 Good Friday
    1878 Good Friday

    Holidays: Venezuela : Declaration of Independence Day/Day of Indian / Uruguay : Landing of the 33 / Desembarco de los 33 valientes en la Playa de la Agraciada (1825) / US : John Parker Day (1775) honors minutemen / Cuba : Bay of Pigs Victory Day (1961) / England : Primrose Day / Sierra Leone : Republican Anniversary Day (1971)

    Religious Observances Christian : Commemoration of James Duckett / Ang : St Alphege, Archbp of Canterbury, martyr / Luth : Commemoration of Olavus Petri and Laurentius Petri / Santos Rufo, Expedito, Dionisio, Cayo, Vicente, Timón y Galacio.

    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “No government can be long secure without a formidable opposition.” —
    Benjamin Disraeli [21 Dec 1804 – 19 Apr 1881]
    “I never deny; I never contradict; I sometimes forget.” —
    to Lord Esher by Disraeli about his relations with Queen Victoria.
    “Never complain and never explain.” —
    Disraeli {that explains it all}
    "Change is inevitable in a progressive country. Change is constant." — Disraeli in a speech at Edinburgh, 29 Oct 1867.
    "An author who speaks about his own books is almost as bad as a mother who talks about her own children." * —
    Disraeli at a banquet given in Glasgow on his installation as Lord Rector 19 Nov 1873.— {* and about as common}
    ”There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics.” — attributed to Disraeli in Mark Twain's Autobiography. {is that a statistic?}
    “Better to be religious with your eloquence, than eloquent with your religion.”
    updated Monday 21-Apr-2008 13:33 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.40 Sunday 06-May-2007 2:57 UT
    v.6.50 Monday 19-Jun-2006 13:56 UT
    v.5.40 Thursday 19-May-2005 18:20 UT
    Tuesday 20-Apr-2004 2:13 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site