• Gulf war ends... • Truman fires MacArthur... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Louisiana for sale... • Ugandan tyrant overthrown... • Bataan Death March's 2nd day... • High Tajik police official murdered... • Defective spacecraft launched towards Moon... • Nazi death camp liberated... • Cops kill innocent man... • Germany reconquers Libya... • B52s strike North Vietnamese positions... • Software piracy crackdown... • Lucent and Bell Atlantic reconcile... • Cop killed making arrest... • OPA is created... • Smart, poet with a smart cat, is born... • British Lord is kidnapped... • Dorothy Parker resigns... • First wild condor in 18 years...
an 11 April:
2002 As the stock of Specialty Laboratories (SP) which had traded as high as $46 on 06 June 2001, drops from the previous close of $18 to an intraday low of $10.25, closing at $11.75. This comes as the company announces its disappointing first quarter 2002 results. [1-year price chart >]
2002 The Yugoslav Parliament passes a law that removes legal obstacles for the arrest and extradition of those accused of war crimes to the UN tribunal at the Hague. Hours later, one of them, former Serbian interior minister Vlajko Stojiljkovic, shoots himself in the temple, falls into a deep coma, and dies two days later. He leaves a suicide note protesting the puppet regime's law directed against patriots like him. Yugoslavia hopes to regain US aid and support for loans from international organizations, which it lost by not meeting the 31 March deadline set by the US Congress.
2002 Bosnia, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Congo, Ireland, Jordan, Mongolia, Niger, Romania, and Slovakia deposit their ratification of the Rome treaty (18 July 1998) establishing a permanent International Criminal Court with jurisdiction over war crimes, genocide, and other crimes against humanity, committed after 30 June 2002, and will be constituted early in 2003. This brings to 66 the number of nations ratifying (out of 139 signatories), more than the 60 required to activate the treaty. The US, under the Bush Jr. the rest of the world be damned administration, opposes the treaty and wants to withdraw the US's signature of it affixed during the Clinton administration (31 Dec 2000). This would put the US in the same class as nations which have not signed, such as China, Vietnam, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Cuba.
The previous 56 ratifiers are:
Senegal (02 February 1999) Trinidad and Tobago (06 April 1999) San Marino (13 May 1999) Italy (26 July 1999) Fiji (29 November 1999) Ghana (20 December 1999) Norway (16 February 2000) Belize (05 April 2000) Tajikistan (05 May 2000) Iceland (25 May 2000) Venezuela (07 June 2000) France (09 June 2000) Belgium (28 June 2000) Canada (07 July 2000) Mali (16 August 2000) Lesotho (06 September 2000) New Zealand (07 September 2000) Botswana (08 September 2000) Luxembourg (08 September 2000) Sierra Leone (15 September 2000) Gabon (20 September 2000) Spain (24 October 2000) South Africa (27 November 2000) Marshall Islands (07 December 2000) Germany (11 December 2000) Austria (28 December 2000) Finland (29 December 2000) Argentina (08 February 2001) Dominica (12 February 2001) a Andorra (30 April 2001) Paraguay (14 May 2001) Croatia (21 May 2001) Costa Rica (07 June 2001) Antigua & Barbuda (18 June 2001) Denmark (21 June 2001) Sweden (28 June 2001) Netherlands (17 July 2001) Yugoslavia (06 September 2001) Nigeria (27 September 2001) Liechtenstein (02 October 2001) Central African Republic (03 October 2001) United Kingdom (04 October 2001) Switzerland (12 October 2001) Peru (10 November 2001) Nauru (12 November 2001) Poland (12 November 2001) Hungary (30 November 2001) Slovenia (31 December 2001) Benin (22 January 2002) Estonia (30 January 2002) Portugal (05 February 2002) (Ecuador 05 February 2002) (Mauritius 05 March 2002) (Macedonia, FYR 06 March 2002) Cyprus (07 March 2002) (Panama 21 March 2002)
2002 US Representative James A. Traficant Jr., 60, of Youngstown, Ohio, is convicted of racketeering and corruption for trafficking in bribes from business executives and kickbacks from his staff. He would be sentenced on 27 June 2002. His surname seems to be prophetic. [one meaning of traffic is illegal or disreputable money-making activity] [En français: trafiquant = personne malhonnête qui achète et vend en réalisant des profits illicites, ou se livre à des manipulations en vue de tromper sur la marchandise] [en español: traficante]
2001 Police brutalizes Christians in Sudan.
On 26 April 2001, Amnesty International would take note of the Sudanese presidential decree pardoning 47 persons arrested over the recent Easter and called for an impartial and independent investigation into the shootings, beatings and arrests by the Sudanese riot police on 11 April 2001. "Amnesty International is concerned that at least nine people, including children, were flogged as punishment, after being convicted with 47 others for causing 'public disturbance' in an unfair and summary trial." On 11 April, Christians gathered at All Saints Cathedral in Khartoum for prayers and to discuss the cancellation of a religious rally organized by church authorities on 10 April. Some students, angry at the cancellation, reportedly went outside the church with stones. When the riot police intervened, those outside the church ran inside. According to witnesses, police threw teargas inside the church making it difficult for people to breathe, and fired bullets at the crowd injuring many. Police then entered the church and indiscriminately arrested at least 56 people. One person, Edward Jemi, lost a hand from bullet wounds. At least two others were hit by bullets. It is reported that some, including women, were beaten and that one person was stabbed by the riot police. The 56 people arrested were brought the next day to a criminal court and charged with causing public disturbance.The judge refused to allow their lawyer to defend them. The trial lasted less than an hour. Six women and three children were sentenced to 15 and 20 lashes respectively and were flogged on 12 April and then released. The remaining 47 were sentenced to 20 lashes each and from seven to 20 days in prison.
Other people present in the cathedral, including Church officials and a journalist, Alfred Taban, were also arrested. They were later released, apart from Alfred Taban, who was held incommunicado without charge until he was released on 17 April without explanation. "The government should conduct an impartial and independent investigation into the incident", Amnesty International said."And those responsible for unlawful shootings should be brought promptly to justice. All people detained by the police should be given the opportunity of fair trial including being defended by a lawyer of their choice." The human rights organization further urged the Sudanese government to take immediate action to ensure that its security forces comply with international standards, especially the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, thereby protecting the life and safety of civilians. The organization is also calling on the Sudanese authorities to refrain from inflicting torture such as flogging as punishment, especially for children. The Sudanese authorities should guarantee the right to free assembly and freedom of religious belief and practice.
Church authorities in Khartoum had planned events for Easter and had invited a German evangelist to address a rally on 10 April in Green Square in central Khartoum, which they had booked. After threats by Islamic groups to disrupt the celebrations, the Sudanese authorities ordered the church authorities on 09 April to move the event to Haj Yusif in the outskirts of Khartoum. Because of the short notice, people turned up on 10 April in Green Square. Clashes ensued with the police. It is alleged that the police threw tear gas and shot at people. At least 50 people were arrested and later released. Clashes were also reported on the same day in Haj Yusif. Following these incidents, the church authorities decided to cancel the event and were discussing their decision with the Christian community the day after in All Saints Cathedral, when they were disrupted by the police. The use of excessive force by the Sudanese security forces has been reported several times in the past, as well as complaints by the Christian community of harassment and restriction of their right to freedom of religion.
| 1996 Time Warner and CompuServe announce a partnership
giving CompuServe users exclusive access to a portion of Time Warner's Pathfinder
1986 Dodge Morgan sailed solo nonstop around the world in 150 days
1984 Challenger astronauts complete first in space satellite repair
1980 US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission takes measures against sexual harrassment.
Idi Amin overthrown ^top^
In Uganda, Tanzanian troops and forces of the Uganda National Liberation Front captured the capital of Kampala, driving Ugandan dictator Idi Amin into a permanent exile. In 1971, Major General Idi Amin, commander-in-chief of Uganda's armed forces since 1966, staged a successful military coup against Ugandan President Milton Obote.
Amin's regime initially faced substantial opposition within the army by officers and troops loyal to Obote, but by the end of 1971, he was in firm control of both the army and the country. During 1972, Amin, a Muslim, strengthened ties with Libya and other Arab nations and launched a genocidal program to purge Uganda of its Lango and Acholi ethnic groups.
In August of 1972, he ordered all Asians to leave the country, and within three months all sixty thousand had fled, thrusting Uganda into economic chaos. Over the next few years, Amin's regime became increasingly brutal and autocratic; he dismissed his civilian government, declared himself president for life, and stepped up his suppression of various ethnic groups and political opponents in the military and elsewhere.
In 1978, Amin invaded Tanzania in an attempt to annex the Kagera region, but in the next year, Tanzania launched a successful counter-offensive with the assistance of the Uganda National Liberation Front, a coalition of various anti-Amin groups. Amin and his government fled the country on April 11, 1979, and Obote returned from exile to reassume the Ugandan presidency. It is estimated that up to three hundred thousand Ugandans were killed during Idi Amin's eight years of rule. Amin found sanctuary in Saudi Arabia.
| 1968 US President Johnson signs 1968 Civil Rights Act.
1967 Harlem (NYC) voters defy Congress & reelect Adam Clayton Powell Jr
1963 John XXIII encyclical On peace in truth, justice, charity and liberty
1963 One hundred US soldiers of the Hawaiian-based 25th Infantry Division are ordered to temporary duty with military units in South Vietnam to serve as machine gunners aboard Army H-21 helicopters. This was the first commitment of American combat troops to the war and represented a quiet escalation of the US commitment to the war in Vietnam.
1961 Israel begins the Adolf Eichman world war II crimes trial
1960 first weather satellite launched (Tiros 1)
The US army liberates Buchenwald concentration
"Buchenwald, the first concentration camp to be breached by the western Allies, had been built high on the hills above Weimar, capital of the defunct democratic Republic and not far from an imperial Schloss known as Wilhelmshohe.
Nearby still stood the Goethe Oak, a noble tree to which the eighteenth-century giant of German letters had often repaired to refresh his perspective.
Approximately 238'000 prisoners, many of them Jews, but also non-Jewish Poles, Russians, and dissident Germans, had been incarcerated in Buchenwald since its dedication. Even before the war exploded in Europe, it was serving the coercive purposes of the Nazis.
Already in mid-November 1938, after a Nazi Embassy official had been assassinated by a distraught young Jew, more than 10'000 people had been sent to the camp, where they were compelled to pass their arrival night in the open winter air and then were beaten and tortured. A loudspeaker kept repeating the announcement that any Jew who wished to hang himself should put a paper with his number in his mouth so that his identity could be quickly established.
Throughout the war years the deportation trains and convoys moved in meticulously maintained schedules out of Buchenwald to the death camps further east. But even in this temporary detention camp, some 56'000 had died or been murdered.
When the forward platoons of Americans arrived on the morning of 11 April 1945 only about 20'000 prisoners remained. Hermann Pister, the last SS commandant, was working frenetically to ship out as many as he could process. In the previous week he had secretly selected forty-six of the last inmates for public execution on the home ground of Buchenwald itself. His intention was relayed to the prison underground that had been organized in the last weeks of the camp's existence. When the time came for the roll call, not one of the forty-six answered. Camp personnel, aware that the Americans were already on the outskirts of Weimar, and their thoughts now mainly on escape, made a halfhearted unsuccessful search for the inmates, then drifted away.
Indeed, some panic-stricken guards who were left behind at this point begged prisoners for good references. Others were confiscating prisoners' garb in the hope they might escape recognition in the chaos soon to come. However, few cheated retribution. Survivors with barely enough strength to walk disarmed them at the gates; only days before, even to approach a Nazi guard was to be shot down summarily. As a sign of welcome to the liberators, prisoners began to hang out scraps of cloth that had once been white.
Some of the first Americans to enter the camp vomited as their eyes beheld what their minds could not absorb bodies stacked in obscene anonymity [photo], the barely living whimpering among the corpses, bunks full of shaven-headed, emaciated creatures who had wizened into skeletal apparitions. American soldiers put on film the scenes in rooms full of naked, unburied corpses, piled ten feet high.
Soon after the takeover, General Dwight Eisenhower, commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, arrived. "I have never felt able to describe my emotional reaction when I came face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every shred of human decency," he wrote. "Up to that moment I had only known about it generally, or through secondary sources. I am certain, however, that I have never at any time experienced an equal sense of shock. // http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/camps/buchenwald/buchenwald-01.html
| 1943 Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flies his first
1941 The Italian 2nd Army (comprising 15 divisions) advances from Istria into Dalmatia.
1900 the US Navy acquires its first submarine, a 16-meter craft designed by Irish immigrant John P. Holland. Propelled by gasoline while on the surface and by electricity when submerged, the Holland served as a blueprint for modern submarine design. By the eve of World War I, Holland and Holland-inspired vessels were a part of large naval fleets throughout the world.
1899 Treaty of Paris ratified, ending the Spanish-American War; Spain cedes Puerto Rico to US.
1898 President McKinley asks for Spanish-American War declaration.
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1862 Rebels surrender Ft Pulaski, Georgia
1861 Confederates demand surrender of Fort Sumter.
1856 Battle of Rivas; Costa Rica beats William Walker's invading Nicaraguans
1814 First abdication of Napoléon; he is exiled to Elba
DOULCET Gustave, ex marquis de Pontécoulant, âgé de 36 ans, domicilié à Vire, département du Calvados, ex député à l'Assemblée Constituante, député à la Convention nationale, mis hors la loi par décret du 3 octobre 1793, par suite des événement des 31 mai 1 et 2 juin, il s'est soustrait au jugement, et il doit la vie au courage de la veuve Lejai, libraire, il l'a épousée par reconnaissance.
HARDY Antoine François, député du département de la Seine Inférieure à la Convention nationale, domicilié à Rouen, mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, par suite des malheureuse journée du 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin, il s’est soustrait au jugement.
ROUYER, député par le département de l’Hérault à la convention nationale, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention par suite des malheureuses journées des 31 mai 1 et 2 juin 1793, il s’est soustrait au jugement.
VALLEE Jacques Nicolas, député du département de l’Eure à la convention nationale, domicilié à Evreux, même département, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale, comme conspirateur, et par suite des malheureuses journée des 31 mai et 2 juin 1793. Il s’est soustrait au jugement..
1713 Peace of Utrecht; France cedes Maritime provinces to Britain
1689 William III and Mary II are crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain.
1506 The foundation stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica was laid under the patronage of Julius II. (The church was not completed, however, until 1626.)
0672 Saint Adeodatus II begins his reign as Pope.
2008 Manuel Ramirez [28 May 1917–], parishioner of Our Lady of the Assumption, El Paso, Texas, homebound handicapped, as were two of his three sisters with whom he was living piously. —(080414).
2004 Anna Grudziecke [17 Mar 1998–] [photo >], of Houston, Texas, first in the world to be implanted a DeBakey child heart pump (on 26 March 2004). Her heart muscle had thickened, causing it to stiffen and deteriorate. The device supplements the pumping of the left ventricle, the main pumping chamber of the heart. More than 200 adults have been implanted with the adult version. Some have survived for more than a year. —(080412)
2003 Lorenzo Enrique Copello Castillo, Barbaro Leodán Sevilla García, and Jorge Luis Martínez Isaac, by firing squad, at dawn in Cuba. On 08 April 2003 they had been sentenced to death, at the same time as four other men were sentenced to life in prison, and one man and three women to 30 years to 2 years in prison, because, early on 02 April 2003, armed with knives and one pistol, they had hijacked the ferry Baragua in Havana Bay and headed for the US with about 50 hostages on board. But the ferry soon ran out of fuel. Officers on the two Cuban Coast Guard patrol boats that chased them persuaded the hijackers to let the ferry be towed the 50 km back to the port of Mariel for refueling. But instead, once there, the ferry was stormed by Cuban troops and the hijackers arrested. None of the hostages was hurt. The executions come in a week in which Castro's dictatorship has sentenced 75 dissidents to 28 to 6 years in prison on charges of collaborating with US diplomats to undermine Castro’s regime.
2003 Two Iraqi children, by US tank firing at the minibus in which they were, which had blackened windows and “seemed like it was not going to stop” a checkpoint near Nasiriyah, Iraq, manned by US Marines of the 15th US Marine Expeditionary Unit, fearful of a suicide bomb attack. The nine adults in the vehicle are wounded.
2003 Thomas Hurndall, 21, British, after being shot in the head by machine-gun fire from an Israeli tank, as he tried to get two Palestinian children out of danger during a peaceful demonstration of a dozen members (of which he was one) of the International Solidarity Movement, on the outskirts of the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2002 Seventeen demonstrators against Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, as his supporters shoot down from the Carmelitas Bridge and some tall buildings at a mass demonstration in Caracas.
2002: 21 persons, mostly foreign tourists, by terrorist bomb which destroys part of a synagogue on the resort island Djerba, Tunisia.
2002 Anna Yakobovitch, 78, Israeli from Holon, of injuries received on 27 March 2003 in suicide bombing at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, which caused 23 immediate deaths, and 7 delayed deaths, including hers.
2002 Some 50 persons because of fire aboard ferry MV Maria Carmela, about 20 km from its destination in Lucena, Philippines, at about 07:00. Some of the victims drowned when jumping overboard without a life jacket. The Montenegro Shipping Lines ship had left Masbate island some 12 hours earlier, with a crew of 47 and 243 passergers listed on the manifest. It was capable of carrying 326 passengers plus vehicles. 86 persons are injured. The fire had started in the cargo hold.
[images below:: left: the ferry still smoldering hours later right: the burned-out hulk after being towed to shore]
1996 Jessica Dubroff, 7, Lloyd Dubroff,
57, Joe Reid, 52,
Jessica, her father, and flight instructor die when the plane she is piloting crashes after takeoff from Cheyenne, Wyoming. Jessica had hoped to become the youngest person to fly cross-country..
Jessica Dubroff's single- engine plane was overloaded with luggage and personal items when it crashed in treacherous conditions. As people around the country struggled to understand how parents could allow a small child to undertake a coast-to-coast flight, Jessica's mother defended the decision, saying her daughter was fulfilling what America stands for. The small aircraft was overweight with personal effects when it crashed in Cheyenne, Wyoming, during a rainstorm in the morning. The crash killed the Pescadero girl, her father, Lloyd Dubroff, 57, of San Mateo, and flight instructor Reid, 52, of Half Moon Bay. At Cheyenne's high elevation, taking off with a heavy load was more difficult than when Jessica set off from Half Moon Bay, trying to become the youngest person to complete the 11'000-km journey from coast to coast and back. In addition, it was likely the Cessna Cardinal 177B encountered wind shear. The pilot of an airplane that took off minutes before Jessica's plane told controllers he had encountered the perilous flying condition
Two days before Jessica took off, her mother, Lisa Blair Hathaway, was asked if the weather might delay her flight east. The weather will move for her. It is not luck. Jessica knows that. It is the power of her being. There is something about Jessica that things move for her. She is just a wonderful person. That expression of serene confidence in a 7-year-old's abilities seemed to be at the core of Jessica's parents' attitude toward their children. Even before she was born, Jessica was treated as special, destined for a life of accomplishment and independence. Jessica and her brother Joshua, now 9, were born underwater in a five-foot-square birthing tub without doctors or midwives. Hathaway, 41, describes herself as a a spiritual adviser working with the medical profession. Her youngest child is Jasmine, 3. Even after the crash, she continued to maintain that children should be encouraged to have such adventures. I beg people to let children fly if they want to fly, she said. A teary-eyed Hathaway said, Clearly I would want all my children to die in a state of joy. I mean, what more could I ask for? I would prefer it was not at age 7 but, God, she went with her joy and her passion, and her life was in her hands.
Jessica was home-schooled because her parents wanted her to learn from life's experiences. She shunned children's books and television, and was encouraged to take charge of her own education. The children were taught how to build furniture. At age 4, Jessica was already learning about economics with her first job a paper route. Most recently, her physical education came from horseback riding lessons that a local stable gave her in exchange for caring for the animals. The children ate organic foods from health food stores and from the garden at their home.
Jessica took her first flight in a small aircraft when she was 6 years old. That was followed by her first lesson, in November 1995. Before her fatal last flight, both Hathaway and Jessica's father described their daughter as a highly focused little girl fearless and determined. We don't use an emotional- thinking language, so we don't use the words `scared,' `fear,' `sadness,' `happy,' Hathaway had said. I'm not nervous in any way, because Jessica is a great aviator. I see it in her body and soul, and there is no way I would ruin that for her by being nervous.
The family moved to California from Massachusetts about 1993. Jessica's parents never married and separated as a couple soon after arriving in the state. Dubroff, a management consultant who lived in San Mateo, subsequently remarried. But Lisa and Lloyd agreed on basic ideas of raising Jessica, and both supported letting her fly across the country in an airplane. About a year ago, Hathaway and her children moved into a house on Pescadero's quiet North Road and then across the street to a tan house a few weeks ago. When they moved in, Jessica introduced herself to neighbors, who said they were charmed by her intelligence and curiosity. She was wonderful, said Chris Dutsch, who runs a wood- carving and sign-making shop next door to the family's home. Jessica often visited and asked what various tools were for and how she could help. Jessica often rewarded Dutsch for his friendliness by bringing him cookies and cakes. A few days ago, she presented him with one of the hats her father had printed in honor of her adventure. He proudly stood outside their home and wore the hat as he talked about a very special girl with a big heart. `THESE KIDS WERE LEARNING' I thought what their mother was doing was rather advanced, Dutsch said. These kids were learning. They went to cultural events, they took music lessons. They had a lot going on.
Jessica's father's words before takeoff stood as a reminder that adventure and danger go hand in hand. Jessica didn't set out to change the world, she just set out to do something she thought was cool, Lloyd Dubroff said. I figure Jessica will do more for civil aviation (than anyone) since Amelia Earhart.
The people who decide who and what gets in the news are thinking out loud about whether 7-year-old Jessica Dubroff belonged there. Under fire from critics, editors and news directors have tried to determine whether their coverage of Jessica's attempted cross-country flight and others like it encourages youngsters to try unsafe feats in the hope of gaining publicity. There are those who say the deaths of Jessica, her father and her flight instructor are tragic proof of the need for media self-restraint. Mark Young, publisher of the Guinness Book of World Records' US edition, said the record book decided seven years ago to stop listing dangerous feats performed by youngsters after concluding that “encouraging young pilots to fly would eventually result in an accident like this.” The National Aeronautic Association, which had kept track of such records, reached the same conclusion, he said. But coverage by the news media keeps such records alive, Young noted. “These things receive so much publicity from news media that people are always saying, ‘My child could do that, too.’ ”
When Jessica, her father, and her flight instructor took off from Half Moon Bay on their cross-country adventure, with the 4-foot-2 Jessica at the plane's controls, the public was charmed by the notion of a child setting a transcontinental aviation record. It was noted in passing that the Guinness Book of World Records has stopped recognizing the youngest pilot category for fear of encouraging unsafe flights, and the Federal Aviation Administration will not license a pilot younger than 16. But Lloyd Dubroff explained why he allowed Jessica to make the daring, 11'000-km round-trip flight at her age: Because my daughter requested it. And because I thought she was capable of it and because I thought it was safe. In the wake of the crash, those words ring with a tragic irony. Now the cruel but stubborn questions are about adult judgment and parental responsibility.
| 1987 Erskine Caldwell, 83, novelist (Tobacco Road)
1987 Primo Levi, Italy, chemist/writer (Survival in Aushchwitz)
1974 Abraham Robinson, Jewish-German-born US mathematician born on 06 October 1918. Author of Complete theories (1956), Non-Standard Analysis (1966). Robinson invented non-standard analysis, which gives an alternative model for the Real numbers (sometimes called hyperreals) in which infinitesimals (numbers > 0 but < 1/n for all n) can be interpreted in a different way.
1974 All 18 residents of an apartment building in Kiryat Shmona, Israel, killed by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine who had crossed into Israeli from Lebanon. The dead include 9 children.
1965: 272 die as 40 tornadoes strike US midwest. Some 5000 are injured.
1906 James A. Bailey, 58, circus showman (Barnum and Bailey)
1894 Raphaël Ritz, Swiss artist born on 17 January 1829.
1881 Some 80 die as river ferry Princess Victoria sinks in Thames River, Ontario.
1875 Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, born on 25 October 1789, amateur astronomer, of Dessau, Germany, who discovered that sunspots vary in number in a cycle of about 10 years. He announced his findings in 1843, after 17 years of almost daily observations. Schwabe also made (1831) the first known detailed drawing of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. [click image for 25 Feb 1979 photo by Voyager 1 >]
1844 Arnoldus Bloemers, Dutch artist born in 1792 or 1786.
1836 Augustin van den Berghe, Belgian artist born on 13 October 1756.
1793 BERDIER Jacques, et BERDIER Pierre, domiciliés à Seisses-Tolosanes, canton de Muret, département de Haute-Garonne, condamnés à mort comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel du département de Haute-Garonne.
1793 DECOURS Jacques, domicilié à Castillonés, département du Lot et Garonne, condamné à mort comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Dordogne.
1760 Louis Silvestre, French artist born on 23 June 1675.
1734 Thomas Fantet de Lagny, French mathematician born on 07 November 1660. He calculated p (pi) to 120 decimal places. [See Pi through the ages, A chronology of pi, and Dowload pi]
1626 Marino Ghetaldi, Ragusa, Dalmatia, mathematician born in 1566.
1608 (Julian date) Blessed George Gervase. Go to 21 April Gregorian. —(080403)
1525 Davide Bigordi Ghirlandaio, Florentine painter and mosaicist born on 14 March 1452. more with link to an image.
1079 Saint Stanislaus of Kraków, born on 26 June 1030 in Szczepanów, Poland, patron saint of Poland, the first Pole to be canonized (in 1253, by Pope Innocent IV [–07 Dec 1254]). Of noble birth, Stanislaus studied at Gniezno in Poland., and probably at Paris. While serving as canon and preacher at Kraków, he was elected, after Pope Alexander II [–21 Apr 1075] nominated him, bishop of Kraków in 1072. During that time Poland was in a state of political unrest, with active opposition to King Boleslaw II the Bold [1039 – 22 Mar 1081]. Stanislaus joined the opposition under the leadership of Wladyslaw Herman [1043 – 04 Jun 1102], the king's brother, and excommunicated Boleslaw. In 1079 Stanislaus is accused of treason. The royal court finds him guilty and sentences him to dismemberment. The king's knights cannot bring themselves to carry out the sentence. Boleslaw II storms into Kraków's Church of Saint Michael, outside the city gates, where Stanislaus is saying mass. Boleslaw II stabs the bishop with his own sword, as the horrified congregation looks on. Stanislaus slumps in pain [image >] and dies. This same day King Boleslaw is forced to flee to Hungary. Wladyslaw Herman becomes king. These events have remained a matter of controversy between those Polish historians who believe Stanislaus was part of a Bohemian-German plot designed to remove Boleslaw and replace him with Wladyslaw, and those who describe the execution as a contemptible act of revenge against a saintly bishop who had excommunicated a cruel, licentious king. In any case, miracles and legends spread the cult of the martyred bishop to Lithuania, Belorussia, and Ukraine, and Stanislaus became the patron saint of his native Poland.
0678 Pope Donus. He had been consecrated Pope on 02 November 676, to succeed Adeodatus II, after an interval of 4 months and 17 days.
2003 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets goes on sale.
“... generaliter nullam in infinitum ultra quadratum potestatem in duos eiusdem numinis fas est dividere, cuius rei demonstrationem mirabilem fere detexi. Hanc marginis exiguitas non caperet.”
Ever since mathematicians had tried to construct a proof, but without success. Wiles's proof is 150 pages long and uses mathematics that did not exist in Fermat's time, so that it is very likely that Fermat was mistaken about the validity of his proof.
1914 Pygmalion, by George Bernard Shaw, premieres.
1908 Brian Kuttner, English mathematician who died on 02 January 1992. He worked on Fourier series, strong summability, Riesz means, Nörland methods, and Tauberian theory.
1907 Henry Scheffé, US mathematician who died on 05 July 1977. He worked in several different areas of Statistics, including linear models, analysis of variance and nonparametrics. Author of The Analysis of Variance (1959).
1904 Philip Hall, English mathematician who died on 30 December 1982. The growth of group theory to be one of the major mathematical topics of the 20th Century was largely due to him.
1901 Glenway Wescott, US writer (Apartment in Athens)
1894 Paul Finsler, German mathematician who died on 29 April 1970. His doctoral dissertation Curves and surfaces in general spaces introduced Finsler spaces, a generalisation of Riemannian spaces where the length function is defined differently and Minkowski's geometry holds locally. But Finsler's main work was in set theory, though he also worked on differential geometry, number theory, probability theory, and the foundations of mathematics. Author of On the foundations of set theory (part I: 1926, part II: 1965)
1893 Dean G. Acheson statesman/US Secretary of State (1949-1953)
1893 John Northcote Nash, British painter, wood-engraver, and illustrator, who died on 23 Sep 1977. MORE ON NASH AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1880 Daniel Garber, US Impressionist painter who died in 1958. links to images.
1862 Charles Evans Hughes, jurist and statesman who served as an associate justice of the US Supreme Court (1910–1916), US secretary of state (1921–25), and 11th chief justice of the United States (1930–1941). As chief justice he led the Supreme Court through the great controversy arising over President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal social legislation. Hughes died on 27 August 1948.
1834 Marcus Dods, Scottish clergyman and biblical scholar. His published works in New Testament studies helped popularize modern biblical scholarship in Great Britain.
1767 Jean-Baptiste Isabey, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 18 April 1855. MORE ON ISABEY AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1760 Louis Silvestre, French artist born on 23 June 1675.
1749 Adelaïde Labille~Guiard, French Neoclassical painter who died on 24 April 1803, specialized in Portraits. MORE ON LABILLE~GUIARD AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1370 Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony.