• Leonardo da Vinci is born... • Lincoln dies from previous day's wound... • Lincoln calls for Civil War volunteers... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Titanic sinks... • Bataan Death March ends on 6th day... • Murder for which Sacco and Vanzetti will be executed... • Henry James is born... • US kills Qaddafi's baby... • US President Jackson protests censure... • Killing Fields overlord dies... • Hu Yaobang dies... • Patty Hearst robs bank... • US plans invasion of Kuriles... • USSR conquers Tarnopol... • Castro visits the US... • Author politician Archer is born... • Molly Brown unsinkable unlike Titanic... • IBM computer for less than $500... • More US troops withdraw from Vietnam... • Anti Vietnam War protests... • Arrogant billionaire enters prison... • Byron White dies...
a 15 April:
2006 Easter Vigil homily of Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~]. — (060421)
2004 Parliamentary elections in South Korea, won by Uri party which supports President Roh Moo-hyun, whose 12 March 2004 impeachment is being reviewed by the Constitutional Court.
2003 Computer Horizons Corporation (CHRZ) confirms that it received an unsolicited proposal from Aquent LLC to acquire all of the outstanding common stock of Computer Horizons for $5.00 per share in cash. On the NASDAQ, 4.3 million of the 30 million CHRZ shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $2.84 to an intraday high of $4.87 and closing at $4.49. They had traded as low as $2.57 as recently as 18 March 2003, and as high as $43.75 on 06 July 1998. [5~year price chart >]]. CHRZ, is an IT services supplier with 3800 consultants and 55 offices worldwide; it provides enterprise application services, e-business solutions, web development, and enablement of applications and network services. Aquent is a privately owned professional services firm in three areas: Marketing and Creative Services, Information Technology, Financial Services.
2002 In a memorandum to the US government Amnesty International denounces the US's treatment of prisoners in Afghanistan and Guantánamo Bay as undermining human rights.
2002 According to a 28 June 2002 study by Gartner Dataquest statistics, the billionth personal computer is made (sometime in April 2002). Half of the PCs are in use. 63% are in the US, 9% in Japan, 4% in Latin America.
2001 Fuerzas del ejército israelí bombardean posiciones sirias en el Líbano como represalia por un atentado del grupo integrista libanés Hezbolá.
|2001 Messagio di Pasqua
Urbi et Orbi di sua santità Giovanni Paolo II. (translations
to other languages)
Për shumë wjet Pashkët. Darahíja Bielorùsy! Chrystos uvaskrós! Sapraudý uvaskrós! Xristos v'zkrese, naistina v'zkrese Sretan Uskrs. Kristus vstal mrtvých. Pokoj vàm. Zalig Pasen in de vreugde van de Heer! Bedankt voor de bloemen uit Nederland die ook dit jaar de viering op het Sint Pietersplein opluisteren. A blessed Easter in the Joy of Jesus Christ, the Risen Lord and Savior of the world! Felician Paskon en Kristo resurektinta. Kristus on surnuist üles tyusnud. Siunattua Pääsiäistä. Bonne fête de Pâques, dans la joie et la paix du Christ ressuscité! Frohe und gesegnete Ostern! Der Friede des Auferstandenen sei mit euch! Krisztus feltamadott, Alleluja. Selamat Paskah. Beannacht na Câsga dhuibh go lêir. Buona Pasqua a voi, uomini e donne di Roma e d’Italia! Il messaggio di fraternità e di pace, che ogni anno in questo giorno si rinnova con vigore, si diffonda in ogni parte dell’amata Penisola italiana e rechi dappertutto gioia e serenità. Il Signore risorto con la sua presenza sia di sostegno a voi tutti: ai bambini ed agli adulti, ai giovani ed agli anziani, alle famiglie e alle comunità, ai responsabili delle pubbliche amministrazioni e a quanti operano al servizio del prossimo. Rechi conforto specialmente agli ammalati e a quanti soffrono fisicamente o spiritualmente. A tutti e a ciascuno ripeto con affetto: Buona e Santa Pasqua! Pásika nzíza / Umúnezéro n'ámahoro Krístu jarazútse. Ntimuíhebúre! Pásika Nzíza Mwése! Yézu Yazútse. In Eius resurrectione vita omnium resurrexit. Alleluja! Priecîgas lieldienas Linksme Szwentu Welìku; Prisikelias Krystus wisiems tesuteikia Dziaugsmo ir Ranzibis! Frou a geseent Ouschteren. Arahaba Tratry Ny Paka. L-Ghid it-tajjeb ghall-poplu kollu ia'Multu u ta'Ghawdex. Maligajang pagkabuhay ni Kristo. Chrystus zmartwychwstal. Alleluja! W tym radosnym dniu, zycze wszystkim moim Rodakom, aby ta zbawcza prawda umacniala ich wiare, budzila nadzieje i ozywiala braterska milosc. Niech stale towarzyszy wszystkim swiatlo wielkanocnego poranka. Feliz e Santa Pácoa em Cristo, Redentor do homem e nossa paz. Ao Brasil, que celebra os quinhentos anos do seu descobrimento, exprimo meus votos de felicidades, invocando as Bênçãos de Deus! O Jsus si ustilo! Lachi Patrâci! Serdechno mozdravlyayu vsex so svetlym prazdnikom Voskreceniya Xristova. Xristos Voskrese! Wjesowe Jutry! Chrystus z mortwych stanyl, halleluja! Xristos vaskrse! Milostiplné a rahostné velkonochné sviatky. Blagoslovljene velikonochne praznike Felices Pascuas en la alegría de Cristo Resucitado. Heri na baraka zangu kwa sikukuu ya Pasaka kwenu wote. Glad Pàsk. Paskalya vesilesi ile sizlere de esenlik dolu günler dilerim. Xristos Boskres! Veselix. Svyat v Voskresiniyak Xristovim! Mu'ng lé phu,c sinh.
| 2000 The world's leading financial officials, meeting
in Washington, pledge cooperation to promote global prosperity. Meanwhile,
anti-globalization protesters manifest in Washington.
2000 Sweden's King Carl XVI Gustaf [30 Apr 1946~] exceeds the 110 km/h speed limit on a Danish highway by 30 km/h. An anonymous caller notified the police. Three days later the king confessed the details and apologized. He had been driving his Ferrari to pick up his children who were flying in for queen Margrethe II [16 Apr 1940~] of Denmark's 60th birthday party the next day.
1999 NATO acknowledges having mistakenly bombed a convoy of ethnic Albanian refugees under Serb escort in Kosovo. Yugoslav officials said 75 people died and more than two dozen were injured.
1999 Tras la retirada de la oposición, el candidato único Abdelaziz Bouteflika [02 Mar 1937~] se proclama presidente de Argelia.
1994 124 países firman en Marraquech el Acta Final de la Ronda Uruguay del GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), la liberalización comercial más ambiciosa de la historia.
1993 The Pontifical Biblical Commission publishes L'interpretazione della Bibbia nella Chiesa (English translation: The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church). —(070412)
1992 Comienza a aplicarse el embargo aéreo a Libia, según las sanciones impuestas por la ONU por incumplimiento de su resolución 731.
1991 Microsoft confirms that the Federal Trade Commission has launched a broad antitrust investigation that would probe virtually every aspect of Microsoft's business.
1987 In Northhampton MA, Amy Carter, Abbie Hoffman and 13 others are acquitted on civil disobedience charges related to a protest against the CIA.
1982 Canadá adquiere total independencia de Gran Bretaña con la aprobación de la nueva Constitución del país.
1980 Pilar Miró es juzgada por la jurisdicción militar española, al reconocerse autora de la película El crimen de Cuenca.
1979 Los científicos estadounidenses especializados en sexología William Howell Masters, ginecólogo, y Virginia Johnson, psicóloga, anuncian que pueden invertir la homosexualidad mediante determinados métodos terapéuticos.
1974 Military coup in Niger.
1959 El secretario de Asuntos Exteriores de Estados Unidos, John Foster Dulles, dimite de su cargo.
1953 Victoria electoral de los segregacionistas sudafricanos.
1952 US President Harry Truman signs the peace treaty with Japan.
1952 First flight of the B-52 bomber.
1950 Se inician los combates de guerrilleros liberales contra la dictadura civil del Partido Conservador colombiano.
1948 Se produce un atentado contra el ministro de la Guerra de Brasil, lo que desencadena una feroz represión anticomunista.
1945 As World War II in Europe draws to an end, British and Canadian troops liberate the Nazi concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen.
1941 First helicopter flight of 1 hr duration, Stratford, Ct
1938 Las tropas nacionalistas, comandadas por Alonso Vega Carrilo, ocupan Vinaroz en el transcurso de la Guerra Civil Española, dividiendo en dos partes la España republicana y consiguiendo aislar a Cataluña.
1932 El Gobierno comunista de Kiangsi, presidido por Mao Zedong, declara la guerra a Japón.
1924 En España José Antonio Primo de Rivera funda el partido Unión Patriótica.
1923 First sound on film public performance shown at Rialto Theater (NYC)
1923 Insulin becomes generally available for diabetics.
1922 Comienza un gran movimiento huelguístico minero en Estados Unidos.
1920 El comité nacional de la Federación de Juventudes Socialistas decide adherirse a la III Internacional y convertirse en el Partido Comunista Español.
1919 El rey de España Alfonso XIII encarga a Antonio Maura y Montaner la formación de un nuevo Gabinete.
1917 The British defeat the Germans at the battle of Arras.
1915 Austria fija en 50 años la edad límite de incorporación de los nuevos reclutas en el transcurso de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1911 Las tropas estadounidenses atraviesan el río Grande y combaten contra los insurgentes mexicanos.
1910 El censo de la población de Estados Unidos registra un resultado de 91'972'266 habitantes, lo que supone un incremento del 21% desde 1900.
1908 La Duma rusa acuerda construir una vía férrea que bordee el río Amur.
1902 El Gobierno británico decreta el estado de emergencia en nueve condados de Irlanda.
1902 Pope Leo XIII encyclical On the Church in the US.
1901 Emilio Aguinaldo hace un llamamiento a los ciudadanos filipinos para que se sometan a Estados Unidos.
1900 Sir Arthur Evans anuncia otros relevantes hallazgos arqueológicos en el palacio de Cnosos (Creta).
1900 An early 50 mile race is won by an electric car in over 2 hrs.
1880 William Gladstone becomes Prime Minister of England.
1872 In deciding the legal case "Watson v. Jones," the US Supreme Court declared that a member of a religious organization April not appeal to secular courts against a decision made by a church tribunal within the area of its competence.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1848 Bertrán de Lis, miembro del ministerio Ramón María Narváez y Campos, instaura el sistema monetario decimal en España.
1813 US troops under James Wilkinson attack the Spanish-held city of Mobile which would be in the future state of Alabama.
1800 James Ross discovers North Magnetic pole.
1794 (26 germinal an II) LAPORTE Jacques, domicilié à St Laurent-de-Murel, et MEYSONNIER Baptiste, maréchal-ferrant, domicilié à Buisson, sont condamnés à être déportés à vie, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Lozère comme complices de révoltés.
1792 Premiers essais de la guillotine, sur des cadavres à l'hôpital Bicêtre, avec succès.
1495 Se firma el Tratado de Tordesillas entre Castilla y Portugal por el que se dirime cuál será la línea de demarcación de descubrimientos en América.
1493 Cristóbal Colón llega a Sevilla, tras cruzar por primera vez el Atlántico, y es recibido triunfalmente.
1408 Yusuf III, sultán de Granada tras la muerte de su hermano Muhammad VII, firma una tregua con Castilla, en la que se establecen nuevas parias.
2005 Twenty one persons, due to a fire starting at 02:21 (00:21 UT) in the Paris-Opéra 6-story hotel, at 76 rue de Provence, behind the department store Galeries Lafayette in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, France. Fire fighters extinguish by 03:30 (01:30 UT) the fire, which started on the second floor in a common dining room which had a microwave oven. Ten of the dead are children. 53 persons are injured, 3 of whom died later. The casualties are caused by fire, smoke inhalation, and 7 persons jumping out of upper story windows. The rooms (without kitchens) in the hotel were rented by social services, private (SAMU social) and municipal (Aide Sociale à l'Enfance), to house homeless persons, including many single mothers and their children, immigrants from Tunisia, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, and Portugal. A few of the injured, from France, Ukraine, and the US, are neighbors who suffer from smoke inhalation.
2004 Khalil Naimi, first secretary of the Iranian Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, near which he is shot in the head while in his car.
2003 Zachary Bennet, 5, with ruptured liver, rib fractures, and bleeding on the brain, from beating by his father, Lamont Bennet, 28, in Key West, Florida. The Florida Department of Children and Families had improperly placed Zachary with his father in August 2002 after the boy's mother had abandoned him. Lamont Bennett's criminal record includes convictions for selling cocaine, stalking, and domestic violence, which the case worker and supervisor had failed to discover, due to not following proper procedures.
2003 Israelis Zachar Chanukayev and Ahmed Kra, by hand grenades and automatic weapon fire from Mohammed Yunis, 18, Jabaliyah refugee camp Hamas member, who is then killed by Israeli security agents, at the Karni terminal, where goods move between Israel and the Gaza Strip. Chanukayev, 39, from Sderot, was a fork-lift driver at the terminal. Ahmed Kra, 20, was a truck driver from Shoefat.
2003 Israeli Lt. Daniel Mandel, 24, and Hamas activist Mazen Sharitah, who comes out firing a pistol out of the Nablus, West Bank, building which the Israeli Nahal force had surrounded and out of which the two other Hamas activists there had just surrendered. Two Israeli soldiers are wounded.
2003 Abdel-Hamid Abu el-Eish, an Islamic Jihad commander, by rockets fired from an Israeli army watchtower in Rafah, West Bank.
2003 Fourteen Iraqis, shot by US Marines in Mosul. A crowd of some 3000 had started throwing stones during a speech by Mashaan al-Juburi, who claimed to be the new governor and who is disliked by many because of his past as a journalist for the newspaper of Saddam Hussein's Baath Party. Some 130 US Marines were trying to secure a government building for use as a meeting center. Some people in the crowd start shooting weapons into the air (according to the Marines). The Marines feel threatened and shoot into the crowd. Some 20 Iraqis are wounded.
2002 Jackson Carr, 6, [photo >] by a puncture wound in the neck inflicted by his 15-year-old sister while his 10-year-old brother holds him down, in north Dallas suburb Lewisville. The two then bury the body in mud about 30 m from the family's home in the 500 block of Barfknecht, in a wooded area where it is found early the next morning. The two confess. In the evening of 15 April, the brother had told their parents that he could not find Jackson after a game of hide-and-seek.
2002:: 127 persons aboard an Air China Boeing 767-200 which crashes into an area of pine trees on Shineo mountain as it was circling for a second attempt at landing at Gimhae international airport in Pusan, Korea, 8 km away, closed to domestic traffic because of wind, rain, and fog. There are 39 survivors. Among the dead are 15 persons who survived the impact but died in hospitals.
2001 Canan Kulaksiz, 19, on 137th day of hunger strike, at the home of another hunger striker in Istanbul. In Turkey about 250 leftist inmates and several of their relatives started hunger strikes several months earlier to protest their transfers in December from large dormitory-style wards (which made prison riots easier) to one- or three-person cells. that left 30 inmates and two soldiers dead in December 2000. Kulaksiz' uncle, Mehmet Kulaksiz, a member of the outlawed Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front, was among the prisoners injured in the clashes.
1989:: 95 people in a crush of soccer fans at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England. Mueren noventa y cinco personas en el estadio británico de Sheffield, tras la irrupción de más de 2000 hinchas a los seis minutos del partido entre los equipos de Liverpool y Nottingham, en la semifinal de la Copa inglesa.
1980 Jean-Paul Sartre, of edema of the lung, French existentialist philosopher, novelist, playwright, biographer, essayist, born on 21 June 1905.
1980 Jorge Caballero, un joven de la CNT (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo), asesinado en la Gran Vía de Madrid por un grupo de presuntos ultraderechistas.
1974 Hamani Diori, presidente de Níger, en un golpe militar.
1956 Emil Hansen Nolde, German Expressionist painter born on 07 August 1867. MORE ON NOLDE AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1942 José Moreno Carbonero, pintor español.
1935 Anna Kirstine Brøndum Ancher, Danish painter born on 18 August 1859. MORE ON ANCHER AT ART 4 AUGUST with links to images.
1929 Torcuato Luca de Tena, escritor español fundador del diario ABC.
1925 John Singer Sargent, US painter specialized in portraits, who died on 12 January 1856. MORE ON SARGENT AT ART 4 JANUARY with links to images.
| 1919 Some 400 Indians killed by British troops in Amritsar,
1917 Gumersindo de Azcárate, político y sociólogo español.
1912:: 1517 (*) persons
(and some dogs) after the Titanic sinks,
drowned in the sinking ship or died from hypothermia in the icy North Atlantic waters
On 10 April, the R.M.S. Titanic, one of the largest and most luxurious ocean liners ever built, had departed Southampton, England, on its maiden voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. While leaving port, the massive ship came within a meter of the steamer New York, but passed safely by, causing a general sigh of relief from the passengers massed on the ship's decks. The Titanic, thought to be the world's fastest ship afloat and almost unsinkable, spanned 269 meters from stern to bow.
On its first journey across the highly competitive Atlantic ferry route, the ship carried some twenty-two hundred passengers and crew. After stopping at Cherbourg, France, and Queenstown, Ireland, to pick up some final passengers, the massive vessel set out at full speed for New York City.
However, just before midnight on the night of 14 April, about four hundred miles from Newfoundland, the ship failed to divert its course from an iceberg and five of the Titanic's sixteen allegedly watertight compartments were ruptured along its starboard side. Within two hours, at 02:27 on the morning of 15 April, the ship had sunk. Because of a shortage of lifeboats and the lack of satisfactory emergency procedures, 1517 people went down. Of the 711 survivors, most were women and children.
A number of notable US and British citizens died in the tragedy, leading to outrage on both sides of the Atlantic when the circumstances of the disaster were revealed. The sinking of the Titanic ultimately had some positive effects, however, as more stringent safety regulations were adopted on public ships and regular patrols were initiated to trace the locations of Atlantic icebergs.
At 02:27 on 15 April 1912, the British ocean liner Titanic sinks into the North Atlantic Ocean about 600 km south of Newfoundland, Canada. The massive ship, which carried 2200 passengers and crew, had struck an iceberg two and half hours before. On 10 March 10, the RMS Titanic, one of the largest and most luxurious ocean liners ever built, departed Southampton, England, on its maiden voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. The Titanic was designed by the Irish shipbuilder William Pirrie and built in Belfast, and was thought to be the world's fastest ship. It spanned 883 feet from stern to bow, and its hull was divided into 16 compartments that were presumed to be watertight. Because four of these compartments could be flooded without causing a critical loss of buoyancy, the Titanic was considered unsinkable. While leaving port, the ship came within a couple of feet of the steamer New York but passed safely by, causing a general sigh of relief from the passengers massed on the Titanic's decks. On its first journey across the highly competitive Atlantic ferry route, the ship carried some 2200 passengers and crew. After stopping at Cherbourg, France, and Queenstown, Ireland, to pick up some final passengers, the massive vessel set out at full speed for New York City. However, just before midnight on 14 April, the RMS Titanic failed to divert its course from an iceberg and ruptured at least five of its hull compartments. These compartments filled with water and pulled down the bow of the ship. Because the Titanic's compartments were not capped at the top, water from the ruptured compartments filled each succeeding compartment, causing the bow to sink and the stern to be raised up to an almost vertical position above the water. Then the Titanic broke in half, and, at about 02:20 on 15 April, stern and bow sank to the ocean floor. Because of a shortage of lifeboats and the lack of satisfactory emergency procedures, 1517 people went down in the sinking ship or froze to death in the icy North Atlantic waters. Most of the 711 survivors were women and children. A number of notable US, British, and European citizens, and their servants, died in the tragedy, including the noted British journalist William Thomas Stead [05 Jul 1849–]; the US painter Francis David Millet [03 Nov 1846–]; Benjamin Guggenheim [26 Oct 1865–] and his valet Victor Giglio, 24, and chauffeur René Pernot, 39; Isidor Straus [06 Feb 1845–] and his wife Rosalie Ida Blun Straus [06 Feb 1849–] who refused to be saved without him, and his servant John Farthing, 57; colonel John Jacob Astor IV [13 Jul 1864] (whose floating body, with $2675 on it, was recovered on 22 April 1912) and his servant Victor Robbins, 42, and his Airedale dog Kitty; major Archibald Willingham Butt [26 Sep 1865–]; George Dunton Widener (*1) [16 Jun 1861–] and his son Harry Elkins Widener [03 Jan 1885–] and his servant Edwin Herbert Keeping, 33; John Borland Thayer [21 Apr 1862]; Clarence Bloomfield Moore [01 Mar 1865–] and his servant Charles Henry Harrington, 37; Martin Rothschild [12 Dec 1865–] ; Anglican priest Ernest Courtenay Carter [17 Feb 1858–] and his wife Lilian Hughes Carter [03 Mar 1867–] who stayed together saying “Let the others go first”, and their two dogs;
Catholic priest Thomas Roussel Davids Byles [26 Feb 1870–]; Benedictine priest Benedikt “Josef” Peruschitz [21 March 1871–]; Catholic priest Juozas Montvila [03 Jan 1885–]; the three Catholic priests stayed behind to help 3rd class passengers up the stairs and into the boats, to hear confessions, to give general absolution, and to pray with those that had been unable to escape;
Edward John Smith [27 Jan 1850–], captain of the Titanic and his stewart James Arthur Paintin [28 Dec 1882–]; John Richard Fry, 39, butler of Joseph Bruce Ismay [12 Dec 1862 – 17 Oct 1937], owner of the Titanic, who survived.
(*1) An article on the sinking noted that George Widener's millionaire father, Peter Arrel.Brown Widener [13 Nov 1836 – 06 Nov 1915], had recently (1911) bought The Mill (1648, 88x106cm; 834x994pix, 94kb) by Rembrandt [15 Jul 1606 – 04 Oct 1669], not a run-of-the-mill picture, especially as to price.
One hour and 20 minutes after Titanic went down, the Cunard liner Carpathia arrived. The survivors in the lifeboats were brought aboard, and a handful of others were pulled out of the water. It was later discovered that the Leyland liner Californian had been less than 30 km away at the time of the accident but had failed to hear the Titanic's distress signals because its radio operator was off duty. Announcement of details of the tragedy led to outrage on both sides of the Atlantic.
In the disaster's aftermath, the first International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea was held in 1913. Rules were adopted requiring that every ship have lifeboat space for each person on board, and that lifeboat drills be held. An International Ice Patrol was established to monitor icebergs in the North Atlantic shipping lanes. It was also required that ships maintain a 24-hour radio watch.
On 01 September 1985, a joint US-French expedition located the wreck of the Titanic lying on the ocean floor at a depth of about 4000 meters. The ship was explored by manned and unmanned submersibles, which shed new light on the details of its sinking.
[< The Titanic as it departs from Southampton]
Molly Brown avoids sinking with the Titanic ^top^
A 20th century version of the strong and resourceful women of the Wild West, Molly Brown wins lasting fame by surviving the sinking of the Titanic. Molly Brown was an unlikely candidate for fame and fortune. Born Margaret Tobin in 1867 in Hannibal, Missouri, she was the daughter of an impoverished ditch-digger. When she was a teenager, she went west and joined her brother, who was working in the booming silver mining town of Leadville, Colorado. She caught the eye of James J. Brown, the manager of a local silver mine, and the couple married in 1886. Not long after the marriage, James J. Brown discovered a fabulously profitable deposit of gold. Almost overnight, the Browns became enormously rich. The couple moved to Denver, bought a beautiful mansion, and tried unsuccessfully to become a part of the exclusive high society of the city. A flamboyant woman with a forceful personality, Molly appears to have been too much for Denver's bluebloods to handle. Apparently, she was also more than her husband could handle, and the couple soon separated. Supported by a sizeable income from her estranged husband, Brown abandoned the narrow social life of Denver to travel the world. Whereas the Denver elite had dismissed her as a coarse upstart, socially prominent eastern families like the Astors and Vanderbilts prized her frank western manners and her thrilling stories of frontier life. Brown's rise to national fame began on this night in 1912, while she was aboard the Titanic, returning from a European trip. After the ship hit an iceberg and began to sink, Brown was tossed into a lifeboat. She took command of the little boat and helped rescue a drowning sailor and other victims. To keep spirits up, she regaled the anxious survivors with stories of her life in the Old West. When newspapers later learned of Brown's courageous actions, they promptly dubbed her "the unsinkable Mrs. Brown" and she became an international heroine. Eventually, Brown's money ran out and she faded from the public view, dying in modest circumstances in New York City in 1932. However, the Broadway musical The Unsinkable Molly Brown revived her fame for a new generation in 1960.
1517? top of article
There has never been universal agreement over the number of lives lost in the sinking of the Titanic. Beginning with the first news reports of the disaster, inquirers have found it unwise to trust the original passenger and crew lists, which were rendered inaccurate by such factors as misspellings, omissions, aliases, and failure to count musicians and other contracted employees as either passengers or crew members. Agreement was made more difficult by the international nature of the disaster, essentially involving a British-registered liner under US ownership that carried more than 2000 people of many nationalities. Immediately after the sinking, official inquiries were conducted by a special committee of the US Senate (which claimed an interest in the matter on the grounds of the US lives lost) and the British Board of Trade (under whose regulations the Titanic operated). The figures established by these hearings are as follows:
U.S. Senate committee: 1517 lives lost — British Board of Trade: 1503 lives lost
Confusion over these figures was immediately aggravated by the official reports of these inquiries to the US Senate and the British Parliament; these reports revised the numbers to 1500 and 1490, respectively. The figures have been revised, officially and unofficially, so many more times since 1912 that most researchers and historians concede that they will never know exactly how many of the people sailing on the Titanic died.
330 floating bodies, 91 of them never identified, were recovered by ships contracted for that purpose
| 1906 Manuel Domínguez-Sánchez, pintor
1901 Juan Manuel Blanes, Romanian Uruguayan artist born in 1830. — more with links to two images.
1889 José de Veuster, el “Padre Damián de Molokai” , misionero belga.
1876 Theude Grönland, German artist born on 31 August 1817.
1776 Balthasar Beschey, Flemish artist born on 20 November 1708.
1764 Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, marquise de Pompadour.
1757 Rosalba Carriera, Italian artist born on 07 October 1675 MORE ON CARRIERA AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1754 Jacopo Francesco Riccati, Venetian mathematician born on 28 May 1676. He wrote on philosophy, physics and differential equations. He is chiefly known for the Riccati differential equation.
1704 Johann van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician, burgomeister of Amsterdam (1672-1702), born on 23 April 1628. He worked on maxima and minima and the theory of equations. He gave an ingenious method to find multiple roots of an equation which is essentially the modern method of finding the highest common factor of a polynomial and its derivative. He also worked on optics, producing microscopes and constructing telescope lenses. Hudde corresponded with Huygens [14 Apr 1629 – 08 Jul 1695] on problems of canal maintenance, probability and life expectancy. In 1657 Hudde directed the flooding of parts of Holland to block the advance of the French army.
1700 Giovanni Maria Viani, Venetian pastelist born on 11 September 1636. — more
1622 Leandro Bassano da Ponte, Italian Mannerist painter born on 26 June 1557. MORE ON BASSANO AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1957 En el camino, novela de Jack Kerouac [12 Mar 1922 – 21 Oct 1969], se publica.
1955 The McDonald's restaurant chain is started by Ray Kroc [05 Oct 1902 – 14 Jan 1984] by opening in Des Plaines, Illinois, the first restaurant of the chain, modeled on the San Bernardino, California, restaurant of the brothers Maurice and Richard McDonald, to whom Kroc agreed to pay 0.5% of gross receipts. Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers in 1961 for $2'700'000. By that time he had established 228 restaurants and annual sales had reached $37'000'000. At the time of his death there were some 7500 McDonald's outlets worldwide, three-fourths of them run by franchise holders.
1942 Kenneth Lee “Ken” Lay, US businessman who died on 05 July 2006. On 25 May 2006 he was convicted of corruption as CEO (1986 - 23 Jan 2002) of of Enron Corporation (bankrupt since 02 Dec 2001), and was due to be sentenced (possibly to up to 30 years in prison) on 23 October 2006. Because he not yet filed an appeal when he died, his conviction was abated on 17 October 2006. —(061018)
1940 Cristóbal Toral Ruiz, Spanish painter. — more with links to images, including some of terrorist fruit.
1933 El rival de su mujer, de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en el teatro Beatriz de Madrid.
1930 Vigdis Finnbogadottir, president of Iceland from 01 August 1980 to 01 August 1996. —(080414)
1924 First US road atlas is published by Rand McNally.
1920 Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker, presidente de la R.F. de Alemania.
1922 Harold Washington, first black mayor of Chicago (D, 1983-1987). He died on 25 November 1987.
1912 Kim Il-Sung [–08 Jul 1994], Communist dictator of North Korea from 09 September 1948 to his death.. —(080414)
1907 Nikolaas Tinbergen, Dutch-born English zoologist and ethologist who won the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He died on 21 December 1988.
1904 Arshile Gorky, Armenian-born US painter, who died on 21 July 1948. MORE ON GORKY AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1889 Asa Philip Randolph, US Black civil rights and labor leader (Railroad Porter's Union) who died on 16 May 1979.
1889 Thomas Hart Benton, US Regionalist painter who died on 19 January 1975. MORE ON BENTON AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1886 Amédée Ozenfant, French painter who died on 04 May 1966. — more with links to images.
1883 Stanley Bruce, Australian statesman and diplomat; prime minister (1923-1929). He died on 25 August 1967.
1880 Max Wertheimer, Czech-born US psychologist; founder of Gestalt psychology. He died on 12 October 1943.
1879 Concha Espina, escritora española.
1874 Johannes Stark, German Nobel Prize-winning physicist (1919). He died on 21 June 1957.
1865 Olga Boznanska, Polish artist who died in 1945. — more with links to images.
1860 Edward Arthur Walton, British painter who died on 18 March 1922. — more with link to an image.
1859 Abbott Fuller Graves, US artist who died in 1936. MORE ON GRAVES AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1850 The city of San Francisco is incorporated.
1812 Théodore Etienne Pierre Rousseau, French artist who died on 22 December 1867. — links to images.
1809 Hermann Grassmann, mathematician.
1808 Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha, militar y político argentino.
1800 Sir James Clark Ross explorer (British Antarctic).
1741 Charles Willson Peale, US painter who died on 22 February 1827. He is renowned for his portraits of US War of Independence leaders MORE ON PEALE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1707 Leonhard Euler, Basle, Switzerland, mathematician (Euler's Constant) and physicist. He died on 18 September 1783.
1684 Catherine I empress of Russia (1725-1727)
1682 Jan van Huysum, Dutch painter specialized in still-lifes of dead flowers, who died on 07 February 1749. MORE ON VAN HUYSUM AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1548 Cataldi, mathematician.
1452 Leonardo da Vinci, Italian sculptor / scientist / visionary / mathematician / painter, who died on 02 May 1519. MORE ON DA VINCI AT ART 4 MAY with links to images.