<< Apr 14|       HISTORY “4” “2”DAY      |Apr 16 >>
Events, deaths, births, of APR 15
v.8.30
While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs)
[For Apr 15 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Apr 251700s: Apr 261800s: Apr 271900~2099: Apr 28]
ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” APR 15     wikipedia
• Leonardo da Vinci is born... • Lincoln dies from previous day's wound... • Lincoln calls for Civil War volunteers... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Titanic sinks... • Bataan Death March ends on 6th day... • Murder for which Sacco and Vanzetti will be executed... • Henry James is born... • US kills Qaddafi's baby... • US President Jackson protests censure... • “Killing Fields” overlord dies... • Hu Yaobang dies... • Patty Hearst robs bank... • US plans invasion of Kuriles... • USSR conquers Tarnopol... • Castro visits the US... • Author politician Archer is born... • Molly Brown unsinkable unlike Titanic... • IBM computer for less than $500... • More US troops withdraw from Vietnam... • Anti Vietnam War protests... • Arrogant billionaire enters prison... • Byron White dies...
^  On a 15 April:
2006 Easter Vigil homily of Pope Benedict XVI [16 Apr 1927~]. — (060421)
CHRZ price chart2004 Parliamentary elections in South Korea, won by Uri party which supports President Roh Moo-hyun, whose 12 March 2004 impeachment is being reviewed by the Constitutional Court.
2003 Computer Horizons Corporation (CHRZ) confirms that it received an unsolicited proposal from Aquent LLC to acquire all of the outstanding common stock of Computer Horizons for $5.00 per share in cash. On the NASDAQ, 4.3 million of the 30 million CHRZ shares are traded, surging from their previous close of $2.84 to an intraday high of $4.87 and closing at $4.49. They had traded as low as $2.57 as recently as 18 March 2003, and as high as $43.75 on 06 July 1998. [5~year price chart >]]. CHRZ, is an IT services supplier with 3800 consultants and 55 offices worldwide; it provides enterprise application services, e-business solutions, web development, and enablement of applications and network services. Aquent is a privately owned professional services firm in three areas: Marketing and Creative Services, Information Technology, Financial Services.
2002 In a memorandum to the US government Amnesty International denounces the US's treatment of prisoners in Afghanistan and Guantánamo Bay as undermining human rights.
2002 According to a 28 June 2002 study by Gartner Dataquest statistics, the billionth personal computer is made (sometime in April 2002). Half of the PCs are in use. 63% are in the US, 9% in Japan, 4% in Latin America.
2001  Fuerzas del ejército israelí bombardean posiciones sirias en el Líbano como represalia por un atentado del grupo integrista libanés Hezbolá.
2001 Messagio di Pasqua Urbi et Orbi di sua santità Giovanni Paolo II. (translations to other languages)
Për shumë wjet Pashkët. — Arabic — ArmenianBengali— Darahíja Bielorùsy! Chrystos uvaskrós! Sapraudý uvaskrós! — Cambodian — Xristos v'zkrese, naistina v'zkrese — Sretan Uskrs. Kristus vstal mrtvých. Pokoj vàm. — Zalig Pasen in de vreugde van de Heer! Bedankt voor de bloemen uit Nederland die ook dit jaar de viering op het Sint Pietersplein opluisteren. — A blessed Easter in the Joy of Jesus Christ, the Risen Lord and Savior of the world! — Felician Paskon en Kristo resurektinta. — Kristus on surnuist üles tyusnud. Siunattua Pääsiäistä. — Bonne fête de Pâques, dans la joie et la paix du Christ ressuscité! — Frohe und gesegnete Ostern! Der Friede des Auferstandenen sei mit euch! Krisztus feltamadott, Alleluja. — Selamat Paskah. Beannacht na Câsga dhuibh go lêir. — Buona Pasqua a voi, uomini e donne di Roma e d’Italia! Il messaggio di fraternità e di pace, che ogni anno in questo giorno si rinnova con vigore, si diffonda in ogni parte dell’amata Penisola italiana e rechi dappertutto gioia e serenità. Il Signore risorto con la sua presenza sia di sostegno a voi tutti: ai bambini ed agli adulti, ai giovani ed agli anziani, alle famiglie e alle comunità, ai responsabili delle pubbliche amministrazioni e a quanti operano al servizio del prossimo. Rechi conforto specialmente agli ammalati e a quanti soffrono fisicamente o spiritualmente. A tutti e a ciascuno ripeto con affetto: Buona e Santa Pasqua! — Pásika nzíza / Umúnezéro n'ámahoro Krístu jarazútse. — Ntimuíhebúre! Pásika Nzíza Mwése! Yézu Yazútse. — In Eius resurrectione vita omnium resurrexit. Alleluja! — Priecîgas lieldienas — Linksme Szwentu Welìku; Prisikelias Krystus wisiems tesuteikia Dziaugsmo ir Ranzibis! — Frou a geseent Ouschteren.— Malayalam— Arahaba Tratry Ny Paka. — L-Ghid it-tajjeb ghall-poplu kollu ia'Multu u ta'Ghawdex. — Maligajang pagkabuhay ni Kristo. — Chrystus zmartwychwstal. Alleluja! W tym radosnym dniu, zycze wszystkim moim Rodakom, aby ta zbawcza prawda umacniala ich wiare, budzila nadzieje i ozywiala braterska milosc. Niech stale towarzyszy wszystkim swiatlo wielkanocnego poranka. — Feliz e Santa Pácoa em Cristo, Redentor do homem e nossa paz. Ao Brasil, que celebra os quinhentos anos do seu descobrimento, exprimo meus votos de felicidades, invocando as Bênçãos de Deus! — O Jsus si ustilo! Lachi Patrâci! — Serdechno mozdravlyayu vsex so svetlym prazdnikom Voskreceniya Xristova. Xristos Voskrese! — Wjesowe Jutry! Chrystus z mortwych stanyl, halleluja! — Xristos vaskrse! — Milostiplné a rahostné velkonochné sviatky. — Blagoslovljene velikonochne praznike — Felices Pascuas en la alegría de Cristo Resucitado. — Heri na baraka zangu kwa sikukuu ya Pasaka kwenu wote. — Glad Pàsk. — Paskalya vesilesi ile sizlere de esenlik dolu günler dilerim. — Xristos Boskres! Veselix. Svyat v Voskresiniyak Xristovim! — Mu'ng lé phu,c sinh.
2000 The world's leading financial officials, meeting in Washington, pledge cooperation to promote global prosperity. Meanwhile, anti-globalization protesters manifest in Washington.
2000 Sweden's King Carl XVI Gustaf [30 Apr 1946~] exceeds the 110 km/h speed limit on a Danish highway by 30 km/h. An anonymous caller notified the police. Three days later the king confessed the details and apologized. He had been driving his Ferrari to pick up his children who were flying in for queen Margrethe II [16 Apr 1940~] of Denmark's 60th birthday party the next day.
1999 NATO acknowledges having mistakenly bombed a convoy of ethnic Albanian refugees under Serb escort in Kosovo. Yugoslav officials said 75 people died and more than two dozen were injured.
1999  Tras la retirada de la oposición, el candidato único Abdelaziz Bouteflika [02 Mar 1937~] se proclama presidente de Argelia.
1998 IBM offers computer for less than $500
      IBM slashes prices on two Network Station computers, offering them for less than $500. Network Stations were low-end machines that could be hooked up to powerful servers, allowing companies to reduce computer overhead costs. These inexpensive computers, often called "thin clients," had long been anticipated by the industry, but until IBM's price cut, all had been priced well above $500, giving them little advantage over more powerful personal computers.
1997 Avant, maker of software used to design semiconductors, is charged with the felony of stealing code from a rival. Oddly, the two competitors had recently announced plans to make their development platforms more compatible with each other.
1994  124 países firman en Marraquech el Acta Final de la Ronda Uruguay del GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), la liberalización comercial más ambiciosa de la historia.
1993 The Pontifical Biblical Commission publishes L'interpretazione della Bibbia nella Chiesa (English translation: The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church). —(070412)
1992  Comienza a aplicarse el embargo aéreo a Libia, según las sanciones impuestas por la ONU por incumplimiento de su resolución 731.
^ 1992 Queen of Mean, billionaire Leona Helmsley enters prison for tax evasion
      The domineering hotel impresario begins what was to be a four-year prison term in Lexington, Kentucky. Heading off to jail on this, the last day of the tax year, was a fitting irony for Helmsley, the so-called "Queen of Mean," who had run afoul of the law for neglecting to pay her taxes. During her trial (Helmsley's husband was also charged with tax evasion, but did not stand trial due to his failing health), Helmsley had admitted to evading the IRS, though she refused to see anything wrong in her actions. Indeed, Helmsley reasoned that the wealthy and famous were exempt from the annual surrender to the IRS. As she infamously explained, "Only the little people pay taxes." The press and public alike vilified Helmsley, and her defense failed to sway the court. Helmsley was swiftly sentenced to a four-year prison term for tax evasion.
1991 Turkey began moving thousands of Iraqi Kurds from a border settlement to camps farther inside Turkey, in a major policy shift for President Turgut Ozal's government, which had previously kept the refugees in the mountains.
1991 Microsoft confirms that the Federal Trade Commission has launched a broad antitrust investigation that would probe virtually every aspect of Microsoft's business.
1987 In Northhampton MA, Amy Carter, Abbie Hoffman and 13 others are acquitted on civil disobedience charges related to a protest against the CIA.
1982  Canadá adquiere total independencia de Gran Bretaña con la aprobación de la nueva Constitución del país.
1980  Pilar Miró es juzgada por la jurisdicción militar española, al reconocerse autora de la película El crimen de Cuenca.
1979  Los científicos estadounidenses especializados en sexología William Howell Masters, ginecólogo, y Virginia Johnson, psicóloga, anuncian que pueden invertir la homosexualidad mediante determinados métodos terapéuticos.
1974 Military coup in Niger.
ZOOM IN on detail^ 1974 Patty Hearst robs bank
      In California, a surveillance camera record kidnapped newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst [20 Feb 1954~] taking part in an armed robbery of a San Francisco bank. On 06 June, she was indicted by a federal grand jury for her part in the crime.
      On 02 February 1974, Patty Hearst, the daughter of newspaper publisher Randolph Hearst, had been kidnapped from her Berkeley, California, home by members of a small US leftist group, the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA). Ten days later, a ransom message was sent to the Hearst family demanding $70 in foodstuffs for every needy person in California. Randolph Hearst hesitantly obliged, giving away some $2 million worth of food, but Patty Hearst was not released.
      On 03 April, in a tape sent to the authorities, she declared that she was joining the SLA of her own free will, and, twelve days later, she held a firearm during an SLA robbery of a San Francisco bank. [< Patty posed by SLA with sawed-off automatic M1 carbine]
      On 17 April, Los Angeles police raided the SLA's secret headquarters, killing six of the group's nine known members. Among the dead was the SLA's leader Donald DeFreeze, who called himself General Field Marshall Cinque. However, Patty Hearst and two other SLA members wanted for the 15 April bank robbery were not on the premises.
      Finally, on 18 September 1975, Hearst was captured in a San Francisco apartment and arrested for armed robbery. She was convicted on 20 March 1974, and sentenced to seven years in prison. On 09 April 1977, she was released on probation, and returned to a more routine existence: she married her former bodyguard, Bernard Shaw; had two daughters; wrote her autobiography Every Secret Thing (1982); became a part-time movie and TV actress, etc.
—(061018)
^ 1970 More US troops withdraws from Vietnam.
      As part of the third phase of US troop withdrawals announced by President Nixon, the 1st Infantry Division departs Vietnam. One of the most distinguished units in the US Army, the 1st Infantry Division was organized in May 1917 and served with distinction in both World War I and II. It was deployed to the area north of Saigon in October 1965, one of the first Army infantry divisions to arrive in Vietnam. The division consisted of seven battalions of light infantry and two battalions of mechanized infantry. Other combat elements included an armored reconnaissance unit and four battalions of artillery. The approaches to Saigon and the border regions between Vietnam and Cambodia were the major battlefields for the 1st Infantry Division. It took part in large-scale operations such as Operation Junction City (February-May 1967) and the Tet Offensive of 1968. The division also conducted major operations in conjunction with South Vietnamese forces in the region. It returned to Fort Riley, Kansas, upon its departure from South Vietnam. The 1st Infantry Division was awarded the Vietnamese Civil Action Medal and the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm. Among other individual awards, its soldiers won 11 Medals of Honor, 67 Distinguished Service Crosses, and 905 Silver Stars for bravery. The division suffered 20'770 soldiers killed or wounded in action, slightly more than the 20'659 casualties the division suffered in World War II.
1968  El secretario general del PC checo, Alexander Dubcek, y el nuevo presidente del país, Ludvik Svoboda, publican un programa de medidas liberalizadoras.
1967 Anti Vietnam War protests in New York and San Francisco.
      Massive parades to protest Vietnam policy are held in New York and San Francisco. In New York, police estimated that 100'000 to 125'000 people listened to speeches by Martin Luther King, Jr., Floyd McKissick, Stokely Carmichael and Dr. Benjamin Spock. Prior to the march, nearly 200 draft cards were burned by youths in Central Park. In San Francisco, black nationalists led a march, but most of the 20'000 marchers were white.
1960 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee organizes at Shaw University.
1959  El secretario de Asuntos Exteriores de Estados Unidos, John Foster Dulles, dimite de su cargo.
^ 1959 Fidel Castro begins US goodwill tour.
      Four months after leading a successful revolution in Cuba, Fidel Castro visits the United States. The visit was marked by tensions between Castro and the American government. On 01 January 1959, Castro's revolutionary forces overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. From the beginning of the new regime in Cuba, US officials worried about the bearded revolutionary. Castro's anti-US rhetoric, his stated plans to nationalize foreign properties in Cuba, and his association with a number of suspected leftists (including his second-in-command, Che Guevara) prompted US diplomats to keep a wary eye on him. Though he worried politicians, US reporters adored him — his tales of the days spent fighting a guerrilla war in Cuba, the fatigues and combat boots he favored, and his bushy beard cut a striking figure.
      In April 1959, Castro accepted an invitation from the American Society of Newspaper Editors to visit the US The trip got off to an inauspicious start when it became clear that President Dwight D. Eisenhower had no intention of meeting with Castro. Instead, Eisenhower went to the golf course to avoid any chance meeting with Castro. Castro gave a talk to the Council on Foreign Affairs, a New York-based group of private citizens and former government officials interested in US international relations. Castro was confrontational during the session, indicating that Cuba would not beg the United States for economic assistance. Angered by some of the questions from the audience, Castro abruptly left the meeting. Finally, before departing for Cuba, Castro met with Vice President Richard Nixon. Privately, Nixon hoped that his talk would push Castro "in the right direction," and away from any radical policies, but he came away from his discussion full of doubt about the possibility of reorienting Castro's thinking. Nixon concluded that Castro was “either incredibly naive about Communism or under Communist discipline — my guess is the former.”
      Relations between the United States and Castro deteriorated rapidly following the April visit. In less than a year, President Eisenhower ordered the CIA to begin arming and training a group of Cuban exiles to attack Cuba (the disastrous attack, known as the Bay of Pigs invasion, was eventually carried out during the Kennedy administration). The heated Cold War animosity between the US and Cuba would outlive the Cold War and last for over 40 years, fanned by Cuban exiles in the US.
1955  El Comité para la Energía Atómica estadounidense informa de que, tras minuciosas investigaciones, no ha hallado indicios de que las pruebas atómicas realizadas en Nevada hayan tenido consecuencias genéticas.
1953  Victoria electoral de los segregacionistas sudafricanos.
1952 US President Harry Truman signs the peace treaty with Japan.
1952 First flight of the B-52 bomber.
1950  Se inician los combates de guerrilleros liberales contra la dictadura civil del Partido Conservador colombiano.
1948  Se produce un atentado contra el ministro de la Guerra de Brasil, lo que desencadena una feroz represión anticomunista.
1945 As World War II in Europe draws to an end, British and Canadian troops liberate the Nazi concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen.
1944 Soviets conquer Tarnopol in Poland
      The Soviet Red Army occupies Tarnopol, one of the principal cities of Eastern Galicia, across the former Polish border.
      Tarnopol, traditionally a part of Poland, then part of the Soviet Union, had become German-occupied territory in the great German offensive eastward in June 1941. One hundred and eighty Jews were shot in Tarnopol early in the German occupation; tens of thousands of Polish Jews would be slaughtered as German forces occupied larger swaths of the former eastern Poland.
      The Red Army naturally represented liberation for the Jewish survivors of German totalitarianism—although Jews would eventually find their communist liberators to represent a totalitarianism of another stripe.
1944  Lord Mountbatten abandona Nueva Delhi tras la gravedad de la situación fronteriza de la India.
^ 1944 The US plans invasion of Kurile Islands.
  The US prepares Operation Wedlock, an invasion of the Kurile Islands of northern Japan. American and Canadian troops, aided by the Ninth Fleet and American bombers ordered to bomb the islands every day, prepare to occupy the islands long disputed between Japan and Russia. The plan was a fiction. There was no invasion — or a Ninth Fleet. It was all a ruse to divert Japanese attention away from the Marianas Islands, the Allies' true target.
      Operation Forager, the real thing, was launched on 15 June 1944, with a landing on Saipan, one of the three Marianas Islands. It was a US success, resulting in the deaths of thousands of Japanese — both from combat and ritual suicide — including that of the Japanese commander, Lieutenant General Yoshitsugu Saito.
1940  Fuerzas aliadas desembarcan en Narvik (norte de Noruega) durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, con lo que se corta el suministro de hierro sueco a Alemania.
1941 First helicopter flight of 1 hr duration, Stratford, Ct
1938  Las tropas nacionalistas, comandadas por Alonso Vega Carrilo, ocupan Vinaroz en el transcurso de la Guerra Civil Española, dividiendo en dos partes la España republicana y consiguiendo aislar a Cataluña.
1932  El Gobierno comunista de Kiangsi, presidido por Mao Zedong, declara la guerra a Japón.
1924 En España José Antonio Primo de Rivera funda el partido Unión Patriótica.
1923 First sound on film public performance shown at Rialto Theater (NYC)
1923 Insulin becomes generally available for diabetics.
1922  Comienza un gran movimiento huelguístico minero en Estados Unidos.
1920  El comité nacional de la Federación de Juventudes Socialistas decide adherirse a la III Internacional y convertirse en el Partido Comunista Español.
1919  El rey de España Alfonso XIII encarga a Antonio Maura y Montaner la formación de un nuevo Gabinete.
1917 The British defeat the Germans at the battle of Arras.
1915  Austria fija en 50 años la edad límite de incorporación de los nuevos reclutas en el transcurso de la Primera Guerra Mundial.
1911  Las tropas estadounidenses atraviesan el río Grande y combaten contra los insurgentes mexicanos.
1910  El censo de la población de Estados Unidos registra un resultado de 91'972'266 habitantes, lo que supone un incremento del 21% desde 1900.
1908  La Duma rusa acuerda construir una vía férrea que bordee el río Amur.
1902  El Gobierno británico decreta el estado de emergencia en nueve condados de Irlanda.
1902 Pope Leo XIII encyclical On the Church in the US.
1901  Emilio Aguinaldo hace un llamamiento a los ciudadanos filipinos para que se sometan a Estados Unidos.
1900  Sir Arthur Evans anuncia otros relevantes hallazgos arqueológicos en el palacio de Cnosos (Creta).
1900 An early 50 mile race is won by an electric car in over 2 hrs.
1880 William Gladstone becomes Prime Minister of England.
1872 In deciding the legal case "Watson v. Jones," the US Supreme Court declared that a member of a religious organization April not appeal to secular courts against a decision made by a church tribunal within the area of its competence.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
^ 1861 Lincoln calls for volunteers to fight the Civil War
      The bloodiest four years in American history began three days earlier when Confederate shore batteries under General Pierre G. T. Beauregard opened fire on Union-held Fort Sumter in South Carolina's Charleston Bay. Over the next thirty-four hours, fifty Confederate guns and mortars launched over four thousand rounds at the poorly supplied fort, and on 13 April, US Major Robert Anderson, commander of the Union garrison, surrendered.
      On 15 April, US President Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand volunteer soldiers to help quell the Southern "insurrection."
      As early as 1858, the ongoing conflict between the North and South over the issue of slavery had led Southern leadership to discuss a unified separation from the United States. By 1860, the majority of the slave states were publicly threatening secession if the Republicans, the anti-slavery party, won the presidency. Following Republican Abraham Lincoln's victory over the divided Democratic Party on 07 November 1860, South Carolina immediately initiated secession proceedings. On 20 December, the South Carolina legislature passed the "Ordinance of Secession," which declared that "the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and other states, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved."
      After the declaration, South Carolina set about seizing forts, arsenals, and other strategic locations within the state. Within six weeks, five more Southern states had followed South Carolina's lead. On 04 February 1861, delegates from South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana convened to establish a unified government, and on 09 February, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was elected the first president of the Confederate States of America.
      When Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on 04 March 1861, seven states had seceded from the Union, and federal troops held only Fort Sumter in South Carolina, Fort Pickens off the Florida coast, and a handful of minor outposts in the South.
      On 12 April 1861, the US Civil War began when Confederate General P. G. T. Beauregard attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Four years later, the Confederacy was defeated at the total cost of 620'000 Union and Confederate dead.
1858 Battle of Azimghur, Mexicans defeat Spanish loyalists.
1848  Bertrán de Lis, miembro del ministerio Ramón María Narváez y Campos, instaura el sistema monetario decimal en España.
^ 1834 US President Jackson protests censure
      President Andrew Jackson signs a formal presidential protest of censure resolutions voted against him by the US Senate. The presidential protest and the Senate's censure, stemming from Jackson's recent attempt to dissolve the Bank of the United States, were both without precedent in US history.
      On 28 March, the Senate passed a resolution declaring that President Andrew Jackson, "in the last executive proceedings in relation to the public revenue, has assumed upon himself authority and power not conferred by the Constitution and laws, but in derogation of both." The censure resolutions, introduced by Jackson's arch political rival, Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, were in regard to the president's recent transfer of funds from the Bank of the United States to the states.
      An ardent supporter of states' rights, Jackson, assisted by his treasury secretary, Robert Taney, who was also censured by the Senate, gave the federal money to state institutions. Although Jackson claimed that the transfer was a response to the Bank's partisan position during the 1832 elections, it was clear that the president was attempting to use his executive power to do away with the Bank.
      On 15 April 1834, the censure resolutions were formally protested by President Jackson, and he eventually succeeded in having them stripped from the Senate records. Jackson also successfully blocked the Bank of the United States from renewing its charter and, in early 1841, after several years of limping along as a state institution based in Pennsylvania, it was finally shut down.
1829  Se presenta, ante la Cámara inglesa, el proyecto de creación de Scotland Yard.
1813 US troops under James Wilkinson attack the Spanish-held city of Mobile which would be in the future state of Alabama.
1800 James Ross discovers North Magnetic pole.
1794 (26 germinal an II) LAPORTE Jacques, domicilié à St Laurent-de-Murel, et MEYSONNIER Baptiste, maréchal-ferrant, domicilié à Buisson, sont condamnés à être déportés à vie, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Lozère comme complices de révoltés.
1792 Premiers essais de la guillotine, sur des cadavres à l'hôpital Bicêtre, avec succès.
1495  Se firma el Tratado de Tordesillas entre Castilla y Portugal por el que se dirime cuál será la línea de demarcación de descubrimientos en América.
1493  Cristóbal Colón llega a Sevilla, tras cruzar por primera vez el Atlántico, y es recibido triunfalmente.
1408  Yusuf III, sultán de Granada tras la muerte de su hermano Muhammad VII, firma una tregua con Castilla, en la que se establecen nuevas parias.
TO THE TOP
< 14 Apr 16 Apr >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 15 April:

2005 Twenty one persons, due to a fire starting at 02:21 (00:21 UT) in the Paris-Opéra 6-story hotel, at 76 rue de Provence, behind the department store Galeries Lafayette in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, France. Fire fighters extinguish by 03:30 (01:30 UT) the fire, which started on the second floor in a common dining room which had a microwave oven. Ten of the dead are children. 53 persons are injured, 3 of whom died later. The casualties are caused by fire, smoke inhalation, and 7 persons jumping out of upper story windows. The rooms (without kitchens) in the hotel were rented by social services, private (SAMU social) and municipal (Aide Sociale à l'Enfance), to house homeless persons, including many single mothers and their children, immigrants from Tunisia, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, and Portugal. A few of the injured, from France, Ukraine, and the US, are neighbors who suffer from smoke inhalation.
2004 Khalil Naimi, first secretary of the Iranian Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, near which he is shot in the head while in his car.
2003 Zachary Bennet, 5, with ruptured liver, rib fractures, and bleeding on the brain, from beating by his father, Lamont Bennet, 28, in Key West, Florida. The Florida Department of Children and Families had improperly placed Zachary with his father in August 2002 after the boy's mother had abandoned him. Lamont Bennett's criminal record includes convictions for selling cocaine, stalking, and domestic violence, which the case worker and supervisor had failed to discover, due to not following proper procedures.
2003 Israelis Zachar Chanukayev and Ahmed Kra, by hand grenades and automatic weapon fire from Mohammed Yunis, 18, Jabaliyah refugee camp Hamas member, who is then killed by Israeli security agents, at the Karni terminal, where goods move between Israel and the Gaza Strip. Chanukayev, 39, from Sderot, was a fork-lift driver at the terminal. Ahmed Kra, 20, was a truck driver from Shoefat.
2003 Israeli Lt. Daniel Mandel, 24, and Hamas activist Mazen Sharitah, who comes out firing a pistol out of the Nablus, West Bank, building which the Israeli Nahal force had surrounded and out of which the two other Hamas activists there had just surrendered. Two Israeli soldiers are wounded.
2003 Abdel-Hamid Abu el-Eish, an Islamic Jihad commander, by rockets fired from an Israeli army watchtower in Rafah, West Bank.
murdered by his siblings2003 Fourteen Iraqis, shot by US Marines in Mosul. A crowd of some 3000 had started throwing stones during a speech by Mashaan al-Juburi, who claimed to be the new governor and who is disliked by many because of his past as a journalist for the newspaper of Saddam Hussein's Baath Party. Some 130 US Marines were trying to secure a government building for use as a meeting center. Some people in the crowd start shooting weapons into the air (according to the Marines). The Marines feel threatened and shoot into the crowd. Some 20 Iraqis are wounded.
2002 Jackson Carr, 6, [photo >] by a puncture wound in the neck inflicted by his 15-year-old sister while his 10-year-old brother holds him down, in north Dallas suburb Lewisville. The two then bury the body in mud about 30 m from the family's home in the 500 block of Barfknecht, in a wooded area where it is found early the next morning. The two confess. In the evening of 15 April, the brother had told their parents that he could not find Jackson after a game of hide-and-seek.
2002:: 127 persons aboard an Air China Boeing 767-200 which crashes into an area of pine trees on Shineo mountain as it was circling for a second attempt at landing at Gimhae international airport in Pusan, Korea, 8 km away, closed to domestic traffic because of wind, rain, and fog. There are 39 survivors. Among the dead are 15 persons who survived the impact but died in hospitals.
Byron White in 1993^ 2002 Byron White.
     Byron R. White [1993 photo >] dies in the morning in Denver, of complications from pneumonia. He had served on the US Supreme Court for 31 years before retiring in 1993. In the court's history, only eight men served longer. His seat was filled by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. With White's death, there are no living former US Supreme Court justices. He had been ill much of the previous two years.
      Appointed by President Kennedy in 1962, White soon became a dissenter from many of the court's liberal rulings of the 1960s. Later in his tenure, he was a consistent, if independent, member of the court's increasingly conservative majority. A hard-liner on law-and-order issues, White often spoke for the court in decisions enhancing police authority. He dissented from the court's 1973 ruling in Roe v. Wade, which legalized abortion nationwide, and thereafter steadfastly voted in favor of allowing states to regulate, or even outlaw, abortion.
      White's record on other divisive social issues was mixed. He voted to give federal courts broad power to order racial desegregation of the nation's public schools, and often sided with the court's liberal wing in civil rights disputes. But he later opposed broad use of “affirmative action” to remedy past discrimination in employment.
      White's votes in free-speech and free-press cases were mixed, but generally he opposed expansive freedom-of-expression rights. He favored greater governmental accommodation of religion — in ways more liberal justices considered violations of the constitutionally required separation of church and state.
      His opinion writing reflected his essential character: precise, methodical and impatient to finish the job. On the bench, the gravelly voiced White was a tough interrogator of the lawyers who appeared before the court. His questions were brief and direct, and he had zero tolerance for the ill-prepared or longwinded.
      White's academic record, professional career and the sports pages show him to have achieved excellence in everything he attempted. The valedictorian of his high school and University of Colorado class, White went on to study at Oxford and become a high-honors graduate of the Yale University Law School.
      But to sports fans he was better known as “Whizzer” White, the football player who won All-America honors and National Football League stardom.
      Throughout his long judicial career, White was known as one of the high court's clearest thinkers — a centrist who often provided key votes on divisive issues. White wrote for the court when it ruled that the Constitution did not allow news reporters to withhold confidential information from grand juries. White also authored decisions that struck down capital punishment for rapists, declared nude dancing to be a constitutionally protected form of expression, exempted “kiddie porn” from free-speech protections, and stripped presidential Cabinet members of the absolute immunity form civil lawsuits they once enjoyed.
      White wrote for the court when in 1984 it for the first time carved out a “good faith” exception to the long-standing rule excluding from criminal trials any evidence unlawfully seized by police. White said objects seized through police officers' use of a defective search warrant could be used as trial evidence.
      In a 1976 decision that proved a serious and lasting setback for civil rights activists, White's opinion for the court established that discriminatory “intent” — not just “impact” — must be proved when constitutional racial bias is charged.
      White was born on 08 June 1917, and but grew up in tiny Wellington, Colorado, where his father was a lumber dealer and staunch Republican mayor. He attended public schools there, and went on to the University of Colorado. Despite part-time work and his involvement in three sports, White finished first in the 267-member class of 1938. By the end of his senior year, White was the best-known collegiate football player in the nation — a runner, passer and punter of unmatched accomplishments. He became the highest-paid professional football player in 1938 when the National Football League's Pittsburgh Steelers offered him $15'800 for a one-year contract. He postponed his studies at Oxford to become the league's leading rusher in the 1938-39 season. The next season he again topped all league rushers as a member of the Detroit Lions.

2001 Canan Kulaksiz, 19, on 137th day of hunger strike, at the home of another hunger striker in Istanbul. In Turkey about 250 leftist inmates and several of their relatives started hunger strikes several months earlier to protest their transfers in December from large dormitory-style wards (which made prison riots easier) to one- or three-person cells. that left 30 inmates and two soldiers dead in December 2000. Kulaksiz' uncle, Mehmet Kulaksiz, a member of the outlawed Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front, was among the prisoners injured in the clashes.
^ 1998 Pol Pot, 73,
the architect of Cambodia's killing fields, dies of apparently natural causes while serving a life sentence imposed against him by his own Khmer Rouge.
      The Khmer Rouge, organized by Pol Pot in the Cambodian jungle, advocated a radical Communist revolution that would wipe out Western influences in Cambodia and set up a solely agrarian society. In 1970, aided by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, Khmer Rouge guerrillas began a large-scale insurgency against Cambodian government forces, soon gaining control of nearly a third of the country. By 1973, secret US bombings of Cambodian territory controlled by the Vietnamese Communists forced the Vietnamese out of the country, creating a power vacuum that was soon filled by Pol Pot's rapidly growing Khmer Rouge movement.
      In April 1975, the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, the Cambodian capital, overthrew the pro-US regime, and established a new government, the Kampuchean People's Republic. As the new ruler of Cambodia, Pol Pot quickly set about transforming the country into his vision of an agrarian utopia. The cities were evacuated, factories and schools were closed, and currency and private property was abolished. Anyone thought to be an intellectual, such as someone who spoke a foreign language, was immediately killed. Skilled workers were also killed, in addition to anyone caught in possession of eyeglasses, a wristwatch, or any other modern technology. In forced marches punctuated with atrocities from the Khmer Rouge, the millions who failed to escape Cambodia were herded onto rural collective farms. Between 1975 and 1978, an estimated two million Cambodians died by execution, forced labor, and famine.
      In 1978, Vietnamese troops invaded Cambodia, capturing Phnom Penh in early 1979. A moderate Communist government was established, and Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge retreated back into the jungle. In 1985, Pol Pot officially retired, but remained the effective head of the Khmer Rouge. In 1997, he was put on trial by his own Khmer Rouge after an internal power struggle ousted him from his leadership position. Sentenced to life imprisonment by a "people's tribunal," which critics derided as a show trial, Pol Pot later declared in an interview, "My conscience is clear." Much of the international community hoped that his captors would extradite him to stand trial for his crimes against humanity, but he died of apparently natural causes while under house arrest in 1998.
1997::  343 peregrinos musulmanes, en un incendio producido en un campamento de La Meca, causado por una bomba de gas para cocinar. Hay unos 2000 heridos.
1989:: 95 people in a crush of soccer fans at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England. —   Mueren noventa y cinco personas en el estadio británico de Sheffield, tras la irrupción de más de 2000 hinchas a los seis minutos del partido entre los equipos de Liverpool y Nottingham, en la semifinal de la Copa inglesa.
^ 1989 Hu Yaobang, the deposed reform-minded leader of the Chinese Communist Party.
      Six days later some 100'000 students gathered at Beijing's Tiananmen Square to commemorate Hu and voice their discontent with China's authoritative Communist government. The next day, an official memorial service for Hu Yaobang was held in Tiananmen's Great Hall of the People, and student representatives carried a petition to the steps of the Great Hall and demanded to meet with Premier Li Peng. The Chinese government refused such a meeting, leading to a general boycott of Chinese universities across the country and widespread calls for democratic reforms.
      Ignoring government warnings of violent suppression of any mass demonstration, students from more than forty universities began a march to Tiananmen on 27 April. The students were joined by workers, intellectuals, and civil servants, and by mid April over a million people filled the square, the site of Communist leader's Mao Zedong's proclamation of the People's Republic of China in 1949.
      On 20 April, the government declared martial law in Beijing, and troops and tanks were called in to disperse the dissidents. However, large numbers of students and citizens blocked the army's advance, and by 23 April, government forces had pulled back to the outskirts of Beijing. On 03 June, with negotiations to end the protests stalled and calls for democratic reforms escalating, the troops received orders from the Chinese government to reclaim Tiananmen at all cost. By the end of the next day, Chinese troops had forcibly cleared Tiananmen Square and Beijing's streets, killing hundreds of demonstrators and arresting thousands of protestors and other suspected dissidents.
      In the weeks after the government crackdown, an unknown number of dissidents were executed and hard-liners in the government took firm control of the country. The international community was outraged at the incident, and economic sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries sent China's economy into decline. However, by late 1990, international trade had resumed, thanks in part to China's release of several hundred imprisoned dissidents.
^ 1986 Baby Qaddafi, 15-months-old, and 36 other Libyans, by US bombs.
      Without any declaration of war, the United States launches air strikes against Libya in retaliation for the Libyan sponsorship of terrorism against US troops and citizens. The raid, which began shortly before 02:00 (Libya time = 00:00 UT), involved more than 100 US Air Force and Navy aircraft, and was over within an hour. Five military targets and "terrorism centers" were hit, including the home tent of Libyan dictator Muammar al-Qaddafi.
      During the 1970s and '80s, Qaddafi's government financed a wide variety of Muslim and anti-US and anti-British terrorist groups worldwide, from Palestinian guerrillas and Philippine Muslim rebels to the Irish Republican Army and the Black Panthers. In response, the US imposed sanctions against Libya, and relations between the two nations steadily deteriorated. In 1981, Libya fired at a US aircraft that passed into the Gulf of Sidra, which Qaddafi had claimed in 1973 as Libyan territorial waters. That year, the US uncovered evidence of Libyan-sponsored terrorist plots against the United States, including planned assassination attempts against US officials and the bombing of a US-embassy-sponsored dance in Khartoum, Sudan.
      In December 1985, five American citizens were killed in simultaneous terrorist attacks at the Rome and Vienna airports. Libya was blamed, and US President Ronald Reagan ordered expanded sanctions and froze Libyan assets in the United States. On 24 March, US and Libyan forces clashed in the Gulf of Sidra, and four Libyan attack boats were sunk.
      Then, on 05 April, terrorists bombed the West Berlin La Belle discotheque (dance hall) known to be frequented by US servicemen. One US serviceman and a Turkish woman were killed, and more than 200 people were wounded, including 50 other US servicemen. US intelligence reportedly intercepted radio messages sent from Libya to its diplomats in East Berlin ordering the 05 April attack on the LaBelle discotheque.
      On 15 April, the United States strikes back with dramatic air strikes against Tripoli and Banghazi. The attacks were mounted by 14 A-6E navy attack jets based in the Mediterranean and 18 FB-111 bombers from bases in England. Numerous other support aircraft were also involved. France refused to allow the F-111s to fly over French territory, which added 2600 total nautical miles to the journey from England and back. Three military barracks were hit, along with the military facilities at Tripoli's main airport and the Benina air base southeast of Benghazi. All targets except one were reportedly chosen because of their direct connection to terrorist activity. The Benina military airfield was hit to preempt Libyan interceptors from taking off and attacking the incoming US bombers.
      Even before the operation had ended, President Reagan went on national television to discuss the air strikes. "When our citizens are abused or attacked anywhere in the world," he said, "we will respond in self-defense. Today we have done what we had to do. If necessary, we shall do it again."
      Operation El Dorado Canyon, as it was code-named, was called a success by US officials. Qaddafi's 15-month-old adopted daughter was killed in the attack on his residence, and two of his young sons were injured. Although he has never admitted it publicly, there is speculation that Qaddafi was also wounded in the bombing. Fire from Libyan surface-to-air missiles and conventional anti-aircraft artillery was heavy during the attack, and one F-111, along with its two-member crew, were lost in unknown circumstances. Several residential buildings were inadvertently bombed during the raid, and 15 Libyan civilians were reported killed. The French embassy in Tripoli was also accidentally hit, but no one was injured.
      Later in the day, Libyan patrol boats fired missiles at a US Navy communications station on the Italian island of Lamedusa, but the missiles fell short. There was no other major terrorist attack linked to Libya until the 1988 bombing of Pan Am 747 over Lockerbie, Scotland. All 259 passengers and crew of that flight were killed, and 11 people on the ground perished. In 1999, Qaddafi, seeking to lead Libya out of its long international isolation, agreed to turn over to the West two suspects wanted for the Lockerbie attack. In response, Europe lifted sanctions against Libya. The United States maintained sanctions, even after one of the Lockerbie suspects was convicted in 2001.
1986 Jean Genet, French writer.
1980 Jean-Paul Sartre, of edema of the lung, French existentialist philosopher, novelist, playwright, biographer, essayist, born on 21 June 1905.
1980   Jorge Caballero, un joven de la CNT (Confederación Nacional del Trabajo), asesinado en la Gran Vía de Madrid por un grupo de presuntos ultraderechistas.
1974  Hamani Diori, presidente de Níger, en un golpe militar.
1956 Emil Hansen “Nolde”, German Expressionist painter born on 07 August 1867. MORE ON NOLDE AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1942  José Moreno Carbonero, pintor español.
1942 The Victims of the 6th and Last Day of the Bataan Death March       ^top^
     Five days before, one day after the surrender of the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese, the seventy-five thousand American and Filipino troops captured on the Bataan Peninsula had begun a forced march to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. During this infamous trek, known as the "Bataan Death March," the prisoners are forced to march 140 km in six days with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. By the end of the march, which was punctuated with atrocities by the Japanese guards, over five thousand Americans and many more Filipinos died.
      The day after Japan bombed the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, the Japanese invasion of the Philippines began. Within a month, the Japanese had captured Manila, the capital of the Philippines, and the US and Filipino defenders of Luzon were forced to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. For the next three months, the combined US-Filipino army, under the command of US General Jonathan Wainwright, held out impressively despite a lack of naval and air support.
      Finally, on 07 April, with his army crippled by starvation and disease, Wainwright began withdrawing as many troops as possible to the island fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay. However, two days later, seventy-five thousand Allied troops were trapped by the Japanese and forced to surrender.
      The next day, 10 April 1942, the Bataan Death March began, resulting in the deaths of over a third of the prisoners. Of those who survived to reach the Japanese prison camp near Cabanatuan, few lived to celebrate US General Douglas MacArthur's liberation of the Philippines in early 1945.
      In the Philippines, homage is paid to the victims of the Bataan Death March every April on Bataan Day, a national holiday that sees large groups of Filipinos solemnly rewalking parts of the death route.
1938  César Abraham Vallejo, poeta peruano.
1935 Anna Kirstine Brøndum Ancher, Danish painter born on 18 August 1859. MORE ON ANCHER AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
1929  Torcuato Luca de Tena, escritor español fundador del diario ABC.
1925 John Singer Sargent, US painter specialized in portraits, who died on 12 January 1856. MORE ON SARGENT AT ART “4” JANUARY with links to images.
^ 1920 F.A. Parmenter, and Alessandro Berardelli, murdered
     In South Braintree, Mass., F.A. Parmenter, paymaster of a shoe factory, and Alessandro Berardelli, the guard accompanying him, are murdered to get the payroll that they were carrying.
     On 05 May Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists who had immigrated to the United States in 1908, one a shoemaker and the other a fish peddler, are arrested for the crime. On 31 May 1921, they were brought to trial before Judge Webster Thayer of the Massachusetts Superior Court, and on 14 July both were found guilty by verdict of the jury. Socialists and radicals protested the men's innocence. Many people felt that there had been less than a fair trial and that the defendants had been convicted for their radical, anarchist beliefs rather than for the crime for which they had been tried. All attempts for retrial on the ground of false identification failed. On 18 November 1925, one Celestino Madeiros, then under a sentence for murder, confessed that he had participated in the crime with the Joe Morelli gang. The state Supreme Court refused to upset the verdict, because at that time the trial judge had the final power to reopen on the ground of additional evidence. The two men were sentenced to death on 09 April 1927.
      A storm of protest arose with mass meetings throughout the US. Governor Alvan T. Fuller appointed an independent advisory committee consisting of President A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard University, President Samuel W. Stratton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Robert Grant, a former judge. On 03 August 1927, the governor refused to exercise his power of clemency; his advisory committee agreed with this stand. Demonstrations proceeded in many cities throughout the world, and bombs were set off in New York City and Philadelphia. Sacco and Vanzetti, still maintaining their innocence, were executed on 23 August 1927. Opinion has remained divided on whether Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty as charged or whether they were innocent victims of a prejudiced legal system and a mishandled trial. Some writers have claimed that Sacco was guilty but that Vanzetti was innocent. There is widespread agreement, however, that the two men should have been granted a second trial in view of their trial's significant defects. In 1977 the governor of Massachusetts, Michael S. Dukakis, issued a proclamation stating that Sacco and Vanzetti had not been treated justly and that no stigma should be associated with their names.
     Two security guards are killed during a mid-afternoon armed robbery of a shoe company in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Out of this rather unremarkable crime grew one of the most famous trials in American history and a landmark case in forensic crime detection. Both Fred Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli were shot several times as they attempted to move the payroll boxes of their New England shoe company. The two armed thieves, identified by witnesses as "Italian-looking," fled in a Buick. The car was found abandoned in the woods several days later. Through evidence found in the car, police suspected that a man named Mike Boda was involved. However, Boda was one step ahead of the authorities, and he fled to Italy. Police did manage to catch Boda's colleagues, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, who were each carrying loaded weapons at the time of their arrest. Sacco had a .32 caliber handgun-the same type as was used to kill the security guards-and bullets from the same manufacturer as those recovered from the shooting. Vanzetti was identified as a participant in a previous robbery attempt of a different shoe company.
      Sacco and Vanzetti were anarchists, believing that social justice would come only through the destruction of governments. In the early 1920s, mainstream America was starting to develop a fear of communism and radical politics. Sacco and Vanzetti, recognizing the uphill battle ahead, tried to put this fear to their advantage by drumming up support from the left wing with claims that the prosecution was politically motivated. Millions of dollars were raised for their defense by the radical left around the world. US embassies were even bombed in response to the Sacco-Vanzetti case. The well-funded defense put up a good fight, bringing forth nearly 100 witnesses to testify on the defendants' behalf. Ultimately, eyewitness identification wasn't the crucial issue; rather, it was the ballistics tests on the murder weapon. Prosecution experts, with rather primitive instruments, testified that Sacco's gun was the murder weapon. Defense experts claimed just the opposite.
      In the end, on 14 July 1921, Sacco and Vanzetti were found guilty and sentenced to die. However, the ballistics issue refused to go away as Sacco and Vanzetti waited on death row. In addition, a jailhouse confession by another criminal fueled the controversy. In 1927, Massachusetts Governor A. T. Fuller ordered another inquiry to advise him on the clemency request of the two anarchists. In the meantime, there had been many scientific advances in the field of forensics. The comparison microscope was now available for new ballistics tests and proved beyond a doubt that Sacco's gun was indeed the murder weapon. A defense expert was even reported to have remarked upon seeing the new results, "Well, what do you know about that?"
      Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in August 1927, but even the new evidence didn't completely quell the controversy. In October 1961, and again in March 1983, new investigations were conducted into the matter, but both revealed that Sacco's revolver was indeed the one that fired the bullet and killed the security guards.
1919 Some 400 Indians killed by British troops in Amritsar, India.
1917  Gumersindo de Azcárate, político y sociólogo español.
Titanic^ 1912:: 1517 (*) persons (and some dogs) after the Titanic sinks,
drowned in the sinking ship or died from hypothermia in the icy North Atlantic waters
     On 10 April, the R.M.S. Titanic, one of the largest and most luxurious ocean liners ever built, had departed Southampton, England, on its maiden voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. While leaving port, the massive ship came within a meter of the steamer New York, but passed safely by, causing a general sigh of relief from the passengers massed on the ship's decks. The Titanic, thought to be the world's fastest ship afloat and almost unsinkable, spanned 269 meters from stern to bow.
      On its first journey across the highly competitive Atlantic ferry route, the ship carried some twenty-two hundred passengers and crew. After stopping at Cherbourg, France, and Queenstown, Ireland, to pick up some final passengers, the massive vessel set out at full speed for New York City.
      However, just before midnight on the night of 14 April, about four hundred miles from Newfoundland, the ship failed to divert its course from an iceberg and five of the Titanic's sixteen allegedly watertight compartments were ruptured along its starboard side. Within two hours, at 02:27 on the morning of 15 April, the ship had sunk. Because of a shortage of lifeboats and the lack of satisfactory emergency procedures, 1517 people went down. Of the 711 survivors, most were women and children.
      A number of notable US and British citizens died in the tragedy, leading to outrage on both sides of the Atlantic when the circumstances of the disaster were revealed. The sinking of the Titanic ultimately had some positive effects, however, as more stringent safety regulations were adopted on public ships and regular patrols were initiated to trace the locations of Atlantic icebergs.
     At 02:27 on 15 April 1912, the British ocean liner Titanic sinks into the North Atlantic Ocean about 600 km south of Newfoundland, Canada. The massive ship, which carried 2200 passengers and crew, had struck an iceberg two and half hours before. On 10 March 10, the RMS Titanic, one of the largest and most luxurious ocean liners ever built, departed Southampton, England, on its maiden voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. The Titanic was designed by the Irish shipbuilder William Pirrie and built in Belfast, and was thought to be the world's fastest ship. It spanned 883 feet from stern to bow, and its hull was divided into 16 compartments that were presumed to be watertight. Because four of these compartments could be flooded without causing a critical loss of buoyancy, the Titanic was considered unsinkable. While leaving port, the ship came within a couple of feet of the steamer New York but passed safely by, causing a general sigh of relief from the passengers massed on the Titanic's decks. On its first journey across the highly competitive Atlantic ferry route, the ship carried some 2200 passengers and crew. After stopping at Cherbourg, France, and Queenstown, Ireland, to pick up some final passengers, the massive vessel set out at full speed for New York City. However, just before midnight on 14 April, the RMS Titanic failed to divert its course from an iceberg and ruptured at least five of its hull compartments. These compartments filled with water and pulled down the bow of the ship. Because the Titanic's compartments were not capped at the top, water from the ruptured compartments filled each succeeding compartment, causing the bow to sink and the stern to be raised up to an almost vertical position above the water. Then the Titanic broke in half, and, at about 02:20 on 15 April, stern and bow sank to the ocean floor. Because of a shortage of lifeboats and the lack of satisfactory emergency procedures, 1517 people went down in the sinking ship or froze to death in the icy North Atlantic waters. Most of the 711 survivors were women and children. A number of notable US, British, and European citizens, and their servants, died in the tragedy, including the noted British journalist William Thomas Stead [05 Jul 1849–]; the US painter Francis David Millet [03 Nov 1846–]; Benjamin Guggenheim [26 Oct 1865–] and his valet Victor Giglio, 24, and chauffeur René Pernot, 39; Isidor Straus [06 Feb 1845–] and his wife Rosalie Ida Blun Straus [06 Feb 1849–] who refused to be saved without him, and his servant John Farthing, 57; colonel John Jacob Astor IV [13 Jul 1864] (whose floating body, with $2675 on it, was recovered on 22 April 1912) and his servant Victor Robbins, 42, and his Airedale dog Kitty; major Archibald Willingham Butt [26 Sep 1865–]; George Dunton Widener (*1) [16 Jun 1861–] and his son Harry Elkins Widener [03 Jan 1885–] and his servant Edwin Herbert Keeping, 33; John Borland Thayer [21 Apr 1862]; Clarence Bloomfield Moore [01 Mar 1865–] and his servant Charles Henry Harrington, 37; Martin Rothschild [12 Dec 1865–] ; Anglican priest Ernest Courtenay Carter [17 Feb 1858–] and his wife Lilian Hughes Carter [03 Mar 1867–] who stayed together saying “Let the others go first”, and their two dogs;
      Catholic priest Thomas Roussel Davids Byles [26 Feb 1870–]; Benedictine priest Benedikt “Josef” Peruschitz [21 March 1871–]; Catholic priest Juozas Montvila [03 Jan 1885–]; the three Catholic priests stayed behind to help 3rd class passengers up the stairs and into the boats, to hear confessions, to give general absolution, and to pray with those that had been unable to escape;
      Edward John Smith [27 Jan 1850–], captain of the Titanic and his stewart James Arthur Paintin [28 Dec 1882–]; John Richard Fry, 39, butler of Joseph Bruce Ismay [12 Dec 1862 – 17 Oct 1937], owner of the Titanic, who survived.
     (*1) An article on the sinking noted that George Widener's millionaire father, Peter Arrel.Brown Widener [13 Nov 1836 – 06 Nov 1915], had recently (1911) bought The Mill (1648, 88x106cm; 834x994pix, 94kb) by Rembrandt [15 Jul 1606 – 04 Oct 1669], not a run-of-the-mill picture, especially as to price.
      One hour and 20 minutes after Titanic went down, the Cunard liner Carpathia arrived. The survivors in the lifeboats were brought aboard, and a handful of others were pulled out of the water. It was later discovered that the Leyland liner Californian had been less than 30 km away at the time of the accident but had failed to hear the Titanic's distress signals because its radio operator was off duty. Announcement of details of the tragedy led to outrage on both sides of the Atlantic.
Titanic in port      In the disaster's aftermath, the first International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea was held in 1913. Rules were adopted requiring that every ship have lifeboat space for each person on board, and that lifeboat drills be held. An International Ice Patrol was established to monitor icebergs in the North Atlantic shipping lanes. It was also required that ships maintain a 24-hour radio watch.
      On 01 September 1985, a joint US-French expedition located the wreck of the Titanic lying on the ocean floor at a depth of about 4000 meters. The ship was explored by manned and unmanned submersibles, which shed new light on the details of its sinking.
[<  The Titanic as it departs from Southampton]
MORE
Molly Brown avoids sinking with the Titanic       ^top^
      A 20th century version of the strong and resourceful women of the Wild West, Molly Brown wins lasting fame by surviving the sinking of the Titanic. Molly Brown was an unlikely candidate for fame and fortune. Born Margaret Tobin in 1867 in Hannibal, Missouri, she was the daughter of an impoverished ditch-digger. When she was a teenager, she went west and joined her brother, who was working in the booming silver mining town of Leadville, Colorado. She caught the eye of James J. Brown, the manager of a local silver mine, and the couple married in 1886. Not long after the marriage, James J. Brown discovered a fabulously profitable deposit of gold. Almost overnight, the Browns became enormously rich. The couple moved to Denver, bought a beautiful mansion, and tried unsuccessfully to become a part of the exclusive high society of the city. A flamboyant woman with a forceful personality, Molly appears to have been too much for Denver's bluebloods to handle. Apparently, she was also more than her husband could handle, and the couple soon separated. Supported by a sizeable income from her estranged husband, Brown abandoned the narrow social life of Denver to travel the world. Whereas the Denver elite had dismissed her as a coarse upstart, socially prominent eastern families like the Astors and Vanderbilts prized her frank western manners and her thrilling stories of frontier life. Brown's rise to national fame began on this night in 1912, while she was aboard the Titanic, returning from a European trip. After the ship hit an iceberg and began to sink, Brown was tossed into a lifeboat. She took command of the little boat and helped rescue a drowning sailor and other victims. To keep spirits up, she regaled the anxious survivors with stories of her life in the Old West. When newspapers later learned of Brown's courageous actions, they promptly dubbed her "the unsinkable Mrs. Brown" and she became an international heroine. Eventually, Brown's money ran out and she faded from the public view, dying in modest circumstances in New York City in 1932. However, the Broadway musical The Unsinkable Molly Brown revived her fame for a new generation in 1960.
1517?      top of article
     There has never been universal agreement over the number of lives lost in the sinking of the Titanic. Beginning with the first news reports of the disaster, inquirers have found it unwise to trust the original passenger and crew lists, which were rendered inaccurate by such factors as misspellings, omissions, aliases, and failure to count musicians and other contracted employees as either passengers or crew members. Agreement was made more difficult by the international nature of the disaster, essentially involving a British-registered liner under US ownership that carried more than 2000 people of many nationalities. Immediately after the sinking, official inquiries were conducted by a special committee of the US Senate (which claimed an interest in the matter on the grounds of the US lives lost) and the British Board of Trade (under whose regulations the Titanic operated). The figures established by these hearings are as follows:
U.S. Senate committee: 1517 lives lost — British Board of Trade: 1503 lives lost
     Confusion over these figures was immediately aggravated by the official reports of these inquiries to the US Senate and the British Parliament; these reports revised the numbers to 1500 and 1490, respectively. The figures have been revised, officially and unofficially, so many more times since 1912 that most researchers and historians concede that they will never know exactly how many of the people sailing on the Titanic died.
     330 floating bodies, 91 of them never identified, were recovered by ships contracted for that purpose
1906  Manuel Domínguez-Sánchez, pintor español.
1901 Juan Manuel Blanes, Romanian Uruguayan artist born in 1830. — more with links to two images.
1889  José de Veuster, el “Padre Damián de Molokai” , misionero belga.
1876 Theude Grönland, German artist born on 31 August 1817.
^ 1865 Abraham Lincoln.
—     At 07:22, the sixteenth president of the United States dies from a bullet wound inflicted the night before by John Wilkes Booth [10 May 1838 – 26 April 1865] an actor and Confederate sympathizer.
     Vice-President Andrew Johnson [29 Dec 1808 – 31 Jul 1875] becomes the 17th president of the US.
     Lincoln's death comes only six days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee [] surrendered his massive army at Appomattox, the beginning of the end of the US Civil War. In early April, with Confederate armies near collapse across the South, Booth, an actor who remained in the North during the war despite his Confederate sympathies, hatched a desperate plan to save the Confederacy.
      Learning that Lincoln was to attend the acclaimed performance of “Laura Keene” [Mary Moss: 1826 – 04 Nov 1876] in Our American Cousin by Tom Taylor [19 Oct 1817 – 12 Jul 1880], at Washington's Ford's Theater on 14 April, Booth and a group of conspirators plotted the assassination of Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson, and Secretary of State William H. Seward [16 May 1801 – 10 Oct 1872]. By murdering the president and two of his possible successors, they hoped to throw the Union government into a paralyzing disarray. Only Booth, assigned to murder Lincoln, would be successful.
      Just after 22:00, Booth entered Lincoln's private box unnoticed, and shot the president with a single bullet in the back of his head. Slashing an army officer who rushed at him, Booth jumped to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis! — the South is avenged!" Although Booth had broken his left leg jumping from Lincoln's box, he succeeded in escaping from Washington.
      The president, mortally wounded, was carried to a cheap lodging house opposite Ford's Theater. An hour after dawn the next morning, Abraham Lincoln died, becoming the first president to be assassinated. His body was taken to the White House where it lay until 18 April, at which point it was carried to the Capitol rotunda to lay in state on a catafalque.
     Several days after the assassination, Lincoln's fourth and last child, Thomas “Tad” Lincoln [04 April 1853–] said to a White House servant, “Pa is dead. I can hardly believe that I shall never see him again. I must learn to take care of myself now. Yes, Pa is dead, and I am only Tad Lincoln now, little Tad, like other little boys. I am not a President's son now. I won't have many presents anymore. Well, I will try and be a good boy, and will hope to go someday to Pa and brother Willie, in heaven.” He did not have to wait many years. Tad died on 15 July 1871, probably of tuberculosis. Willie Lincoln [21 Dec 1850 – 20 Feb 1862] was the third child of Abraham Lincoln, whose second child, Edward "Eddie" Baker Lincoln [10 Mar 1846 – 01 Feb 1850], but who was survived by his son Robert Todd Lincoln [01 Aug 1843 – 26 Jul 1926] and his wife Mary Todd Lincoln [13 Dec 1818 – 16 Jul 1882].
      On 21 April 1865, Lincoln's body was taken to the railroad station and boarded on a train that conveyed it to Springfield, Illinois, his home before becoming president. Tens of thousands of persons lined the train's railroad route and paid their respects to their fallen leader during the train's solemn progression through the North. Lincoln was buried on 04 April 1865, at Oak Ridge Cemetery, near Springfield.
      Booth, pursued by the army and secret service forces, was finally cornered in a barn near Bowling Green, Virginia, and died from a possibly self-inflicted bullet wound as the barn was burned to the ground (26 April). On his body was found a diary. Of the nine [or 8?] other persons eventually charged with the conspiracy, four were hanged and four were jailed. Mary Surratt [May 1820 – 07 Jul 1865], owner of the boardinghouse where Booth stayed but probably completely innocent, was one of those hanged. One of those jailed was Dr. Samuel Mudd, 31, from whom comes the expression "his name is mud"
     Abraham Lincoln was born on 12 February 1809 in Hardin County, Kentucky, as legend would have it in a log cabin (“which he built with his own hands” some humorist added). He was the second child of farmer Thomas Lincoln [06 Jan 1776 – 17 Jan 1851], son of an Abraham Lincoln who had been killed by Amerindians while clearing farmland. When he was eight the family moved to Indiana “ a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods.” When he was ten, his mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln [05 Feb 1784 – 05 Oct 1818], died of "milk sickness," an illness contracted by drinking milk from a cow that had consumed the poisonous white snakeroot. His father married the widow Sarah Bush Johnston [12 Dec 1788 – 10 Dec 1869] on 02 December 1819 and she became a good and kind mother to Abraham and to his sister Sarah [10 Feb 1807 – 20 Jan 1828], as she was to her own three children. In March 1830 the Lincolns moved to Illinois.
     Lincoln spent only one year at school, but he read a lot and made extraordinary efforts to attain knowledge while working on a farm, splitting rails for fences, and working as a storekeeper, postmaster and surveyor in New Salem, Illinois.
     He took a keen interest in politics and supported the Whig Party. In 1834 Lincoln was elected to the Illinois State Legislature where he argued that the role of federal government was to encourage business by establishing a national bank, imposing protective tariffs and improving the country's transport system.
     Lincoln became a lawyer after passing his bar examination in 1836. There was not much legal work in New Salem and the following year he moved to Springfield, the new state capital of Illinois
      He was a captain in the Black Hawk War, spent eight years in the Illinois legislature, and rode the circuit of courts for many years. His law partner said of him, "His ambition was a little engine that knew no rest."
     On 04 November, 1842, Lincoln married Mary Todd, the daughter of a prosperous family from Kentucky. The couple had four sons: Robert Lincoln [1843-1926], Edward Baker Lincoln [1846-1850], William Lincoln [1850-62] and Thomas Lincoln [1853-1871]. Three of the boys died young and only Robert lived long enough to marry, Mary Harlan on 24 September 1868, and have children: Mary Lincoln [15 Oct 1869 – 21 Nov 1938], Abraham “Jack” Lincoln [14 Aug 1873 – 05 Mar 1890], and Jessie Lincoln [06 Nov 1875 – 06 Jan 1948].
      In 1858 Abraham Lincoln ran against Stephen A. Douglas [23 Apr 1813 – 03 Jun 1861] for Senator. He lost the election, but in debating with Douglas he gained a national reputation that won him the Republican nomination for President in 1860.
(He also said that he was proud to be of the White race, superior to the Black race):
“I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races. There is a physical difference between the two, which, in my judgment, will probably forever forbid their living together upon the footing of perfect equality, and inasmuch as it becomes a necessity that there must be a difference, I, as well as Judge Douglas, am in favor of the race to which I belong having the superior position. I have never said anything to the contrary, but I hold that, notwithstanding all this, there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. I hold that he is as much entitled to these as the white man. I agree with Judge Douglas he is not my equal in many respects — certainly not in color, perhaps not in moral or intellectual endowment. But in the right to eat the bread, without the leave of anybody else, which his own hand earns, he is my equal and the equal of Judge Douglas, and the equal of every living man.” [from first Lincoln-Douglas debate 21 Aug 1858]
     Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it."
      Lincoln thought secession illegal, and was willing to use force to defend Federal law and the Union. When Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter and forced its surrender, he called on the states for 75,000 volunteers. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy but four remained within the Union. The Civil War had begun.
      As President, he built the Republican Party into a strong national organization. Further, he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. On 01 January 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.
      Lincoln never let the world forget that the Civil War involved an even larger issue. This he stated most movingly in dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg: "that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
      Lincoln won re-election in 1864, as Union military triumphs heralded an end to the war. In his planning for peace, the President was flexible and generous, encouraging Southerners to lay down their arms and join speedily in reunion.
      The spirit that guided him was clearly that of his Second Inaugural Address, now inscribed on one wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC: "With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds.... "
     When he assassinated Lincoln, John Wilkes Booth somehow thought that he was helping the South. The opposite was the result, for with Lincoln's death, the possibility of peace with magnanimity died and the bitter period of “Reconstruction” ensued.
Portraits of Lincoln and of his family:
by Healy: Abraham Lincoln
by Saint-Gaudens: Abraham Lincoln (1887)
by Courter: Lincoln and His Son, Tad (1929)
by Peto: Lincoln and the Phleger Stretcher (1898)
by Waters: The Lincoln Children (1845)
by Carpenter: The Lincoln Family (1865)
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlincoln.htm
Photos:
by Anthony Berger: Abraham Lincoln (09 Feb 1864)
1808 Hubert Robert, French landscape painter born on 22 May 1733. MORE ON ROBERT AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1794 (26 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
DALENÇON Charles Mathias, âgé de 67 ans (sic), né en 1744 (sic) à Bar-sur-Ornain (ci-devant Bar-le-Duc), département de la Meuse, ex seigneur de Neuville-sur-Ornain, ex comte, domicilié à Neuville, département de la Meuse, comme conspirateur et pour inteligence avec les émigrés
GATTEY Marie Claudine, ex religieuse du couvent de St Lazare, âgée de 39 ans, née à Autun, département de la Saône et Loire domiciliée à Paris département de la Seine, condamnée à mort par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, pour avoir la veille crié "Vive le roi!", dans l'enceinte de l'audience du tribunal révolutionnaire, par désespoir de ce que son cousin François Charles Gattey, libraire, venait d'être . Elle voulait, pour lui témoigner son amitié, mourir avec lui, mais son exécution fut ajournée au lendemain.
PREVOST Brice, chapelier, âgé de 28 ans, né à Sansfront, département de l’Orne, domicilié à Paris département de la Seine, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant tenu des propos tendants à l’avilissement et à la dissolution de la représentation nationale, et au rétablissement de la royauté.
ROGER Gaspard, âgé de 38 ans, salpêtrier, brasseur, né et domicilié à Neuville, département de la Meuse, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspirateur, ayant fait plusieurs voyages au camp de la lune, occupé par les Prussiens, ayant porté différent marchandises, notamment du sucre et du café, ayant fait passer des fourrages, ayant été l’agent de l’ex noble d’Alençon, dont les fils sont émigrés et leur ayant fait passer de l’argent.
TESSIER Joseph François Alexandre (dit Duclozeau), physicien, membre du conseil général du département de Mayenne et Loire, âgé de 39 ans, natif des Rosières, même département, domicilié à Vannes, département du Morbihan, par le tribunal révolutionnaire, ayant contribué à la rédaction de la lettre du conseil général du département de Mayenne et Loire, adressée à l'ex-ministre Rolland, et en prenant part dans cette adresse aux regrets qu'il éprouvait avec ses collègues sur la disgrâce de ce ministre.
     ... comme conspirateurs:
LESCALE Victoire, femme Royer, ex noble, 40 ans, et LESCALE Marie Jeanne, 52 ans, vivant de son industrie, nées à Villot, domiciliées à Neuville, département de la Meuse.
      ...     ... domiciliés dans le département de Mayenne et Loire:
BREVET Louis Etienne, (dit Beaujour), âgé de 30 ans, né à Angers, y demeurant, ex avocat du roi au ci-devant présidial d'Angers, ex député à l'Assemblée Constitutionnelle, et commissaire nationale au district du département de Mayenne et Loire.
COURAUDIN Aimé, (dit Lanoue), âgé de 31 ans, né à Angers, . ex conseiller du roi au bailliage et présidial d'Angers, depuis président du district d'Angers.
DIEUSIE ou BIEUSIE Louis, âgé de 45 ans, natif de Mezengé, département de la Loire Inférieure, ex noble ex constituant et président du département de Mayenne et Loire, domicilié à Angers.
LAREVEILLIERE Jean Baptiste, président du tribunal criminel du département, de Mayenne et Loire, âgé de 41 ans, né à Montaigu, département de la Vendée, ex conseiller du tyran roi au présidial d'Angers, département de la Mayenne et Loire, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme conspirateur.
Domiciliés dans le département des Bouches du Rhône, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
BREST Pierre, ouvrier confiseur, domicilié à Marseille, comme messager des fédéralistes.
JOURDAN Pierre, prêtre, domicilié à Aubagnes, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
Guillotinés à Arras:
ANSART Louis François Joseph, 84 ans, ex religieux de l'abbaye de St Vaast, ci-devant prévost de Labeuvrière.
BOSCA (?) François, 64 ans, né à Gramat (lot), celibataire demeurant à Biache, capitaine au ci-devant régiment de Vintimille.
LALBINQUE Mathurin, 65 ans, né à Albinque, ancien capitaine au ci-devant régiment de Vintimille époux de Dumortier Marguerite Joseph.
Comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés dans le département de Mayenne, par la commission militaire séante à Laval:
BADALLIER Jean, laboureur, domicilié à la Chapelle-le-Prêtre, canton de Laval. — GEORGET François, laboureur domicilié à Bourg-le-Prêtre.
BOURDAIS Jean et PLEURIAN Jean, domiciliés à Ruillé-le-Gravelais, canton de Laval.
Ailleurs:
BRAGOUSE Pierre, père, (dit St Sauveur), domicilié à Mayrveis, département de la Lozère, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
EPHIN Joseph, hussard de Chamboran et déserteur, domicilié à Pertau, département du Bas-Rhin, par la commission militaire de l’armée du Nord, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
SERVANT Gabriel Claude, compagnon faiseur de bas, âgé de 45 ans, né et domicilié à Lyon, département du Rhône, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon.
1793 Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
Comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés dans le département de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables:
BARRAUD Jean, domestique, BRISARD Noël, laboureur, et ROUSSEAU Jean, laboureur, domiciliés à St Gervais, canton de Challans
FRUCHARD Louis, maire de Véré. — MORISSEAU Louis, journalier, domicilié à Tallemont. — PERTUZÉ Gabriel, chirugien, domicilié à Landvieille
Ailleurs:

BONNECARRERE veuve Collet, femme de journée, domiciliée à Paris, département de la Seine, comme distributrice de faux assignats, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Seine.
ROUXEL Philibert François (dit Vlanchelandé), lieutenant général et gouverneur des Isles Sous le Vent, âgé de 58 ans, natif de Dijon, département de la Côte-d’Or, domicilié à Chaussin, département du Jura, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir autorisé des détentions et déportations arbitraires à St Domingue, et d’avoir favorisé le parti contre-révolutionnaire des colonies portant pour signe de ralliement un pompon blanc.
VASSEL Jean Mathieu, ci-devant prêtre, âgé de 34 ans, domicilié à Saint-Just, département de la Haute-Loire, comme réfractaire par la commission militaire séante au Puy, devenant ainsi la première victime de la Terreur dans la Haute-Loire.
1792 PERTUZÉ Gabriel, chirugien, domicilié à Landvieille, département de la Vendée, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire des Sables.
1776 Balthasar Beschey, Flemish artist born on 20 November 1708.
1764  Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, marquise de Pompadour.
1757 Rosalba Carriera, Italian artist born on 07 October 1675MORE ON CARRIERA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1754 Jacopo Francesco Riccati, Venetian mathematician born on 28 May 1676. He wrote on philosophy, physics and differential equations. He is chiefly known for the Riccati differential equation.
1704 Johann van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician, burgomeister of Amsterdam (1672-1702), born on 23 April 1628. He worked on maxima and minima and the theory of equations. He gave an ingenious method to find multiple roots of an equation which is essentially the modern method of finding the highest common factor of a polynomial and its derivative. He also worked on optics, producing microscopes and constructing telescope lenses. Hudde corresponded with Huygens [14 Apr 1629 – 08 Jul 1695] on problems of canal maintenance, probability and life expectancy. In 1657 Hudde directed the flooding of parts of Holland to block the advance of the French army.
1700 Giovanni Maria Viani, Venetian pastelist born on 11 September 1636. — more
1622 Leandro Bassano da Ponte, Italian Mannerist painter born on 26 June 1557. MORE ON BASSANO AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
 
< 14 Apr 16 Apr >
^  Births which occurred on a 15 April:

1957  En el camino, novela de Jack Kerouac [12 Mar 1922 – 21 Oct 1969], se publica.
1955 The McDonald's restaurant chain is started by Ray Kroc [05 Oct 1902 – 14 Jan 1984] by opening in Des Plaines, Illinois, the first restaurant of the chain, modeled on the San Bernardino, California, restaurant of the brothers Maurice and Richard McDonald, to whom Kroc agreed to pay 0.5% of gross receipts. Kroc bought out the McDonald brothers in 1961 for $2'700'000. By that time he had established 228 restaurants and annual sales had reached $37'000'000. At the time of his death there were some 7500 McDonald's outlets worldwide, three-fourths of them run by franchise holders.
1942 Kenneth Lee “Ken” Lay, US businessman who died on 05 July 2006. On 25 May 2006 he was convicted of corruption as CEO (1986 - 23 Jan 2002) of of Enron Corporation (bankrupt since 02 Dec 2001), and was due to be sentenced (possibly to up to 30 years in prison) on 23 October 2006. Because he not yet filed an appeal when he died, his conviction was abated on 17 October 2006. —(061018)
1940 Cristóbal Toral Ruiz, Spanish painter. — more with links to images, including some of terrorist fruit.
^ 1940 Jeffrey Archer, English author and politician.
      Jeffrey Archer, bestselling novelist and politician, is born in Somerset, England. Archer attended Oxford and later studied in the US. In 1969, he was elected to the House of Commons, the youngest member of Parliament elected that year. But in 1974, financial disaster struck when an investment went bad. Penniless, he resigned from Parliament and wrote a novel, Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less, which became an instant bestseller, enabling him to repay his debts. Archer was later appointed deputy chairman of Britain's Conservative Party, but he was forced to resign in disgrace again after a tabloid accused him of patronizing a prostitute in 1986. Archer sued the tabloid and won $800'000 in damages. Meanwhile, he continued writing bestsellers, including Shall We Tell the President? (1976), First Among Equals (1984), As the Crow Flies (1991), and The Fourth Estate (1996). In 1995, the queen made Archer a peer, endowing him with the title of Lord. In 1999, Lord Archer ran for mayor of London but was brought down by another scandal, when he admitted that he had attempted an illegal cover-up of the prostitute incident 13 years earlier.
1939  Jaime Paz Zamora, president of Bolivia from 06 August 1989 to 06 August 1993. —(080414).
1933  El rival de su mujer, de Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, se estrena en el teatro Beatriz de Madrid.
1930  Vigdis Finnbogadottir, president of Iceland from 01 August 1980 to 01 August 1996. —(080414)
1924 First US road atlas is published by Rand McNally.
1920  Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker, presidente de la R.F. de Alemania.
1922 Harold Washington, first black mayor of Chicago (D, 1983-1987). He died on 25 November 1987.
1912  Kim Il-Sung [–08 Jul 1994], Communist dictator of North Korea from 09 September 1948 to his death.. —(080414)
1907 Nikolaas Tinbergen, Dutch-born English zoologist and ethologist who won the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He died on 21 December 1988.
1904 Arshile Gorky, Armenian-born US painter, who died on 21 July 1948. MORE ON GORKY AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1889 Asa Philip Randolph, US Black civil rights and labor leader (Railroad Porter's Union) who died on 16 May 1979.
1889 Thomas Hart Benton, US Regionalist painter who died on 19 January 1975. MORE ON BENTON AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1886 Amédée Ozenfant, French painter who died on 04 May 1966. — more with links to images.
1883 Stanley Bruce, Australian statesman and diplomat; prime minister (1923-1929). He died on 25 August 1967.
1880 Max Wertheimer, Czech-born US psychologist; founder of Gestalt psychology. He died on 12 October 1943.
1879  Concha Espina, escritora española.
1874 Johannes Stark, German Nobel Prize-winning physicist (1919). He died on 21 June 1957.
1865 Olga Boznanska, Polish artist who died in 1945. — more with links to images.
1860 Edward Arthur Walton, British painter who died on 18 March 1922. — more with link to an image.
1859 Abbott Fuller Graves, US artist who died in 1936. MORE ON GRAVES AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1850 The city of San Francisco is incorporated.
click for full portrait1843 Henry James , in New York, US and British novelist, who died on 28 February 1916 in London..       ^top^

     His fundamental theme was the innocence and exuberance of the New World in clash with the corruption and wisdom of the Old, as illustrated in such works as Daisy Miller (1879), The Portrait of a Lady (1881), The Bostonians (1886), and The Ambassadors (1903). Henry James was named as his father Henry James [03 Jun 1811 – 18 Dec 1882], a prominent philosophical theologian, social theorist, and lecturer, and was the younger brother of the pragmatist philosopher William James [11 Jan 1842 – 26 Aug 1910].

< click on face of James for his full 1913 portrait by his friend John Singer Sargent [12 Jan 1856 – 15 Apr 1925]
HENRY JAMES ONLINE:
  • The Altar of the Dead
  • The Ambassadors
  • The Ambassadors
  • The American
  • The Aspern Papers
  • The Aspern Papers
  • The Awkward Age (1899 London ed.)
  • The Beast in the Jungle
  • The Beast in the Jungle
  • The Bostonians
  • A Bundle of Letters
  • Complete On-Line Works.
  • Confidence
  • The Coxon Fund
  • Daisy Miller
  • Daisy Miller
  • The Death of the Lion
  • The Diary of a Man of Fifty
  • Eugene Pickering
  • The Europeans
  • The Figure in the Carpet
  • The Finer Grain
  • Glasses
  • The Golden Bowl
  • Hawthorne )
  • In the Cage
  • In the Cage
  • An International Episode
  • The Ivory Tower (1917 posthumous ed.)
  • The Jolly Corner
  • The Jolly Corner
  • The Lesson of the Master
  • A Little Tour in France
  • The Madonna of the Future
  • The Outcry
  • The Portrait of a Lady
  • The Portrait of a Lady
  • The Real Thing, and Other Stories
  • Roderick Hudson
  • The Sacred Fount
  • The Turn of the Screw
  • The Turn of the Screw
  • Washington Square
  • Watch and Ward
  • What Maisie Knew (1908 NY ed.)
  • The Wings of the Dove (1909 NY ed.)
  • 1832 Wilhelm Busch, German artist who died on 09 January 1908. — more
    1812 Théodore Etienne Pierre Rousseau, French artist who died on 22 December 1867. — links to images.
    1809 Hermann Grassmann, mathematician.
    1808  Manuel Gutiérrez de la Concha, militar y político argentino.
    1800 Sir James Clark Ross explorer (British Antarctic).
    1741 Charles Willson Peale, US painter who died on 22 February 1827. He is renowned for his portraits of US War of Independence leaders MORE ON PEALE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    ^ 1721 William Augustus duke of Cumberland “the Butcher”, who died on 31 October 1765.
          He would become a British general and be nicknamed “Butcher Cumberland” for his harsh suppression of the Jacobite rebellion of 1745. His subsequent military failures led to his estrangement from his father, King George II [10 Nov 1683 – 25 Oct 1760; king from the 11 Jun 1727 death of his father George I].
          During the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), Cumberland became commander of the allied forces (1745) and was severely defeated by France's Marshal Maurice de Saxe at the Battle of Fontenoy (11 May 1745). Later that year Cumberland was recalled to England to oppose the invasion of Jacobites under Charles Edward, the Young Pretender (“Bonnie Prince Charlie”) [31 Dec 1720 – 31 Jan 1788], grandson of the deposed Stuart king James II. After cheaply triumphing over Charles at the decisive Battle of Culloden Moor in Inverness-shire on 16 April 1746 (at which about 1000 Scots were massacred), he remained in Scotland for three months, rounding up some 3500 men and executing about 120. He then returned to the war against the French; in July 1747 he lost the Battle of Lauffeld to Saxe. During the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) he was defeated by the French at the Battle of Hastenbeck (July 1757) in Hanover, one of George II's possessions. Because he signed the Convention of Klosterzeven (08 September 1757), promising to evacuate Hanover, he was dismissed by his father, who repudiated the agreement. His refusal to serve as commander in chief unless William Pitt was dismissed as prime minister led to Pitt's fall in April 1757.
    1712 Jan-Anton Garemyn, Flemish artist who died on 23 June 1799.
    1707 Leonhard Euler, Basle, Switzerland, mathematician (Euler's Constant) and physicist. He died on 18 September 1783.
    1684 Catherine I empress of Russia (1725-1727)
    1682 Jan van Huysum, Dutch painter specialized in still-lifes of dead flowers, who died on 07 February 1749. — MORE ON VAN HUYSUM AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1548 Cataldi, mathematician.
    1452 Leonardo da Vinci, Italian sculptor / scientist / visionary / mathematician / painter, who died on 02 May 1519. — MORE ON DA VINCI AT ART “4” MAY with links to images.
     
    Holidays Africa : African Freedom Day

    Religious Observances Ancient Rome : Fordicidia a d xvij Kal Maias Buddhist : New Year (Bangladesh) / Santos Anastasia, Basilisa, Crescente, Eutilio y Máximo.
    Easter Sunday in 1759, 1770, 1781, 1827, 1838, 1900, 1906, 1979, 1990, 2001, 2063, 2074, 2085, 2096, 2131, 2142, 2153, 2210, 2221, 2283, 2294. (more)
    Good Friday in 1881, 1892, 1927, 1938, 1949, 1960, 2022, 2033, 2044, 2101, 2112.
    Holy Thursday in 1897, 1954, 1965, 1976, 2049, 2055, 2060, 2106, 2117.
    Palm Sunday in 1962, 1973, 1984, 2057, 2068, 2114.

    click click

    I.R.S.:
    “You've got questions? We've got ... no, no ... not answers right now ... first we've got our own questions!”

    — “Neven mind, I.R.S., you have just answered my first question: what is your I the initial of? Obviously: “Infernal”. Now can anyone tell me what the R and the S stand for?”
    (See on http://www.irs.gov/help/article/0,,id=143687,00.html: “Get answers to many common tax questions by answering a series of simple online questions.”)
    Thoughts for the day :
    “He reminds me of the man who murdered both his parents, and then, when sentence was about to be pronounced pleaded for mercy on the grounds that he was an orphan.” —
    Abraham Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 — 15 Apr 1865]
    “Every Titanic has its iceberg.”
    “Every iceberg is wishing for its
    Titanic.”
    “Every
    Titanic is not a Lusitania.”
    “If you're a musician, don't sign up with a shipboard band which keeps practicing
    Nearer My God To Thee.”
    “The desire to work is confined to classified ads.”
    “The desire to do classified work adds confinement to the job.”
    “History would be an excellent thing if only it were true.”
    — Leo Tolstoy, Russian author [09 Sep 1828 – 20 Nov 1910].
    “The last straw can break a camel's back, but usually it's the other way around.”
    “When you're riding a camel, never grasp at straws, at least not at the last one.”
    “The last straw is an iceberg when the camel is a
    Titanic.”
    “Remember the
    Titanic: when on board ship, never ride a camel. And that goes double for airplanes.”
    “Be wary of a ship that is free of rats.”
    “Never board a ship unless you are sure that it is free of camels.”
    “The main thing about Cuba is to remember the
    Maine thing.”

    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE to HISTORY 4 2DAY
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4apr/h4apr15.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4apr/h4apr15.html
    http://www.ifrance.com/7aujourdhui/history/h4apr/h4apr15.html
    updated Tuesday 15-Apr-2008 3:11 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.7.30 Sunday 15-Apr-2007 4:31 UT
    v.6.30 Saturday 22-Apr-2006 3:14 UT
    Saturday 27-Aug-2005 15:23 UT
    Friday 07-May-2004 20:40 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site