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Events, deaths, births, of APR 11
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” APR 11     wikipedia
• Gulf war ends... • Truman fires MacArthur... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Louisiana for sale... • Ugandan tyrant overthrown... • Bataan Death March's 2nd day... • High Tajik police official murdered... • Defective spacecraft launched towards Moon... • Nazi death camp liberated... • Cops kill innocent man... • Germany reconquers Libya... • B52s strike North Vietnamese positions... • Software piracy crackdown... • Lucent and Bell Atlantic reconcile... • Cop killed making arrest... • OPA is created... • Smart, poet with a smart cat, is born... • British Lord is kidnapped... • Dorothy Parker resigns... • First wild condor in 18 years...
SP price chart^  On an 11 April:
2002 As the stock of Specialty Laboratories (SP) which had traded as high as $46 on 06 June 2001, drops from the previous close of $18 to an intraday low of $10.25, closing at $11.75. This comes as the company announces its disappointing first quarter 2002 results. [1-year price chart >]

2002 The Yugoslav Parliament passes a law that removes legal obstacles for the arrest and extradition of those accused of war crimes to the UN tribunal at the Hague. Hours later, one of them, former Serbian interior minister Vlajko Stojiljkovic, shoots himself in the temple, falls into a deep coma, and dies two days later. He leaves a suicide note protesting the “puppet regime”'s law directed against “patriots” like him. Yugoslavia hopes to regain US aid and support for loans from international organizations, which it lost by not meeting the 31 March deadline set by the US Congress.

2002 Bosnia, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Congo, Ireland, Jordan, Mongolia, Niger, Romania, and Slovakia deposit their ratification of the Rome treaty (18 July 1998) establishing a permanent International Criminal Court with jurisdiction over war crimes, genocide, and other crimes against humanity, committed after 30 June 2002, and will be constituted early in 2003. This brings to 66 the number of nations ratifying (out of 139 signatories), more than the 60 required to activate the treaty. The US, under the Bush Jr. “the rest of the world be damned” administration, opposes the treaty and wants to withdraw the US's signature of it affixed during the Clinton administration (31 Dec 2000). This would put the US in the same class as nations which have not signed, such as China, Vietnam, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Cuba.
      The previous 56 ratifiers are:
     Senegal (02 February 1999) — Trinidad and Tobago (06 April 1999) — San Marino (13 May 1999) — Italy (26 July 1999) — Fiji (29 November 1999) — Ghana (20 December 1999) — Norway (16 February 2000) — Belize (05 April 2000) — Tajikistan (05 May 2000) — Iceland (25 May 2000) — Venezuela (07 June 2000) — France (09 June 2000) — Belgium (28 June 2000) — Canada (07 July 2000) — Mali (16 August 2000) — Lesotho (06 September 2000) — New Zealand (07 September 2000) — Botswana (08 September 2000) — Luxembourg (08 September 2000) — Sierra Leone (15 September 2000) — Gabon (20 September 2000) — Spain (24 October 2000) — South Africa (27 November 2000) — Marshall Islands (07 December 2000) — Germany (11 December 2000) — Austria (28 December 2000) — Finland (29 December 2000) — Argentina (08 February 2001) — Dominica (12 February 2001) — a Andorra (30 April 2001) — Paraguay (14 May 2001) — Croatia (21 May 2001) — Costa Rica (07 June 2001) — Antigua & Barbuda (18 June 2001) — Denmark (21 June 2001) — Sweden (28 June 2001) — Netherlands (17 July 2001) — Yugoslavia (06 September 2001) — Nigeria (27 September 2001) — Liechtenstein (02 October 2001) — Central African Republic (03 October 2001) — United Kingdom (04 October 2001) — Switzerland (12 October 2001) — Peru (10 November 2001) — Nauru (12 November 2001) — Poland (12 November 2001) — Hungary (30 November 2001) — Slovenia (31 December 2001) — Benin (22 January 2002) — Estonia (30 January 2002) — Portugal (05 February 2002) — (Ecuador 05 February 2002) — (Mauritius 05 March 2002) — (Macedonia, FYR 06 March 2002) — Cyprus (07 March 2002) — (Panama 21 March 2002)

2002 US Representative James A. Traficant Jr., 60, of Youngstown, Ohio, is convicted of racketeering and corruption for trafficking in bribes from business executives and kickbacks from his staff. He would be sentenced on 27 June 2002. His surname seems to be prophetic. [one meaning of traffic is “illegal or disreputable money-making activity”] [En français: trafiquant = personne malhonnête qui achète et vend en réalisant des profits illicites, ou se livre à des manipulations en vue de tromper sur la marchandise] [en español: traficante]
^ 2001 Police brutalizes Christians in Sudan.
     On 26 April 2001, Amnesty International would take note of the Sudanese presidential decree pardoning 47 persons arrested over the recent Easter and called for an impartial and independent investigation into the shootings, beatings and arrests by the Sudanese riot police on 11 April 2001. "Amnesty International is concerned that at least nine people, including children, were flogged as punishment, after being convicted with 47 others for causing 'public disturbance' in an unfair and summary trial." On 11 April, Christians gathered at All Saints Cathedral in Khartoum for prayers and to discuss the cancellation of a religious rally organized by church authorities on 10 April. Some students, angry at the cancellation, reportedly went outside the church with stones. When the riot police intervened, those outside the church ran inside. According to witnesses, police threw teargas inside the church making it difficult for people to breathe, and fired bullets at the crowd injuring many. Police then entered the church and indiscriminately arrested at least 56 people. One person, Edward Jemi, lost a hand from bullet wounds. At least two others were hit by bullets. It is reported that some, including women, were beaten and that one person was stabbed by the riot police. The 56 people arrested were brought the next day to a criminal court and charged with causing public disturbance.The judge refused to allow their lawyer to defend them. The trial lasted less than an hour. Six women and three children were sentenced to 15 and 20 lashes respectively and were flogged on 12 April and then released. The remaining 47 were sentenced to 20 lashes each and from seven to 20 days in prison.
      Other people present in the cathedral, including Church officials and a journalist, Alfred Taban, were also arrested. They were later released, apart from Alfred Taban, who was held incommunicado without charge until he was released on 17 April without explanation. "The government should conduct an impartial and independent investigation into the incident", Amnesty International said."And those responsible for unlawful shootings should be brought promptly to justice. All people detained by the police should be given the opportunity of fair trial including being defended by a lawyer of their choice." The human rights organization further urged the Sudanese government to take immediate action to ensure that its security forces comply with international standards, especially the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, thereby protecting the life and safety of civilians. The organization is also calling on the Sudanese authorities to refrain from inflicting torture such as flogging as punishment, especially for children. The Sudanese authorities should guarantee the right to free assembly and freedom of religious belief and practice.
Background:
      Church authorities in Khartoum had planned events for Easter and had invited a German evangelist to address a rally on 10 April in Green Square in central Khartoum, which they had booked. After threats by Islamic groups to disrupt the celebrations, the Sudanese authorities ordered the church authorities on 09 April to move the event to Haj Yusif in the outskirts of Khartoum. Because of the short notice, people turned up on 10 April in Green Square. Clashes ensued with the police. It is alleged that the police threw tear gas and shot at people. At least 50 people were arrested and later released. Clashes were also reported on the same day in Haj Yusif. Following these incidents, the church authorities decided to cancel the event and were discussing their decision with the Christian community the day after in All Saints Cathedral, when they were disrupted by the police. The use of excessive force by the Sudanese security forces has been reported several times in the past, as well as complaints by the Christian community of harassment and restriction of their right to freedom of religion.
1996 Time Warner and CompuServe announce a partnership giving CompuServe users exclusive access to a portion of Time Warner's Pathfinder site.
^ 1997 Lucent Technologies and Bell Atlantic reconcile.
      Less than a month after settling a $3.5 million antitrust lawsuit, Lucent Technologies agreed to sell Bell Atlantic $1 billion worth of telecommunications equipment over five years. Bell Atlantic had sued Lucent in February for making its switches incompatible with other manufacturers' equipment, which limited Bell Atlantic's ability to buy from other suppliers. Although terms of the settlement were not disclosed, the five-year, $1 billion contract seemed to indicate they had come to satisfactory terms.
1994 Software piracy crackdown
      News media report that students at two New England colleges had been arrested for allegedly distributing pirated software through the Internet. An MIT student reportedly used university computers to establish an Internet bulletin board where users could copy pirated software. The second student, from Brown University, was also arrested in a similar but unrelated case involving a computer bulletin board. During the mid-1990's, software makers started to pressure the government to crack down on software pirates, who cost companies billions of dollars a year in revenues.
1991 Persian Gulf War ends.
     United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, calling for an official cease-fire in Iraq, was declared in effect by the Security Council five days after Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein reluctantly accepted its terms. On 02 August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, its tiny, oil-rich neighbor, and within hours Iraqi forces had occupied most strategic positions in the country. One week later, Operation Shield, the American defense of Saudi Arabia, began as US forces raced to the Persian Gulf. On 29 November, 1990, the UN Security Council passed a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq if it failed to withdraw from Kuwait by 15 January 1991. At 16:30 Eastern Standard Time on 16 January 1991, Operation Desert Storm, a massive US -led offensive against Iraq, began as the first fighter aircraft were launched from Saudi Arabia and off of US and British aircraft carriers in the Persian Gulf. All evening, aircraft from the US -led military coalition pounded targets in and around Baghdad as the world watched the events transpire on television footage transmitted live via satellite from Baghdad and elsewhere. Operation Desert Storm was conducted by an international coalition under the command of US General Norman Schwarzkopf and featured forces from thirty-two nations, including Britain, Egypt, France, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. Over the next six weeks, the allied force engaged in a massive air war against Iraq's military and civil infrastructure, encountering little effective resistance from the Iraqi air force. Iraqi ground forces were also helpless during this stage of the war, and Saddam Hussein's only significant retaliatory measure was the launching of SCUD missile attacks against Israel and Saudi Arabia. Saddam hoped that the missile attacks would provoke Israel, and thus other Arab nations, to enter the conflict; however, at the request of the US , Israel remained out of the war. On 24 February, a massive coalition ground offensive began and Iraq's outdated and poorly supplied armed forces were rapidly overwhelmed. By the end of the day, the Iraqi army had effectively folded, ten thousand of its troops were held as prisoners, and a US air base had been established deep inside Iraq. After less than four days, Kuwait was liberated and the majority of Iraq's armed forces had either been destroyed, surrendered, or retreated to Iraq. On 28 February, US President George Bush declared a cease-fire, and on 03 April, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 687, specifying conditions for a formal end to the conflict. According to the resolution, Bush's cease-fire would become official, some sanctions would be lifted, but the ban on Iraqi oil sales would continue until Iraq destroyed its weapons of mass destruction under UN supervision. On 06 April, Iraq accepted the resolution, and on 11 April, the Security Council declared it in effect; although in later years Saddam Hussein frequently violated the terms of the peace agreement. One hundred and twenty-five American soldiers were killed in the Persian Gulf War, with another twenty-one reported as missing in action.
1986 Halley's Comet makes closest approach to Earth this trip, 63 million km
1986 Dodge Morgan sailed solo nonstop around the world in 150 days
1984 Challenger astronauts complete first in space satellite repair
1980 US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission takes measures against sexual harrassment.
Idi Amin1979 Idi Amin overthrown       ^top^
     In Uganda, Tanzanian troops and forces of the Uganda National Liberation Front captured the capital of Kampala, driving Ugandan dictator Idi Amin into a permanent exile. In 1971, Major General Idi Amin, commander-in-chief of Uganda's armed forces since 1966, staged a successful military coup against Ugandan President Milton Obote.
      Amin's regime initially faced substantial opposition within the army by officers and troops loyal to Obote, but by the end of 1971, he was in firm control of both the army and the country. During 1972, Amin, a Muslim, strengthened ties with Libya and other Arab nations and launched a genocidal program to purge Uganda of its Lango and Acholi ethnic groups.
      In August of 1972, he ordered all Asians to leave the country, and within three months all sixty thousand had fled, thrusting Uganda into economic chaos. Over the next few years, Amin's regime became increasingly brutal and autocratic; he dismissed his civilian government, declared himself president for life, and stepped up his suppression of various ethnic groups and political opponents in the military and elsewhere.
      In 1978, Amin invaded Tanzania in an attempt to annex the Kagera region, but in the next year, Tanzania launched a successful counter-offensive with the assistance of the Uganda National Liberation Front, a coalition of various anti-Amin groups. Amin and his government fled the country on April 11, 1979, and Obote returned from exile to reassume the Ugandan presidency. It is estimated that up to three hundred thousand Ugandans were killed during Idi Amin's eight years of rule. Amin found sanctuary in Saudi Arabia.
1972 B-52s strike North Vietnamese positions       ^top^
      B-52 strikes against communist forces attacking South Vietnamese positions in the Central Highlands near Kontum remove any immediate threat to that city. Air strikes against North Vietnam continued, but were hampered by poor weather. Also on this day, the Pentagon ordered two more squadrons of B-52s to Thailand. These actions were part of the US response to the ongoing North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive, which had begun on March 30. This offensive, later more commonly known as the "Easter Offensive," was a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win the war for the communists. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south. The fighting, which continued into the fall, was some of the most desperate of the war. The South Vietnamese prevailed against the invaders with the help of US advisors and massive American airpower.
1970 Apollo 13 departs for the Moon       ^top^
     Apollo 13, the third manned lunar landing mission, was successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, carrying astronauts James A. Lovell, John L. Swigert, and Fred W. Haise.
      Two days later, on 13 April, disaster struck 300'000 km from earth when liquid oxygen tank No. 2 exploded, disabling the normal supply of oxygen, electricity, light, and water. A moment later Swigert reported to mission control: "Houston, we've had a problem," and minutes later the lunar landing was aborted. The crippled spacecraft continued to the moon, circled it, and began a long, cold journey back to earth.
      The astronauts and mission control were faced with enormous logistical problems in stabilizing the spacecraft and its oxygen supply, and providing enough energy to the damaged fuel cells to allow successful re-entry into the earth's atmosphere.
      On 17 April, with the world anxiously watching, tragedy turned to triumph as the Apollo 13 astronauts touched down safely in the Pacific Ocean.
     Apollo 13, the third lunar landing mission, is successfully launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, carrying astronauts James A. Lovell, John L. Swigert, and Fred W. Haise. The spacecraft's destination was the Fra Mauro highlands of the moon, where the astronauts were to explore the Imbrium Basin and conduct geological experiments. After an oxygen tank exploded on the evening of 13 April, however, the new mission objective became to get the Apollo 13 crew home alive.
      At 21:00 EST on 13 April, Apollo 13 was over 300'000 km from Earth. The crew had just completed a television broadcast and was inspecting Aquarius, the Landing Module (LM). The next day, Apollo 13 was to enter the moon's orbit, and soon after, Lovell and Haise would become the fifth and sixth men to walk on the moon. At 21:08, these plans were shattered when an explosion rocked the spacecraft. Oxygen tank No. 2 had blown up, disabling the normal supply of oxygen, electricity, light, and water. Lovell reported to mission control: "Houston, we've had a problem here," and the crew scrambled to find out what had happened. Several minutes later, Lovell looked out of the left-hand window and saw that the spacecraft was venting a gas, which turned out to be the Command Module's (CM) oxygen. The landing mission was aborted.
      As the CM lost pressure, its fuel cells also died, and one hour after the explosion mission control instructed the crew to move to the LM, which had sufficient oxygen, and use it as a lifeboat. The CM was shut down but would have to be brought back on-line for Earth reentry. The LM was designed to ferry astronauts from the orbiting CM to the moon's surface and back again; its power supply was meant to support two people for 45 hours. If the crew of Apollo 13 were to make it back to Earth alive, the LM would have to support three men for at least 90 hours and successfully navigate more than 200,000 miles of space. The crew and mission control faced a formidable task.
      To complete its long journey, the LM needed energy and cooling water. Both were to be conserved at the cost of the crew, who went on one-fifth water rations and would later endure cabin temperatures that hovered a few degrees above freezing. Removal of carbon dioxide was also a problem, because the square lithium hydroxide canisters from the CM were not compatible with the round openings in the LM environmental system. Mission control built an impromptu adapter out of materials known to be onboard, and the crew successfully copied their model.
      Navigation was also a major problem. The LM lacked a sophisticated navigational system, and the astronauts and mission control had to work out by hand the changes in propulsion and direction needed to take the spacecraft home. On 14 April, Apollo 13 swung around the moon. Swigert and Haise took pictures, and Lovell talked with mission control about the most difficult maneuver, a five-minute engine burn that would give the LM enough speed to return home before its energy ran out. Two hours after rounding the far side of the moon, the crew, using the sun as an alignment point, fired the LM's small descent engine. The procedure was a success; Apollo 13 was on its way home.
      For the next three days, Lovell, Haise, and Swigert huddled in the freezing lunar module. Haise developed a case of the flu. Mission control spent this time frantically trying to develop a procedure that would allow the astronauts to restart the CM for reentry. On 17 April, a last-minute navigational correction was made, this time using Earth as an alignment guide. Then the repressurized CM was successfully powered up after its long, cold sleep. The heavily damaged service module was shed, and one hour before re-entry the LM was disengaged from the CM. Just before 13:00, the spacecraft reentered Earth's atmosphere. Mission control feared that the CM's heat shields were damaged in the accident, but after four minutes of radio silence Apollo 13's parachutes were spotted, and the astronauts splashed down safely into the Pacific Ocean.
1968 US President Johnson signs 1968 Civil Rights Act.
1967 Harlem (NYC) voters defy Congress & reelect Adam Clayton Powell Jr
1963 John XXIII encyclical On peace in truth, justice, charity and liberty
1963 One hundred US soldiers of the Hawaiian-based 25th Infantry Division are ordered to temporary duty with military units in South Vietnam to serve as machine gunners aboard Army H-21 helicopters. This was the first commitment of American combat troops to the war and represented a quiet escalation of the US commitment to the war in Vietnam.
1961 Israel begins the Adolf Eichman world war II crimes trial
1960 first weather satellite launched (Tiros 1)
1951 Truman dismisses MacArthur       ^top^
     President Harry S. Truman removed General Douglas MacArthur from his post as commander of UN forces in Korea, and ordered the general home. The dismissal followed MacArthur's public disclosure of Truman's refusal to allow him to bomb Chinese bases in Manchuria.
      MacArthur, the son of a top-ranking army general, was commissioned as a lieutenant in 1903, and during World War I, served as a commander of the famed Eighty-Fourth Infantry Brigade. During the 1920s, he was stationed primarily in the Philippines, a US commonwealth, and in the first half of the 1930s, served as US army chief of staff. In 1935, with Japanese expansion underway in the Pacific, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed MacArthur military adviser to the government of the Philippines. In 1941, five months before Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, he was named commander of all US armed forces in the Pacific.
      After the American entrance into the war, he conducted the defense of the Philippines against great odds. On March of 1942, with Japanese victory imminent, Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to Australia but the American general promised the Philippines — his adopted home — that "I shall return." Five months later, the great US counter-offensive against Japan began, and on 20 October 1944, after advancing island by island across the Pacific, MacArthur waded ashore onto the Philippines. Eleven months later, he officiated the Japanese surrender and after the war served as effective ruler of Japan during a highly productive five-year occupation.
      After North Korea invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950, MacArthur was appointed supreme commander of the US -led UN force sent to aid the South. In September, the UN force successfully landed at Inchon, and by October, North Korean forces had been driven back across the Thirty-Eighth Parallel. With President Truman's approval, UN forces crossed into North Korea and advanced all the way to the Yalu River — the border between North Korea and Communist China — despite warnings that this would provoke Chinese intervention.
      When China did intervene, forcing UN forces into a desperate retreat, MacArthur pressed for permission to bomb Chinese bridges and bases across the border. President Truman, fearing the Cold War implications of an expanded war in the Far East, refused. MacArthur made the dispute public, leading Truman to fire him on 11 April 1951. However, MacArthur was given a hero's welcome upon returning to America, and on 19 April, he addressed a joint meeting of Congress, declaring "Old heroes never die, they just fade away." After unsuccessfully running for the Republican nomination in 1952, MacArthur faded from the public view. And he eventually did die.
      In perhaps the most famous civilian-military confrontation in the history of the United States, President Harry S. Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of command of the US forces in Korea. The firing of MacArthur set off a brief uproar among the American public, but Truman remained committed to keeping the conflict in Korea a "limited war." Problems with the flamboyant and egotistical General MacArthur had been brewing for months. In the early days of the war in Korea (which began in June 1950), the general had devised some brilliant strategies and military maneuvers that helped save South Korea from falling to the invading forces of communist North Korea. As US and United Nations forces turned the tide of battle in Korea, MacArthur argued for a policy of pushing into North Korea to completely defeat the communist forces. Truman went along with this plan, but worried that the communist government of the People's Republic of China might take the invasion as a hostile act and intervene in the conflict. In October 1950, MacArthur met with Truman and assured him that the chances of a Chinese intervention were slim. Then, in November and December 1950, hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops crossed into North Korea and flung themselves against the American lines, driving the US troops back into South Korea. MacArthur then asked for permission to bomb communist China and use Nationalist Chinese forces from Taiwan against the People's Republic of China. Truman flatly refused these requests and a very public argument began to develop between the two men. In April 1951, President Truman fired MacArthur and replaced him with Gen. Matthew Ridgeway.
      On 11 April, Truman addressed the nation and explained his actions. He began by defending his overall policy in Korea, declaring, "It is right for us to be in Korea." He excoriated the "communists in the Kremlin [who] are engaged in a monstrous conspiracy to stamp out freedom all over the world." Nevertheless, he explained, it "would be wrong-tragically wrong-for us to take the initiative in extending the war. ...Our aim is to avoid the spread of the conflict." The president continued, "I believe that we must try to limit the war to Korea for these vital reasons: To make sure that the precious lives of our fighting men are not wasted; to see that the security of our country and the free world is not needlessly jeopardized; and to prevent a third world war." General MacArthur had been fired "so that there would be no doubt or confusion as to the real purpose and aim of our policy." MacArthur returned to the United States to a hero's welcome. Parades were held in his honor, and he was asked to speak before Congress (where, on 19 April 1951, he gave his famous "Old soldiers never die, they just fade away" speech). Public opinion was strongly against Truman's actions, but the president stuck to his decision without regret or apology. Eventually, MacArthur did "just fade away," and the American people began to understand that his policies and recommendations might have led to a massively expanded war in Asia. Though the concept of a "limited war," as opposed to the traditional American policy of unconditional victory, was new and initially unsettling to many Americans, the idea came to define the US Cold War military strategy.

Buchenwald 4504161945 The US army liberates Buchenwald concentration camp.       ^top^
     The American Third Army liberates the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany, a camp that will be judged second only to Auschwitz in the horrors it imposed on its prisoners. [photo 16 Apr 46 >]
      As American forces closed in on the Nazi concentration camp at Buchenwald, Gestapo headquarters at Weimar telephoned the camp administration to announce that it was sending explosives to blow up any evidence of the camp — including its inmates. What the Gestapo did not know was that the camp administrators had already fled in fear of the Allies. A prisoner answered the phone and informed headquarters that explosives would not be needed, as the camp had already been blown up, which, of course, was not true.
Buchenwald 450411      The camp held thousands of prisoners, mostly slave laborers. There were no gas chambers, but hundreds, sometimes thousands, died monthly from disease, malnutrition, beatings, and executions. Doctors performed medical experiments on inmates, testing the effects of viral infections and vaccines. Among the camp's most gruesome characters was Ilse Koch, wife of the camp commandant, who was infamous for her sadism. She often beat prisoners with a riding crop, and collected lampshades, book covers, and gloves made from the skin of camp victims. Among those saved by the US troops was Elie Wiesel, 16, [< may have looked like one of the kids at left] who would go on to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986


"Buchenwald, the first concentration camp to be breached by the western Allies, had been built high on the hills above Weimar, capital of the defunct democratic Republic and not far from an imperial Schloss known as Wilhelmshohe.
      Nearby still stood the “Goethe Oak,” a noble tree to which the eighteenth-century giant of German letters had often repaired to refresh his perspective.
      Approximately 238'000 prisoners, many of them Jews, but also non-Jewish Poles, Russians, and dissident Germans, had been incarcerated in Buchenwald since its dedication. Even before the war exploded in Europe, it was serving the coercive purposes of the Nazis.
      Already in mid-November 1938, after a Nazi Embassy official had been assassinated by a distraught young Jew, more than 10'000 people had been sent to the camp, where they were compelled to pass their arrival night in the open winter air and then were beaten and tortured. A loudspeaker kept repeating the announcement that any Jew who wished to hang himself should put a paper with his number in his mouth so that his identity could be quickly established.
      Throughout the war years the deportation trains and convoys moved in meticulously maintained schedules out of Buchenwald to the death camps further east. But even in this temporary detention camp, some 56'000 had died or been murdered.
      When the forward platoons of Americans arrived on the morning of 11 April 1945 only about 20'000 prisoners remained. Hermann Pister, the last SS commandant, was working frenetically to ship out as many as he could process. In the previous week he had secretly selected forty-six of the last inmates for public execution on the home ground of Buchenwald itself. His intention was relayed to the prison underground that had been organized in the last weeks of the camp's existence. When the time came for the roll call, not one of the forty-six answered. Camp personnel, aware that the Americans were already on the outskirts of Weimar, and their thoughts now mainly on escape, made a halfhearted unsuccessful search for the inmates, then drifted away.
      Indeed, some panic-stricken guards who were left behind at this point begged prisoners for “good references.” Others were confiscating prisoners' garb in the hope they might escape recognition in the chaos soon to come. However, few cheated retribution. Survivors with barely enough strength to walk disarmed them at the gates; only days before, even to approach a Nazi guard was to be shot down summarily. As a sign of welcome to the liberators, prisoners began to hang out scraps of cloth that had once been white.
     Some of the first Americans to enter the camp vomited as their eyes beheld what their minds could not absorb — bodies stacked in obscene anonymity [photo], the barely living whimpering among the corpses, bunks full of shaven-headed, emaciated creatures who had wizened into skeletal apparitions. American soldiers put on film the scenes in rooms full of naked, unburied corpses, piled ten feet high.
      Soon after the takeover, General Dwight Eisenhower, commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, arrived. "I have never felt able to describe my emotional reaction when I came face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every shred of human decency," he wrote. "Up to that moment I had only known about it generally, or through secondary sources. I am certain, however, that I have never at any time experienced an equal sense of shock. —// http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/camps/buchenwald/buchenwald-01.html
1943 Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flies his first (single-rotor) craft
1941 “The Desert Fox” reconquers Libya       ^top^
      German Lieutenant General Erwin Rommel, “the Desert Fox,” completes the recapture of Libya by the Axis forces, which he started 9 days earlier as he resumed his advance into Cyrenaica, modern-day Libya.
      Early Italian successes in East Africa, which included occupying parts of Sudan, Kenya, and British Somaliland, were soon reversed after British offensives, led by British Field Marshall Archibald Wavell, resulted in heavy Italian casualties and forced the Italians to retreat into Libya.
      But Axis control of the area was salvaged by the appearance of Rommel and the Afrika Korps, sent to East Africa by the German High Command to bail their Italian ally out. On the verge of capturing Tripoli, the Libyan capital, Britain's forces were suddenly depleted when British Prime Minister Winston Churchill transferred British troops to Greece.
      Seizing the opportunity of a weakened British force, Rommel struck quickly, despite orders to remain still for two months. With 50 tanks and two fresh Italian divisions, Rommel forced the British to begin a retreat into Egypt. Operation Battleaxe, the counteroffensive by British Field Marshall Archibald Wavell, resulted in little more than the loss of large numbers of British tanks to German 88mm anti-tank guns, as well as Wavell's ultimately being transferred from North Africa to India.
      Rommel, known for his trademark goggles, which he pilfered from a British general's command vehicle, may have had some help in defeating his British counterpart. He was known to carry with him a book called Generals and Generalship, written by Archibald Wavell. Rommel was portrayed by James Mason in the 1953 film The Desert Rats and by Christopher Plummer in 1967's Night of the Generals. Wavell was portrayed by Patrick Magee in the 1981 TV movie Churchill and the Generals.
1941 Germany blitzes Conventry, England.
1941 The Italian 2nd Army (comprising 15 divisions) advances from Istria into Dalmatia.
1931 Dorothy Parker resigns as drama critic for The New Yorker       ^top^
      The witty and caustic Dorothy Parker resigns her job as drama critic for The New Yorker. However, she continues to write book reviews until 1933, which are published in 1971 as A Month of Saturdays. The funny, sophisticated Parker symbolized the Roaring Twenties in New York for many readers.
      Parker was born in New Jersey and lost her mother as an infant. Shortly after she finished high school, her father died, and she struck out on her own for New York, where she took a job writing captions for fashion photos for Vogue for $10 a week. She supplemented her income by playing piano at nights at a dancing school. In 1917, she was transferred to the stylish Vanity Fair, where she became close friends with Robert Benchley, the managing editor, and Robert Sherwood, the drama critic. The three became the core of the famous Algonquin Round Table, an ad hoc group of newspaper and magazine writers, playwrights, and performers who lunched regularly at the Algonquin Hotel and tried to outshine each other in brilliant conversation and witty wisecracks. Parker, known as the quickest tongue among them, became the frequent subject of gossip columns as a prototypical young New Yorker enjoying the freedom of the 1920s.
      Parker lost her job at Vanity Fair in 1919 because her reviews were too harsh. She began writing reviews for The New Yorker, as well as publishing her own work. Her 1926 poetry collection, Enough Rope, became a bestseller, and her short story collection Big Blonde won the prestigious O. Henry Award. Despite her carefree reputation, Parker was cynical and depressed, and tried to kill herself twice. In 1933, she married actor Alan Campbell, moved to Hollywood, and became a screenwriter. Parker collaborated on more than 20 screenplays, including A Star Is Born (1937) and its remake in 1954. She and Campbell divorced in 1947 but remarried in 1950. The outspoken Parker embraced radical politics, taking a stand against fascism and supporting communism. Although she never joined the Communist Party, she and Campbell were blacklisted from Hollywood during the McCarthy-era House Un-American Activities Committee hearings and never worked in film again. Parker died in 1967.
1921 Turkestan ASSR established in Russian SFSR
1900 the US Navy acquires its first submarine, a 16-meter craft designed by Irish immigrant John P. Holland. Propelled by gasoline while on the surface and by electricity when submerged, the Holland served as a blueprint for modern submarine design. By the eve of World War I, Holland and Holland-inspired vessels were a part of large naval fleets throughout the world.
1899 Treaty of Paris ratified, ending the Spanish-American War; Spain cedes Puerto Rico to US.
1898 President McKinley asks for Spanish-American War declaration.
1870 British Lord kidnapped in Greece.       ^top^
      While visiting Marathon, Greece, Lord Muncaster of Britain is kidnapped by brigands, almost resulting in war. The pirates, led by Takos Arvanitakis, were experienced in kidnapping and had used it as a lucrative source of income for many years. However, their capture of Lord Muncaster and a group of English tourists proved to be more difficult to pull off than they anticipated. Arvanitakis and his gang demanded £50'000 for the release of the captives. King George of Greece refused their ransom demands, offering instead to exchange himself for the hostages in an attempt to appease England. However, before any further negotiations could take place, a confrontation between the brigands and Greek troops resulted in the death of just about everyone involved, including Muncaster. Arvanitakis was one of the few who managed to escape the battle with his life. The incident caused England to threaten war, but Russia interjected by siding with Greece. The crisis was averted after Greece conducted a major crackdown on the bandits. Although few of the people they arrested had actually played any role in the kidnapping, it eased the international tensions and greatly reduced the number of subsequent kidnappings in the country. Arvanitakis was shot and killed two years later.
1863 Siege of Suffolk, Virginia by Confederates begins
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues
1862 Rebels surrender Ft Pulaski, Georgia
1861 Confederates demand surrender of Fort Sumter.
1856 Battle of Rivas; Costa Rica beats William Walker's invading Nicaraguans
1814 First abdication of Napoléon; he is exiled to Elba
1803 Talleyrand offers to sell Louisiana      ^top^
      In one of the great surprises in diplomatic history, French Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand makes an offer to sell all of Louisiana Territory to the United States. Talleyrand was no fool. As the foreign minister to French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte, he was one of the most powerful men in the world. Three years earlier, Talleyrand had convinced Napoléon that he could create a new French Empire in North America. The French had long had a tenuous claim to the vast area west of the Mississippi River known as Louisiana Territory. In 1800, Napoléon secretly signed a treaty with Spain that officially gave France full control of the territory. Then he began to prepare France's mighty army to occupy New Orleans and bolster French dominion. When President Thomas Jefferson learned of Napoléon's plans in 1802, he was understandably alarmed. Jefferson had long hoped the US would expand westward beyond the Mississippi, but the young American republic was in no position militarily to challenge France for the territory. Jefferson hoped that his minister in France, Robert Livingston, might at least be able to negotiate an agreement whereby Napoléon would give the US control of New Orleans, the gateway to the Mississippi River.
      At first, the situation looked bleak because Livingston's initial attempts at reaching a diplomatic agreement failed. In early 1803, Jefferson sent his young Virginia friend James Monroe to Paris to assist Livingston. Fortunately for the US , by that time Napoléon's situation in Europe had changed for the worse. War between France and Great Britain was imminent and Napoléon could no longer spare the military resources needed to secure control of Louisiana Territory. Realizing that the powerful British navy would probably take the territory by force, Napoléon reasoned it would be better to sell Louisiana to the Americans than have it fall into the hands of his enemy. After months of having fruitlessly negotiated over the fate of New Orleans, Livingston again met with Talleyrand on this day in 1803. To Livingston's immense surprise, this time the cagey French minister coolly asked, "What will you give for the whole?" He meant not the whole of New Orleans, but the whole of Louisiana Territory. Quickly recognizing that this was an offer of potentially immense significance for the US , Livingston and Monroe began to discuss France's proposed cost for the territory. Several weeks later, on 30 April 1803, the American emissaries signed a treaty with France for a purchase of the vast territory for $11'250'000. A little more than two weeks later, Great Britain declared war on France. With the sale of the Louisiana Territory, Napoléon abandoned his dreams of a North American empire, but he also achieved a goal that he thought more important. "The sale [of Louisiana] assures forever the power of the United States," Napoléon later wrote, "and I have given England a rival who, sooner or later, will humble her pride."
1795 (22 germinal an III) Le décret de mise hors la loi est rapporté et permet de rentrer dans le sein de la Convention à:
      DOULCET Gustave, ex marquis de Pontécoulant, âgé de 36 ans, domicilié à Vire, département du Calvados, ex député à l'Assemblée Constituante, député à la Convention nationale, mis hors la loi par décret du 3 octobre 1793, par suite des événement des 31 mai 1 et 2 juin, il s'est soustrait au jugement, et il doit la vie au courage de la veuve Lejai, libraire, il l'a épousée par reconnaissance.
     HARDY Antoine François, député du département de la Seine Inférieure à la Convention nationale, domicilié à Rouen, mis hors la loi, par décret de la convention nationale du 28 juillet 1793, par suite des malheureuse journée du 31 mai, 1 et 2 juin, il s’est soustrait au jugement.
     ROUYER, député par le département de l’Hérault à la convention nationale, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention par suite des malheureuses journées des 31 mai 1 et 2 juin 1793, il s’est soustrait au jugement.
     VALLEE Jacques Nicolas, député du département de l’Eure à la convention nationale, domicilié à Evreux, même département, mis hors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale, comme conspirateur, et par suite des malheureuses journée des 31 mai et 2 juin 1793. Il s’est soustrait au jugement..
1713 Peace of Utrecht; France cedes Maritime provinces to Britain
1689 William III and Mary II are crowned as joint sovereigns of Britain.
1506 The foundation stone of the new St. Peter's Basilica was laid under the patronage of Julius II. (The church was not completed, however, until 1626.)
0672 Saint Adeodatus II begins his reign as Pope.
TO THE TOP
< 10 Apr 12 Apr >
^  Deaths which occurred on an 11 April:

2008 Manuel Ramirez [28 May 1917–], parishioner of Our Lady of the Assumption, El Paso, Texas, homebound handicapped, as were two of his three sisters with whom he was living piously. —(080414).
Anna Grudziecke2004 Anna Grudziecke [17 Mar 1998–] [photo >], of Houston, Texas, first in the world to be implanted a DeBakey child heart pump (on 26 March 2004). Her heart muscle had thickened, causing it to stiffen and deteriorate. The device supplements the pumping of the left ventricle, the main pumping chamber of the heart. More than 200 adults have been implanted with the adult version. Some have survived for more than a year. —(080412)
2003 Lorenzo Enrique Copello Castillo, Barbaro Leodán Sevilla García, and Jorge Luis Martínez Isaac, by firing squad, at dawn in Cuba. On 08 April 2003 they had been sentenced to death, at the same time as four other men were sentenced to life in prison, and one man and three women to 30 years to 2 years in prison, because, early on 02 April 2003, armed with knives and one pistol, they had hijacked the ferry Baragua in Havana Bay and headed for the US with about 50 hostages on board. But the ferry soon ran out of fuel. Officers on the two Cuban Coast Guard patrol boats that chased them persuaded the hijackers to let the ferry be towed the 50 km back to the port of Mariel for refueling. But instead, once there, the ferry was stormed by Cuban troops and the hijackers arrested. None of the hostages was hurt. The executions come in a week in which Castro's dictatorship has sentenced 75 dissidents to 28 to 6 years in prison on charges of collaborating with US diplomats to undermine Castro’s regime.
2003 Two Iraqi children, by US tank firing at the minibus in which they were, which had blackened windows and “seemed like it was not going to stop” a checkpoint near Nasiriyah, Iraq, manned by US Marines of the 15th US Marine Expeditionary Unit, fearful of a suicide bomb attack. The nine adults in the vehicle are wounded.
2003 Thomas Hurndall, 21, British, after being shot in the head by machine-gun fire from an Israeli tank, as he tried to get two Palestinian children out of danger during a peaceful demonstration of a dozen members (of which he was one) of the International Solidarity Movement, on the outskirts of the Rafah refugee camp, Gaza Strip.
2002 Seventeen demonstrators against Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, as his supporters shoot down from the Carmelitas Bridge and some tall buildings at a mass demonstration in Caracas.
2002: 21 persons,
mostly foreign tourists, by terrorist bomb which destroys part of a synagogue on the resort island Djerba, Tunisia.
2002 Anna Yakobovitch, 78, Israeli from Holon, of injuries received on 27 March 2003 in suicide bombing at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, which caused 23 immediate deaths, and 7 delayed deaths, including hers.
2002 Some 50 persons because of fire aboard ferry MV Maria Carmela, about 20 km from its destination in Lucena, Philippines, at about 07:00. Some of the victims drowned when jumping overboard without a life jacket. The Montenegro Shipping Lines ship had left Masbate island some 12 hours earlier, with a crew of 47 and 243 passergers listed on the manifest. It was capable of carrying 326 passengers plus vehicles. 86 persons are injured. The fire had started in the cargo hold.
[images below:: left: the ferry still smoldering hours later — right: the burned-out hulk after being towed to shore]
burning ferry   burnt-out ferry
2001 Khabib Sanginov, 49, Deputy Interior Minister of Tajikistan, his driver, and two bodyguards, murdered.       ^top^
     He was a top Tajik police official and opposition representative in the nation's coalition government. He is killed in a daylight machine-gun attack on his car. Three gunmen in sweatsuits sprayed the car with gunfire from AK-47 rifles as he rode through a suburb of Dushanbe, at about 08:00. The men then ran off. Sanginov, who was hit several times, died at the scene. His driver and two bodyguards also died.
      Sanginov had headed a campaign against organized crime. Sanginov, a former rebel sympathizer during the 1992-97 civil war, entered government as part of a 30% quota for opposition members under a peace deal brokered by the United Nations to end the conflict. He had held the post of deputy interior minister since 1999 and served on the country's National Reconciliation Commission.
      After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan descended into civil war between a Russian-backed secular government and the mostly Islamic opposition. The war ended when opposition leaders such as Sanginov agreed to stop fighting in return for participation in the government. The peace deal didn't end Tajikistan's lawlessness, however. The head of the National Reconciliation Commission, Otakhon Latifi was shot in his front yard in 1999. A deputy director of Tajikistan's main security agency, Shamsulo Dzhobirov, was blown up in a car bomb in February 2000. Government troops still clash occasionally with a small group that rejected the peace deal and with Islamic fighters based in neighboring Afghanistan. Contributing to the violence, wealthy and well armed gangs smuggle heroin from Afghanistan across Tajikistan to markets in Russia and Western Europe.
2001 At least 50 soccer fans stampeding into oversold Ellis Park stadium in Johannesburg..
2000 Jeff Azuar, 50, policeman, shot.
     He is shot by Joe Teitgen, 34, on whom, at about 14:30, Azuar and another officer were serving an arrest warrant on weapons and grand theft charges at Teitgen's house near the corner of Tennessee and Mariposa streets, in Vallejo, California. Teitgen's wife, who was home with one of the couple's three children, a 3-year-old, opened the door to the officers, who found Teitgen trying to hide in the garage. A struggle ensued, during which Teitgen shot Azuar in the head with a handgun. A third officer shot Teitgen, who suffered a punctured lung.
^ 1999 Earl Faison, allegedly of asthma, after being beaten and pepper sprayed by police, while handcuffed.
     In the City of Orange, Essex County, NJ., police officers Lt. Thomas Smith, 36, of Caldwell; his brother Brian Smith, 30, of Orange; Tyrone Payton, 34, of Orange; Paul Carpinteri Jr., 36, of Orange; and Andrew Garth, 31, of Bloomfield, think that Earl Faison, 27, of East Orange, an aspiring rap artist, resembles a police artist's sketch of a cop killer. They arrest him, douse him with pepper spray, and beat him severely while in their custody. Faison dies within an hour of being stopped by the police.
Faison had nothing to do with the murder of a policewoman.
     On 08 April, officer Joyce Carnegie was working solo in the patrol division of the City of Orange.. A report of multiple armed robberies was transmitted on the south side of Orange. Officer Carnegie responded to an area of her sector that would serve as a likely escape route. Just before 21:00, near Rah-Rah's go-go bar at South Day Street and Freeway Drive West, near Route 280, she observed an individual fitting the description of the suspect. As she exits her vehicle the man produced a Tec 9 and fires at her, striking her in the abdomen and subsequently firing another fatal round to her head. A Drug Enforcement Administration agent, who happens to go by, notices the police car with its lights on and no officer. He gets out of his car and sees the officer down.He rushes her to the shock-trauma unit at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-University Hospital in Newark, where she dies at 21:25.
      A multi agency manhunt was launched.
State refuses to prosecute the killer cops.
Feds can charge them only with civil rights violation, so they are let off lightly.

      On 19 December 2000, a federal jury convicted the five Orange police officers. The verdict came on the second day of deliberations after a six-week trial. The suspect, Earl Faison, died in police custody less than an hour after being arrested on 11 April 1999. The officers were charged with violating his civil rights, not with causing his death, which medical experts attributed to an asthma attack. Prosecutors maintained the attack was exacerbated by pepper spray that was shot directly into Faison’s face. Police Blame Victim Defense lawyers, however, said the attack was brought on by Faison’s flight from and violent struggle with the arresting officer, who was not charged. They also say there is no physical evidence of pepper spray being administered to him. A federal indictment was handed up in June against Lt. Thomas Smith, 37, of Caldwell, who retired last year; Officers Paul Carpinteri Jr., 36, of Orange; Andrew Garth, 31, of Bloomfield; Tyrone Payton, 34, of Orange; and Brian Smith, 30, of Orange. The Smiths are brothers. The active officers have been suspended without pay. All have been free on bond. All were convicted of one count of conspiring to deprive Faison of his civil rights by striking Faison after he was handcuffed or trying to conceal the assault. Roll Call of Convictions All but Carpinteri also faced a single charge of depriving Faison of his civil rights: Payton was acquitted of kicking Faison while the suspect was lying handcuffed on the sidewalk. Thomas Smith and Andrew Garth were convicted of hitting Faison when the handcuffed man was lying in the back of a police car. Brian Smith was convicted of shooting pepper spray at close range into Faison’s face while the handcuffed man was lying in a police station stairwell. Each count carries up to 10 years in prison and a $250'000 fine.
Dropped Charges, Lingering Scars
      Before summations began the previous week, US District Judge John C. Lifland dropped several charges. He ruled that Payton and Carpinteri did not aid others in violating Faison’s rights when they tossed him in the back of a police car because they did not know others would then allegedly beat Faison in the car. Each had faced one count of depriving civil rights on that. Lifland also ruled that Payton, the only black officer on trial, did not menace Faison with a gun at the Orange police station, because Faison was already unconscious and so could not feel threatened. Assistant US Attorney Patty Shwartz had told the jury that Payton, who was close to Joyce Carnegie, pointed his service handgun at Faison’s head, and said, “Why did you have to do it? Why did you have to kill her?”
     Faison was one of four black men detained in the Carnegie’s death in the days following her shooting. The shoddy investigation into her death brought additional criticism of already embattled Essex County Prosecutor Patricia A. Hurt, who was later removed.
     Condell Woodson, 25, a career criminal, later confessed to the crime and plea-bargained a life sentence without possibility of parole.
      Federal authorities had no basis for a murder charge in Faison’s death because the death did not take place on federal property. The state attorney general’s office said its investigation concluded there was insufficient evidence of homicide.
Jessisca Dubroff^ 1996 Jessica Dubroff, 7, Lloyd Dubroff, 57, Joe Reid, 52,
Jessica, her father, and flight instructor
die when the plane she is piloting crashes after takeoff from Cheyenne, Wyoming. Jessica had hoped to become the youngest person to fly cross-country..

Jessica Dubroff's single- engine plane was overloaded with luggage and personal items when it crashed in treacherous conditions. As people around the country struggled to understand how parents could allow a small child to undertake a coast-to-coast flight, Jessica's mother defended the decision, saying her daughter was fulfilling “what America stands for.” The small aircraft was overweight with “personal effects” when it crashed in Cheyenne, Wyoming, during a rainstorm in the morning. The crash killed the Pescadero girl, her father, Lloyd Dubroff, 57, of San Mateo, and flight instructor Reid, 52, of Half Moon Bay. At Cheyenne's high elevation, taking off with a heavy load was more difficult than when Jessica set off from Half Moon Bay, trying to become the youngest person to complete the 11'000-km journey from coast to coast and back. In addition, it was likely the Cessna Cardinal 177B encountered wind shear. The pilot of an airplane that took off minutes before Jessica's plane told controllers he had encountered the perilous flying condition

Two days before Jessica took off, her mother, Lisa Blair Hathaway, was asked if the weather might delay her flight east. “The weather will move for her. It is not luck. Jessica knows that. It is the power of her being. There is something about Jessica that things move for her. She is just a wonderful person.” That expression of serene confidence in a 7-year-old's abilities seemed to be at the core of Jessica's parents' attitude toward their children. Even before she was born, Jessica was treated as special, destined for a life of accomplishment and independence. Jessica and her brother Joshua, now 9, were born underwater in a five-foot-square birthing tub without doctors or midwives. Hathaway, 41, describes herself as a “a spiritual adviser working with the medical profession.” Her youngest child is Jasmine, 3. Even after the crash, she continued to maintain that children should be encouraged to have such adventures. “I beg people to let children fly if they want to fly,” she said. A teary-eyed Hathaway said, “Clearly I would want all my children to die in a state of joy. I mean, what more could I ask for? I would prefer it was not at age 7 but, God, she went with her joy and her passion, and her life was in her hands.”
      Jessica was home-schooled because her parents wanted her to learn from life's experiences. She shunned children's books and television, and was encouraged to take charge of her own education. The children were taught how to build furniture. At age 4, Jessica was already learning about economics with her first job — a paper route. Most recently, her physical education came from horseback riding lessons that a local stable gave her in exchange for caring for the animals. The children ate organic foods from health food stores and from the garden at their home.
     Jessica took her first flight in a small aircraft when she was 6 years old. That was followed by her first lesson, in November 1995. Before her fatal last flight, both Hathaway and Jessica's father described their daughter as a highly focused little girl — fearless and determined. “We don't use an emotional- thinking language, so we don't use the words `scared,' `fear,' `sadness,' `happy,”' Hathaway had said. “I'm not nervous in any way, because Jessica is a great aviator. I see it in her body and soul, and there is no way I would ruin that for her by being nervous.”
      The family moved to California from Massachusetts about 1993. Jessica's parents never married and separated as a couple soon after arriving in the state. Dubroff, a management consultant who lived in San Mateo, subsequently remarried. But Lisa and Lloyd agreed on basic ideas of raising Jessica, and both supported letting her fly across the country in an airplane. About a year ago, Hathaway and her children moved into a house on Pescadero's quiet North Road and then across the street to a tan house a few weeks ago. When they moved in, Jessica introduced herself to neighbors, who said they were charmed by her intelligence and curiosity. “She was wonderful,” said Chris Dutsch, who runs a wood- carving and sign-making shop next door to the family's home. Jessica often visited and asked what various tools were for and how she could help. Jessica often rewarded Dutsch for his friendliness by bringing him cookies and cakes. A few days ago, she presented him with one of the hats her father had printed in honor of her adventure. He proudly stood outside their home and wore the hat as he talked about “a very special girl with a big heart.” `THESE KIDS WERE LEARNING' “I thought what their mother was doing was rather advanced,” Dutsch said. “These kids were learning. They went to cultural events, they took music lessons. They had a lot going on.”
      Jessica's father's words before takeoff stood as a reminder that adventure and danger go hand in hand. “Jessica didn't set out to change the world, she just set out to do something she thought was cool,” Lloyd Dubroff said. “I figure Jessica will do more for civil aviation (than anyone) since Amelia Earhart.”

The people who decide who and what gets in the news are thinking out loud about whether 7-year-old Jessica Dubroff belonged there. Under fire from critics, editors and news directors have tried to determine whether their coverage of Jessica's attempted cross-country flight and others like it encourages youngsters to try unsafe feats in the hope of gaining publicity. There are those who say the deaths of Jessica, her father and her flight instructor are tragic proof of the need for media self-restraint. Mark Young, publisher of the Guinness Book of World Records' US edition, said the record book decided seven years ago to stop listing dangerous feats performed by youngsters after concluding that “encouraging young pilots to fly would eventually result in an accident like this.” The National Aeronautic Association, which had kept track of such records, reached the same conclusion, he said. But coverage by the news media keeps such records alive, Young noted. “These things receive so much publicity from news media that people are always saying, ‘My child could do that, too.’ ”

When Jessica, her father, and her flight instructor took off from Half Moon Bay on their cross-country adventure, with the 4-foot-2 Jessica at the plane's controls, the public was charmed by the notion of a child setting a transcontinental aviation record. It was noted in passing that the Guinness Book of World Records has stopped recognizing the “youngest pilot” category for fear of encouraging unsafe flights, and the Federal Aviation Administration will not license a pilot younger than 16. But Lloyd Dubroff explained why he allowed Jessica to make the daring, 11'000-km round-trip flight at her age: “Because my daughter requested it. And because I thought she was capable of it and because I thought it was safe.” In the wake of the crash, those words ring with a tragic irony. Now the cruel but stubborn questions are about adult judgment and parental responsibility.
1987 Erskine Caldwell, 83, novelist (Tobacco Road)
1987 Primo Levi, Italy, chemist/writer (Survival in Aushchwitz)
1974 Abraham Robinson, Jewish-German-born US mathematician born on 06 October 1918. Author of Complete theories (1956), Non-Standard Analysis (1966). Robinson invented non-standard analysis, which gives an alternative model for the Real numbers (sometimes called hyperreals) in which infinitesimals (numbers > 0 but < 1/n for all n) can be interpreted in a different way.
1974 All 18 residents of an apartment building in Kiryat Shmona, Israel, killed by three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine who had crossed into Israeli from Lebanon. The dead include 9 children.
1965: 272 die as 40 tornadoes strike US midwest. Some 5000 are injured.
1942 The victims of the 2nd day of the Bataan Death March       ^top^
     The day before, one day after the surrender of the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese, the seventy-five thousand American and Filipino troops captured on the Bataan Peninsula had begun a forced march to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. During this infamous trek, known as the "Bataan Death March," the prisoners are forced to march 140 km in six days with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. By the end of the march, which was punctuated with atrocities by the Japanese guards, over five thousand Americans and many more Filipinos died.
      The day after Japan bombed the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, the Japanese invasion of the Philippines began. Within a month, the Japanese had captured Manila, the capital of the Philippines, and the US and Filipino defenders of Luzon were forced to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. For the next three months, the combined US -Filipino army, under the command of US General Jonathan Wainwright, held out impressively despite a lack of naval and air support.
      Finally, on 07 April, with his army crippled by starvation and disease, Wainwright began withdrawing as many troops as possible to the island fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay. However, two days later, seventy-five thousand Allied troops were trapped by the Japanese and forced to surrender.
      The next day, 19420410, the Bataan Death March began, resulting in the deaths of over a third of the prisoners. Of those who survived to reach the Japanese prison camp near Cabanatuan, few lived to celebrate US General Douglas MacArthur's liberation of the Philippines in early 1945.
      In the Philippines, homage is paid to the victims of the Bataan Death March every April on Bataan Day, a national holiday that sees large groups of Filipinos solemnly rewalking parts of the death route.
+ ZOOM IN +1907 Christian Gustav Adolph Mayer, German mathematician born on 15 February 1839. He worked on differential equations, the calculus of variations and mechanics.
1906 James A. Bailey, 58, circus showman (Barnum and Bailey)
1894 Raphaël Ritz, Swiss artist born on 17 January 1829.
1881 Some 80 die as river ferry Princess Victoria sinks in Thames River, Ontario.
1875 Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, born on 25 October 1789, amateur astronomer, of Dessau, Germany, who discovered that sunspots vary in number in a cycle of about 10 years. He announced his findings in 1843, after 17 years of almost daily observations. Schwabe also made (1831) the first known detailed drawing of the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. [click image for 25 Feb 1979 photo by Voyager 1 >]
1844 Arnoldus Bloemers, Dutch artist born in 1792 or 1786.
1836 Augustin van den Berghe, Belgian artist born on 13 October 1756.
^ 1794 (22 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
domiciliés à Marseille, département du Bouches du Rhône, par le tribunal criminel dudit département:
AUGE Jean François, courtier de commerce, pour propos contre-révolutionnaire.
GRIMAUD Jean Joseph Gabriel, négociant, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
ICARD Jean François, ancien marchand, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
PONTLEROI François (dit Debaulieu-Sarrebrousse), comme faux témoin à charge contre des Républicains.
SENAUT Antoine, tailleur d'habits, comme faux témoin contre des patriotes.
Comme brigands de la Vendée:
LEROUX Jean, charpentier, domicilié à St Eugène, département de la Manche, par la commission militaire de Grandville.
TIMONDAVID Pierre, négociant, propriétaire, domicilié à Marseille, département des Bouches-du-Rhône, par la commission militaire de Nantes.
RAFFRAY Jean Baptiste, domicilié à Château-Gontier, département de la Mayenne, par la commission militaire de Laval.
Ailleurs:
LEGOVR Jacques, laboureur, domicilié à Génes, département d'Ille-et-Vilaine, comme sergent dans les Chouans, par la commission révolutionnaire de Laval.
DELBOUIS Pierre, ex curé, a Villemur, département de la Haute Garonne, condamné à être déporté comme fanatique contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
DEPINOY Antoine Joseph, médecin, âgé de 61 ans, né au Catteau Cambrésis, demeurant à Douai, époux de Dufour Henriette, à Arras.
GADOIS Claude, musicien, domicilié à Châlon-sur-Saône, département de la Saône et Loire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme émigré.
GARRIGON Jean, berger, domestique, domicilié à Carvaillac département du Lot, par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GUERZIN Nicolas, domicilié à St Germain, département de la Meurthe, par la commission militaire séante à Auxonne, comme émigré.
SOUCHON Cl. (dit Chauson), âgé de 66 ans, général de brigade de l'armée des Pyrénées-Orientales, où il commandait en chef depuis quelques jours, né et domicilié à Montelimard, département de la Drôme; par le tribunal révolutionnaire, de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir cherché, après sa destitution, à s'emparer d'un corps de 4000 hommes, et d'une partie d'artillerie de la République, pour les joindre aux fédéralistes, dont l'intention était de marcher sur Paris, pour dissoudre la Convention.
1794 Marin Jacques BOUTILLIER DE SAINT-ANDRÉ, 47 ans, guillotiné à Nantes, conformément au jugement rendu le jour précédent.
1793 BERDIER Jacques, et BERDIER Pierre, domiciliés à Seisses-Tolosanes, canton de Muret, département de Haute-Garonne, condamnés à mort comme séditieux, par le tribunal criminel du département de Haute-Garonne.
1793 DECOURS Jacques, domicilié à Castillonés, département du Lot et Garonne, condamné à mort comme émigré, par le tribunal criminel du département de la Dordogne.
1760 Louis Silvestre, French artist born on 23 June 1675.
1734 Thomas Fantet de Lagny, French mathematician born on 07 November 1660. He calculated p (pi) to 120 decimal places. [See Pi through the ages, A chronology of pi, and Dowload pi]
1626 Marino Ghetaldi, Ragusa, Dalmatia, mathematician born in 1566.
1608 (Julian date) Blessed George Gervase. Go to 21 April Gregorian. —(080403)
1525 Davide Bigordi Ghirlandaio, Florentine painter and mosaicist born on 14 March 1452. — more with link to an image.
Stanislaus dying1079 Saint Stanislaus of Kraków, born on 26 June 1030 in Szczepanów, Poland, patron saint of Poland, the first Pole to be canonized (in 1253, by Pope Innocent IV [–07 Dec 1254]). Of noble birth, Stanislaus studied at Gniezno in Poland., and probably at Paris. While serving as canon and preacher at Kraków, he was elected, after Pope Alexander II [–21 Apr 1075] nominated him, bishop of Kraków in 1072. During that time Poland was in a state of political unrest, with active opposition to King Boleslaw II the Bold [1039 – 22 Mar 1081]. Stanislaus joined the opposition under the leadership of Wladyslaw Herman [1043 – 04 Jun 1102], the king's brother, and excommunicated Boleslaw. In 1079 Stanislaus is accused of treason. The royal court finds him guilty and sentences him to dismemberment. The king's knights cannot bring themselves to carry out the sentence. Boleslaw II storms into Kraków's Church of Saint Michael, outside the city gates, where Stanislaus is saying mass. Boleslaw II stabs the bishop with his own sword, as the horrified congregation looks on. Stanislaus slumps in pain [image >] and dies. This same day King Boleslaw is forced to flee to Hungary. Wladyslaw Herman becomes king. These events have remained a matter of controversy between those Polish historians who believe Stanislaus was part of a Bohemian-German plot designed to remove Boleslaw and replace him with Wladyslaw, and those who describe the execution as a contemptible act of revenge against a saintly bishop who had excommunicated a cruel, licentious king. In any case, miracles and legends spread the cult of the martyred bishop to Lithuania, Belorussia, and Ukraine, and Stanislaus became the patron saint of his native Poland.
0678 Pope Donus. He had been consecrated Pope on 02 November 676, to succeed Adeodatus II, after an interval of 4 months and 17 days.
< 10 Apr 12 Apr >
^  Births which occurred on an 11 April:

2003 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets goes on sale.
2002 Condor, first hatched in the wild in 18 years.       ^top^
      For the first time in 18 years, a condor egg laid in the wild has hatched in the wild. The egg hatched in a nest in the rugged back country of California’s Ventura County. The chick’s parents were captive-reared at the Los Angeles Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park, then released into the wild at the age of one by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995.
     The young condor would be found dead on 04 October 2002.
      Dr. Allen Mee of the Zoological Society of San Diego watched the event. The female, R8, went into the cave at around midday. The male, W0, was sitting on the already cracked egg. She stared at her mate for a while, waiting for him to leave, but he just stared back. Then she nudged him off the egg, pushing her head under his tail. In attempting to incubate the egg, she inadvertently crushed the egg shell, exposing the chick. For several hours she was restless and appeared confused, trying to incubate both the chick and the egg pieces. Eventually she settled down on the new born chick.
      After the hatching W0 and R8 would turn out to be excellent parents feeding and caring for the chick in text-book fashion.
      Dr Mee found the nest site on 18 February 2002 after several weeks of monitoring a pair of condors as he and US Fish and Wildlife biologists investigated nest caves in a remote canyon.
      For the past two months the parents have shared in the incubation duties, spending up to a week on the egg at one time.
      In May 2001, these parents were part of a condor trio — one male and two females — that successfully hatched a Los Angeles Zoo egg in the wild. Unfortunately, that chick died within a few days.
      There are 63 condors now living in the wild in California and Arizona, 18 in field pens ready for release and 104 in captivity at the Los Angeles Zoo, San Diego Wild Animal Park and the Peregrine Fund’s World Center for Birds of Prey in Boise, Idaho.
      The goal of the California Condor Recovery Plan is to establish two geographically separate populations, one in California and the other in Arizona, each with 150 birds and at least 15 breeding pairs.
      The largest birds in North America, condors are scavengers that have soared over mountainous areas of California since prehistoric times, but their numbers plummeted in the 20th Century. Condor numbers declined in part due to loss of habitat and food and from shooting, lead poisoning and toxic substances used to poison predators.
      Condors were listed as an endangered species in 1967, under a US law that pre-dated the existing Endangered Species Act. In 1982, the condor population reached its lowest level of 22 birds, prompting USFAW Service biologists to start collecting chicks and eggs for a captive breeding program. By late 1984, only 15 condors remained in the wild. After seven condors died in rapid succession, it was decided to bring the remaining birds in from the wild for the captive breeding program.
      In 1992, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began releasing California condor back into the wild. The focus of the condor recovery effort is the release of captive reared condors to the wild to ultimately establish self-sustaining populations. To date, 218 condor chicks have been raised in captive propagation facilities.
     An adult California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) weighs 7 to 11 kg, has a wingspan of up 3 meters, and a body length of 117 to 140 cm. They don't sing, but may grunt or wheeze. There is no sexual dimorphism (observable difference in size or appearance) between males and females. California condors have a white or mottled triangle under the wing, no feathers on the head, and the head color is black in juveniles or orange/pink in adults, not dark red as in Turkey Vultures.
     California condors usually choose as a nest site a cave in a cliff or a crevice among boulders on a steep slope.
      After 11 April, in 2002, two more young were produced in the wild in California and two eggs were laid in Arizona. These are the first successful hatches in the wild since the early 1980s.
      Condors reach sexual maturity and attain adult plumage and coloration by 5 or 6 years of age and breeding is likely between 6 and 8 years of age. When mature, a condor will lay one egg (average incubation period for a condor egg is 56 days) every other year during a successful nesting cycle. The species provides extensive parental care to very few young.
     Condors are strict scavengers. Unlike Turkey Vultures, condors do not have an exceptional sense of smell. They instead find their food visually, often by investigating the activity of ravens, coyotes, eagles, and other scavengers. Without the guidance of their parents, young inexperienced juvenile condors may also investigate the activity of humans. As young condors learn and mature this human directed curiosity diminishes. In the past the food of condors was carcasses of bison, elk, or deer in inland areas; seals and beached whales along coasts. With fluctuating populations of wild game, the condor has adapted to utilizing carcasses of domestic animals too.
      In the historical past there were California condors from British Columbia south to northern Baja California and in other parts of what is now the southwestern United States. The California condor can travel 250 km a day in search of food.
      On 01 September 2002, there were 205 California Condors in the world — 73 of them in the wild in California and Arizona. In 1982, there were 22 California Condors in the world.
      Nestlings fledge (leave nest) full grown at six months of age, however when there were large populations of condors, they may have been dependent on their parents for more that a year. Reintroduced condors are released on their own and must learn to forage and survive with the now existing free-flying population.
      The numbers of California condors dropped dramatically until 1982, because of an unsustainable mortality rate in the wild and a naturally low reproductive rate. Predation, shootings, poisoning, lead poisoning, and collisions with power lines are some of the major threats.
      The California Condor, hawks, eagles, vultures, and owls are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty and the Endangered Species Act. Under these acts it is illegal to pursue, hunt take, capture, or kill a bird of prey.
1953 Andrew John Wiles, English mathematician who, after 8 years of single-minded efforts, succeeding in September 1994 in proving Fermat's Last Theorem, about which Wiles had been concerned ever since he was 10. Pierre de Fermat [17 Aug 1601 – 12 Jan 1665] in 1637 had written in the margin of a book (Arithmetica by Diophantus [200-284], on the page where it had Quaestio VIII: Propositum: quadratum dividere in duos quadratos) that he had proved that it is impossible to find whole numbers that satisfy the equation x^n + y^n = z^n if n > 2, but that the margin did not have enough space for writing the proof.
“... generaliter nullam in infinitum ultra quadratum potestatem in duos eiusdem numinis fas est dividere, cuius rei demonstrationem mirabilem fere detexi. Hanc marginis exiguitas non caperet.”
     Ever since mathematicians had tried to construct a proof, but without success. Wiles's proof is 150 pages long and uses mathematics that did not exist in Fermat's time, so that it is very likely that Fermat was mistaken about the validity of his proof.
^ 1941 Office of Price Administration (OPA) is created.
      During the early 1940s, President Franklin Roosevelt set about readying the nation for its entrance into World War II. Along with converting US industry to the cause of wartime production, Roosevelt also moved to safeguard the nation's economy. Towards this end, Roosevelt issued an executive order on 11 April 1941, that created the Office of Price Administration (OPA). Charged with waging war against inflation, the OPA imposed price caps on a vast array of goods and attempted to keep a tight fist on key items with low inventories. Though under other circumstances such measures might have stirred controversy, Americans generally complied with the OPA. However, the agency could not quell the spread of black markets for certain items, including meat, gas and cigarettes. Following the close of the war, the OPA also proved impotent against the attacks of corporate leaders and business-friendly legislators who were itching to kill off price controls. Thus, in 1946, the OPA began curtailing its efforts and slashing its then sizable staff of 73'000 paid employees and 200'000 volunteers. Coupled with the demise of price controls, the closing of the OPA led to a heady spate of inflation. 1930 Nicholas Brady, National Treasurer Today marks the birthday of Nicholas Brady, a stalwart figure in the banking industry who eventually became the 68th secretary of the Treasury. Born in New York City in 1930, Brady worked in banking for thirty-four years, serving a stint as the chairman of Dillon, Read & Company. He also worked as a director for a host of companies, including the NCR Corporation and H.J. Heinz. By the early 1980s, Brady had switched to the public sector, briefly holding a seat in the US Senate, and serving in various posts in the Reagan administration. Brady was tapped for the spot atop the Treasury in the fall of 1988.
1934 Mark Strand, US poet/editor/translator (Another Republic)
1914 Pygmalion, by George Bernard Shaw, premieres.
1908 Brian Kuttner, English mathematician who died on 02 January 1992. He worked on Fourier series, strong summability, Riesz means, Nörland methods, and Tauberian theory.
1907 Henry Scheffé, US mathematician who died on 05 July 1977. He worked in several different areas of Statistics, including linear models, analysis of variance and nonparametrics. Author of The Analysis of Variance (1959).
1904 Philip Hall, English mathematician who died on 30 December 1982. The growth of group theory to be one of the major mathematical topics of the 20th Century was largely due to him.
1901 Glenway Wescott, US writer (Apartment in Athens)
1894 Paul Finsler, German mathematician who died on 29 April 1970. His doctoral dissertation Curves and surfaces in general spaces introduced Finsler spaces, a generalisation of Riemannian spaces where the length function is defined differently and Minkowski's geometry holds locally. But Finsler's main work was in set theory, though he also worked on differential geometry, number theory, probability theory, and the foundations of mathematics. Author of On the foundations of set theory (part I: 1926, part II: 1965)
1893 Dean G. Acheson statesman/US Secretary of State (1949-1953)
1893 John Northcote Nash, British painter, wood-engraver, and illustrator, who died on 23 Sep 1977. — MORE ON NASH AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1880 Daniel Garber, US Impressionist painter who died in 1958. — links to images.
1862 Charles Evans Hughes, jurist and statesman who served as an associate justice of the US Supreme Court (1910–1916), US secretary of state (1921–25), and 11th chief justice of the United States (1930–1941). As chief justice he led the Supreme Court through the great controversy arising over President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal social legislation. Hughes died on 27 August 1948.
1834 Marcus Dods, Scottish clergyman and biblical scholar. His published works in New Testament studies helped popularize modern biblical scholarship in Great Britain.
^ 1794 Edward Everett, Massachusetts US statesman and orator who died on 15 January 1865. He is mainly remembered for delivering the 2-hour speech immediately preceding the 2-minute Gettysburg Address (19 Nov 1863) of Abraham Lincoln [12 Feb 1809 – 15 Apr 1865] at the ceremony dedicating the Gettysburg National Cemetery in Pennsylvania during the US Civil War (12 Apr 186102 Jun 1865). He was the uncle of Edward Everett Hale [03 Apr 1822 – 10 June 1909].
      By 1820 Everett had established a formidable reputation as a lecturer and orator, based on careful preparation, an extraordinary memory, and brilliance of style and delivery. He served in the US House of Representatives (1825–1835), as governor of Massachusetts (1835–1839), and as US minister to England (1841–1845). With his election as president of Harvard in 1846, he withdrew from politics for several years, returning in 1852 as Secretary of State during the last four months of the presidency of Millard Fillmore [07 Jan 1800 – 08 Mar 1874]. In 1853 Everett entered the US Senate, but his generally conciliatory stand on the issue of slavery aroused the ire of his abolitionist constituents, and he resigned the following year.
      In 1860 Everett was the unsuccessful vice presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union Party (the remnants of the Whigs), which sought to bridge sectional differences by stressing common devotion to the Union and the Constitution, and whose presidential candidate was John Bell. They were defeated by Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin [27 Aug 1809 – 04 Jul 1891] of the anti-slavery Republican Party (which was founded on 28 February 1854). Everett's desire for compromise ended at the outbreak of the Civil War, throughout which he traveled and spoke in support of the Union cause.
     In early July 1863, Pennsylvania governor Andrew Curtin had charged Wills, a successful Gettysburg citizen and judge, with cleaning up the aftermath of the battle of Gettysburg (01 to 03 Jul 1863). Wills quickly acquired seventeen acres for the national cemetery and had the Germantown landscape architect, William Saunders, draw up a plan. Burial began not long after. On 23 September 1863, Wills invited the Everett to give an oration at the dedication ceremony planned for 23 October 1863. Everett accepted, but, needing more time to prepare, persuaded Wills to postpone the ceremony to 19 November. Everett's 13'609-word speech began:
      “Standing beneath this serene sky, overlooking these broad fields now reposing from the labors of the waning year, the mighty Alleghenies dimly towering before us, the graves of our brethren beneath our feet, it is with hesitation that I raise my poor voice to break the eloquent silence of God and Nature. But the duty to which you have called me must be perfomed; grant me, I pray you, your indulgence and your sympathy. ...”
     And ended two hours later with:
      “... But they, I am sure, will join us in saying, as we bid farewell to the dust of these martyr-heroes, that wheresoever throughout the civilized world the accounts of this great warfare are read, and down to the latest period of recorded time, in the glorious annals of our common country, there will be no brighter page than that which relates The Battles of Gettysburg.”
1770 George Canning, brilliant English Tory statesman and orator, but distrusted for his opportunism and inconsistency. As Foreign Secretary he clashed with Castlereagh over the conduct of war with France, and fought a duel with him in 1809. He supported the Greeks in their struggle against Turkish rule and recognised the independence of the rebellious Spanish American colonies (and so 'called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old'). He became Prime Minister in 1827, but died within four months.
1767 Jean-Baptiste Isabey, French painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 18 April 1855. — MORE ON ISABEY AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1760 Louis Silvestre, French artist born on 23 June 1675.
1749 Adelaïde Labille~Guiard, French Neoclassical painter who died on 24 April 1803, specialized in Portraits. MORE ON LABILLE~GUIARD AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
Christopher Smart^
1722 Christopher Smart, English poet and journalist
.

     English religious poet, best known for A Song to David (1763), in praise of the author of the Psalms, notable for flashes of childlike penetration and vivid imagination. In some respects his work anticipated that of William Blake and John Clare. He died on 21 May 1771 in a debtor's prison.




     Two excerpts from Smart's poetry: first from Jubilate Agno, second from A Song to David:
For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry.
For he is the servant of the Living God duly and daily serving him.
For at the first glance of the glory of God in the East he worships in his way.
For this is done by wreathing his body seven times round with elegant quickness.
For then he leaps up to catch the musk, which is the blessing of God upon his prayer.
For he rolls upon prank to work it in.
For having done duty and received blessing he begins to consider himself.
For this he performs in ten degrees.
For first he looks upon his forepaws to see if they are clean.
For secondly he kicks up behind to clear away there.
For thirdly he works it upon stretch with the forepaws extended.
For fourthly he sharpens his paws by wood.
For fifthly he washes himself.
For sixthly he rolls upon wash.
For seventhly he fleas himself, that he may not be interrupted upon the beat.
For eighthly he rubs himself against a post.
For ninthly he looks up for his instructions.
For tenthly he goes in quest of food.
For having consider'd God and himself he will consider his neighbour.
For if he meets another cat he will kiss her in kindness.
For when he takes his prey he plays with it to give it a chance.
For one mouse in seven escapes by his dallying.
For when his day's work is done his business more properly begins.
For he keeps the Lord's watch in the night against the adversary.
For he counteracts the powers of darkness by his electrical skin and glaring eyes.
For he counteracts the Devil, who is death, by brisking about the life.
For in his morning orisons he loves the sun and the sun loves him.
For he is of the tribe of Tiger.
For the Cherub Cat is a term of the Angel Tiger.
For he has the subtlety and hissing of a serpent, which in goodness he suppresses.
For he will not do destruction, if he is well-fed, neither will he spit without provocation.
For he purrs in thankfulness, when God tells him he's a good Cat.
For he is an instrument for the children to learn benevolence upon.
For every house is incomplete without him and a blessing is lacking in the spirit.
For the Lord commanded Moses concerning the cats at the departure of the Children of Israel from Egypt.
For every family had one cat at least in the bag.
For he is the cleanest in the use of his forepaws of any quadruped.
For the dexterity of his defence is an instance of the love of God to him exceedingly.
For he is the quickest to his mark of any creature.
For he is tenacious of his point.
For he is a mixture of gravity and waggery.
For he knows that God is his Saviour.
For there is nothing sweeter than his peace when at rest.
For there is nothing brisker than his life when in motion.
For he is of the Lord's poor and so indeed is he called by benevolence perpetually — Poor Jeoffry! poor Jeoffry! the rat has bit thy throat.
For I bless the name of the Lord Jesus that Jeoffry is better.
For the divine spirit comes about his body to sustain it in complete cat.
For his tongue is exceeding pure so that it has in purity what it wants in music.
For he is docile and can learn certain things.
For he can set up with gravity which is patience upon approbation.
For he can fetch and carry, which is patience in employment.
For he can jump over a stick which is patience upon proof positive.
For he can spraggle upon waggle at the word of command.
For he can jump from an eminence into his master's bosom.
For he can catch the cork and toss it again.
For he is hated by the hypocrite and miser.
For the former is afraid of detection.
For the latter refuses the charge.
For he camels his back to bear the first notion of business.
For he is good to think on, if a man would express himself neatly.
For he made a great figure in Egypt for his signal services.
For he killed the Ichneumon-rat very pernicious by land.
For his ears are so acute that they sting again.
For from this proceeds the passing quickness of his attention.
For by stroking of him I have found out electricity.
For I perceived God's light about him both wax and fire.
For the Electrical fire is the spiritual substance, which God sends from heaven to sustain the bodies both of man and beast.
For God has blessed him in the variety of his movements.
For, tho he cannot fly, he is an excellent clamberer.
For his motions upon the face of the earth are more than any other quadruped.
For he can tread to all the measures upon the music.
For he can swim for life.
For he can creep.
    Sweet is the dew that falls betimes,
  And drops upon the leafy limes;
      Sweet Hermon's fragrant air:
  Sweet is the lily's silver bell,
  And sweet the wakeful tapers smell
      That watch for early pray'r.

    Sweet the young nurse with love intense,
  Which smiles o'er sleeping innocence;
      Sweet when the lost arrive:
  Sweet the musician's ardour beats,
  While his vague mind's in quest of sweets,
      The choicest flow'rs to hive.

    Sweeter in all the strains of love,
  The language of thy turtle dove,
      Pair'd to thy swelling chord;
  Sweeter with ev'ry grace endu'd,
  The glory of thy gratitude,
      Respir'd unto the Lord.

    Strong is the horse upon his speed;
  Strong in pursuit the rapid glede,
      Which makes at once his game:
  Strong the tall ostrich on the ground;
  Strong thro' the turbulent profound
      Shoots xiphias to his aim.

    Strong is the lion — like a coal
  His eye-ball — like a bastion's mole
      His chest against the foes:
  Strong, the gier-eagle on his sail,
  Strong against tide, th' enormous whale
      Emerges as he goes.
    But stronger still, in earth and air,
  And in the sea, the man of pray'r;
      And far beneath the tide;
  And in the seat to faith assign'd,
  Where ask is have, where seek is find,
  Where knock is open wide.

    Beauteous the fleet before the gale;
  Beauteous the multitudes in mail,
      Rank'd arms and crested heads:
  Beauteous the garden's umbrage mild,
  Walk, water, meditated wild,
      And all the bloomy beds.

    Beauteous the moon full on the lawn;
  And beauteous, when the veil's withdrawn,
      The virgin to her spouse:
  Beauteous the temple deck'd and fill'd,
  When to the heav'n of heav'ns they build
      Their heart-directed vows.

    Beauteous, yea beauteous more than these,
  The shepherd king upon his knees,
      For his momentous trust;
  With wish of infinite conceit,
  For man, beast, mute, the small and great,
      And prostrate dust to dust.

    Precious the bounteous widow's mite;
  And precious, for extreme delight,
      The largess from the churl:
  Precious the ruby's blushing blaze,
  And alba's blest imperial rays,
      And pure cerulean pearl.
    Precious the penitential tear;
  And precious is the sigh sincere,
      Acceptable to God:
  And precious are the winning flow'rs,
  In gladsome Israel's feast of bow'rs,
      Bound on the hallow'd sod.

    More precious that diviner part
  Of David, ev'n the Lord's own heart,
      Great, beautiful, and new:
  In all things where it was intent,
  In all extremes, in each event,
      Proof — answ'ring true to true.

    Glorious the sun in mid career;
  Glorious th' assembled fires appear;
      Glorious the comet's train:
  Glorious the trumpet and alarm;
  Glorious th' almighty stretch'd-out arm;
      Glorious th' enraptur'd main:

    Glorious the northern lights a-stream;
  Glorious the song, when God's the theme;
      Glorious the thunder's roar:
  Glorious hosanna from the den;
  Glorious the catholic amen;
      Glorious the martyr's gore:

    Glorious — more glorious is the crown
  Of Him that brought salvation down
      By meekness, call'd thy Son;
  Thou that stupendous truth believ'd,
  And now the matchless deed's achiev'd,
      Determin'd, dar'd, and done.
SMART ONLINE: The Works of Horace, Translated into Verse
1661 Antoine Coypel, French painter who died on 07 January 1722. MORE ON COYPEL AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1370 Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony.
Holidays / Czechoslovakia : Resistance Movement Day (1945) / Egypt : Shan-et-Nissin / Liberia : Fast and Prayer Day / Costa Rica : Juan Santamaria Day/Battle of Rivas Commemoration (1856)

Religious Observances RC : St Leo I, pope [440-61], doctor / RC : St Stanislaus, bishop, martyr / Ang : George Augustus Selwyn, bishop of NZ and Litchfield.
Easter Sunday in 1700, 1751, 1762, 1773, 1784, 1819, 1830, 1841, 1852, 1909, 1971, 1982, 1993, 2004, 2066, 2077, 2088, 2123, 2134, 2145, 2156, 2202, 2213, 2224, 2286, 2297.
Good Friday in 1879, 1884, 1941, 1952, 2031, 2036, 2104.
Holy Thursday in 1895, 1963, 1968, 1974, 2047, 2058, 2069, 2115, 2120.

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Thoughts for the day:
“Fear is the tax that conscience pays to guilt.”
“Justice delayed is justice denied; but justice hurried is justice horrid.”
“We think in generalities, but we live in detail.”
— Alfred North Whitehead, British philosopher [15 Feb 1861 – 30 Dec 1947].
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