• USSR~Japan nonagression pact... • Fort Sumter surrenders... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Biafra recognized... • Space craft disaster... • Uboat is sunk... • 4th day of Bataan Death March... • Amritsar Massacre... • Mort de La Fontaine... • Atheism propagandist is born... • Hitler bluffs from bunker... • Stainless steel's inventor dies... • Woolworth's founder is born... • US Navy ship snoops in Japan... • USSR admits to Katyn Massacre... • Grève de la faim en Turquie... • Major North Vietnamese attack... • SCLC's resolution against South Vietnamese junta... • Nacimiento de González Martínez...
a 13 April:
2006 (Holy Thursday) Pope Benedict XVI [[16 Apr 1927~] gives a homily at the Mass of the Chrism and another homily at the Mass of the Last Supper. — (060414)
2003 The 2003 Jefferson Muzzles are awarded, for their egregious violations of free speech in 2002, to US Attorney General John Ashcroft (for abusive arrests, imprisonments, and denial of information), the 107th US Congress (for carelessly passing the USA PATRIOT "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism." Act, in particular its Section 215 which does away with the probable cause requirement for searches), Mayor Tom Bates of Berkeley CA (for taking and throwing in the trash, on 04 November 2002, some 1000 copies of newspapers critical of his electoral campaign), the Cedarville AR School Board (for restricting Harry Potter books), National Zoo Director Lucy Spelman (for refusing access to records about the death of Ryma, 17, “to preserve the giraffe's privacy”), the Tennessee Arts Commission (for its no-nudes policy), McMinnville TN City Administrator Herb Llewellyn (for prohibiting letters to the editor by city employees), the Whiting IN High School Administration (for withholding the valedictorian's diploma because, in her speech, she had given her favorite teachers such imaginary awards as "Trapped in the '80s," "Sesame Street Critic," "Shakespearean Occultist of the Year" and "Pain in the Asymptote."), The North Carolina House of Representatives (for passing 64-10 a bill that would make impossible a college assignment such as to discuss the book Approaching the Qur'an: The Early Revelations), and Utica MI High School Principal Richard Machesky (for censoring out of the student newspaper an article about diesel exhaust from school buses).
2002 The New York Times publishes a review of the book Harmful to Minors by Judith Levine, due to be published in May 2002, and the hysterical reaction to it by the many in the US in particular (contrasting with the Netherlands) who confuse the universal and justified abhorrence for pedophilia (especially when committed by priests) with their refusal to face facts and act in consequence. Some of the author's opinions, as distinguished from the facts she presents, do not seem consistent with the moral norms of the Catholic and other religions.
2000 Elián González [06 Dec 1993~] is in Miami at his great-uncle's Lázaro's home, where he has stayed since his Thanksgiving 1999 rescue at sea, where his mother died drowned while bringing him to the US Elian's father, after all these months, has at last come to the US, but refuses to go to see his boy in Miami.
| 1999 Dr. Jack
Kevorkian [26 May 1928~] is sentenced to 10 to 25 years in prison for
assisting in the suicide of Thomas Youk [1946 – 17 Sep 1998], which
was broadcast on 22 November 1998 on the TV program “60 Minutes”.
Kevorkian had previously performed only passive euthanasia, providing terminally
ill patients with the means to end their lives. Although Kevorkian was confident
that his practices were legal, after assisting in more than 130 suicides,
he was found guilty of second-degree murder.
1998 News media report that computer-security engineers found a security flaw in widely used cell phone technology.
1995 Microsoft agrees to invest $90 million in Wang Laboratories and to incorporate Wang's imaging technology into Windows 95. Wang, an early pioneer in word processing, had filed for bankruptcy in September 1992, following the death of founder An Wang, but it had emerged from bankruptcy the following year. Microsoft planned to incorporate Wang's office automation and workflow technology into Microsoft Exchange, a rival to Lotus Notes. Exchange was released later in 1995.
1993 Adobe Systems announces that it will ship a new electronic document system by the end of June:. Acrobat, which will make it easier to distribute identical copies of electronic documents.
1992 WordStar announced that its plan to acquire Delrina Corporation, maker of WinFax software, has collapsed.
1992 Aleksander Meksi [1951~] becomes prime minister of Albania. —(081126)
| 1984 US President Reagan
[06 Feb 1911 – 05 Jun 2004] sends emergency military aid to El Salvador
without congressional approval.
1979 Ugandan nationalist and Tanzanian troops, which invaded Uganda in October 1978, reach Kampala, the capital. Grotesque dictator Idi Amin Dada Oumee [1925~] has fled.
1961 The UN General Assembly condemns South Africa for apartheid.
1960 France becomes the 4th nuclear nation exploding an A-Bomb, in Sahara.
1959 Vatican edict forbids Roman Catholics to vote for Communists.
1957 Due to lack of funds, Saturday mail delivery in the US is halted.
1950 The members of the Arab League (Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Transjordan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen) sign an agreement on joint defense and economic cooperation.
1934 4.7 million US families report receiving welfare payments
1895 Start of Sherlock Holmes's Adventure of the Solitary Cyclist.
1895 Alfred Dreyfus [19 Oct 1859 – 12 Jul 1935], a French army officer unjustly condemned for treason, arrives at the penal colony Devil's Island. He would be released on 05 June 1899.
1883 Alfred Packer convicted of cannibalism
1865 Union forces under General Sherman begin their devastating march through Georgia.
1865 Skirmish at Raleigh, North Carolina
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1829 English Parliament grants freedom of religion to Catholics.
1796 First elephant brought to US (from Bengal, India)
1759 French beat the European Allies in the Battle of Bergen.
1598 The Edict of Nantes is promulgated by France's King Henri IV [13 Dec 1553 – 14 May 1610], granting his Huguenot (Protestant) subjects a large measure of religious freedom. The Edict of Nantes would remain in effect until revoked by Louis XIV [05 Sep 1638 – 01 Sep 1715] on 18 October 1685.
1191 The cardinal-deacon Giacinto Bobone (or Bobo-Orsini ) [1106 – 08 Jan 1198], who was elected Pope (Celestine III) on 30 March 1191, is ordained a priest, so that the next day he can be consecrated bishop of Rome.
1059 At the Lateran Council Pope Nicholas II [–27 Aug 1061] promulgates his bull on papal elections; in reaction to the disorders that attended his own December 1058 election in opposition to Antipope Benedict X. He assigns the leading role to the seven cardinal bishops (i.e., those who had the predominant position among the higher clergy), who are to choose a suitable candidate and then summon the other cardinals. The remaining clergy and the people are to acclaim the choice, and the imperial role is dismissed. Nicholas' legate, sent to notify the German court of the election decree, was refused an audience, and an imperialist version of the decree was circulated. At a synod of 1061, the German bishops declared Nicholas' decree void and quashed all his acts, signifying the ruptured alliance between Germany and Rome and launching the contest between empire and papacy.
2004 Fabrizio Quattrochi, 35, one of four Italian security guards abducted in Iraq on 12 April 2004, is murdered by the abductors. [he is seen this day on al-Jazeera television, in photo made by the abductors >]
2003 James J. Softy, 44, of Cresson PA, of the effects of partial drowning suffered the previous day during a fishing trip with his twin Raymond C. Softy, on a lake in Canoe Creek State Park in Blair County, when their boat capsizes. It was loaded 131 kb over capacity, and Raymond, who survives, pleads guilty, on Tuesday 02 September 2003, to one summary count of reckless and negligent operation of watercraft and a summary count of violating general boating regulations.
2002 At least 25 Venezuelans in a mass demonstration protesting the previous day's military coup that ousted President Hugo Chávez, shot at by police. The demonstrations and the defection of some military leaders would result the next day in Chavez's reinstatement.
2002 Vlajko Stojiljkovic, 65, at 21:30, former Serbian interior minister indicted for war crimes by the UN tribunal in the Hague, from having shot himself in the temple two days earlier when the Yugoslav Parliament passed a law removing legal obstacles for the arrest and extradition to the UN tribunal of those accused of war crimes.
2002 Three Nepalese by a bomb near a school in the northwestern town of Laltin Bazaar: one postal worker, one town resident and a man who had just dropped off his wife at the school. Four persons are injured.
2002 Ramiro de León Carpio, 60, former president of Guatemala, possibly from a diabetic coma (probable date: his body is found on 16 April, in Miami, where he had gone to meet with lawyers. He had phoned home on 12 April, but not thereafter). A former human rights ombudsman, Mr. de León Carpio was named president in 1993 when Jorge Serrano fled after a failed attempt to dismiss Congress and the Supreme Court. Carpio eventually called general elections, then turned power over to Álvaro Arzu, the elected president, on 14 January 1996.
1975 François “Ngarta” Tombalbaye, dictator of Chad, assassinated during a successful military coup headed by General Félix Malloum.
1966 Carlo Dalmazzo Carrà, Italian Futurist painter born on 11 February 1881. MORE ON CARRÀ AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1948 Dr. Chaim Yassky; Dr. Moshe Ben-David; Baruch Nussbaum; Zecharya Leitan; 55 other Jewish men; Shoshana Ben-Ari and 19 other Jewish women; and one British soldier; in Arab attack on a relief convoy headed for the Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus in Jerusalem. A convoy of two Haganah escort cars, two ambulances and two buses set off for the hospital in the early morning. At approximately 09:45, the leading vehicle was hit by a mine and the convoy came under attack by Arab forces spraying machine gun fire. After the buses began to leak gasoline, they were set on fire by Molotov cocktails. British forces came to the convoy's assistance, but had only limited resources. One of the first men on the scene was Major Jack Churchill [16 Sep 1912 – 08 Mar 1996] (his driver was the British soldier killed), who offered to evacuate members of the convoy in an armored personnel carrier. His offer was refused in the belief that the Haganah would come to their aid. When no relief arrived, Churchill and his 12 men provided what cover fire they could against hundreds of Arab militants. Following the massacre (which lasted for some 6 hours), Churchill oversaw the evacuation of 700 patients and staff from the hospital. Yassky [1896–] was director of the hospital and Ben-David, was slated to head the new medical school,
1925 Elwood Haynes,
in Kokomo, Indiana.
Haynes, the founder of the Haynes Automobile Company, led a remarkable life that began in Portland, Indiana, on 14 October 1857. The son of pioneer farmers Judge Jacob and Hillinda Haynes, Elwood thirsted for education at an early age. He eventually received degrees in engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and from Johns Hopkins. He returned to Portland to become a high school teacher in his subjects.
His career and life turned around as the result of the discovery of vast natural gas deposits near Portland. Forever curious, Haynes familiarized himself with natural gas containment and piping methods. He became the architect for the Indiana Natural Gas Company's pipe network, which provided most of Chicago with natural gas. Haynes was the first man to suggest that natural gas should be dehydrated before it was piped, a principle still in use today. From his laboratory at the Indiana Natural Gas Company, Haynes began tinkering with internal combustion engines. He completed his first car in 1894, one year after Charles Duryea is credited with having built the first American car.
[photo: Elwood Haynes, in his gasoline automobile in Kokomo, Indiana, 1894. His first trial run was made at about 10 km/h >]
Such was the dissemination of information at the time that Haynes, even until his death, was credited with building the first US car. After creating his prototype, Haynes started his own car company, which he ran for nearly three decades. He is credited with a number of automotive innovations, including the rotary engine.
But Haynes' greatest achievements came as a metallurgist. He was the first one in the US to pioneer the oxidization of steel and the use of chromium to retard nature's oxidization process. He eventually received a US patent for "stainless steel," although the invention first surfaced in England under the name "rustless iron." Haynes biographer Ralph Gray described the man succinctly: "Neither exceptionally bright nor a fast learner, Haynes had the capacity to absorb completely that which he had learned... He had an uncanny ability to be at the forefront of the most exciting new industrial and technological breakthroughs in his state during his lifetime." In our age of specialization, it is hard to imagine one man making such an impact in such diverse fields of exploration.
1910 William Quiller Orchardson, Scottish painter born on 27 March 1832. MORE ON ORCHARDSON AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1908 Martín Rico y Ortega, Spanish artist born on 12 November 1833. — more
1906 Weldon, mathematician.
1904 Vasili Vasilievitch Veretshchagin, Russian artist born on 26 October 1842. — more
1886 Sidney Richard Williams Percy, British artist born in 1821.
1868 Tewodros II, born in 1818, Ethiopia's first modern ruler. Not only did he reunify the various Ethiopian kingdoms into one empire, but he also attempted to focus loyalty around the government rather than the Ethiopian church, which he sought to bring under royal control. He worked to abolish the feudal system and create a new nobility of merit, dependent on the ruler alone. Although he failed in these aims, his example was ultimately followed by his successors.
1858 Carl Georg Adolph Hasenpflug, German artist born on 03 September 1802.
1812 reverend Abraham Pether, British landscape painter born in 1756. — links to images.
1806 Jean-Jacques Bachelier, French painter, writer and administrator, born in 1724.
1800 Ludwig Hess, Swiss artist born on 16 October 1760.
1794 (24 germinal an II) Condamnés à
mort par la Révolution:
Par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris:
BARAS Maris Marc Antoine, âgé de 30 ans, né à Toulouse, avocat et administrateur du district de Toulouse, y domicilié, département de Haute-Garonne, comme conspirateur , et comme complice d'Hébert, Ronsin, Vincent, Monoro, pour dissoudre la convention nationale, et donner un tyran à l'état.
BEYSSER Jean Michel, âgé de 40 ans, né à Libouvilliers, département du Haut-Rhin, domicilié à l'Orient, chirurgien Major, des armée françaises dans l'Inde, capitaine du régiment hollandais, depuis colonel de gendarmerie et général de la Brigade à l'armée de l'Ouest, comme complice d'Hébert, Ronsin, Vincent, Mazuel, Momoro, déjà frappés du glaive de la loi, pour dissoudre la représentation nationale et donner un tyran à l'état.
BUCHÈRE DE L'ÉPINOIS Jean-Baptiste Ernest [May 1751–], ancien flibustier, commandant de la garde nationale domicilié à Mesnil-St-Denis, canton de Versailles, département de la Seine et Oise, comme conspirateur .
CHAUMETTE Pierre Gaspard “Anaxagoras”, âgé de 31 ans, natif de Nevers, département de la Nièvre, domicilié à Paris agent nationale de la commune de Paris, comme complice d'une conspiration contre la liberté et la souveraineté du Peuple, tendante à troubler l'état par une guerre civile, dissoudre la représentation nationale, assassiner les membres des comités et les patriotes, détruire le gouvernement républicain, s'emparer de la souveraineté du peuple, rétablir la monarchie. [portrait]
— Né à Nevers le 24 mai 1763, Chaumette navigue comme mousse puis comme timonier. Il étudie la médecine à Paris en 1789, puis devient rédacteur aux Révolutions de Paris en 1790. Entré au club des Cordeliers, il s’y fait, comme à la section du Théâtre-Français, le porte-parole des couches les plus déshéritées de la population des faubourgs. Après la fuite à Varennes en juin 1791, il participe activement au mouvement qui demande la déchéance de Louis XVI et aboutit à la fusillade du Champ-de-Mars (17 juill. 1791). Il joue un rôle important dans la préparation de la journée du 10 août 1792 qui entraîne la chute de la royauté. Élu membre de la Commune insurrectionnelle, il en devient le procureur. Nommé commissaire du pouvoir exécutif dans le Calvados le 28 août 1792, il y restera un mois et sera donc absent lors des massacres de Septembre. Il s’efforce, comme administrateur municipal, de "rendre moins misérable la condition des pauvres et des faibles". Ennemi acharné de la Gironde, il se lance avec frénésie dans la campagne de déchristianisation de la fin de 1793. Mais il rencontre l’hostilité profonde de Robespierre, qui lui reproche surtout d’avoir donné à la commune de Paris une puissance inquiétante et croit voir en lui, comme il est l’ami d’Anacharsis Cloots, un agent de l’étranger. Il fait partie d’un groupe disparate (la veuve de Hébert, Anne-Philippe Lucile Laridon-Duplessis [1771–] veuve Camille Desmoulins, le général Arthur Dillon [1750–], l’archévêque démissionaire de Paris Jean-Baptiste Gobel [01 Sep 1727 – 14 Apr 1794]) qui comparaît le 21 germinal an II devant le Tribunal révolutionnaire. Chaumette est accusé d’avoir voulu "anéantir toute morale" et d’avoir été payé "par l’or de Pitt": il sera guillotiné le 24 germinal.
— Born on 24 May 1763, Chaumette went to sea as a cabin boy, studied botany, traveled widely in France, and then settled in Paris as a medical student by 1790. As an active Revolutionary he signed the 17 July 1791 petition that demanded the abdication of Louis XVI. From December 1792 he was procurator-general of the Paris Commune, in which capacity he improved conditions in the hospitals; organized decent burial for the poor; and forbade whipping in the schools, prostitution, obscene publications, and lotteries. Strenuously anti-Catholic, he organized the first ceremony of the worship of Reason (personified by an actress) in Notre-Dame Cathedral (10 November 1793). His order to close the Paris churches (23 November 1793) remained effective despite the attempted intervention of Maximilien Robespierre. Also that month Chaumette persuaded the Commune to ban women's participation in political debates and demonstrations, while denouncing such actions as contrary to nature. His antipathy to the Girondins may have caused the leaders of the Reign of Terror to fear him as a potential leader of the sansculottes (lowest classes). Although he had not aided the advocate of sansculotte insurrection, Jacques-René Hébert, Chaumette was arrested and executed after the Hébertists were suppressed in March 1794.
DILLON Arture, ex comte, âgé de 43 ans, natif de Braywick en Angleterre, ex maréchal de camp, général de division à l'armée des Ardennes, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme conspirateur .
DUCHESNE Jean Baptiste Ernet, âgé de 44 ans, né à Amiens, département de la Somme, domicilié à Denis, département de la Seine et Loire, sous-lieutenant de dragons du 6ème régiment avant la révolte, depuis 1791 commandant de la garde nationale au Menil-Denis, comme prévenu de complicité avec les Hébert, Ronsin, Vincent, Mazuel et Momoro.
DUPLESSIS-LARIDON Anne Philippe Louis, veuve de Camille Desmoulins, âgée de 23 ans, née et domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamnée à mort , comme convaincu d'être auteur ou complice d'une conspiration tendante à troubler l'état par une guerre civile, dissoudre la représentation nationale, assassiner ses membres, détruire le gouvernement républicain, s'emparer de la souveraineté du Peuple, et rétablir la monarchie.
DURET Antoine, âgé de 40 ans, né à Roanne-en-Forêz, adjudant général de l'armée des Alpes, domicilié à Montbrison, département de la Loire, comme conspirateur, .
GOBEL Jean Baptiste, âgé de 67 ans, ex évêque de Paris, natif de Hanne, département du Haut-Rhin, ci-devant évêque de Lydda, suffragant et vicaire général de l'évêque de Bâle, député à l'assemblée constituante, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Paris, comme complice des Hébert, Clootz, et autres, déjà frappés du glaive de la loi.
GOUPILE Marie Marguerite Françoise, veuve d'Hébert, ex procureur de la Commune de Paris et auteur du journal dit " le père Duchesne", âgée de 38 ans, ex religieuse du couvent de la Conception-Honoré, domiciliée à Paris, département de la Seine, condamnée à mort , comme conspiratrice et complice d'Herbert son mari, Clootz et autres, pour détruire le gouvernement républicain.
LACOMBE Jean Jacques, rentier, âgé de 33 ans, natif de Cajac, département du Lot, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme complice de la conspiration de Chaumette, Gobel, évêque de Paris, et autre, tendant à dissoudre la représentation nationale, assassiner ses membres et les patriotes, détruire le gouvernement républicain.
LAMBERT Jean François, âgé de 25 ans, natif de Boisne, département du Loiret, porte-clefs du Luxembourg, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Paris, comme complice de la conspiration de Chaumette, Gobel évêque de Paris, Dillon et autres.
LAPALU Jean Marie, âgé de 26 ans, natif de Matour, département de Saône et Loire, juge de paix du canton de Tissy, commissaire du comité de sûreté générale de la convention, juge de la commune révolutionnaire de Feurs, domicilié à Mardon, département du Rhône, comme conspirateur.
LASALLE Guillaume Nicolas, âgé de 24 ans, officier de marine, capitaine d'un bâtiment marchand, natif de Bourgogne sur Mer, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme complice de la conspiration de Chaumette, Gobel évêque de Paris, tendant à dissoudre la convention assassiner les membres et les patriotes, détruire le gouvernement républicain.
LEBRASSE Jean Maurice François, lieutenant de gendarmerie, près les trib, âgé de 51 ans, né à Rennes, département d'Ille-et-Vilaine, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme complice de la conspiration de Chaumette, Gobel, évêque de Paris et autres, tendante à dissoudre la représentation nationale, à en assassiner les membres et les patriotes, et détruire le gouvernement républicain.
NOURRY (dit Grammont), père, adjudant général de l’armée révolutionnaire, ci-devant artiste du théâtre de Montansier, âgé de 42 ans, natif de la Rochelle, département de la Charente Inférieure, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme complice d’une conspiration contre la liberté, la sûreté et la souveraineté du peuple, tendante à dissoudre la représentation nationale, assassiner ses membres et les patriotes, détruire le gouvernement républicain, rétablir la monarchie, et donner un tyran à l’état.
NOURRY Alexandre, (dit Grammont), fils, officier dans la cavalerie révolutionnaire, âgé de 19 ans, natif de Limoges, département de la Haute Vienne, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Pris, comme complice d’une conspiration contre la liberté, la sûreté et la souveraineté du peuple, tendante à dissoudre la représentation nationale, assassiner ses membres et les patriotes, détruire le gouvernement républicain, rétablir la monarchie, et donner un tyran à l’état.
PRAGEY Prudent Antoine, commis principal de l’administration de l’habillement des troupes, âgé de 41 ans, natif de Balnod-la-Grange, département de l’Aube, comme complice de la conspiration formée, contre la liberté et la sûreté du peuple français, par Hebert, Ronsin, Vincent, Momoro, et autres.
RAGONDET Etienne, âgé de 46 ans, natif de Paris, département de la Seine, inspecteur dans les charrois de l’armée, aide major et commandant du bataillon de la section de la république, domicilié à Cappy, département de la Somme, comme complice de la conspiration formée par Capet, son épouse et autres, le 20 juin et le 10 août 1792, contre la liberté la sûreté et la souveraineté du peuple français.
RAMEAU Edme, âgé de 41 ans, natif d’Auxerre, département de l’Yonne, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme complice de la conspiration d’Hébert, Ronsin, et autres, pour dissoudre la représentation nationale, assassiner ses membres et les patriotes, détruire le gouvernement républicain, s’emparer de la souveraineté du peuple, et donné un tyran à l’état.
BROSSARD Louis Guillaume André, homme de loi et secrétaire du comité révolutionnaire de Périgueux, âgé de 32 ans, né à Terrasson, département de la Dordogne, domicilié à Périgueux, même département, comme contre-révolutionnaire , pour avoir tenu des propos tendants à ébranler la fidélité des soldats envers la République.
BRUMEAU Marie Sébastien, (dit Lacroix), âgé de 26 ans, membre du comité révolutionnaire de la section de l'unité, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme convaincu d'avoir procuré à prix d'argent un faux certificat au duc du Châtelet.
BUCHERE de l'EPINOIS Jean Baptiste Ernest, port-arquebuse de l'Artois, officier aux dragons de la reine, pour avoir tenté, avec le général Dillon (*) d'enlever le Dauphin au Temple (*), exécuté le 24 germinal an II, place de la Révolution, inhumé au cimetière des Errancis
Domiciliés dans le département du Bouches du Rhône, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
RUELLE Amable, gendarme, domicilié à Salon, comme fédéraliste.
... domiciliés à Marseille:
CHEVALIER Antoine, tambour major et marchand magasinier, comme fédéraliste. FABRY Etienne, instituteur, comme contre révolutionnaire. MAYSSE Honoré, fabricant de savon, comme contre-révolutionnaire. PECHE Julien, maçon, comme fédéraliste. VILARET Antoine, comme fédéraliste.
Par la commission militaire séante à Laval, comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés à Courbeville, département de Mayenne:
JACQUELIN Etienne LABBE Jean.
ALAUX Gery, ex-curé, domicilié à Ste Radegonde de Beaumont, canton de Toulouse, comme réfractaire, à la loi, par le tribunal criminel du département de la haute Garonne.
ANTOINE Nicolas, ex-curé de Dompaire, y demeurant, canton de Mirecourt, département des Vosges, comme réfractaire par le tribunal criminel du dit département.
CLAUDEL Dominique Nicolas, ex vicaire, domicilié au Ménil, département des Vosges, comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel dudit département établi à Mirecourt.
BARBIER Adrien Marie Joseph, âgé de 35 ans, né à Arras, ex notaire à Lens, époux de Prévost Joséphine, à Arras
HENRY Guislain Joseph, âgé de 35 ans, né et demeurant à Arras, ci-devant marchand, à Arras.
NOISRON Marguerite, (dite Boet-la-Montagne), âgée de 44 ans, née à Saint-Sicé, département de la Charente Inférieure, ex noble, domicilié à Bordeaux, département de la Gironde, comme complice d'émigrés et de prêtres fanatiques, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux.
DESPART Victor (dit Tourangeau), menuisier, natif de Civray-sur-Cher, domicilié à Bordeaux, département de la Gironde, le 24 germinal an 2an 2, par la commission militaire de Bordeaux, comme fanatique, et pour avoir colporté des écrits contre-révolutionnaires, tels que "les derniers Avis aux Français".
INGRES Jean Bernard, officier de santé, âgé de 23 ans, natif de St Martin-Gimos, département du Gers, domicilié à Lacanau, département de la Gironde, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire, et fanatique.
LABOURDETTE Pierre (dit Bagnolles), prêtre, domicilié à Baigts, département des Basses-Pyrénées, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme réfractaire à la loi.
| 1793 BARDOU Jean, laboureur, domicilié à la Trinité
de Machecoul, département de la Loire inférieure, condamné à mort comme
brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1793 BOUQUART Jean, maçon, domicilié à Talmont, canton des Sables, département de la Vendée, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1793 LAPREE Jacques, domestique, domicilié à St Gervais, département de la Vendée, condamné à mort, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables, comme brigand de la Vendée.
1998 Bonnie, born to Dolly Finn Dorset [05 Jul 1996 – 14 Feb 2003], the first cloned ewe, and David Welsh Mountain ram. [photo: Bonnie and Dolly >]
1963 Gary Kimovich Kasparov world chess champion from USSR (1985- )
1922 John Braine, English novelist; one of the "Angry Young Men". He died on 28 October 1987.
^ 1919 Madalyn Murray O'Hair
US atheist, one of the litigants in the 1963 case which led the US Supreme Court to ban school prayer. The decision made her America's most famous atheist and such a controversial figure that in 1964 Life magazine called her "the most hated woman in America." O'Hair founded American Atheists and remained a spokesperson for atheism until 1995, when she, her son Jon Garth Murray, 40, and her granddaughter Robin Murray O'Hair, 30, vanished after leaving a note saying they would be away temporarily. The trio appeared to have taken with them $629'500 in American Atheist funds (and possibly had secreted much more in overseas bank accounts); one private investigator concluded that they had fled to New Zealand. In April of 1999 police searched a Texas ranch for her body, apparently on a tip from a criminal. Nothing turned up, and her disappearance remained a mystery for six years. (O'Hair's other son William J. , the eldest and the one in the Supreme Court case, announced his conversion to Christianity on Mother's Day in 1980 and became a fundamentalist Baptist minister, the father of Robin). In January 2001, their dismembered and burned remains were found in a mass grave west of San Antonio. Police were led to the grave by David Roland Waters, 53, O'Hair's former office manager, who had admitted kidnapping the three, binding and gagging them with duct tape, and killing them to obtain $600'000 in gold coins owned by O'Hair. Waters pleaded guilty to a conspiracy charge as part of a plea bargain. Another man convicted in connection with the kidnapping, Gary Paul Karr, was sentenced to a life term.
A self-described advocate for family-friendly legislation, William Murray went to live in Washington DC, and wrote books, such as Let Us Pray: A Plea for Prayer in Our Schools, My Life Without God and The Church Is Not for Perfect People.
1906 Samuel Beckett French playwright (Waiting for Godot) (Nobel 1969) (author, critic, playwright: Waiting for Godot, The Unnamable, Eleutheria, Malone Dies, Malloy, Endgame). He died on 22 December 1989.
1902 Philippe de Rothschild Paris, manager (Bordeaux Vineyard)
1899 Alfred Butts, architect, game inventor ("Scrabble")
1892 Robert Watson-Watt, Scottish physicist; he had a role in the development of radar. He died on 05 December 1973.
1888 John Hammond (changed later to Hays Jr.), US inventor who developed radio remote control. He died on 12 February 1965.
1885 Gyorgy Lukacs, Hungarian Marxist philosopher, writer and literary critic, who died on 04 June 1971.
1879 Severi, mathematician.
1878 Bror Julius Olsson Nordfeldt, Swedish US artist who died in 1955. — link to images.
1869 Steam power brake patented (George Westinghouse)
1860 James Sydney Ensor, Belgian Expressionist painter who died on 19 November 1949. MORE ON ENSOR AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1854 William Henry Drummond, Irish-born Canadian writer of humorous dialect poems conveying a sympathetic but sentimentalized picture of the habitants, or French-Canadian farmers. Drummond immigrated to Canada about 1864, left school at the age of 15 to help support his family, but at 30 took a degree in medicine at Bishop's College in Quebec. After four years in country practice he moved to Montreal, where he gave public readings of his poems with great success. His verses, mingling humour and pathos, are written in a synthetic patois and from the viewpoint of a British imperialist but are redeemed by his evident goodwill and genuine fondness for his subject. Drummond died on 06 April 1907. — DRUMMOND ONLINE (page images): The Habitant and Other French-Canadian Poems (1897, illustrated) — Montreal in Halftone: A Souvenir
1823 Schlömilch, mathematician.
1813 Duncan Gregory, mathematician.
1808 Antonio Meucci, in Florence, Italy, first inventor of the telephone (1857). He emigrated first to Cuba and later to the US, where, from about 1850 to 1854, he hosted Garibaldi [04 July 1807 – 02 Jun 1882] in exile (in a rented Staten Island house which is now the Garibaldi-Meucci Museum). Meucci died on 18 October 1896. According to one theory, Meucci's invention was suggested to him by a parrot which was a direct descendant of a parrot owned by Leonardo da Vinci, or, according to another theory, who acted as a medium through which Meucci communicated with the ghost of Leonardo da Vinci [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519] [1887 photo >].
1772 Eli Terry, US clockmaker and an innovator in mass production, who died on 26 February 1852. He was trained as a clockmaker's apprentice from the age of14. He opened a factory in Plymouth, and in about 1800 he devised ways to use waterpower to operate his machines. In1807 he went into partnership with Seth Thomas [19 Aug 1785 – 29 Jan 1859] and Thomas Hoadley to carry out a contract for 4000 clocks. When this was completed in 1810, Terry again went into business for himself. His specialty was the manufacture of one-day wooden shelf clocks, especially his “perfected wood clock” designed in 1814. Using interchangeable parts made by mechanized techniques, his production rose as high as 10'000 to 12'000 of these clocks per year. By the end of his life Terry had patented 10 improvements on clocks.
1771 Richard Trevithick, English mechanical engineer and inventor who died on 22 April 1833. He successfully harnessed high-pressure steam and constructed the world's first steam railway locomotive (1803). In 1805 he adapted his high-pressure engine to driving an iron-rolling mill and to propelling a barge with the aid of paddle wheels.
1769 Sir Thomas Lawrence, English portrait painter and draftsman who died on 07 January 1830. MORE ON LAWRENCE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1764 Giacomo Guardi, Italian artist who died on 03 November 1835
1743 Thomas Jefferson Virginia, (D-R) 3rd US president (1801-1809), slave owner, drafted the Declaration of Independence, on whose 50th anniversary he died (04 July 1826). In his honor The Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression, annually on this date since 1992, awards the Jefferson Muzzles to those who in the past year ignored Jefferson's admonition that freedom of speech cannot be limited without being lost.
1732 Frederick Lord North (C) British prime minister from 1770 to 1782. His vacillating leadership contributed to the loss of Great Britain's American colonies in the US War of Independence (1775–1783). He died on 05 August 1792.
1728 Frisi, mathematician.
1519 Catherine de Médicis queen consort of Henry II [31 Mar 1519 – 10 Jul 1559] of France and major meddler in politics. She was regent of France (1560–1574), and one of the most influential personalities of the Catholic–Huguenot wars. Three of her sons were kings of France: Francis II [19 Jan 1544 – 05 Dec 1560], Charles IX [27 Jun 1550 – 30 May 1574], and Henry III [19 Sep 1551 – 02 Aug 1589]. She died on 05 January 1589.
1506 Pierre Lefèvre (or Favre) Peter Faber, saint, French Jesuit theologian and co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He died on 01 August 1546.