• War starts between the States... • Victòria d'Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Fort Pillow massacre... • Bataan Death March's 3rd day... • Madame Bovary is published... • Franklin D. Roosevelt dies... • First launch of space shuttle... • Townshend Acts repealed... • GM drops Wankel engine project... • Labor Relations Act upheld... • MG founder is born...
a 12 April:
2003 Election in Nigeria of the 360 Representatives and 109 Senators. Of the 30 political parties contending, the ruling People's Democratic Party of President Obasanjo comes out ahead. [after casting his vote, Obasanjo signals his confidence in victory >]. In the 19 April 2003 presidential election, Obasanjo would receive more votes than any of the other 19 candidates.
2003 In a referendum, Hungarian voters, by a decisive majority, approve their country's joining the European Union.
Venezuela's military forces depose President Hugo Chavez, 47, in a bloodless
coup at about 15:00 and take him prisoner, announcing that he has resigned.
The previous evening pro-Chavez gunmen had fired on 150'000 opposition protesters,
killing 16 and injuring some 240. A general strike was in effect since 09
April, as business and labor leaders protested the leftist authoritarian
measures taken by Chavez since November 2001, increasing his control of
state-owned Petróleos de Venezuela, permiting the expropriation of
farmland, ordering the closing of five private television stations which
covered the protests. One consequence is that the shares of the Colombian
chemical company Corimon (CRM) rise to close at the high for this day (a
Friday), $16.50, from the previous day's close of $10.00, on the NY Stock
Exchange, where it had started trading at $202.50 on 28 July 1997. However
on the next trading day, Monday 15 April, CRM would plunge back down, to
an intraday low of $11.00 and close at $11.85. [5~year price chart >].
However Chavez came into office in 1998. The US government is clearly pleased
by the coup, but Latin American countries condemn it. Chavez supporters
mount counter demonstrations on 13 April, the military releases Chavez,
who denies having resigned, and he is back in office on 14 April.
2002 Russia expels Italian Father Stefano Caprio, who has served for 12 years as pastor of a Catholic parish northeast of Moscow,. The Russian government espouses the anti-Catholic stance of the Russian Orthodox Church.
2000 US Attorney General Janet Reno [21 Jul 1938~] meets in Miami with the US relatives of Elián González [06 Dec 1993~] [< photo], and refuses to consider any of their concerns, after which she orders them to bring the young boy to an airport the next day so he could be taken to a reunion with his father in Washington DC. On 22 April 2000 Elián would be seized by federal agents assaulting the home where Elián was staying. — (050927)
1996 Internet search engine Yahoo! becomes the third search engine within two weeks to launch an IPO. The company's stock opens at $24.50 and closes at $33 after peaking at $43.
1994 Israel and the PLO agree that 9000 Palestinian police officers will be stationed in Jericho and the Gaza Strip after the Israeli military withdrawal.
1992 The European Community announced that a cease-fire accord had been reached in Europe's newest nation of Bosnia- Herzegovina, a former Yugoslav republic. The truce did not last.
1992 Euro Disney opens in Marne-la-Vallée, France.
1991 Kurdish patriots report that the Iraqi army is attacking their guerrillas in northern Iraq.
1991 Apple Computer's chairman John Sculley secretly meets with top technical advisors from IBM to demonstrate a new Apple operating system, which could run on a variety of microprocessors. After months of top-secret discussions, the two companies announce that they would jointly develop the PowerPC, based on the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processor.
1990 Under pressure from environmentalists, three top US tuna canneries--H.J. Heinz, Van Camp and Bumblebee--announced "dolphin-safe" tuna-catching practices.
1989 In the USSR, ration cards are issued for the first time since World War II, due to a sugar shortage.
1988 Harvard University obtains a patent for a genetically altered mouse. It is the first patent for a life form.
1984 Astronauts aboard the space shuttle Challenger make the first satellite repair in orbit by returning the Solar Max satellite to space.
^1981 First launching of the space shuttle.
The space shuttle Columbia is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, becoming the first reusable manned spacecraft to travel into space. Piloted by astronauts Robert L. Crippen and John W. Young, the Columbia undertook a fifty-four-hour space flight of thirty-six orbits before successfully touching down at California's Edwards Air Force Base on 14 April.
On 17 September 1976, NASA publicly unveiled its first space shuttle, Enterprise, during a ceremony in Palmdale, California. Development of the aircraft-like spacecraft cost almost ten billion dollars and took nearly a decade. In 1977, the space shuttle Enterprise enjoyed the distinction of the first free atmospheric flight by a space shuttle when it was lifted to a height of twenty-five thousand feet by a Boeing 747 airplane, and then released, gliding back to Edwards Air Force Base on its own accord.
Regular flights of the space shuttle began on 12 April 1981, with the launching of the Columbia into space on a fifty-four-hour mission. On 28 January 1986, NASA and the space shuttle program suffered a major setback when Challenger exploded seventy-four seconds after takeoff. All seven people aboard were killed. A similar disaster would destroy Columbia, killing all seven astronauts aboard, at the conclusion of a 16-day mission, on 01 February 2003.
1977 GM drops Wankel engine project
General Motors announces it had abandoned plans to produce a Wankel rotary engine. The rotary engine is an old engineering principle originally pioneered by Elwood Haynes in 1893. Felix Wankel is credited with inventing the modern design in 1955. The Wankel rotary engine dispenses with separate pistons, cylinders, valves, and crankshafts, and its construction allows it to apply power directly to the transmission. The miracle of the rotary design is that a rotary engine can produce the same power as a conventional engine of twice its size comprised of four times as many parts. There is a tradeoff however: The Wankel rotary engine burns up to twice as much gasoline as a conventional engine, making it, among other things, a heavy polluter. Proponents of the engine argue that its smaller size would allow carmakers to install anti-pollution devices where they wouldn’t fit in a car carrying an ordinary engine. The basic unit of the rotary engine is a large combustion chamber in the form of a "pinched oval" or epitrochoid. Within the chamber all four engine functions take place in the three pockets formed by the rotor and the walls of the combustion chamber. In the same way that the addition of cylinders increases power in a conventional engine, the addition of pockets increases power in a rotary engine. GM, after having considered the production of a rotary engine for a decade, finally decided against the innovation on the grounds that its poor fuel economy would be prohibitive to sales.
1946 Syria gains independence from France.
1944 The US Twentieth Air Force is activated to begin the strategic bombing of Japan.
1938 first US law requiring medical tests for marriage licenses (NY)
Victòria d'Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya
Els resultats de les eleccions del 12 d'abril de 1931 donaren una victòria aclaparadora al prestigiós líder d'Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), Francesc Maciá, el qual proclamà el 14 d'abril la República catalana dins una Federació de pobles ibèrics. Al cap d'unes hores, la segona República espanyola era proclamada a Madrid. Unes negociacions entre tots dos nous poders, de Madrid i Barcelona, desembocaren, el 17 Apr, en el restabliment provisional de la Generalitat de Catalunya, amb Francesc Macià com a primer President de la institució.
Per decrets de 28 Apr, del President Macià, s'estructurava la Generalitat provisional i es nomenava el seu primer Govern amb majoria d'Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya. La Generalitat quedava integrada per un Consell o Govern provisional, per una Assemblea o Diputació provisional (quaranta-cinc diputats elegits pels regidors de tots els municipis catalans) i per uns comissaris delegats del Govern que es feien càrrec dels serveis de les desaparegudes diputacions provincials catalanes. Un dels primers actes de govern del President Macià havia estat la supressió d'aquestes corporacions provincials que no responien a una organització territorial autòctona.
Així s'iniciava un nou capítol històric no exempt, però, de greus dificultats. Encara que el període històric corresponent va ser més aviat breu (1931-1939), i malgrat la suspensió de l'Estatut d'autonomia des de l'octubre de 1934 al febrer de 1936, fou suficient per establir les bases sobre les quals encara avui s'estructura el poder polític a Catalunya.
A l'Assemblea provisional correspongué la responsabilitat de l'elaboració del projecte d'Estatut d'autonomia, que un cop plebiscitat pel poble fou presentat a la ratificació de les Corts de la República. Aquesta ratificació no es donà: les Corts van modificar-ne el contingut i en va limitar l'abast de competències. El 09 Sep de 1932 les Corts aprovaren aquest Estatut d'autonomia, i al cap de poques setmanes, se celebraven eleccions al Parlament de Catalunya, el qual es constutïa el 06 Dec de 1932, amb Lluís Companys com a primer President de la cambra legislativa.
La Generalitat va quedar constituïda pel Parlament, el President de la Generalitat i el Govern. Poc després, a més dels poders executiu i legislatiu, Catalunya assumí facultats judicials amb la creació del Tribunal de Cassació (1934). Nous poders executius, incloent-hi els d'Ordre Públic, foren també assumits el gener de 1934 pel govern de la Generalitat en desaparèixer de l'estructura política la figura dels governadors civils, que representaven el govern espanyol a Catalunya. Però aquesta nova vertebració del poder a Catalunya i la cessió a la Generalitat de competències de govern no equivalia pas a una devolució de la sobirania anterior a l'abolició de la Generalitat per Felip V.
El dia de Nadal de 1933 moria el president Macià, primer restaurador de la Generalitat, i el Parlament de Catalunya elegia per succeir-lo Lluís Companys.
Sota el mandat de Lluís Companys (1933-1940), segon President de la Generalitat contemporània, fou quan el Parlament de Catalunya conegué l'etapa més dinàmica de la seva tasca legislativa. Es creà el tribunal de Cassació, s'aprovà la Llei municipal i altres nombroses lleis i disposicions de govern en matèria de Finances, Justícia, Treball, Cooperatives, Agricultura, Ensenyament, Cultura, Sanitat, Dret Civil, etc.
El 06 octubre de 1934, considerant en perill l'estabilitat de la República i l'autonomia de Catalunya, el President Lluís Companys s'enfrontà asprament amb el Govern central i proclamà l'Estat català dins la República Federal espanyola. El moviment fou esclafat per l'exèrcit. L'Estatut d'autonomia fou suspès i el govern de Catalunya i molts altres ciutadans, revestits d'autoritat o no, foren empresonats i condemnats a llargues penes. El febrer de 1936, unes eleccions generals tragueren de presidi el Govern de Catalunya i la Generalitat reprengué les seves funcions.
El 18 juliol de 1936 va tenir lloc l'alçament del General Franco contra la República. Era el cop d'estat i l'inici de la guerra civil espanyola. A Catalunya, el poble i la força pública comandada per la Generalitat van ofegar la revolta dels militars. Amb tot, l'alçament militar provocà una explosió revolucionària congriada ja abans sobretot per l'anarco-sindicalisme de la CNT-FAI, que originà fortes tensions amb el Govern de la Generalitat fins que a final del 1936 s'hi integraren consellers d'ideologia anarquista. L'experiència seria curta. El mes de maig de 1937 la CNT-FAI perdé l'hegemonia en benefici dels comunistes i del partit del Govern, Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya.
Durant el primer període de la guerra civil, el Govern de la Generalitat assumí plens poders per afrontar la situació, cosa que féu possible prendre les decisions que imposava la defensa de les institucions de Catalunya. Així, foren prorrogades la legislatura i la presidència de Lluís Companys, atesa la impossibilitat de convocar eleccions legislatives.
Cap al final del 1937 el Govern de Madrid recuperà poders sobre Catalunya que havia cedit amb l'Estatut d'autonomia de 1932, concretament l'ordre públic. A Catalunya les lluites internes de caràcter sociopolític un cop més repercutien negativament en l'autonomia política del país.
|1927 The British Cabinet came out in favor of women voting
1911 first non-stop London-Paris flight (Pierre Prier in 3h56m)
1908 Fire makes 17'000 homeless in Chelsea Massachusetts.
1892 Voters in Lockport, New York, become the first in the US to use voting machines.
1877 British annex Transvaal, in South Africa
1869 North Carolina legislature passes anti-Klan Law
1865 Mobile, Alabama surrenders
1864 Capture of Fort Pillow, Tennessee, by Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who slaughters the Black Union troops there.
1864 Engagement at Blair's Landing, Louisiana (Red River Expedition)
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates continues
1862 Union volunteers led by James J. Andrews steal a Confederate train (General) at Kennesaw, train near Marietta, northwest Georgia (The Great Locomotive Chase). They would be later caught.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1794 ARMENGAUD Paul Sylvestre, manœuvrier, volontaire au bataillon de l'Ariège, domicilié à Saverdun, canton de Mirepoix, département de l'Ariège, condamné à la déportation à Vie, comme complice des révoltés, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Ariège.
1794 BARES Jean, ainé, gardien de chèvres, domicilié à Saverdun, canton de Mirepoix, département de l'Ariège, condamné à mort par contumace, comme instigateur de révolte, par le tribunal criminel du département de l'Ariège.
1794 BARES François, manœuvrier, domicilié à Saverdun, canton de Mirepoix, département de l'Ariège, condamné à mort par contumace, comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel de l'Ariège.
1794 COSNUEL Jean, domicilié à Bazauge-la-Perouse département d'Ille-et-Vilaine, condamné comme contre-révolutionnaire à la détention jusqu'à la paix, puis au bannissement perpétuel, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
Galileo is convicted of heresy
The inquisition of physicist and astronomer Galileo Galilei for holding the heretical belief that the Earth revolves around the Sun begins. The chief inquisitor was Father Vincenzo Maculano da Firenzuola, who was appointed by Pope Urban VIII. Galileo was forced to turn himself in to the Holy Office because standard practice demanded that the accused be imprisoned and secluded during the trial. This was the second time that Galileo was in the hot seat for refusing to accept Church orthodoxy that the Earth was the immovable center of the universe: In 1616, he had been forbidden from holding or defending his beliefs. In the 1633 interrogation, Galileo denied that he "held" belief in the Copernican view but continued to write about the issue and evidence as a means of "discussion" rather than belief. The Church had decided the idea that the Sun moved around the Earth was an absolute fact of scripture that could not be disputed, despite the fact that scientists had known for centuries that the Earth was not the center of the universe.
This time, Galileo's technical argument didn't win the day. On 22 June 1633, the Church handed down the following order: We say, pronounce, sentence, and declare, that thou, the said Galileo, by the things deduced during this trial, and by thee confessed as above, hast rendered thyself vehemently suspected of heresy by this Holy Office, that is, of having believed and held a doctrine which is false, and contrary to the Holy Scriptures, to wit: that the Sun is the centre of the universe, and that it does not move from east to west, and that the Earth moves and is not the center of the universe. Along with the order came the following penalty: We order that by a public edict the book of Dialogues of Galileo Galilei be prohibited, and We condemn thee to the prison of this Holy Office during Our will and pleasure; and as a salutary penance We enjoin on thee that for the space of three years thou shalt recite once a week the Seven Penitential Psalms. Galileo agreed not to teach the heresy anymore and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. It took more than 300 years for the Church to admit that Galileo was right and to clear his name of heresy.
«Eppure, si muove», aurait-il dit de la Terre après avoir été obligé par les juges ecclésiastiques de renier ses découvertes astronomiques.
Il 15 febbraio 1564 Galileo Galilei nacque a Pisa da Giulia Ammannati e Vincenzio Galilei, entrambi appartenenti alla media borghesia. Vincenzio, nato a Firenze nel 1520, ex liutista ed ex insegnante di musica, in passato era entrato in conflitto con la tradizione classica che attribuiva la consonanza tra tutti i suoni al controllo delle proporzioni numeriche ed aveva proposto idee proprie al riguardo.
Era quindi ferrato in matematica, ma, intuendo le difficoltà pratiche che la professione di matematico presentava, spinse il figlio a studiare medicina proprio come un loro avo, quel Galileo Bonaiuti che nel XV secolo si era distinto nell'esercizio dell'arte medica ed in onore del quale un ramo della famiglia aveva preso il nome di Galilei. Galileo compì i primi studi di retorica, grammatica e logica nel monastero camaldolese di Vallombrosa ed entrò a far parte dell'ordine come novizio.
La decisione non poté che contrariare Vincenzio, il quale, nutrendo appunto ben altri progetti per il figlio, lo fece tornare a Pisa e lo fece iscrivere a Medicina. I corsi della facoltà vertevano su Galeno e sui libri di scienza naturale di Aristotele, che costituirono i principali oggetti di critica da parte del giovane Galileo, sempre più attratto dalla matematica e dalla filosofia e sempre meno produttivo in veste di studente di medicina. Nel 1583 vi fu il suo incontro con Ostilio Ricci, un matematico probabile allievo di Tartaglia. Ricci era aggregato alla corte di Toscana e teneva le sue lezioni in volgare, come in volgare era scritto il testo di Euclide su cui basava i suoi corsi.
Si trattava infatti della traduzione che ne aveva fatta lo stesso Niccolò Tartaglia, il quale, a differenza delle versioni latine, aveva chiarito la discrepanza esistente tra la teoria delle proporzioni di Eudosso e quella dell'aritmetica medievale, un chiarimento che si rivelò fondamentale per la formazione di Galileo. Le sue prime indagini nel campo della fisica lo portarono, tra l'83 e l'86, a determinare il peso specifico dei corpi tramite un congegno chiamato ‘bilancetta', simile ad un utensile già in uso presso i mercanti orafi. Nell'88 diede anche una prova della propria erudizione letteraria con delle lezioni su Dante tenute presso l'Accademia fiorentina.
Nell'89, nonostante non si fosse laureato, grazie alla stima ed alla fama che si era guadagnato presso certe frange del mondo accademico ottenne la cattedra di Matematica all'Università di Pisa, un lavoro che gli assicurò l'indipendenza economica dal padre. A Pisa Galileo rimase 3 anni, durante i quali scoprì la legge di caduta dei gravi. Ma il periodo più sereno e fruttuoso della sua vita lo passò come insegnante di matematica presso l'Università di Padova, dove si trasferì nel 1592 e dove rimase per 18 anni. Qui continuò i suoi studi di meccanica e di astronomia, nell'ambito della quale abbracciò la teoria copernicana.
Dal 1609 cominciò a perfezionare ed usare il cannocchiale come strumento per le osservazioni astronomiche. Il cannocchiale non era un'invenzione di Galileo (artigiani olandesi e italiani ne avevano già approntati diversi tipi) ma i miglioramenti che lo scienziato vi apportò inaugurarono l'epoca delle grandi scoperte astronomiche, di cui lo stesso Galilei diede annuncio nel Sidereus Nuncius (Ragguaglio astronomico) del 1610. I 4 maggiori satelliti di Giove, le montagne ed i crateri della Luna, le macchie solari, furono fenomeni fino ad allora sconosciuti che destarono meraviglia ed ammirazione tanto nel mondo accademico (Keplero riconobbe e confermò l'importanza delle scoperte di Galilei), quanto in certo ambiente politico (Cosimo dé Medici lo nominò matematico dello studio di Pisa), ma anche ostruzionismo ed astio da parte delle gerarchie ecclesiastiche (in particolare del cardinale Bellarmino) e degli aristotelici.
Nel 1616 il Sant'Uffizio mise all'indice sia la cosmologia copernicana, sia le opere di Galileo, il quale venne convocato a Roma per giustificare le sue opinioni. Qui il suo tentativo di difendere le concezioni astronomiche copernicane (e le proprie) in quanto inoffensive nei confronti della Bibbia, venne respinto e lo scienziato fu intimato a non professarle più. Galileo continuò tuttavia ad approfondire ed ampliare i suoi studi e, nel 1623, compose in volgare Il Saggiatore, nel quale polemizzava con il padre gesuita Orazio Grassi riguardo alla natura delle comete e a problemi di ordine metodologico. Sempre nel '23 salì al soglio pontificio Urbano VIII, un Barberini che si era dimostrato disponibile nei suoi confronti, tanto che proprio all'ex cardinale, spirito illuminato ed aperto ai discorsi scientifici, Galileo aveva dedicato il Saggiatore.
Nel 1632 pubblicò il Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, un testo fondamentale per la scienza moderna in cui Galileo, sotto un'apparente neutralità, dava risalto all'astronomia copernicana a discapito di quella tolemaica. A causa dell'influenza di alcuni padri gesuiti, Urbano VIII ebbe allora un'involuzione e, nel 1633, Galileo venne processato a condannato al carcere a vita dal Sant'Uffizio, una pena da cui poté salvarsi solo abiurando le sue teorie. Il carcere a vita fu così commutato in isolamento, che Galileo scontò prima nel palazzo dell'Arcivescovado di Siena e poi nella sua villa di Arcetri.
Morì a Firenze l'8 gennaio 1642, circondato da pochi allievi e nella quasi totale cecità. Galileo Galilei è stato formalmente assolto dall'accusa di eresia solo nel 1992, trecentocinquanta anni dopo la sua morte.
Concepita nel 1610, l’opera ebbe un tempo di composizione molto lungo, dovuto principalmente a periodi di infermità dello scienziato ed in seguito, a causa della condanna da parte del Sant’Uffizio nel 1616, al timore di dichiarare troppo apertamente la sua adesione al sistema copernicano. Dedicato a Ferdinando II dé Medici, granduca di Toscana, il Dialogo, articolato in 4 giornate, si svolge tra il fiorentino Filippo Salviati, portavoce di Galileo, il veneziano Giovan Francesco Sagredo, uomo di ingegno e di idee progressiste, ed il peripatetico Simplicio, dalla rigida impostazione scolastica. Nella prima giornata si discute del moto, nella seconda si entra nel vivo del sistema copernicano, nella terza si affronta la teoria delle stelle fisse e nell’ultima si apre il dibattito sul flusso e riflusso del mare, secondo Salviati-Galileo uno degli argomenti più forti a favore del sistema eliocentrico. Il Dialogo fu completato all’inizio del 1630 ma dovette superare molti problemi per avere l’approvazione ecclesiastica, per assecondare la quale fu mutato il titolo originale (Dialoghi attorno al flusso e reflusso del mare) e vennero cambiati alcuni passaggi. Pubblicata il 21 febbraio 1632 a Firenze, l’opera venne aspramente perseguita da papa Urbano VIII, che ne vietò la diffusione ed intimò a Galileo di presentarsi a Roma, dove venne sottoposto al famoso processo che lo costrinse all’abiura.
L'opera per mezzo della quale Galileo dà notizia della scoperta dei satelliti medicei e del loro moto di rivoluzione intorno a Giove, scoperta resa possibile dall'invenzione del cannocchiale. L'opera è disponibile in latino ed in italiano ed è corredata da numerose immagini. Si ringrazia la Casa Editrice Ricciardi per aver consentito l'uso della traduzione italiana di Luisa Lanzillotta.
| 1606 England adopts the original Union Jack as its
1204 The armies of the Fourth Crusade conquer Constantinople and establish the Latin Empire.
2003 Cecil Howard Green, of pneumonia, born in England on 06 August 1900, moved to Canada in 1902 and to the US in 1921, naturalized US citizen in 1936. After graduating from MIT in 1924 with a master's degree in electrical engineering, Green started working for General Electric, then, from 1926, for Raytheon, and in 1929 and again in 1931 for Federal Telegraph Company. On 06 December 1941, Green payed $15'000 to join Eugene McDermott [12 Feb 1899 – 24 Aug 1973], John Erik Jonsson [06 Sep 1901 – 01 Sep 1995], and Henry Bates Peacock [03 Mar 1894–] in buying Dallas-based Geophysical Service Inc. (co-founded in 1930 by McDermott), where he had worked briefly in 1930 and steadily since 1932, doing reflection seismic exploration for petroleum in various parts of the world. The next day the US was forced into World War II by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. During WW II, GSI branched into the production of submarine detection devices for the US military. In 1951, the company's name was changed to Texas Instruments, and GSI became a subsidiary, with Green as president and then, from 1955 to 1959, chairman; after which he continued as a member of the board of directors of TI until 1975. Electronics production was introduced into the business mix. In 2002 Texas Instruments had more than $8 billion in revenue.
2003 “Mr. Mac”, 12, who had stopped eating a week earlier and then had been vomiting, due to a 5-cm-diameter toy ball blocking his small intestine, which would be discovered only after his death, during an autopsy. Mr. Mac had been asleep from December 2002 to March 2003, during which time he had not had any nourishment, yet he still weighed some 160 kg. He would hungrily swallow anything that looked to him like it might be food. He is survived by his wife and their son, who, like he did, live in an enclosure at the Wildlife Prairie State Park near Peoria, Illinois, into which a visiting kid must have tossed the ball, perhaps thinking that the three black bears would like to play with it.
2002 Six Israelis and a woman suicide bomber of the al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, at a Jaffa Street pedestrian crossing next to a bus stop near Mahane Yehuda open-air market in downtown Jerusalem. 62 persons are injured.
2002 Israeli Border Police staff-sergeant David Smirnoff, 22; a Palestinian laborer; and a gunman of Islamic Jihad who fires indiscriminately, and throws a hand grenade, near the Erez crossing, in the northern Gaza Strip, then is shot by a Border Police officer, who is among the 4 Israelis and 3 Palestinians wounded. Smirnoff [photo >] immigrated to Israel at age 10 from the Ukraine; he was a combat medic due to be discharged in a few days. — On 01 March 2003, Smirnoff's sister, Irena Starashnatzev, 29, from Kfar Sava, and a friend of her brother's, Alexander Gurlick, who was visiting acquaintances serving at the checkpoint, would drive to the Erez industrial zone. The two try to hit with the car a group of Palestinian laborers walking on the sidewalk, but they evade the car. A few minutes later, they try to hit a laborer in the industrial zone, but fail. At the time, Gurlick. On her third attempt, Starashnatzev runs over Palestinian laborer Ibrahim Martaga, 49, who suffers a head wound and falls into a coma. Starashnatzev would be indicted for that crime on 04 March 2003.
2002 More than 30 persons in 5.8 earthquake, at 08:30:26, with epicenter at 35º88'N, 69º15'E at a depth of 33 km, in the Hindu Kush mountain region of northern Afghanistan, near the site of the 25 March 2002 quake that killed up to 1000 persons. Most of today's damage occurred in the village of Doabi, 140 km northeast of Kabul. It is the third quake to strike northern Afghanistan since the 03 March 7.2 quake hit measuring 7.2, the strongest in the Hindu Kush mountain region since 1983.
2002 Hundreds of Nepalese policemen and attacking Maoist rebels, overnight . 60 policemen were killed in Satbariya, in Dang district, about 300 km west of Katmandu, while defending the house of Interior Security Minister Khum Bahadur Khadka from a rebel attack. Another 27 policemen who surrendered were beheaded, and two were burned alive.. About 30 policemen survived. 11 policemen were killed in an attack on a police station in nearby Lamahi. The two attacks set off overnight gunbattles that left hundreds of rebels dead. The bodies of at least 60 guerrillas could be seen half buried along a dry riverbed a few kilometers from the minister's house. Some of the bodies were headless, some were being eaten by dogs. Many corpses were half-buried with only their legs sticking above the shallow graves. The rebels are believed to have taken away many more fallen comrades in two trucks along with 95 rifles and three machine guns looted from the dead policemen. The minister's house was gutted and blackened by fire. Two burned sedans were parked outside the 3-meter-high boundary wall. On the ground were blotches of blood, shreds of police uniforms, destroyed sofas and cupboards, and twisted, blackened bicycles. Shards of broken glass were scattered across the town. The 120 paramilitary policemen guarding the house were surrounded by thousands of rebels. They killed policemen even after they surrendered. They were stripped naked, then paraded, and finally beheaded with khukris (Nepali knives). In the worst previous fighting, guerrillas killed 137 soldiers, police and civilians on 17 February 2002 in attacks in Mangalsen town in the northwestern Achham district. "The situation is so bad that I don't know how long I will live," said the Dang district's chief administrator, M.P. Yadav. "There is nobody to fight them. There is no equipment to fight them. We are helpless, hapless." Nepal has been under a state of emergency since 26 November 2001, after the rebels withdrew on 23 November from peace talks. The army has been mobilized to help the poorly equipped police fight the guerrillas, but rebel attacks have continued unabated.
1989 Jean Marie Félix Canu, in Neuilly-sur-Seine American Hospital. Born in Paris on 19 May 1898, to Félix and Marie née Laviéville, Jean Canu grew up to be a history and geography teacher in French lycées, starting in Alger in 1918 (where, on his first day, students mistook him for a fellow studient); a French civilization lecturer at Bryn Mawr College, the University of Chicago, and Georgetown University (ssn 578-44-1326), and author (Les anglais chez eux 1939, Les américains chez eux, Barbey d'Aurévilly 1945, Histoire des Etats-Unis 1941, Histoire de la Nation Américaine 1947, Les ordres religieux masculins, Les Seigneurs de Tourlaville 1976, Autour de l'Amérique, La Basse-Normandie 1937, Louis XIII et Richelieu 1944, Villes et Paysages d'Amérique 1937, Flaubert auteur dramatique 1946 ...).
1989 Abbie Hoffman, 52, yippie peace activist of the 60's.
1980 Richard Wayne Whitehead, born on 02 July 1963, White, shot three times at 04:00 and robbed of his 1969 Ford Mustang, in Nash, Texas, by Delma Banks Jr. [30 Oct 1958–], a Black man with no prior criminal record, according to a flawed trial that got him a death sentence (from an all-White jury) in October 1980. Banks' execution would be stayed by the US Supreme Court a few minutes before its scheduled time on 12 March 2003. On 24 February 2004 the Supreme Court overturned Banks’s death sentence because the prosecution persistently failed to disclose evidence of the untrustworthiness of its witnesses. The Supreme Court ruled that Banks could appeal his conviction. —(070411)
1971 Wolfgang Krull, German mathematician born on 26 August 1899. He proved the Krull-Schmidt theorem for decomposing Abelian groups and defined the Krull dimension of a ring.
1962 Antoine Pevsner, French artist born on 18 January 1884.
1919 Rudolf Otto Rudolf Sturm, German mathematician born on 06 January 1841.
1893 Jules Jacques Veyrassat, French artist born on 02 July 1828.
1833 Polydore Roux, French artist born on 19 July 1792.
1782 The dead of the Battle of the Saintes. During the US War of Independence, it was a major British naval victory in the West Indies, ending the French threat to British possessions in that area. Setting out from Martinique on 08 April1782, a French fleet of 35 warships and 150 merchantmen under the comte de Grasse [13 Sep 1722 – 11 Jan 1788] intended to descend upon Jamaica with Spanish help. They were intercepted at the Saintes Passage, between the islands of Dominica and Guadeloupe, by a British fleet of 36 ships commanded by Admiral Sir George Rodney [13 Feb 1718 – 24 May 1792]. After preliminary skirmishing, the main action takes place today, when a shift in the wind alters the course of two French ships, causing gaps in their line of battle that are quickly entered by the British. The French fleet is thus scattered and the ensuing British victory at the Saintes helps to restore Britain's naval prestige. As a result, in the Treaty of Paris (03 Sep 1783) Great Britain regained most of its islands in the West Indies.
1761 Jacques de Lajoue, French artist born in July 1687.
1727 Antoine Dieu, French artist born in 1662.
1704 Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French bishop born (full coverage) on 25 September 1627, who was the most eloquent and influential spokesman for the rights of the French church against papal authority. He is now chiefly remembered for his literary works, including funeral panegyrics for great personages. — (050927)
1695 Jean-Baptiste Corneille, French painter born on 02 December 1649. a bit more with link to an image.
0352 Pope Saint Julius I. The papacy had been vacant four months when he was elected as St. Mark's successor on 06 February 337. Julius then became the chief support of orthodoxy against Arianism, a heresy that held Christ to have been human, not divine. In 339 he gave refuge at Rome to Bishop Saint Athanasius the Great of Alexandria [293 – 02 May 373], who had been deposed and expelled from his see by the Arians. At the Council of Rome in 340, Julius reaffirmed Athanasius' position. Julius then tried to unite the Western bishops against Arianism by convoking in 342 the Council of Sardica (now Sofia, Bulgaria). The council acknowledged the pope's supreme authority, enhancing his power in ecclesiastical affairs by granting him the right to judge cases of legal possession of episcopal sees. Thus Julius restored Athanasius and refuted all Arian charges; his decision was confirmed by the Roman emperor Constantius II (an Arian) at Antioch. Julius' letters are preserved in Athanasius' Apology Against the Arians.
1958 Bernard Fellay, Swiss who would, on 29 June 1982, be ordained a priest of the schismatic Society of St. Pius X by its leader, apostate archbishop Marcel Lefebvre [29 Nov 1905 – 25 Mar 1991], who would (with schismatic bishop Antonio de Castro Meyer [20 Jun 1904 – 25 Apr 1991], on 30 June 1988, consecrate him and three other schismatic priests (Bernard Tissier “de Mallerais” [14 Sep 1945~], Richard Williamson [08 Mar 1940~], and Alfonso de Galarreta [14 Jan 1957~]) as bishops. In July 1994 Fellay would become the superior of the Society of St. Pius X. — See:Accord du 5 mai 1988 signed by cardinal Ratzinger and Lefebvre (who promptly violated it) _ Ecclesia Dei of 02 July 1988 by pope John Paul II. —(080422)
1903 Jan Tinbergen, Dutch mathematician and economist who won the Nobel Prize in 1969 for his work with econometric models. He died on 09 June 1994.
1900 William John Youden Jr., Australian-born US mathematician who died on 31 March 1971.
1884 Otto Meyerhof Germany, psychologist and biochemist who shared the 1922 Medicine Nobel Prize, and died on 06 October 1951.
1861 Gyula Tornai, Hungarian artist who died on 24 November 1928. — links to images.
1852 Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann, German mathematician who died on 06 March 1939. He was the first to prove that p (pi) is transcendental,
1840 Ferdinand Victor Léon Roybet, French artist who died on 10 April 1920.
1794 (23 germinal an II) Germinal Pierre Dandelin, French Belgian mathematician who died on 15 February 1847.
1777 Henry Clay, The Great Pacificator: US Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams; three time unsuccessful candidate for president of US, who said: "I would rather be right than president." and got at least not to be president. He died on 29 June 1852.
1777 Leendert de Koningh, Dutch artist who died on 05 June 1849.
1738 Francisco Tomás Garcés, Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, who died on 18 July 1781, near the junction of the Colorado and Gila rivers. From 1768 to 1775 he explored, alone and with Juan Bautista de Anza, commandant of the presidio at Tubac (now in Arizona), the Gila and Colorado rivers and sought a route from the province of Sonora to California. His attempt with Juan Díaz to found Indian missions ended in their death.
1647 Maria Sibylla Merian, German painter, botanist and entomologist, who died on 13 January 1717. — more with links to images.
which occur on a 12 April:
2240 Easter Sunday
2229 Easter Sunday
2218 Easter Sunday
2172 Easter Sunday
2161 Easter Sunday
2150 Easter Sunday
2099 Easter Sunday
2093 Easter Sunday
2082 Palm Sunday
2076 Palm Sunday
2071 Palm Sunday
2020 Easter Sunday
2009 Easter Sunday
1998 Easter Sunday
1992 Palm Sunday
1987 Palm Sunday
1981 Palm Sunday
1936 Easter Sunday
1925 Easter Sunday
1914 Easter Sunday
1908 Palm Sunday
1903 Easter Sunday
1868 Easter Sunday
1857 Easter Sunday
1821 Easter Sunday
1789 Easter Sunday
1716 Easter Sunday
1705 Easter Sunday