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Events, deaths, births, of APR 10
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” APR 10    wikipedia
• 3 kids go out to play — they die blasted by a mine... • Croatia's Nazi dependent independence... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Hindenburg elected over Hitler... • Bataan Death March starts... • 88 hour surgery separates conjoined twins... • Arithmometer's inventor is born... • Zapata is murdered... • Puzzle maker is born... • Fiat executive murdered by kidnappers... • Titanic sails off... • 2nd Bank of the US... • Henry Ford II promoted... • Time Warner's web ads... • O. Henry's 2nd short story collection... • Civilian Conservation Corps created... • US public approval of Vietnam policy is down... • B52s begin bombing North Vietnam... • NCR founder dies...
^  On a 10 April:
^ 2001 Police brutalizes Christians in Sudan.
     On 26 April 2001, Amnesty International would take note of the Sudanese presidential decree pardoning 47 persons arrested over the recent Easter and called for an impartial and independent investigation into the shootings, beatings and arrests by the Sudanese riot police on 11 April 2001. "Amnesty International is concerned that at least nine people, including children, were flogged as punishment, after being convicted with 47 others for causing 'public disturbance' in an unfair and summary trial." On 11 April, Christians gathered at All Saints Cathedral in Khartoum for prayers and to discuss the cancellation of a religious rally organized by church authorities on 10 April. Some students, angry at the cancellation, reportedly went outside the church with stones. When the riot police intervened, those outside the church ran inside. According to witnesses, police threw teargas inside the church making it difficult for people to breathe, and fired bullets at the crowd injuring many. Police then entered the church and indiscriminately arrested at least 56 people. One person, Edward Jemi, lost a hand from bullet wounds. At least two others were hit by bullets. It is reported that some, including women, were beaten and that one person was stabbed by the riot police. The 56 people arrested were brought the next day to a criminal court and charged with causing public disturbance.The judge refused to allow their lawyer to defend them. The trial lasted less than an hour. Six women and three children were sentenced to 15 and 20 lashes respectively and were flogged on 12 April and then released. The remaining 47 were sentenced to 20 lashes each and from seven to 20 days in prison.
      Other people present in the cathedral, including Church officials and a journalist, Alfred Taban, were also arrested. They were later released, apart from Alfred Taban, who was held incommunicado without charge until he was released on 17 April without explanation. "The government should conduct an impartial and independent investigation into the incident", Amnesty International said."And those responsible for unlawful shootings should be brought promptly to justice. All people detained by the police should be given the opportunity of fair trial including being defended by a lawyer of their choice." The human rights organization further urged the Sudanese government to take immediate action to ensure that its security forces comply with international standards, especially the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, thereby protecting the life and safety of civilians. The organization is also calling on the Sudanese authorities to refrain from inflicting torture such as flogging as punishment, especially for children. The Sudanese authorities should guarantee the right to free assembly and freedom of religious belief and practice. Background Church authorities in Khartoum had planned events for Easter and had invited a German evangelist to address a rally on 10 April in Green Square in central Khartoum, which they had booked. After threats by Islamic groups to disrupt the celebrations, the Sudanese authorities ordered the church authorities on 09 April to move the event to Haj Yusif in the outskirts of Khartoum. Because of the short notice, people turned up on 10 April in Green Square. Clashes ensued with the police. It is alleged that the police threw tear gas and shot at people. At least 50 people were arrested and later released. Clashes were also reported on the same day in Haj Yusif. Following these incidents, the church authorities decided to cancel the event and were discussing their decision with the Christian community the day after in All Saints Cathedral, when they were disrupted by the police. The use of excessive force by the Sudanese security forces has been reported several times in the past, as well as complaints by the Christian community of harassment and restriction of their right to freedom of religion.
2001 By a 46-28 vote of its Senate approving a bill already passed by the lower house, the Netherlands becomes the first country to legalize assisted suicide and requested euthanasia, but only under strict conditions when it is the only alternative to hopeless unbearable suffering.
Conjoined twins^ 2001 Conjoined twins successfully separated.
      Nepalese (not Siamese) twins who were born joined at the head are surgically separated after nearly 90 hours on an operating table in Singapore. The complicated surgery to separate Ganga and Jamuna Shrestha was a success and the 11-month-old girls are doing fine. They are being treated by plastic surgeons following the operation and are in stable condition.
      Doctors began operating on the twins in the afternoon of 06 April and finished on this morning, about 88 hours later. They had initially hoped the operation would take no more than 40 hours. The girls' brains shared some of the same blood vessels, making the surgery extremely difficult and dangerous. Two teams of doctors, including a neurosurgeon and a plastic surgeon, worked around the clock to separate them, taking turns with brief breaks. Ganga and Jamuna have very distinct personalities. Ganga is more feisty and is always hungry, while Jamuna is more calm. They tend to fall asleep and get hungry at different times of the day
[photo: Bushan, left and Sandhya Shrestha, second right, and nurses hold the twins before separation >].
      The baby girls come from a poor family on the outskirts of Katmandu. Their mother, Sandhya, is a kindergarten teacher and their father, Bushan, helps his father in a small business. Both parents, who are in their early 20s, have been keeping an almost constant vigil at the hospital during the surgery with brief breaks to pray at a Hindu temple. Singaporeans have donated $358'000 to help the twins. The hospital has waived many of their charges, and national flag carrier Singapore Airlines paid for the girls, their parents and their grandfather to make the trip from Nepal. The family has been living with the Nepalese Gurkha community in Singapore. The Gurkhas, who come from Nepal, are famous for their service as a special group within the British military. In Singapore, they work as a special force with the police.
2000 The Washington Post wins three Pulitzer Prizes, including the public service award for the second year in a row; The Wall Street Journal takes two honors, and The Associated Press wins for investigative reporting on the killing of civilians by US troops at the start of the Korean War.
1998 The Northern Ireland peace talks conclude as negotiators reach a landmark settlement to end 30 years of bitter rivalries and bloody attacks.
1998 Mike Saul, former general manager of Island Casino, an online sports-betting company, pleads guilty to conspiring to transmit bets and wagers via the Internet, the first time anyone ever pled guilty to Internet gambling charges.
1996 US President Clinton vetoes a bill that would have outlawed partial birth abortions.
^ 1995 Time Warner begins ad sales for Pathfinder
      Time Warner became one of the first companies to sell advertising on the Web when it started selling ads on its Pathfinder site. Sponsors like AT&T and General Motors paid about $30'000 per quarter to advertise on Pathfinder. Although some initial attempts to advertise on the Web brought protest from those Internet users who subscribed to the ethic that information should be free, Internet advertising became a multimillion dollar industry by 1999. However, many sites found they were unable to support themselves strictly through advertising and began to add commerce and sales to their sites.
1991 A day after Mikhail Gorbachev appealed for a moratorium on all strikes, demonstrations and rallies, an estimated 200'000 workers defy the Soviet president by staging a work stoppage in Minsk, Belarus.
1984 US Senate condemns CIA mining of Nicaraguan harbors
1981 Imprisoned IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands elected to British Parliament
1974 Yitzhak Rabin replaces resigning Israeli PM Golda Meir
1972 US, USSR and 70 other nations agree to ban biological weapons
^ 1972 B-52s begin bombing North Vietnam
      Although the US command refuses to confirm publicly the location of targets, US B-52 bombers reportedly begin bombing North Vietnam for the first time since November 1967. The bombers struck in the vicinity of Vinh, 145 miles north of the Demilitarized Zone. It was later acknowledged publicly that target priority during these attacks had been given to SAM-2 missile sites, which had made raids over North Vietnam increasingly hazardous. US officials called Hanoi's SAM-2 defenses "the most sophisticated air defenses in the history of air warfare." These defenses consisted of advanced radar and lethally accurate air defense missiles.
^ 1970 US public approval of Vietnam policy is down
      A Gallup Poll shows that 48% of the public approves of President Nixon's policy in Vietnam, while 41% disapprove. In January, Nixon had a 65% approval rating. The drop reflected the growing dissatisfaction with Nixon's failure to end the war in Vietnam. He had been elected in 1968 largely because he claimed to have a plan to end the war, but after three months in office, there was still no announcement about when the plan would be enacted. His approval rating further plummeted later in April, when he announced that US and South Vietnamese forces had crossed the border into Cambodia. This announcement set off a wave of antiwar demonstrations, including one at Kent State University that resulted in the killing of four students by Army National Guard troops. The "Cambodian incursion," as it came to be called, angered many in Congress, who felt that Nixon was illegally widening the war; this resulted in a series of congressional resolutions and legislative initiatives to severely limit the executive power of the president.
1970 The Russian Orthodox Church in America is granted independence by its mother organization, the Russian Orthodox Church. Headquartered today in Syosset, New York, membership in this religious body currently numbers approximately one million.
1962 The West Coast office of The Wall Street Journal produces an experimental edition transmitted by radio fax. Page proofs were transmitted by coaxial cable through microwave circuits to Riverside, California, where they were reproduced and distributed. The experiment was a success, and the process was incorporated into daily production on May 28, 1962.
1960 Senate passes landmark Civil Rights Bill
1948 Jewish Hagana repells an Arab attack on Mishmar HaEmek
1945 US Armed forces liberate their first concentration camp at Buchenwald. It is estimated that nearly 57'000 [surely many more: 570'000 or even 5'700'000] prisoners (mostly Jews) perished in the gas chambers of Buchenwald during its eight-year existence.
^ 1944 Henry Ford II is promoted.
      Henry Ford II [04 Sep 1917 – 29 Sep 1987] is named executive vice president of the Ford Motor Company. His promotion confirmed his bid to become the heir to his grandfather's throne at Ford. Henry II despised his grandfather for tormenting his father, Edsel Ford. Nevertheless, Henry II went on to display many of the leadership skills of his grandfather en route to becoming the head of the Ford empire. After an unsatisfactory academic career at Yale University-where Henry spent four years without receiving a diploma-he returned to work at the River Rouge plant. There he familiarized himself with the operation of the company, and he witnessed the bitter struggle for the succession of Henry Ford's title as president of the company. After his father Edsel Ford's death, the result of "stomach cancer, undulant fever and a broken heart", Ford lieutenants Harry Bennett and Charles Sorensen fought a silent battle for the Ford throne. Henry Ford Sr. [30 Jul 1863 – 07 Apr 1947] had reassumed the title of president, although it was clear he was too old to stay in that position for long. The irritable Henry I wasn't dead yet, though, and he intervened on behalf of the violent Bennet, who had gained power at Ford for his suppression of organized labor. Passed up for the vice-president position, Sorensen left the company after over forty years of service. Many attributed Ford's poor treatment of Sorensen to personal jealousy. Henry the Elder was reportedly even jealous of his grandson's presence at the Rouge Plant.
      At the outbreak of World War II, Henry the Second left Ford for military service, which he carried out in Salt Lake City, Utah, until his father died on 26 May 1943. At that time he returned to Ford to take the reigns of the company at the urging of the US government. His grandfather was finally too old to run the company and if he didn't name a successor, the company would fall out of the family's control for the first time in its existence. Realizing that Henry's presence would make his own accession to the company's presidency impossible, strongman Bennett attempted to bring Henry the Second under his influence. His efforts were of no avail, though, as Henry Ford II refused to be influenced by his tyrannical grandfather's toady. His accession to the executive vice-presidency made him the inevitable successor to the presidency of the Ford Motor Company. Henry Ford II went on to lead his family's company back to greatness from its dubious position behind both GM and Chrysler after the war.
^ 1941 Croatia declares Nazi-dependent independence
      The German and Italian invaders of Yugoslavia set up the Independent State of Croatia (also including Bosnia and Herzegovina) and place nationalist leader Ante Pavelic's Ustase, pro-fascist insurgents, in control of what is no more than a puppet Axis regime. The Ustase began a relentless persecution of Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, and antifascist Croats. As many as 350'000 to 450'000 victims were massacred, and the Jasenovac concentration camp would become infamous as a slaughterhouse. Croatia's Serbs gave sporadic resistance, but it was the Communist partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito (a Croat himself), who provided antifascist leadership. By 1944, most of Croatia, apart from the main cities, was liberated from Axis forces, and Croats joined partisan ranks in large numbers. As the war neared its end, however, many Croats, especially those who had been involved with the Ustase regime or who had opposed the Communists, sought refugee status with the Allies. But British commanders handed them over to the Communist partisans, who slaughtered tens of thousands, including civilians, on forced marches and in death camps.
1941 The troops of Nazi Germany under the command of general Maximilian von Weichs [12 Nov 1881 – 27 Sep 1954]; take Zagreb in Yugoslavia.
1938 Anschluss: Austria becomes a state of Germany.
^ 1932 Hindenburg defeats Hitler in German presidential elections.
     President Paul von Hindenburg, a conservative, is re-elected over Nazi Party candidate Adolf Hitler, a radical nationalist. Hindenburg receives nineteen million votes to Hitler's thirteen million.
      In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler's Nazi Party had swelled with resentful Germans who sympathized with the party's bitter hatred of Germany's democratic government, leftist politics, and Jews.
      On 08 November 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch" — their first attempt to seize the German government by force. The uprising was suppressed and Hitler was sent to Landsberg jail, where he spent his nine months in prison writing his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills.
      Upon his release, the Nazi Party was reorganized as a fanatical mass movement that gained a majority in the German parliament (the Reichstag) by legal means in 1932. In the same year, Hindenberg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January of 1933 appointed him as chancellor, mistakenly believing that the powerful Nazi leader could be brought to heel as a member of the president's cabinet.
      However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of Chancellor Hitler's first acts was to order the burning of the Reichstag building. The Nazi Party's propaganda officers disguised the attack as a Communist plot, and Hitler used it as pretext for calling general elections. In the weeks before the elections, the police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the Party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts.
      In 1934, Hindenburg, then merely a figurehead, died and the last remnants of Germany's democratic government were dismantled, leaving Hitler the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide.
^ 1912 R.M.S. Titanic sails on maiden voyage.
     The R.M.S. Titanic, one of the largest and most luxurious ocean liners ever built, departed Southampton, England, on its maiden voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. While leaving port, the massive ship came within a couple feet of the steamer New York, but passed safely by, causing a general sigh of relief from the passengers massed on the ship's decks.
      The Titanic, thought to be the world's fastest ship afloat and almost unsinkable, spanned 269 meters from stern to bow. On its first journey across the highly competitive Atlantic route, the ship carried some twenty-two hundred passengers and crew. After stopping at Cherbourg, France, and Queenstown, Ireland, to pick up some final passengers (and to let off a few lucky ones), the massive vessel set out at full speed for New York City.
      However, just before midnight on the night of 14 April, about six hundred kilometers from Newfoundland, the ship failed to divert its course from an iceberg and five of the Titanic's sixteen allegedly watertight compartments were ruptured along its starboard side. Within two hours, at about 02:20. on the morning of 15 April, the ship had sunk.
      Because of a shortage of lifeboats and the lack of satisfactory emergency procedures, over fifteen hundred people went down in the sinking ship or froze to death in the icy North Atlantic waters. Of the seven hundred or so survivors, most were women and children of the upper classes. A number of notable UK and British citizens died in the tragedy, leading to outrage on both sides of the Atlantic when the circumstances of the disaster were revealed.
      The sinking of the Titanic ultimately had some positive effects, however, as more stringent safety regulations were adopted on public ships and regular patrols were initiated to trace the locations of Atlantic icebergs.
1896 The US Congress increases the number of Supreme Court justices from 7 to 9.
1877 Federal troops withdraw from Columbia SC
1868 Brits defeat King of Abyssinia at Magdala.
1865 At Appomattox, Gen Lee issues Gen Order #9, his last
1864 Austrian Archduke Maximilian becomes emperor of Mexico
1862 Lincoln approves resolution calling for gradual emancipation of slaves
1862 Police break up a counterfeiting ring in St. Louis, Missouri
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1845 More than 1000 buildings damaged by fire in Pittsburgh Pa
1825 Nicaraguan constituent assembly meets at León
^ 1816 The Second Bank of the United States is authorized.
      With the US struggling through a protracted economic slump, the federal government gave the go-ahead to a second National Bank on this day in 1816. One of Alexander Hamilton's pet projects, the initial edition of the bank stirred opposition from states' rights advocates and lost its charter in 1811. Its successor, named the Second Bank of the United States, opened in Philadelphia in 1817. Despite its twenty-year charter and $35 million in federal funding, the bank floundered under the lead of its first chief, William Jones. An inept fiscal manager, Jones's policies exacerbated the wounds that the United States economy had suffered in the wake of the War of 1812. Thanks in no small part to Jones's bungling, the nation was plunged into a yearlong financial panic during 1819. Though the bank later flourished under the charge of Nelson Biddle, it didn't survive past the term of its initial charter: states' rights proponents, this time led by President Andrew Jackson, mounted a hotly contested, though again successful, drive to abolish the bank and its network of branch offices.
1816 In Philadelphia, church reformer Richard Allen, 56, is elected the first bishop of the newly-created African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. (Previously, in 1799, Allen had been the first black ordained to preach in the Methodist Episcopal Church.)
1795 (21 germinal an III) SAVARY Louis Jacques, député du département de l'Eure à la Convention nationale, domicilié à Evreux, même département mis lors la loi par décret de la Convention nationale, par suite des malheureuses journées des 31, 1er et 2 Juin 1793; Il s'est soustrait au jugement, le décret a été rapporté le 21 germinal an 3, et il est rentré dans le sein de la Convention.
1794 LIANE Honoré, meneur d'œuvre d'une fabrique de bonnets, domicilié à Marseille, département des Bouches du Rhône, condamné à la réclusion, et ensuite banni à perpétuité, le 21 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département comme faux témoin à charge contre les patriotes
1790 US Patent system established
1741 Prussians defeat Austrians at Mollwitz
0847 Saint Leo IV begins his reign as Pope.
0428 Nestorius is consecrated bishop of Constantinople.
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< 09 Apr 11 Apr >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 10 April:

2005 Sarah Michelle Lunde, born on 30 August 1991, strangled by David Onstott, 36, when he gets into a fight with Sarah, who had let him into her home in Ruskin, Florida, just before midnight on 09 April 2005, as he came looking for her mother, Kelly May Lunde, whom he once dated. He hides her corpse in an abandoned fish pond about one kilometer from her home, where after days of searching by hundreds of persons, it is found on 16 April 2005. Onstott is a convicted rapist.
2004 Some ten employees, by 08:30 propane tank explosion at the Red Snapper restaurant in Nuevo Progreso, Taumalipas, Mexico, two blocks from the bridge across the Rio Grande to Progreso, Texas. Four persons are injured.
2004 Some 40 miners by a 07:00 methane explosion 560 meters deep in the Taizhina mine (opened in 1998) in Osinniki, in western Siberia's coal-rich Kuzbass area, Kemerovo Region. 4 injured and 9 unhurt miners manage to escape.
imam al-Khoei2003 Haider al-Kadar and Abdul Majid al-Khoei [< photo], Muslim mullahs, hacked with knives by an angry mob, inside the shrine of Imam Ali in Najaf, Iraq. Al-Kadar had been in charge of the shrine under Saddam Hussein Ministry of Religion. Al-Khoei was an exile who had returned a week earlier, after the US liberation. He was with al-Kadar to effect a reconciliation. The mob is made up of members of Jimaat-e-Sadr-Thani, fighting for a power grab, now that repression of Shi'ites by the Saddam Hussein regime is ended, on behalf of Muqtada al-Sadr, 22, surviving son of mullah Mohammed Baqer al-Sadr, who was murdered, along with two other sons, by the Iraqi secret service in 1999. The mob shouts insults at the two mullahs. Al-Khoei fires a couple of shots from a handgun, then the enraged crowd kills both. Hawjat Al-Islam (a Shi’a clerical rank below ayatollah) al-Sayid ‘Abd al-Majid al-Khu’i (or Khoei) was the son of revered cleric Grand Ayatollah Al-Sayid ‘Abd Al-Qasim Al-Khu’i. For the Shiites, who are the majority in Iraq (repressed by the Saddam Hussein regime) and nearly 120 million in the world, Najaf is the third holiest city, behind Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia. On 05 April 2004 an Iraqui judge compliant with the US-led occupation would order the arrest of al-Sadr for his role in the murders. This would result in his militia, the al-Mahdi Army, conducting an uprising against the occupation troops.
2003 Jasser Alimi and Mahdi Tambouz, shot in Tul Karm, West Bank, by Israeli special Border Police agents, because Alimi was carrying a revolver. Three other Palestinians are wounded.
2003 Mahmoud Zatme, 42, an Islamic Jihad commander, at 16:10, by four missiles fired from Israeli Apache helicopters at his car, in Gaza City. Ten bystanders are injured.
2003 Israelis Staff Sergeant Yigal Lifshitz, 20, and Staff Sergeant Ofer Sharabi, 21; and Palestinians Radwan Karu, 22, and Bassel Suleiman, 20, who shoot the soldiers at 05:15 and are shot by 05:35, in a Golani training base near enclave settlement Bekaot, West Bank. Nine Israeli soldiers are injured.
2003: 28 children, by pre-dawn fire in boarding school for the deaf in Makhachkala, Russia. Some 100 are injured.
Hoyt in 1991^ 2003 Robert G. Hoyt [< 1991 photo], of a heart attack, founder of The National Catholic Reporter.
      Hoyt was born in Clinton, Iowa, on 30 January 1922. His parents were Guy and Ella Hoyt. Guy Hoyt died when Robert was five years old, and the family moved to Detroit. Robert was educated in Catholic schools until the death of his mother about 1934. Hoyt attended St. Norbert College and graduated with a B.A. in 1942. In his sophomore year, he joined the Norbertine order as a candidate for the priesthood. After graduation, he studied theology and taught high school in Philadelphia. He left the Norbertines in 1942 after one year of theology, having taken only simple vows. He then served in the Army Air Corps for 28 months (1943-1946). He was discharged in Denver, Colorado.
      After an unsuccessful attempt at freelance writing, Hoyt joined the staff of the Denver Register, the flagship of a national Catholic newspaper chain. He worked for the Register until 1949, and married Bernadette Lyon in 1947. Hoyt left Denver to set up a daily Catholic newspaper in Chicago, the Sun Herald. His associates in this effort were Geraldine Carrigan, Norma Krause, and Adolph Schalk. However, Cardinal Stritch refused permission for the proposed newspaper and the group sought out a bishop who would support them elsewhere. Bishop O'Hara of Kansas City was agreeable, and the first issue of the Sun Herald was published on 10 October 1950. Hoyt was its editor and president. The venture was short-lived, and the paper closed in the spring of 1951.
      Hoyt took a job with the Daily News of Independence, Missouri, but left after one year. He taught English and history at Rockhurst High School from 1950 to 1957 in addition to his journalistic activities. In 1957, Hoyt became editor of the Kansas City-St. Joseph diocesan newspaper, which was part of the Register chain. He was assisted by Fr. Vincent Lovett, a diocesan priest. Hoyt and Lovett removed the paper from the Register chain in 1959, turning it into the diocesan Catholic Reporter, which was very successful, and began to draw readership outside the diocese. Hoyt, Lovett, and managing editor Michael Greene began to consider expansion into a national paper.
      In 1964, a group of Kansas City businessmen including Greene, Frank Brennan,and John Fallon suggested to Bishop Charles Helmsing that a lay-operated Catholic national newspaper could be viable. Bishop Helmsing was supportive, and allowed the new National Catholic Reporter to share facilities and staff with the existing diocesan paper. Hoyt became editor of the NCR and the diocesan paper, while Greene assumed the additional responsibility of publisher of NCR.
      The first issue of the NCR was published on 28 October1964. The NCR board of directors gave Hoyt wide editorial discretion, and he used it to the fullest. Hoyt never feared to print articles dissenting from official teaching on such subjects as clerical celibacy and birth control, much to the dismay of Bishop Helmsing.
     In April 1967, NCR obtained, translated and published the secret reports from the advisory commission on birth control appointed by Pope Paul VI. This was international news because the majority report, ultimately rejected by the pope, concluded that the church's condemnation of contraception should be revised.
      Bishop Helmsing soon regretted his decision to back the NCR. In 1966, the NCR moved off diocesan property and Hoyt left the diocesan newspaper. In October 1968, Bishop Helmsing issued an "official condemnation" of the NCR and suggested that the word "Catholic" be removed from the title. The Bishop labeled certain articles as "blasphemous" and "heretical". The NCR board of directors replied that the function of an independent Catholic newspaper was to provide a forum for discussion, not to serve as an official teaching arm of the Church, and therefore declined to alter the paper's name.
      Hoyt left the NCR in 1971. His replacement, Donald Thorman, introduced a less controversial but still liberal editorial policy. Hoyt became a freelance writer, with articles in such publications as Commonweal (of which was Senior Writer from 1988to 2002), Harper’s, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Newsday, The Critic, and America. From 1977 to 1985, Hoyt was associate editor, then editor of Christianity and Crisis, a liberal ecumenical journal published from 1941 to 1993. At one time he was editor of American Report.
     Hoyt was divorced in 1970 and married Mig Boyle. In 1984, he and Ms. Boyle were instrumental in obtaining financing of more than $3 million so that Capitol Hall, on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, a single-room occupancy hotel whose owner planned to convert it into luxury housing, could be renovated as a nonprofit residence for elderly and disabled people in danger of becoming homeless as the neighborhood underwent gentrification.
2002 Dr. Robert E. Rothenberg, 93, US surgeon and the author of more than a dozen popular medical books.
2002 Israelis Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Shlomi Ben Haim, 27, of Kiryat Yam; Border Police Lance Cpl. Keren Franco, 18, of Kiryat Yam; Prison Warrant Officer Shimshon Stelkol, 33, of Kiryat Yam; and Sgt. Michael Weissman, 21, all four from Kiryat Yam; Avinoam Alfia, 26, and Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Nir Danieli, 24, both from Kiryat Ata; Sgt.-Maj.(res.) Ze'ev Hanik, 24, from Karmiel; Border Police Lance Cpl. Noa Shlomo, 18, from Nahariya; and a Hamas suicide bomber, aboard Haifa-Jerusalem express Egged bus No. 960 at 07:15, shortly after its first stop, near Kibbutz Yagur, east of Haifa.
2002 María Teresa Guzmán, in the explosion of the car which she was driving in the evening back to her La Paz, Bolivia, home. Her husband, Jorge Carrasco Jahnsen, director of El Diario, would be arrested, accused of having contracted three criminals for the murder.
^ 2000 Ema Alic, 11, Goran Biscevic, 12, and Haris Balicevac, 12.
3 Kids Go Out to Play...
                                 ... They Die Blasted by a Mine.

     Helpless to save her, NATO peacekeepers and townspeople watched from the edge of a minefield as a dying 11-year-old girl waved and pleaded for hours to be rescued. Ema, and her friends Goran and Haris died today after venturing into the minefield on the outskirts of Sarajevo, casualties of the Bosnian war that ended five years earlier.
      "For two hours, the girl was showing signs of life, waved with her little hand and called for help. Then she went quiet," would say the next day eyewitness Nenad Krestalica, 67, still visibly upset. His wife, Stana, said she was gardening when she heard the explosion.
Mine being defused      "We all started running. We heard a child's voice screaming for help," she said. "We called the police and they came, but nobody could approach the children."
      As the rescue team carried the bodies of the children from the minefield, Ema's father broke into tears, turned around and told his wife: "It's our child," other witnesses recalled. The woman fainted.
      The presence of the minefield was well-known, and signs warned of danger, residents said. Still, the field was not taped off, apparently because of lack of money.
      Dozens of people are killed and injured every month in explosions of some of the millions of land mines strewn across Bosnia. Minefields render large areas along the former front line unusable.
      Residents gathered around the minefield after the explosion Monday, followed by Italian members of the NATO-led peacekeeping force, but they could only watch the tragedy a few hundred meters away.
      Although the experts worked quickly once on the scene, more than 2 1/2 hours elapsed between the time a demining team was notified and the time it reached the victims. By then, all three children were dead.
      "It didn't take us more than half an hour to demine a small path to get to the children," said Zoran Gagula, one of the deminers. "We skipped standard procedures, risked our lives, and still, by the time we got to the children, they were dead." [< photo shows mine being defused near where the children died]
      Standard demining procedures are slow, with experts sometimes taking as much as an hour per square meter to minimize risk, prodding each inch of terrain for explosive devices.
      NATO experts arrived after a team from Norwegian People's Aid and therefore let that squad do the demining, said a NATO spokesman, Maj. Paul Hubbard. "They really did it as quickly as they could," said Hubbard.
      Andja Elek, 60, said she saw the children walking earlier and warned them not to play there because of the mines, "but they obviously didn't listen to me." "The girl was able to lift her head a few times and call for help," she said.
      Demining Bosnia could take decades. Money for the projects is in short supply, as the war fades in people's memories.
      The field was among the 77 areas around Sarajevo slated for demining but where work has been held up for lack of funds. Jusuf Jasarevic, the chief of the regional demining center in Sarajevo, said 500 demining experts are idle in Bosnia because there is no money to pay them. "Some 1818 minefields have been registered only around Sarajevo," he said. "But the public pays attention to the problem only when a tragedy like this occurs."
      The next day, friends and neighbors would pay their respects at the houses of the victims, and death notices for Ema and Goran would be posted by relatives at the school they attended. Goran's shows him smiling above a poignant text:
“Not believing it ourselves, we are informing all good people that,
in his 12th year and in a children's game,
Goran Bisevic died as a victim of a crazy war of adults.”

THE UNITED STATES HAS REFUSED TO SIGN THE INTERNATIONAL TREATY BANNING LAND MINES.

THERE ARE MILLIONS OF MINES LEFT OVER FROM PAST WARS AROUND THE WORLD, WAITING TO KILL AND MAIM.

1992 Three persons by an IRA truck bomb in London's financial district. There are hundreds of millions of dollars of damage.
1991:: 138 die as boat rams a tanker in Livorno, Italy, fog.
^ 1972 Oberdan Sallustro, murdered by kidnappers.
      Italian Fiat executive Oberdan Sallustro is killed by Argentine Communist guerrillas twenty days after he was kidnapped in Buenos Aires. During the '60s and '70s, Argentina was a violent ideological battleground. Communist organizers resisted the oppression of the Fascist dictator Juan Peron. The era was famous for its "desaparecidos," the inexplicable disappearances of Peron's political opponents at the hands of his security forces. Unfortunately, it was not only Peron who was guilty of atrocities. Sallustro was very likely targeted as a member of Fiat because of Peron's strong love for Italy. A symbol of the established power, Sallustro fell victim to a battle over which he had no control. His murder was regarded as a tragedy. Communist revolutionaries tried to claim that his execution was "approved" by the people of Argentina, but the argument was hollow.
1972 7.0 earthquake kills 1/5 of population of Iranian province of Fars
1963:: 129 die as the nuclear-powered submarine USS Thresher fails to surface off Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
1945 Hendrik Nikolaas Werkman, Dutch artist born on 29 April 1882.
^ 1942 The first victims of the Bataan Death March
     The day after the surrender of the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese, the seventy-five thousand American and Filipino troops captured on the Bataan Peninsula begin a forced march to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. During this infamous trek, known as the "Bataan Death March," the prisoners are forced to march eight-five miles in six days with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. By the end of the march, which was punctuated with atrocities by the Japanese guards, over five thousand US nationals and many more Filipinos died.
      The day after Japan bombed the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, the Japanese invasion of the Philippines began. Within a month, the Japanese had captured Manila, the capital of the Philippines, and the US and Filipino defenders of Luzon were forced to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. For the next three months, the combined US-Filipino army, under the command of US General Jonathan Wainwright, held out impressively despite a lack of naval and air support.
      Finally, on 07 April, with his army crippled by starvation and disease, Wainwright began withdrawing as many troops as possible to the island fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay. However, two days later, seventy-five thousand Allied troops were trapped by the Japanese and forced to surrender.
      The next day, 10 April 1942, the Bataan Death March began, resulting in the deaths of over a third of the prisoners. Of those who survived to reach the Japanese prison camp near Cabanatuan, few lived to celebrate US General Douglas MacArthur's liberation of the Philippines in early 1945.
      In the Philippines, homage is paid to the victims of the Bataan Death March every April on Bataan Day, a national holiday that sees large groups of Filipinos solemnly rewalking parts of the death route.
1936 Nancy Titterton, raped and strangled in her upscale home on Beekman Place, New York City. She was a novelist and the wife of NBC executive Lewis Titterton. The perpetrator, John Fiorenza, would be traced, from a foot-long piece of cord used to tie Titterton's hands and a single horsehair found on her bedspread, to the upholstery business where he worked.
+ ZOOM IN +
+ ZOOM IN +Zapata^ 1919 Emiliano Zapata, murdered
      Emiliano Zapata, a leader of Mexico's indigenous people during the Mexican Revolution, was assassinated by a government emissary who had come to Zapata's southern stronghold under the peace negotiations.
      Born on 08 August 1879, Zapata was a tenant farmer of almost pure indigenous descent. He was forced into the Mexican army in 1908 following in ill-fated attempt to recover village lands taken over by a rancher.
      After the Mexican Revolution began in 1910, he raised an army of indigenous people in the southern state of Morelos under the slogan of “¡ Tierra y Libertad !”. Initially allied with Francisco Madero [30 Oct 1873 – 22 Feb 1913], Zapata turned against him in 1911 when the new Mexican ruler failed to carry out his promised agrarian reforms. Zapata called for the return of land to Mexico's indigenous people, and within a few years, controlled all of Morelos.
      Peasants rallied to his support, and Zapata continued to resist the central Mexican government under Madero, then under Victoriano Huerta [23 Dec 1854 – 13 Jan 1916], and then under Venustiano Carranza [29 Dec 1859 – 20 May 1920]. Between 1914 and 1915, Zapata's forces occupied Mexico City three times, but in 1916 he retired to his stronghold in Morelos.
     Zapata created agrarian commissions to distribute the land; he spent much time supervising their work to be sure they showed no favoritism and that the landowners did not corrupt its members. He established a Rural Loan Bank, the country's first agricultural credit organization; he also tried to reorganize the sugar industry of Morelos into cooperatives. In April 1915 the personal representative of US President Woodrow Wilson [28 Dec 1856 – 03 Feb 1924] in Mexico met with Zapata; Zapata asked that Wilson receive his delegation, but Wilson had recognized the Carranza government (the convention's government under Gutiérrez had dispersed).
      Meanwhile, the war continued. Zapata occupied the city of Puebla and won various battles, advised by some professional soldiers who had joined his side. In 1917 Carranza's generals defeated Villa and isolated Zapata. Carranza then called together a constitutional convention but did not invite Zapata; the convention approved and passed a constitution and elected Carranza as president of the republic.
      A new US envoy, William Gates, visited Zapata and then published a series of articles in the United States; he contrasted the order of the Zapata-controlled zone with the chaos of the constitutional zone and said that “the true social revolution can be found among the Zapatistas.” When these articles were read to Zapata, he said, “Now I can die in peace. Finally they have done us justice.”
      Soon afterward General Pablo González, who directed the government operations against Zapata, had Colonel Jesús M. Guajardo [–17 Jul 1920] pretend to want to join the agrarians and contrive a secret meeting with Zapata at the hacienda of Chinameca in Morelos. There, Zapata was ambushed and shot to death by Carrancista soldiers. His body was carried to Cuautla and buried there.
      Zapata's influence has endured long after his death, and his agrarian reform movement, known as zapatismo, remains important to much of Mexico's indigenous population. On 01 January 1994, a guerrilla group calling itself Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional launched a peasant uprising in the southern state of Chiapas.
Emiliano Zapata
1914 Jozef Chelmonski, Polish artist born on 06 November 1849 or 1850.
1911 Samuel Loyd, US recreational mathematician born on 31 January 1841. Loyd produced over 10'000 puzzles, many involving sophisticated mathematical ideas. He also wrote Chess Strategy, a book of problems.
1909 Algernon Charles Swinburne, 72, English poet and critic born on 05 April 1837.
1906 Richard Thomas Moynan, British artist born on 27 April 1856.
1872 John Mix Stanley, US painter and photographer born on 17 (14?) January 1814. . MORE ON STANLEY AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1865 William Frederick Witherington, Britist artist born on 25 May 1785. — links to images.
1840 Alexander Nasmyth, Scottish painter, illustrator, landscape gardener and engineer, born on 09 September 1758. — more with links to images.
1830 Johann-Jakob Biedermann, Swiss painter and engraver born on 07 August 1763. — more
1823 Christian Georg Schütz II, German painter born on 03 September 1758. — more with link to an image.
1813 Josegh-Louis Lagrange, French mathematician born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia on 25 January 1736. He excelled in all fields of analysis and number theory and analytical and celestial mechanics.
1808 Jean-Laurent Mosnier, French painter born in 1743. MORE ON MOSNIER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
^ 1794 (21 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
par le tribunal criminel du département des Bouches du Rhône:
BLANCHARD François, marchand, domicilié à Marseille, département des Bouches du Rhône, comme fédéraliste
CAUSSIGNY Joseph Louis, (dit Valbelle), ex noble, domicilié à Aix, département des Bouches du Rhône, comme contre-révolutionnaire
LAS Jean Baptiste, commis aux écritures, domicilié à Port-la-Montagne, département du Var, comme fonctionnaire public contre-révolutionnaire.
LAVIT Jean Joseph, apothicaire, domicilié à Marseille, département des Bouches du Rhône
RAOULX Jean Claude, cordonnier, propriétaire, domicilié à Aix, département des Bouches du Rhône, comme fonctionnaire public contre-révolutionnaire.
Comme brigands de la Vendée, domiciliés dans le département d'Ille-et-Vilaine, par la commission militaire de Port-Malo:
BERRIER René, (dit Fleur-d'Epine), tisserand, domicilié à Dol
KREYEL Michel, déserteur des troupes impériales engagé au deuxième régiment des hussards français, domicilié à Rennes
LEMARIE Guillaume domicilié à Montdal
MINIAC (dit Hautbois), domicilié à Dol
MONNIER Jean, domicilié à Rennes
Ailleurs:
GUYARD Jean Baptiste, ex procureur au ci-devant parlement de Dijon, domicilié à Dijon, département de la Côte-d'Or, condamné à mort, le 21 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
RICHARD Frédéric Henri, ex président au parlement de Dijon, domicilié à Dijon, département de la Côte-d’Or, condamné à mort, le 21 germinal an 2, par le tribunal.
MAYEUX Marie Eléonore Joseph, âgée de 58 ans, née à St Pol, veuve de Thellier Guillaume François Bernard, condamnée à mort à Arras le 21 germinal an II
THELLIER Marie Joseph Bernardine Adélaïde, âgée de 32 ans, née à St Pol, fille de feu Guillaume François Bernard et de Mayeux Marie Eléonore Joseph, condamnée à mort à Arras le 21 germinal an II
ROUGNON Jean Charpentier, domicilié à Mont-le-Bon, département du Doubs, condamné à mort, le 21 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme émigré.
SABATIER Louis, chasseur au 7e bataillon d’infanterie, domicilié à Livron, département de la Drôme, condamné à mort comme émigré, le 21 germinal an 3, par la commission militaire d’Auxonne.
THIERRIAT Jean Baptiste, ex chanoine, domicilié à Châlons département de Saône et Loire, condamné à mort le 21 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme réfractaire à la loi.
1794 BOUTILLIER DE SAINT-ANDRÉ Marin Jacques, condamné à mort, selon le jugement suivant:       ^top^
Jugement de Marin-Jacques BOUTILLIER DE SAINT-ANDRÉ
AU NOM DU PEUPLE FRANÇAIS, Le vingt-et-un germinal de l'an deux de la République française, une et indivisible,
      Les juges formant le tribunal révolutionnaire du département de la Loire-Inférieure, séant à Nantes, après avoir entendu Lecoq, accusateur public, dans son accusation contre Jacques Boutillier, dit Saint-André, ci-devant sénéchal de la Baronnie de Mortagne et maire audit lieu, aussi ci-devant président du tribunal du district de Cholet, âgé de quante-huit ans, natif et domicilié de Mortagne, marié, ayant quatre enfants, présent. Lecture faite, en présence des témoins ci-après, de la loi du cinq pluviôse relative aux faux témoins;
      Les témoins assermentés, dans leurs dépositions orales, reçues en présence de l'accusé, ce dernier dans ses interrogatoires et Lecoq, accusateur public, dans ses conclusions, chaque juge ayant donné son avis séparément et à haute voix, le président a prononcé le jugement suivant :
      Le tribunal, considérant qu'il est appris par les dépositions des témoins, aveux et reconnaissance de l'accusé (*), que ce dernier a toujours été l'ennemi déclaré de la Constitution; qu'il a fait volontairement partie des révoltes et émeutes contre-révolutionnaires qui ont éclaté dans les villes de Cholet, Mortagne et dans toute la Vendée; qu'il a été membre du comité de brigands établis à Mortagne; l'a déclaré et convaincu des dits faits et, le regardant comme chef et instigateur, le condamne à la peine de mort, conformément aux lois du 19 mars, 10 mai et 5 juillet 1793, et d'après l'article 7 de ladite loi du 19 mars, a déclaré ses biens confisqués au profit de la République, ordonne pour la conservation desdits biens qu'une expédition du présent jugement sera adressée au département, lequel jugement sera exécuté de jour et dans les vingt-quatre heures, imprmé et affiché partout où besoin sera.
      Fait en l'audience publique où présidait Lepeley et assistaient Le Normand, Leroux et Pellerin, juges du tribunal qui ont signé la minute du présent. Lecoq, accusateur public.

(* Note: absolument faux que Boutillier ait fait quoiqu'aveu que ce soit)
Boutillier était avocat au Parlement, sénéchal de Mortagne, maire de cette ville en 1790, président du tribunal du district de Cholet, né à Mortagne le 1er septembre 1746, marié à Mortagne, le 17 juillet 1780, à sa cousine germaine, Marie-Renée BOUTILLIER DE LA CHÈZE, née le 28 août 1752, décédée dans la prison au château d'Angers, le 12 mars 1794. Fils de BOUTILLIER Jacques Grégoire sieur du Coin et de Marie SOULARD DE LA ROCHE. Il sera exécuté à Nantes le 11 avril 1794.
1793 LUTTIER Nicolas, canonnier, ancien grenadier au régiment du roi, né à St Dizier, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 10 avril 1793, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire, ayant dit qu'il avait une ame qu'elle était pour son roi, qu'il l'avait payé, qu'il était mort, mais qu'il existait encore et qu'il reparaîtrait bientôt; que la France était perdue s'il n'y avait pas de roi, parce que la France était trop grande pour une république.
^ 1585 Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (Buoncompagni) on 07 June 1502 in Bologna, pope elected on 14 May 1572, succeeding Saint Pius V. He promulgated the Gregorian calendar and founded a system of seminaries.
      Educated at the University of Bologna, he taught jurisprudence there from 1531 to 1539. Because of his expertise in canon law, he was sent by Pope Pius IV in 1561 to the Council of Trent, where he remained until 1563. Pius IV made him cardinal in 1565 and emissary to Spain.
      After being elected pope, Gregory XIII began promoting church reform and the Counter-Reformation by pledging to execute the reforming decrees of the Council of Trent. He appointed committees of cardinals to investigate abuses among ecclesiastics and to draft the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. To carry out the council's decree ordering the establishment of seminaries, he founded several colleges and seminaries, including the Gregorian University, and delegated their direction to the Jesuits, whom he patronized. These schools trained missionaries for those countries that had established Protestant state religions.
      Gregory XIII is often criticized (unjustly) for backing the Irish rebels against the bloody anti-Catholic actions of Queen Elizabeth I of England and for reacting to the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day (24 Aug 1572) with a Te Deum (when he was probably not informed of the massacre, but, falsely, only of the quelling of a Protestant plot plot to murder the French royal family).
      Aided chiefly by the Neapolitan astronomer and physician Luigi Lilio Ghiraldi [–1576] and the German Jesuit and mathematician Christopher Clavius, Gregory XIII, by the bull Inter Gravissimus (24 February 1582), corrected the errors of the Julian calendar created by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, so that the day after 04 October 1582 (Julian) was 15 October 1582 (Gregorian) and the years divisible by 100 were no longer leap years, except those divisible by 400. Within a year the change had been adopted by the Italian states, Portugal, Spain, and the German Catholic states. Gradually, other nations adopted the Gregorian calendar: most of the Protestant German states on 01 March 1700; England and its colonies on 14 September 1752; Sweden (after years of confusion, including having its own 30 February 1712) on 01 March 1753; Japan on 01 January 1873; China in 1912; the Soviet Union on 14 February 1918; Greece on 23 March 1924; Turkey on 01 January 1927. (See Calendars). The Orthodox Church's liturgical calendar remains Julian. Muslim countries tend to retain calendars based on Islam.
      Gregory XIII's building program, which included the Quirinal Palace in Rome, together with his political ventures, exhausted the papal treasury, causing serious repercussions in the Papal States.
1028 Saint Fulbert, bishop of Chartres, born in 960. He developed the cathedral school there into one of Europe's chief centers of learning. Educated at Reims under Gerbert (who, on 09 April 999, became the first French Pope, Sylvester II) [945 – 12 May 1003], Fulbert was appointed chancellor of the cathedral of Chartres in 990, when he began his work on behalf of the school. His teaching gained him a reputation for erudition and determination in pursuit of the truth. As bishop of Chartres from 1006, Fulbert was sent on diplomatic missions to Rome by King Robert II [970 – 20 July 1031], whom he supported in his conflict with the nobles of France and with William V of Aquitaine. In 1020 Fulbert began to rebuild the burned cathedral of Chartres, but he died before the work was completed.
 
< 09 Apr 11 Apr >
^  Births which occurred on a 10 April:

1984 Zoe, Melbourne, Australia, first frozen-embryo child
1941 Paul Edward Theroux (author: The Mosquito Coast, Millroy the Magician)
^ 1933 Civilian Conservation Corps is created
      The Civilian Conservation Corps, a tool for employing young men and improving the government's vast holdings of western land, is created in Washington DC. One of the dozens of New Deal programs created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to fight the Great Depression, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was primarily designed to put thousands of unemployed young men to work on useful public projects. Roosevelt put the program under the direction of his Secretary of Interior, Harold Ickes, who became an enthusiastic supporter. Since the vast majority of federal public land was in the West, Ickes created most of his CCC projects in that region. The young men who joined, however, came from all over the nation. It was the first time many had left their homes in the densely populated eastern states. Many of them later remembered their time spent in the wide-open spaces of the West with affection, and many later returned to tour the region or become residents. Participation in the CCC was voluntary, although the various camps often adopted military-like rules of discipline and protocol. Ickes put his CCC "armies" to work on a wide array of conservation projects. Some young men spent their days planting trees in national forests, while others built roads and dams, fought forest fires, or made improvements in national parks like Glacier and Yellowstone. In exchange for their labor, the CCC men received a minimal wage, part of which was automatically sent to their families back home. The program thus provided employment for unskilled young men while simultaneously pumping federal money into the depressed national economy. The training provided by the CCC proved particularly valuable to the 77'000 Indian and Hispanic youths who worked in the Southwest. Many of these young men left the CCC able to drive and repair large trucks and tractors, skills that proved highly employable during WWII. Likewise, many former CCC enlistees found the transition to life as a WWII soldier eased by their previous experience with military-like discipline. Despite the rigid regimentation and low pay, the CCC remained popular with both enlistees and the public throughout its history. By the time Congress abolished the agency in 1942, more than two million men had served, making the CCC one of the most successful government training and employment projects in history.
1925 The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is published.
1911 Maurice Schumann French statesman/writer
^ 1906 O. Henry's second short story collection is published.
      O. Henry's second short story collection, The Four Million, is published. The collection includes one of his most beloved stories, The Gift of the Magi (which first appeared separately on 10 December 1905), about a poor but devoted couple who each sacrifice their most valuable possession to buy a gift for the other.
      O. Henry was the pen name adopted by William Sydney Porter, born on 11 September 1862. Porter began writing in the late 1880s but applied himself to it seriously in 1898, when he was jailed for embezzling from a bank in Austin, Texas. Porter, who came from a poor family in Texas, was married and had a daughter. He fled to Honduras to avoid imprisonment but returned to the US when his wife was diagnosed with a terminal illness. He spent three years in jail and wrote tales of adventure, some set in Honduras, to support his daughter, Margaret.
      After his release, he moved to New York and was hired by New York World to write one story a week. He kept the job from 1903 to 1906. In 1904, his first story collection, Cabbages and Kings, was published. Additional collections appeared in 1906 and 1907, and two collections a year were published from 1908 until his death, in 1910. He specialized in closely observed tales of everyday people, often ending with an unexpected twist. Despite the enormous popularity of the nearly 300 stories he published, he led a difficult life, struggling with financial problems and alcoholism until his death.
O. HENRY ONLINE:
  • Cabbages and Kings
  • The Four Million
  • The Gentle Grafter
  • The Gift of the Magi
  • The Heart of the West
  • Options
  • Options
  • Roads of Destiny
  • Rolling Stones
  • Sixes and Sevens
  • Strictly Business
  • The Trimmed Lamp
  • The Voice of the City
  • Waifs and Strays: Twelve Stories
  • Whirligigs
  • Selected short stories
  • 1903 Clare Boothe Luce former US ambassador to Vatican.
    1894 Ben Nicholson, British painter and sculptor who died on 06 February 1982. — more with links to images.
    1885 Bernard Gimbel (merchant: Gimbel's Department Stores)
    1885 Georges Valmier, French artist who died on 25 March 1937.
    1882 Fannie Coralie “Frances” Perkins, 1st woman Cabinet member in the US (Secretary of Labor 1933-1945). She died on 14 May 1956.
    1881 William John Leech, Irish artist who died in 1968.
    1880 Hans Purrmann, German painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 17 April 1966. — more
    1877 Alfred Paul Kubin, Czech Expressionist illustrator who died on 20 August 1959. MORE ON KUBIN AT ART “4” AUGUST with links to images.
    1870 (Julian date:: go to Gregorian date 22 April) Vladimir Iliich Ulyanov “Lenin”.
    1866 American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) forms.
    1864 Guido Sigriste
    , Swiss artist who died in March 1915.
    ^ 1857 Henry Ernest Dudeney, mathematician, puzzle maker. He died on 24 April 1930.
    Some Dudeney puzzles (solutions will be given in coming days):
    The Damaged Engine
          We were going by train from Anglechester to Clinkerton, and an hour after starting an accident happened to the engine. We had to continue the journey at three-fifths of the former speed. It made us two hours late at Clinkerton, and the driver said that, if only the accident had happened fifty miles farther on, the train would have arrived forty minutes sooner. Can you tell from that statement just how far it is from Anglechester to Clinkerton?
    The Man and the Dog
          "Yes, when I take my dog for a walk," said a mathematical friend, "he frequently supplies me with some interesting puzzle to solve. One day, for example, he waited, as I left the door, to see which way I should go, and when I started he raced along to the end of the road, immediately returning to me; again racing to the end of the road and again returning. He did this four times in all, at a uniform speed, and then ran at my side the remaining distance, which according to my paces measured 27 yards. I afterwards measured the distance from my door to the end of the road and found it to be 625 feet. Now, if I walk 4 miles per hour, what is the speed of my dog when racing to and fro?" (1 yard = 3 feet, 1 mile = 1760 yards).
    Crossing the River
          During the Turkish stampede in Thrace, a small detachment found itself confronted by a wide and deep river. However, they discovered a boat in which two children were rowing about. It was so small that it would only carry the two children, or one grown person. How did the officer get himself and his 357 soldiers across the river and leave the two children finally in joint possession of their boat (with no one getting wet)? And how many times need the boat pass from shore to shore?
    1855 Arthur Melville, Scottish painter who died on 28 August 1904. MORE ON MELVILLE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1849 Safety pin patented by Walter Hunt (NYC) sold rights for $100
    1847 Joseph Pulitzer Hungary, publisher (St Louis Post-Dispatch, NY World): namesake of the Pulitzer Prize which he founded in 1917.
    ^ 1838 Frank Baldwin, inventor of the arithmometer.
          In 1875, Baldwin patented the arithmometer, a desktop calculating machine. His later inventions became standard office equipment until the advent of the computer age. In 1912, working with business partner Jay Monroe, Baldwin perfected a data processing machine called the Monroe calculator, which was patented in 1913. The Monroe calculator was a popular office tool until personal computers entered the office. Baldwin served as research director of the Monroe Calculating Machine Company until he died on 08 April 1925.
    1829 William Booth, founded Salvation Army
    1797 Claude Ambroise Seurat, Troyes, France, (World's skinniest man)
    1794 Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, opened Japan.
    1758 Jean-Joseph-Xavier Bidault, French painter who died on 20 October 1846.
    1756 John West, Scottish mathematician who died on 17 October 1817.
    1731 Louis-Joseph Watteau “de Lille”, French painter who died on 27 August 1798. MORE ON WATTEAU AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1651 Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus, German scientist and mathematician who died on 11 October 1708. He worked on the solution of equations and the study of curves. He is best known for the transformation which removes the term of degree n-1 from an equation of degree n.
    1583 Hugo Grotius Holland, jurist, father of international law
    1512 James I, king of Scotland (1513-1542)
    1492 Vincenzo di Benedetto Tamagni, Italian painter who died in 1530. — more
     
    Religious Observances Luth : Mikael Agricola, Bishop of Turku
    Easter Sunday in 1887, 1898, 1955, 1966, 1977, 2039, 2050, 2061, 2072, 2107, 2118.

    Good Friday in 1903, 1914, 1925, 1936, 1998, 2009, 2020, 2093, 2099.
    Holy Thursday in 1879, 1884, 1941, 1952, 2031, 2036, 2104. click
    click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “A wise man can see more from the bottom of a well than a fool can see from a mountaintop.”
    “A fool can see more frogs at the bottom of a well than a wise man can see from a mountaintop.”
    “During the daytime a fool can see more stars from the bottom of a well than a wise man can see from a mountaintop.”
    “A frog can see more fools at the bottom of a well than wise men on a mountaintop.”
    “More fools can be seen on a mountain top than wise men at the bottom of a well.”
    “A wise woman can see that a wise man, who goes to the the bottom of a well to see more, is a fool.”
    “Nobody ever died of laughter.” —
    Max Beerbohm, English critic and essayist [24 Aug 1872 – 20 May 1956].
    {except of laughing at an irascible tyrant}
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    updated Friday 10-Apr-2009 13:59 UT
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