• Robert E. Lee surrenders... • Sacco and Vanzetti condemned to death... • Five beatifications... • Germany invades Norway and Denmark... • US surrender in Bataan... • La France prend le Mississippi... • Martin Luther King buried... • Nazis hang theologian Bonhoeffer... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Renault stays nationalized... • George Shultz condemns Soviet spying... • Twain becomes steamboat pilot... • Award for inventor of the mouse... • Computer pioneer is born... • Baudelaire is born... • Rabelais dies... • Apple hires Pepsi's Sculley... • Domain name registration illegally taxed... • Chicago 8 plead not guilty... • Tariff reduction...
a 09 April:
2003 The threat of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) has altered religious practices in Singapore. Reuters reports that Muslims who have SARS symptoms have been excused from Friday prayers by the local Islamic council; and that Catholic Archbishop Nicholas Chia has ordered general absolution to replace individual confessions, and the option of receiving the Eucharist on the tongue to be suspended, it is to be given only in the hand.
2001 Sudan orders Christian
rally out of central Khartoum.
On 26 April 2001, Amnesty International would take note of the Sudanese presidential decree pardoning 47 persons arrested over the recent Easter and called for an impartial and independent investigation into the shootings, beatings and arrests by the Sudanese riot police on 11 April 2001. "Amnesty International is concerned that at least nine people, including children, were flogged as punishment, after being convicted with 47 others for causing 'public disturbance' in an unfair and summary trial." On 11 April, Christians gathered at All Saints Cathedral in Khartoum for prayers and to discuss the cancellation of a religious rally organized by church authorities on 10 April. Some students, angry at the cancellation, reportedly went outside the church with stones. When the riot police intervened, those outside the church ran inside. According to witnesses, police threw teargas inside the church making it difficult for people to breathe, and fired bullets at the crowd injuring many. Police then entered the church and indiscriminately arrested at least 56 people. One person, Edward Jemi, lost a hand from bullet wounds. At least two others were hit by bullets. It is reported that some, including women, were beaten and that one person was stabbed by the riot police. The 56 people arrested were brought the next day to a criminal court and charged with causing public disturbance.The judge refused to allow their lawyer to defend them. The trial lasted less than an hour. Six women and three children were sentenced to 15 and 20 lashes respectively and were flogged on 12 April and then released. The remaining 47 were sentenced to 20 lashes each and from seven to 20 days in prison.
Other people present in the cathedral, including Church officials and a journalist, Alfred Taban, were also arrested. They were later released, apart from Alfred Taban, who was held incommunicado without charge until he was released on 17 April without explanation. "The government should conduct an impartial and independent investigation into the incident", Amnesty International said."And those responsible for unlawful shootings should be brought promptly to justice. All people detained by the police should be given the opportunity of fair trial including being defended by a lawyer of their choice." The human rights organization further urged the Sudanese government to take immediate action to ensure that its security forces comply with international standards, especially the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, thereby protecting the life and safety of civilians. The organization is also calling on the Sudanese authorities to refrain from inflicting torture such as flogging as punishment, especially for children. The Sudanese authorities should guarantee the right to free assembly and freedom of religious belief and practice.
Church authorities in Khartoum had planned events for Easter and had invited a German evangelist to address a rally on 10 April in Green Square in central Khartoum, which they had booked. After threats by Islamic groups to disrupt the celebrations, the Sudanese authorities ordered the church authorities on 09 April to move the event to Haj Yusif in the outskirts of Khartoum. Because of the short notice, people turned up on 10 April in Green Square. Clashes ensued with the police. It is alleged that the police threw tear gas and shot at people. At least 50 people were arrested and later released. Clashes were also reported on the same day in Haj Yusif. Following these incidents, the church authorities decided to cancel the event and were discussing their decision with the Christian community the day after in All Saints Cathedral, when they were disrupted by the police. The use of excessive force by the Sudanese security forces has been reported several times in the past, as well as complaints by the Christian community of harassment and restriction of their right to freedom of religion.
2000 Five beatifications
1) Mariam Theresia Chiramel Mankidiyan (1876-1926), born in the state of Kerala in 1876. She was a mystic famous for her visions and religious ecstasies, who underwent numerous exorcisms. She spent her life tending to the poorest of the poor. She founded the Congregation of the Holy Family.
2) Mary Elisabeth Hesselblad (1870-1957), born in Sweden, emigrated to the United States when she was 18 and worked as a nurse at Roosevelt Hospital in New York from 1888 to 1904. A Lutheran, she converted to Catholicism in 1902 and two years later became a nun. She returned to Sweden in 1923 and established the Order of St. Bridget. During World War II, she gave refuge to many Jews and others persecuted by the Nazis.
2) Francis Xavier Seelos (1819-1867), born in Bavaria, emigrated to the United States, was ordained a priest in Baltimore in 1844. He began his career ministering to German immigrants in Pittsburgh. Seelos was known for his humility he once refused appointment as a bishop. During the US Civil War, Seelos went to Washington to lobby to keep his seminary students from being sent to the front.
1) Mariano de Jesús Euse-Hoyos (1845-1926), a Colombian priest ordained in Medellin in 1869. He spent his life ministering to peasants in Colombia.
3) Anna Rosa Gattorno (1831-1900), born in Genoa she became a nun after she was widowed at age 27. She founded the missionary Institute of the Daughters of St. Anne in 1866.
Pope John Paul II, 79, has been criticized by some Catholic theologians for the relaxed requirements he has applied to his beatifications and canonizations 1235 as of this date more than any earlier pope. Nearly 2000 more cases were pending on this date.
| 2000 Eduard Shevardnadze is re-elected president of
the republic of Georgia in the Caucasus.
2000 Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori falls just short of the majority needed to avoid a runoff for an unprecedented third term.
1994 The Saudi government revokes Osama bin Laden's citizenship and moves to freeze his assets in Saudi Arabia because of his support for Muslim fundamentalist movements.
1992 Captured former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega [11 Feb 1938~] is convicted in Miami on 8 of 10 charges of racketeering, money laundering and drug trafficking. Noriega, who was the commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces since 1983, became a one-time operative for the CIA. Involved in several illegal activities, including drug trafficking and selling US secrets to Cuba, Noriega refused to step down from office after being pressured by US officials. He was captured by US troops who had been sent to Panama City on the pretext of the murder of a US Marine. Noriega would be sentenced to 40 years in prison. It was the first time that a US jury convicted a foreign ruler on criminal charges.
1992 Sali Berisha [15 Oct 1944~] becomes president of Albania. —(081126)
1991 Date of Microsoft MS DOS 5.0
1991 The Pulitzer Prize for fiction is awarded to John Updike for "Rabbit at Rest"; the drama prize goes to Neil Simon for Lost in Yonkers. In journalism, The Des Moines Register receives the gold medal for public service for its series about rape victim Nancy Ziegenmeyer, who'd allowed her name and pictures to be used.
1991 Georgia SSR votes to seceede from the USSR.
1988 US imposes economic sanctions on Panama.
1973 Otto Kerner, former governor of Illinois, convicted for his role in an illegal racetrack scheme
| 1968 Ralph Abernathy is elected to head Southern Christian
1952 Popular uprising in Bolivia.
| 1947 The US Atomic Energy Commission is formed.
1944 Pius XII issued the encyclical Orientalis ecclesiae decus, which seeks to foster closer relations between Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Uniat churches.
1941 Among the troops of Nazi Germany, which had invaded Yugoslavia on 06 April 1941, the armored group of general Paul Ludwig von Kleist [08 Aug 1881 – Oct 1954] takes Niš.
1941 By executive agreement with the Danish government-in-exile US President Roosevelt places Greenland under US protection.
1917 Battle of Arras begins.
1917 Vimy Ridge, France, is stormed by Canadian troops.
1916 The German army starts its third offensive during the Battle of Verdun.
1914 First full color film shown The World, The Flesh and the Devil (London)
1869 Hudson Bay Company cedes its territory to Canada.
1867 The US Senate ratifies by one vote 1867 the treaty with Russia that purchases the territory of Alaska by one vote.
1866 Civil Rights Bill passes over President Andrew Johnson's veto
1865 Federals capture Ft Blakely, Alabama
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
1816 The African Methodist Episcopal Church is organized at a general convention in Philadelphia. The following day, Richard Allen, 56, is elected the new denomination's first bishop.
1787 French explorer La Pérouse [22 Aug 1741 – 1788] leaves Manila to begin to exploring the Asian coast, with the ships L'Astrolabe and La Boussole, in command of which he had sailed from France on 01 August 1785.
1770 Captain James Cook discovers Botany Bay (Australia)
1388 Battle of Noefels; Glarius Swiss defeat Habsburg (Austrian) army.
1241 Battle of Liegnitz Mongol armies defeat Poles and Germans.
0999 Sylvester II (Gerbert of Aurillac) consecrated as first French Pope
2008 Brian Thorp [30 Jan 1931–], English Mill Hill Missionary brother murdered late at night in Lamu Parish, in the Archdiocese of Mombasa at the Indian ocean coast of Kenya.. He was born at Yorkshire Bridge in Bamford, Derbyshire, England, the fourth of five sons of Clement and Mary Thorp. He attended St Michael's Primary School at Hathersage, Derbyshire, but left school when he was 14 to work as an apprentice carpenter until he was 21. He then went on to do two years of national service with the Royal Air Force as an administration orderly. He spent the next four years working in construction sites around the country. When his parents retired in 1958, he went with them to live and work in Brighton. After the death of his youngest brother in 1967, Brian Thorp decided to spend a year to reflect on his future. It was in 1968 when he decided to join the Brothers Programme of the Mill Hill Missionaries. He made his Temporary Vows on 29 June 1970, and his Perpetual Vows on 29 June 1972 at Courtfield. Brother Thorp's first appointment was to Basankusu, Dem. Rep. Congo. He arrived there in April 1973 and embarked on many building projects until he was withdrawn on 14 June 1976 and appointed to the British Region. His next missionary appointment was to Kenya and he arrived in Kisumu in February 1982. He left temporarily for Jinja, Uganda in July 1991. He eventually returned to Kenya in September 1993 to work in Bungoma Diocese. He was a Chapter Delegate in 1994. On 13 October 1997, Brother Thorp was appointed to the Mill Hill House in Jinja, Uganda. In 1999, he returned to Kenya, and was appointed to Lamu Island where he renovated the parish buildings. —(080412)
2005 A Frenchman, dies late in the evening from injuries sustained in the 07 April 2005 terrorist bombing next to the Khan al-Khalili bazar in the historic center of Cairo, Egypt.
2003 Eleven civilians of the Akhmedzai tribe, in a house in Shkin, Afghanistan, hit by a 450-kg laser-[mis]guided bomb from a US plane, which was intended for one of two groups of some 8 rebels each, who had attacked an Afghan government-army checkpoint; presumably they were coming from just across the border in Pakistan.
2003 James Salisbury, 51, of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), in Shenzhen, China. Salisbury, a Mormon, was a US teacher of English at a polytechnic institute there. Probably already dead, he is sent to nearby Hong Kong, together with his son, Mickey Salisbury, 6, who has what is probably ordinary flu. His mother and 5-year-old triplet sisters had not come to China but stayed home in Orem, Utah. James Salibury also had four children from a previous marriage.
2002 Patrick Holey, suicide by swallowing painkillers, together with his wife Jennifer Holey, 19 and pregnant, who survives. The two had been accused of an 01 April sex crime at their home against a 14-year-old girl. On 25 April 2002, Jennifer Holey is charged with first-degree criminal sexual conduct for aiding her husband in the assault. Patrick Holey's mother, Kathleen Holey, faces two charges of assisted suicide.
2002 Five neighbors and Edward Lutes, who murders them and then kills himself. Lutes was a 15-year police veteran of Seaside Heights, New Jersey, where he was a senior member of the local SWAT team. Armed with several weapons, Lutes kills three men and two women in two homes close to his own in Dover Township near Toms River NJ sometime after 21:20 He then drives about 30 km south to Barnegat where he shoot three times Seaside Heights police chief James Costello. Costello is hospitalized in stable condition. Lutes' body would be discovered the next morning in a parked car near Barnegat.
2002:: 13 Israeli reserve soldiers: Captain Ya'akov Azulai, 30, from Migdal Ha'emek; First Lieutenant Dror Bar, 28, from Kibbutz Einat; First Lieutenant Yoel Eyal, 28, from Be'er Sheva; First Sergeant Major Yoram Levy, 33, from Elad; First Sergeant Major Tiran Arazi, 33, from Hadera; First Sergeant Major Avner Yaskov, 34, from Be'er Sheva; Sergeant Major Menashe Hava, 23, from Kfar Sava; Sergeant Major Eyal Zimmerman, 22, from Ra'anana, and Major Oded Golomb, 32, Beit Yehoshua. and four others, at about 08:00 while attacking the Palestinian Jenin refugee camp. Company commander reserve Major Oded Golomb, 32, of Kibbutz Nir David, had led his men through a number of Palestinian houses, searching for wanted men. He then takes his men into a narrow courtyard between two houses. A suicide bomber runs toward them, blowing himself up as he approached. At the same time, a series of land mines explode, and gunfire comes from several houses in the area. Everyone in the force is hit. A support group of soldiers, hearing the explosions and the shooting, runs in to help, but as soon as they enter the area, they too come under heavy fire. The deputy company commander and some of his men are killed.. Seven Israeli soldiers are wounded, one of them critically.
2002 Israeli Major Asaf Asulin, 30, from Tel Aviv, in attack on Nablus, probably by friendly fire.
2002 Israeli Staff Sergeant Gedalyahu Malik, 21, from Jerusalem, by an explosive charge thrown at his patrol, in Jenin, West Bank. 12 Israeli soldiers are wounded.
2002 Three Palestinians, including Shahin Mahmoud and Omran Flifel, during Israeli attack, supported by tanks and helicopters, on Dura, south of Hebron. Flifel, a cab driver, was killed while he was driving. Israeli Lt. Dotan Nahtomi, 22, of Kibbutz Tzuba, is wounded and would die on 12 April 2002.
1998 More than 150 Muslims, in stampede in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, on last day of the haj pilgrimage.
1972 James F. Byrnes, born on 02 May 1879, US politician, US representative (1911-1925) and senator (1931-1941) from South Carolina, Supreme Court justice, Director of Economic Stabilization, Director of the Office of War Mobilization, Secretary of State (1945-1947), Governor of South Carolina (1951-1955).
1961 King Zog of Albania, 65
1959 Frank Lloyd Wright, 89, US architect.
1953 Hans Reichenbach, German US mathematician born on 26 September 1891. Author of Elements of Symbolic Logic (1947), and The Rise of Scientific Philosophy (1951).
1947:: 169 persons by tornadoes in Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas.
1914 Eben Sumner Draper, born on 17 June 1858, he was Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts in 1906-1909 and Governor of Massachusetts in 1909-1911.
1904 Queen Isabella II, 73, Queen of Spain (1833-68)
1895 Gunnar-Fredrik Berndtson, Swedish French artist born on 24 October 1854.
1882 Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti, English Pre-Raphaelite poet and painter born on 12 May 1828. MORE ON ROSSETTI AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1858 Joseph Karl Stieler, German artist born on 01 November 1781. MORE ON STIELER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1852 Antoine Joseph Michel Romagnesi, French artist born in 1782.
1839 Jean-Georges Hirn, French artist born on 15 December 1777.
1837 Domenico Quaglio, German painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 01 January 1787, of a family of Italian origin. — more
1829 Joseph-François Ducq, French artist born on 10 September 1762.
1807 John Opie, English painter born in May 1761. MORE ON OPIE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1804 Jacques Necker financier/statesman
1626 Francis Bacon Viscount St Albans, English philosopher, statesman, essayist, born on 22 January 1561. BACON ONLINE: Novum Organum Historia Regni Henrici Septimi Regis Angliæ Sermones Fideles The Advancement of Learning The Advancement of Learning The Essayes or Counsels, Civill and Morall The Essays New Atlantis New Atlantis.
1588 Paolo Caliari Veronese, Venetian painter born in Verona in 1528. MORE ON VERONESE AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1483 king of England
0715 Pope Constantine
2004 Jacob Otten, Joshua Otten, Tyler Otten, Isabella Otten, Madison Otten, and Rileigh Otten, 6 weeks premature, to Tina Otten, 29, and her husband Ron Otten, 33, of Granite City, Illinois. The three boys and three girls were conceived with the help of the injection of gonadotropins (a fertility drug), as were their sisters Hannah Otten, 4, and Abigail Otten, 2. Ron Otten is an assembler at a Ford plant.
1931 Heisuke Hironaka, Japanese mathematician. He worked on algebraic varieties.
1908 Victor Vasarely, Hungarian French Abstract painter, specialized in Optical Art, who died in 1997. MORE ON VASARELY AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1905 J William Fulbright (Sen-D-Ark)
1878 Marcel Grossmann, Hungarian Swiss mathematician who died on 07 September 1936..
1872 Léon Blum statesman
1869 Élie Joseph Cartan, French mathematician who died on 06 May 1951. He worked on continuous groups, Lie algebras, differential equations and geometry. His work achieves a synthesis between these areas. He is one of the most important mathematicians of the first half of the 20th century.
1835 Léopold-Louis-Philippe-Marie-Victor, Léopold II king of the Belgians from the death of his father Léopold I (16 Dec 1790 10 Dec 1865) to his own death on 17 Dec 1909. He led the first European efforts to develop the Congo Basin, making himself ruler of the État Indépendant du Congo in 1885 with a lucrative wild rubber production. But the mistreatment of the natives prompted the UK and the US to pressure Belgium to annex the Congo, which it did in November 1908.
1835 Willem Karel Nakken, Dutch British artist who died on 04 January 1926.
1834 Edmond Laguerre, French mathematician who died on 14 August 1886. He studied approximation methods and is best remembered for the special functions: the Laguerre polynomials.
1824 John George Naish, British artist who died in 1905.
1813 Robert Richard Anstice, English mathematician who died on 17 December 1853.
1813 Jan Michiel Ruyten, Belgian artist who died on 12 November 1881.
1791 Georges Peacock, English mathematician who died on 08 November 1858. In 1830 he published Treatise on Algebra which attempted to give algebra a logical treatment comparable to Euclid's Elements.
1656 Francesco Trevisani, cavaliere romano, Italian Rococo painter who died on 30 July 1746. MORE ON TREVISANI AT ART 4 JULY with links to images.
1652 Jean Le Fèvre, French mathematician and astronomer who died in 1706.
1458 Camilla “Battista” Varano [–31 May 1524], . Catholic saint canonized on 17 October. (more to come) —(100220)
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