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Events, deaths, births, of APR 09
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[For Apr 09 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Apr 191700s: Apr 201800s: Apr 211900~2099: Apr 22]
Robert E. Lee surrenders... • Sacco and Vanzetti condemned to death... • Five beatifications... • Germany invades Norway and Denmark... • US surrender in Bataan... • La France prend le Mississippi... • Martin Luther King buried... • Nazis hang theologian Bonhoeffer... • Guillotinés par la Révolution... • Renault stays nationalized... • George Shultz condemns Soviet spying... • Twain becomes steamboat pilot... • Award for inventor of the mouse... • Computer pioneer is born... • Baudelaire is born... • Rabelais dies... • Apple hires Pepsi's Sculley... • Domain name registration illegally taxed... • Chicago 8 plead not guilty... • Tariff reduction...
^  On a 09 April:
2003 The threat of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) has altered religious practices in Singapore. Reuters reports that Muslims who have SARS symptoms have been excused from Friday prayers by the local Islamic council; and that Catholic Archbishop Nicholas Chia has ordered general absolution to replace individual confessions, and the option of receiving the Eucharist on the tongue to be suspended, it is to be given only in the hand.
^ 2001 Sudan orders Christian rally out of central Khartoum.
     On 26 April 2001, Amnesty International would take note of the Sudanese presidential decree pardoning 47 persons arrested over the recent Easter and called for an impartial and independent investigation into the shootings, beatings and arrests by the Sudanese riot police on 11 April 2001. "Amnesty International is concerned that at least nine people, including children, were flogged as punishment, after being convicted with 47 others for causing 'public disturbance' in an unfair and summary trial." On 11 April, Christians gathered at All Saints Cathedral in Khartoum for prayers and to discuss the cancellation of a religious rally organized by church authorities on 10 April. Some students, angry at the cancellation, reportedly went outside the church with stones. When the riot police intervened, those outside the church ran inside. According to witnesses, police threw teargas inside the church making it difficult for people to breathe, and fired bullets at the crowd injuring many. Police then entered the church and indiscriminately arrested at least 56 people. One person, Edward Jemi, lost a hand from bullet wounds. At least two others were hit by bullets. It is reported that some, including women, were beaten and that one person was stabbed by the riot police. The 56 people arrested were brought the next day to a criminal court and charged with causing public disturbance.The judge refused to allow their lawyer to defend them. The trial lasted less than an hour. Six women and three children were sentenced to 15 and 20 lashes respectively and were flogged on 12 April and then released. The remaining 47 were sentenced to 20 lashes each and from seven to 20 days in prison.
      Other people present in the cathedral, including Church officials and a journalist, Alfred Taban, were also arrested. They were later released, apart from Alfred Taban, who was held incommunicado without charge until he was released on 17 April without explanation. "The government should conduct an impartial and independent investigation into the incident", Amnesty International said."And those responsible for unlawful shootings should be brought promptly to justice. All people detained by the police should be given the opportunity of fair trial including being defended by a lawyer of their choice." The human rights organization further urged the Sudanese government to take immediate action to ensure that its security forces comply with international standards, especially the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, thereby protecting the life and safety of civilians. The organization is also calling on the Sudanese authorities to refrain from inflicting torture such as flogging as punishment, especially for children. The Sudanese authorities should guarantee the right to free assembly and freedom of religious belief and practice.
      Church authorities in Khartoum had planned events for Easter and had invited a German evangelist to address a rally on 10 April in Green Square in central Khartoum, which they had booked. After threats by Islamic groups to disrupt the celebrations, the Sudanese authorities ordered the church authorities on 09 April to move the event to Haj Yusif in the outskirts of Khartoum. Because of the short notice, people turned up on 10 April in Green Square. Clashes ensued with the police. It is alleged that the police threw tear gas and shot at people. At least 50 people were arrested and later released. Clashes were also reported on the same day in Haj Yusif. Following these incidents, the church authorities decided to cancel the event and were discussing their decision with the Christian community the day after in All Saints Cathedral, when they were disrupted by the police. The use of excessive force by the Sudanese security forces has been reported several times in the past, as well as complaints by the Christian community of harassment and restriction of their right to freedom of religion.
^ 2000 Five beatifications
1) Mariam Theresia Chiramel Mankidiyan (1876-1926), born in the state of Kerala in 1876. She was a mystic famous for her visions and religious ecstasies, who underwent numerous exorcisms. She spent her life tending to the poorest of the poor. She founded the Congregation of the Holy Family.
2) Mary Elisabeth Hesselblad (1870-1957), born in Sweden, emigrated to the United States when she was 18 and worked as a nurse at Roosevelt Hospital in New York from 1888 to 1904. A Lutheran, she converted to Catholicism in 1902 and two years later became a nun. She returned to Sweden in 1923 and established the Order of St. Bridget. During World War II, she gave refuge to many Jews and others persecuted by the Nazis.
2) Francis Xavier Seelos (1819-1867), born in Bavaria, emigrated to the United States, was ordained a priest in Baltimore in 1844. He began his career ministering to German immigrants in Pittsburgh. Seelos was known for his humility — he once refused appointment as a bishop. During the US Civil War, Seelos went to Washington to lobby to keep his seminary students from being sent to the front.
1) Mariano de Jesús Euse-Hoyos (1845-1926), a Colombian priest ordained in Medellin in 1869. He spent his life ministering to peasants in Colombia.
3) Anna Rosa Gattorno (1831-1900), born in Genoa she became a nun after she was widowed at age 27. She founded the missionary Institute of the Daughters of St. Anne in 1866.
      Pope John Paul II, 79, has been criticized by some Catholic theologians for the relaxed requirements he has applied to his beatifications and canonizations — 1235 as of this date — more than any earlier pope. Nearly 2000 more cases were pending on this date.
2000 Eduard Shevardnadze is re-elected president of the republic of Georgia in the Caucasus.
2000 Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori falls just short of the majority needed to avoid a runoff for an unprecedented third term.
1998 Domain name registration illegally taxed.
     A federal judge declares that fees collected by Network Solutions, the official registrar of Internet domain names, represented an illegal tax. The agency had collected about $45.5 million for the federal government's Internet-infrastructure fund. At the same time, the judge rejected claims that Network Solutions was exercising illegal monopoly power.
^ 1997 Inventor of the computer mouse wins inventor's award.
     Douglas Engelbart wins the $500'000 Lemelson-MIT Prize, a prestigious award for inventors, for inventing the computer mouse. In 1963, Engelbart published a paper suggesting that computers could be designed to enhance human intelligence by automating tedious and time-consuming tasks, such as editing, typing, arithmetic, and information storage. Inspired by an essay by scientist Vannevar Bush, which outlined a device called Memex, Engelbart described personal computers, word processing, and networking years before they became reality. Pursuing his vision of machines that could enhance human thought, he invented the graphical user interface and the mouse, which he unveiled at the Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco in 1968. However, it wasn't until the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 that the mouse and point-and-click interfaces caught on.
1996 US President Clinton signs a line-item veto bill into law.
1994 The Saudi government revokes Osama bin Laden's citizenship and moves to freeze his assets in Saudi Arabia because of his support for Muslim fundamentalist movements.
1992 Captured former Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega [11 Feb 1938~] is convicted in Miami on 8 of 10 charges of racketeering, money laundering and drug trafficking. Noriega, who was the commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces since 1983, became a one-time operative for the CIA. Involved in several illegal activities, including drug trafficking and selling US secrets to Cuba, Noriega refused to step down from office after being pressured by US officials. He was captured by US troops who had been sent to Panama City on the pretext of the murder of a US Marine. Noriega would be sentenced to 40 years in prison. It was the first time that a US jury convicted a foreign ruler on criminal charges.
1992 Sali Berisha [15 Oct 1944~] becomes president of Albania. —(081126)
1991 Date of Microsoft MS DOS 5.0
1991 The Pulitzer Prize for fiction is awarded to John Updike for "Rabbit at Rest"; the drama prize goes to Neil Simon for Lost in Yonkers. In journalism, The Des Moines Register receives the gold medal for public service for its series about rape victim Nancy Ziegenmeyer, who'd allowed her name and pictures to be used.
1991 Georgia SSR votes to seceede from the USSR.
1988 US imposes economic sanctions on Panama.
^ 1987 George Shultz condemns Soviet spying.
      Just days before he is to travel to Moscow for talks on arms control and other issues, US Secretary of State George Shultz states that he is "damned angry" about possible Soviet spy activity in the American embassy in the Soviet Union. Soviet officials indignantly replied that the espionage charges were "dirty fabrications." Secretary Shultz was scheduled to travel to Moscow for talks on a number of matters, but the foremost issue was the reduction of medium-range nuclear missiles in Europe. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev had discussed arms reduction during their summit in Iceland in October 1986, but talks had ended on an acrimonious note. Gorbachev linked progress on the reduction of the missiles to US abandonment of the proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (the so-called "Star Wars" antimissile program).
      A new summit was scheduled for December 1987, and Shultz's visit was in preparation for that event. However, charges of Soviet espionage in the US embassy in Moscow threatened to derail any discussions. In particular, US officials charged that since at least the early 1980s, Soviet espionage agents had gained access to the American embassy in Moscow by working through the Marine guards stationed there. In addition, there were allegations that the new US embassy under construction was riddled with Soviet spying equipment. Shultz declared, "They invaded our sovereign territory, and we're damned upset about it." In the long run, the arms negotiations were not affected by the spying allegations. In December 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev negotiated the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Treaty, which eliminated US and Soviet medium-range nuclear missiles from Europe. In the short run, however, the episode indicated that while relations between the United States and the Soviet Union had improved dramatically in recent years, long-held animosities and suspicions lingered just beneath the surface.
^ 1986 Renault stays nationalized.
      The French government ruled against the privatization of leading French car maker Renault. The privatization of Renault, France’s second largest car maker after PSA Peugot-Citroën, has remained a highly debated issue since the 1986 decision. In 1994 the government sold shares of Renault to the public for the first time at 165 francs per share. The sale dramatically increased the company’s revenue but the French government remained the majority shareholder. Between 1996 and 1997 the market for cars in Europe grew precipitously, with the most marked increases in France. Renault, often scorned for its "public sector" policies, failed to capitalize on the growing markets. Instead foreign competitors like Volkswagen and Fiat took advantage. In 1996 Renault lost over $800 million.
      Renault and Peugot were the two weakest of Europe’s Big Seven carmakers. Economists blamed the French car makers’ lack of success on their protectionist policies and, more specifically, on the unwillingness of PSA Peugot and Renault to merge, a maneuver that would radically lower production costs for both auto-making giants. However, in 1998 Renault bounced back with a record year in which the group boasted a net income of 1.35 billion euros. On 27 March 1999, Renault signed an agreement to take a 36.8 percent equity share in Nissan Motor. Together Nissan and Renault form the fourth largest financial entity in the automotive world. The agreement is expected to supply Nissan with resources and leadership that it desperately needs to regain its historically profitable form, which suffered heavily from the collapse of the Asian markets. In turn, Renault may have found a solution to its problem of high production costs. Both companies will benefit from the ability to market their brands globally.
1983 Apple Computer hires Pepsi's John Sculley.
      John Sculley, who had spent his entire career at Pepsi, joined Apple on 09 April 1983, and stayed as president for the next ten years. Although Steve Jobs brought him into the company, Sculley forced Jobs out in 1985. Sculley himself was forced out in 1993, replaced by a series of short-term chairmen, including Michael Spindler and Gil Amelio. After Amelio's departure in 1997, Jobs returned as acting head of the company.
1976 US and Russia agreed on the size of nuclear tests for peaceful use
1973 Otto Kerner, former governor of Illinois, convicted for his role in an illegal racetrack scheme
^ 1969 “Chicago Eight” plead not guilty
      The Chicago Eight, indicted on federal charges of conspiracy to incite a riot at the 1968 Democratic convention in Chicago, plead not guilty. The trial for the eight antiwar activists had begun in Chicago on 20 March. The defendants included David Dellinger of the National Mobilization Committee (NMC); Rennie Davis and Thomas Hayden of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, founders of the Youth International Party ("Yippies"); Bobby Seale of the Black Panthers; and two lesser known activists, Lee Weiner and John Froines. They were charged with conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to incite a riot. Attorneys William Kunstler and Leonard Weinglass represented all but Seale. The trial, presided over by Judge Julius Hoffman, turned into a circus as the defendants and their attorneys used the court as a platform to attack Nixon, the war, racism, and oppression. Their tactics were so disruptive that at one point Judge Hoffman ordered Seale gagged and strapped to his chair. (Seale's disruptive behavior eventually caused the judge to try him separately). When the trial ended in February 1970, Hoffman found the defendants and their attorneys guilty of 175 counts of contempt of court and sentenced them to terms ranging from two to four years. Although declaring the defendants not guilty of conspiracy, the jury found all but Froines and Weiner guilty of intent to riot. The others were each sentenced to five years and fined $5'000. However, none of the defendants served time because in 1972 a Court of Appeals overturned the criminal convictions and eventually most of the contempt charges were also dropped.
1968 Ralph Abernathy is elected to head Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
^ 1968 Martin Luther King, Jr. is buried
      In his hometown of Atlanta, Georgia, slain American civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., was laid to rest during a ceremony attended by one hundred thousand persons.
      Two weeks earlier, King had traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of a sanitation workers' strike. Violence at the workers' protest march forced his departure, but he vowed to return to the city in early April to lead another demonstration.
      On 03 April, back in Memphis, King gave his last sermon, saying, "I've been to the mountaintop. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord."
      On 04 April 1968, one day after speaking those words, the most important leader of the US Blacks' civil rights movement was shot and killed by a sniper while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Motel Lorraine. That night, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy, just two months away from his own assassination, announced King's death at a political rally in Indianapolis. Urging calm, Kennedy fell into quoting the Ancient Greek tragedian Aeschylus in an effort to articulate the inexplicable tragedy of King's murder: "In our sleep, pain that cannot forget falls drop by drop upon the heart until, in our own despair, against our will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God."
      As word of the assassination spread, riots broke out in several major cities, and in Washington DC, fires set by enraged protestors devastated portions of the downtown area. The National Guard was subsequently called in, and for several days the armed troops patrolled the streets of the nation's capital. On 09 April, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., was laid to rest in Atlanta, Georgia.
1967 First Boeing 737 rolls out.
^ 1959 The first US astronauts are introduced.
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduces America's first astronauts to the press: Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper Jr., John H. Glenn Jr., Virgil "Gus" Grissom, Walter Schirra Jr., Alan Shepard Jr., and Donald Slayton. The seven men, all military test pilots, were carefully selected from a group of 32 candidates to take part in Project Mercury, America's first manned space program. NASA planned to begin manned orbital flights in 1961. On 04 October 1957, the USSR scored the first victory of the "space race" when it successfully launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik, into Earth's orbit. In response, the United States consolidated its various military and civilian space efforts into NASA, which dedicated itself to beating the Soviets to manned space flight. In January 1959, NASA began the astronaut selection procedure, screening the records of 508 military test pilots and choosing 110 candidates. This number was arbitrarily divided into three groups, and the first two groups reported to Washington. Because of the high rate of volunteering, the third group was eliminated.
      Of the 62 pilots who volunteered, six were found to have grown too tall since their last medical examination. An initial battery of written tests, interviews, and medical history reviews further reduced the number of candidates to 36. After learning of the extreme physical and mental tests planned for them, four of these men dropped out. The final 32 candidates traveled to the Lovelace Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where they underwent exhaustive medical and psychological examinations. The men proved so healthy, however, that only one candidate was eliminated.
      The remaining 31 candidates then traveled to the Wright Aeromedical Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio, where they underwent the most grueling part of the selection process. For six days and three nights, the men were subjected to various tortures that tested their tolerance of physical and psychological stress. Among other tests, the candidates were forced to spend an hour in a low~pressure chamber that simulated an altitude of 20 km, and two hours in a chamber that was heated to 55ºC. At the end of one week, 18 candidates remained. From among these men, the selection committee was to choose six based on interviews, but seven candidates were so strong they ended up settling on that number. After they were announced, the "Mercury Seven" became overnight celebrities. The Mercury Project suffered some early setbacks, however, and on 12 April 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin orbited Earth in the world's first manned space flight. Less than one month later, on 05 May, astronaut Alan Shepard was successfully launched into space on a suborbital flight. On 20 February 1962, in a major step for the US space program, John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth. NASA continued to trail the Soviets in space achievements until the late 1960s, when NASA's Apollo program put the first men on the moon and safely returned them to Earth. Donald Slayton, who was grounded in the early 1960s because of a previously undiscovered heart condition, became the last of the Mercury Seven to travel into space when he took part in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in July 1975. The joint US-Soviet mission was aimed at developing space rescue capabilities.
1957 Suez Canal cleared for all shipping.
1952 Popular uprising in Bolivia.
1947 The US Atomic Energy Commission is formed.
1944 Pius XII issued the encyclical Orientalis ecclesiae decus, which seeks to foster closer relations between Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Uniat churches.
1942 US surrender in Bataan     ^top^
      Admiral Edward P. King Jr. surrenders at Bataan, Philippines — against General Douglas MacArthur's orders — and 78'000 soldiers (66'000 Filipinos and 12'000 from the US), the largest contingent of US soldiers ever to surrender, are taken captive by the Japanese. The prisoners are at once led 90 km from Mariveles, on the southern end of the Bataan peninsula, to San Fernando, on what became known as the "Bataan Death March." At least 600 Americans and 5000 Filipinos die because of the extreme brutality of their captors, who starve, beat, and kick them on the way; those who became too weak to walk are bayoneted.
      Those who survive are taken by rail from San Fernando to Capas, from where they walk the final 13 km to Camp O'Donnell. , where another 16'000 Filipinos and at least 1000 Americans died from disease, mistreatment, and starvation.
      After the war, the International Military Tribunal, established by MacArthur, tried Lieutenant General Homma Masaharu, commander of the Japanese invasion forces in the Philippines. He was held responsible for the death march, a war crime, and was executed by firing squad on 03 April 1946.
1941 The troops of Nazi Germany, which had invaded Greece on 06 April 1941, take Salonika (Thessaloníki).
1941 Among the troops of Nazi Germany, which had invaded Yugoslavia on 06 April 1941, the armored group of general Paul Ludwig von Kleist [08 Aug 1881 – Oct 1954] takes Niš.
1941 By executive agreement with the Danish government-in-exile US President Roosevelt places Greenland under US protection.
^ 1940 Nazi Germany invades Norway and Denmark.
      The major Norwegian ports from Oslo northward to Narvik are occupied by advance detachments of German troops. At the same time, a single parachute battalion (the first ever employed in warfare) takes the Oslo and Stavanger airfields, and 800 operational aircraft overaw the Norwegian population.
      Simultaneously the Germans occupy Denmark, sending troopships, covered by aircraft, into Copenhagen harbor and marching over the land frontier into Jutland. This occupation insures the safety of their communications with Norway.
      During the preliminary phase of the invasion, Norwegian fascist forces under Vidkun Quisling act as a so-called "fifth column" for the German invaders, seizing Norway's nerve centers, spreading false rumors and occupying military bases and other locations. Quisling served as the Norwegian minister of defense from 1931 to 1933, and in 1934 left the ruling party to establish the Nasjonal Samling, or National Unity Party, in imitation of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party.
      Although Norway declared neutrality at the outbreak of World War II, Nazi Germany soon considered the occupation of Norway a strategic and economic necessity. In the spring of 1940, Vidkun Quisling traveled to Berlin to meet with Nazi command and plan the German conquest of his country.
      On 09 April, combined German forces attack without warning and within two months, Hitler has conquered Norway and driven all Allied forces from the country. Although Quisling was the head of the only political party permitted by the Nazis, opposition to him in Norway was so great that it was not until 01 February 1942, that he was able to formally establish his puppet government in Oslo.
      Under the authority of his Nazi commissioner, Josef Terboven, Quisling set up a repressive regime that was merciless against those who defied it. However, Norway's resistant movement soon became the most effective in all of Nazi-occupied Europe, and Quisling's authority rapidly waned. After the German surrender in April of 1945, Quisling was arrested, convicted of high treason, and shot. From his name comes the word quisling, meaning "traitor" in several languages.
Germany invades Norway and Denmark
      German warships enter major Norwegian ports, from Narvik to Oslo, deploying thousands of German troops and occupying Norway. At the same time, German forces occupy Copenhagen, among other Danish cities. German forces were able to slip through the mines Britain had laid around Norwegian ports because local garrisons were ordered to allow the Germans to land unopposed. The order came from a Norwegian commander loyal to Norway's pro-fascist former foreign minister Vidkun Quisling. Hours after the invasion, the German minister in Oslo demanded Norway's surrender. The Norwegian government refused, and the Germans responded with a parachute invasion and the establishment of a puppet regime led by Quisling (whose name would become a synonym for "traitor"). Norwegian forces refused to accept German rule in the guise of a Quisling government and continued to fight alongside British troops. But an accelerating German offensive in France led Britain to transfer thousand of soldiers from Norway to France, resulting ultimately in a German victory.
      In Denmark, King Christian X, 67, convinced his army could not fight off a German invasion, surrendered almost immediately.
      Hitler now had added a second and third conquered nation to his quarry, which began with Poland.
1936 Addis Ababa falls to the invading Italians, who, four days later, annex Ethiopia to Italian East Africa.
^ 1927 Sacco and Vanzetti are sentenced to death
for the murders in South Braintree, Massachusetts, on 15 April 1920, of F.A. Parmenter, paymaster of a shoe factory, and Alessandro Berardelli, the guard accompanying him, in order to secure the payroll that they were carrying.
"This is what I say: I would not wish to a dog or to a snake, to the most low or misfortunate creature of the earth — - I would not wish to any of them what I have had to suffer for things that I am not guilty of. But my conviction is that I have suffered for things that I am guilty of. I am suffering because I am a radical and indeed I am a radical; I have suffered because I was an Italian, and indeed I am an Italian; I have suffered more for my family and for my beloved than for myself; but I am so convinced to be right that if you could execute me two times, and if I could be reborn two other times, I would live again to do what I have done already. I have finished. Thank you" — -Bartolomeo Vanzetti, to Judge Thayer, upon being sentenced to death, 09 April 1927
      On 05 May Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists who had immigrated to the United States in 1908, one a shoemaker and the other a fish peddler, were arrested for the crime. On 31 May 1921, they were brought to trial before Judge Webster Thayer of the Massachusetts Superior Court, and on 14 July 1921 both were found guilty by verdict of the jury. Socialists and radicals protested the men's innocence.
      Many people felt that there had been less than a fair trial and that the defendants had been convicted for their radical, anarchist beliefs rather than for the crime for which they had been tried. All attempts for retrial on the ground of false identification failed. On 18 November 1925, one Celestino Madeiros, then under a sentence for murder, confessed that he had participated in the crime with the Joe Morelli gang. The state Supreme Court refused to upset the verdict, because at that time the trial judge had the final power to reopen on the ground of additional evidence. The two men are sentenced to death on 09 April 1927.
      A storm of protest arose with mass meetings throughout the nation. Governor Alvan T. Fuller appointed an independent advisory committee consisting of President A. Lawrence Lowell of Harvard University, President Samuel W. Stratton of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Robert Grant, a former judge. On 03 August 1927, the governor refused to exercise his power of clemency; his advisory committee agreed with this stand.
      Demonstrations proceeded in many cities throughout the world, and bombs were set off in New York City and Philadelphia. Sacco and Vanzetti, still maintaining their innocence, were executed on 23 August 1927.
      Opinion has remained divided on whether Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty as charged or whether they were innocent victims of a prejudiced legal system and a mishandled trial. Some writers have claimed that Sacco was guilty but that Vanzetti was innocent. There is widespread agreement, however, that the two men should have been granted a second trial in view of their trial's significant defects.
      In 1977 the governor of Massachusetts, Michael S. Dukakis, issued a proclamation stating that Sacco and Vanzetti had not been treated justly and that no stigma should be associated with their names.
1918 Latvia proclaims independence
1917 Battle of Arras begins.
1917 Vimy Ridge, France, is stormed by Canadian troops.
1916 The German army starts its third offensive during the Battle of Verdun.
1914 First full color film shown The World, The Flesh and the Devil (London)
^ 1909 US Congress lowers tariffs.
      William Howard Taft rode into the Oval Office on a platform that included an anti-protectionist pledge to slash tariff rates. On 09 April 1909, Congress seemingly helped the new president make good on his promise by passing the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act. In its initial form, the tariff called for a list of free goods, to go along with lower rates-provisions that readily appealed to Progressives, importers and exporters. On paper, the tariff promised to help pry open foreign markets to American goods, as well as to provide US industrialists with a steady flow of cheap raw materials. But the legislation was far less palatable to protectionist forces in the Senate, who did their best to reshape the tariff. When it would finally become law, the Payne-Aldrich bill would lack the free list of goods and only lowered rates on a select set of items. The modified tariff also hiked the duties on a number of goods. Taft, who was admittedly uncomfortable in the political arena, did little to mollify Progressives and the business community. Indeed, later that spring, the president raised the hackles of his putative allies by praising Payne-Aldrich as the finest tariff ever to be passed by Congress.
1870 American Anti-Slavery Society dissolves
1869 Hudson Bay Company cedes its territory to Canada.
1867 The US Senate ratifies by one vote 1867 the treaty with Russia that purchases the territory of Alaska by one vote.
1866 Civil Rights Bill passes over President Andrew Johnson's veto
1865 Federals capture Ft Blakely, Alabama
^ 1865 Robert E. Lee surrenders
      At Appomattox Court House, Virginia, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders his twenty-eight thousand [or 26'765 ???] soldiers to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, effectively ending the bloodiest conflict in American history.
      Forced to abandon the Confederate capital of Richmond, blocked from joining the surviving Confederate force in North Carolina, and harassed constantly by Union cavalry, Lee had no other option. In retreat from the Union army's Appomattox Campaign, the Army of Northern Virginia had passed through the Virginian countryside stripped of food and supplies. At one point, Union cavalry forces under General Philip Sheridan had actually outrun Lee's army, blocking their retreat and taking six thousand prisoners at Sayler's Creek. Desertions were mounting daily, and by 08 April, the Confederates were surrounded with no possibility of escape.
      On 09 April, Lee sent a message to Grant announcing his willingness to surrender, and the two generals met in the parlor of the Wilmer McLean home at one o'clock in the afternoon. The men, both holding the highest rank in their respective armies, had known each slightly during the Mexican War and exchanged awkward personal inquiries. Characteristically, Grant arrived in his muddy field uniform while Lee had turned out in full dress attire, complete with sash and sword. Lee asked for the terms, and Grant hurriedly wrote them out. All officers and men were to be pardoned, and they would be sent home with their private property — most importantly, the horses, which could be used for a late spring planting. Officers would keep their side arms, and Lee's starving men would be given Union rations. Shushing a band that had begun to play in celebration, General Grant told his officers, "The war is over. The Rebels are our countrymen again." Although scattered resistance continued for several weeks, for all practical purposes the American Civil War had come to an end.
1864 Battle of Pleasant Hill, Louisiana (Red River Expedition)
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia continues.
^ 1859 Mark Twain receives steamboat pilot's license.
     Missourian Samuel Langhorne Clemens, 23, receives his steamboat pilot's license. Clemens had signed on as a pilot's apprentice in 1857 while on his way to Mississippi. He had been commissioned to write a series of comic travel letters for the Keokuk Daily Post, but after writing five, decided he'd rather be a pilot than a writer. He piloted his own boats for two years, until the Civil War halted steamboat traffic. During his time as a pilot, he picked up the term "Mark Twain," a boatman's call noting that the river was only two fathoms deep, the minimum depth for safe navigation.
      When Clemens returned to writing in 1861, working for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, he wrote a humorous travel letter signed by "Mark Twain" and continued to use the pseudonym for nearly 50 years.
      Clemens was born in Hannibal, Missouri, and was apprenticed to a printer at age 13. He later worked for his older brother, who established the Hannibal Journal. In 1864, he moved to San Francisco to work as a reporter. There he wrote the story that made him famous, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. In 1866, he traveled to Hawaii as a correspondent for the Sacramento Union. Next, he traveled the world writing accounts for papers in California and New York, which he later published as the popular book The Innocents Abroad (1869).
      In 1870, Clemens married the daughter of a wealthy New York coal merchant and settled in Hartford, Connecticut, where he continued to write travel accounts and lecture. In 1875, his novel Tom Sawyer was published, followed by Life on the Mississippi (1883) and his masterpiece Huckleberry Finn (18 February 1885). Bad investments left Clemens bankrupt after the publication of Huckleberry Finn, but he won back his financial standing with his next three books. In 1903, he and his family moved to Italy, where his wife died. Her death left him sad and bitter, and his work, while still humorous, grew distinctly darker. He died in 1910.
  • The Pirates of Penzance
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1st ed.)
  • Huckleberry Finn
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
  • Tom Sawyer
  • Tom Sawyer, Detective
  • Tom Sawyer Abroad
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • The Prince and the Pauper
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • Extracts From Adam's Diary
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • What is Man? and Other Essays
  • What Is Man?
  • Songs of a Savoyard
  • A Dog's Tale
  • Eve's Diary
  • A Horse's Tale
  • A Horse's Tale
  • A Horse's Tale
  • The Innocents Abroad
  • A Tramp Abroad
  • The Bridge-Builders
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • Life on the Mississippi
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • The Mysterious Stranger
  • Roughing It
  • Roughing It
  • A Tramp Abroad
  • 1601
  • Concerning the Jews
  • Concerning the Jews
  • Christian Science
  • A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
  • A Connecticut Yankee
  • The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, and Other Sketches
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc
  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc volume 1 / volume 2
  • A Double-Barrelled Detective Story
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The $30,000 Bequest, and Other Stories
  • The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson
  • The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
  • The Man that Corrupted Hadleyburg
  • Extract From Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven
  • Captain Stormfield
  • Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • Is Shakespeare Dead? From My Autobiography
  • Chapters From My Autobiography
  • King Leopold's Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule
  • Mark Twain's Speeches
  • translator of Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter (there in German, English, and French)
  • Engaged
  • 1831 Robert Jenkins loses an ear, starts war between Britain and Spain
    1816 The African Methodist Episcopal Church is organized at a general convention in Philadelphia. The following day, Richard Allen, 56, is elected the new denomination's first bishop.
    1787 French explorer La Pérouse [22 Aug 1741 – 1788] leaves Manila to begin to exploring the Asian coast, with the ships L'Astrolabe and La Boussole, in command of which he had sailed from France on 01 August 1785.
    1770 Captain James Cook discovers Botany Bay (Australia)
    Robert La Salle claims the lower Mississippi River and all lands adjacent to it for France.
    ^ 1682 La France prend le Mississippi
          René-Robert Cavelier de la Salle prend possession du Mississippi au nom du roi de France, Louis XIV. Entouré de ses compagnons français et d'Indiens, l'explorateur fait face à l'embouchure du grand fleuve américain. Avec solennité, il baptise «Louisiane», en l'honneur du roi, la très vaste région qui s'étend du golfe du Mexique aux Grands Lacs. Né à Rouen, 39 ans plus tôt, dans une famille de riches négociants, Cavelier de la Salle s'est mis au service du gouverneur de la Nouvelle-France, le comte de Frontenac. De Montréal, il est parti sur les traces de Louis Joliet et du père Marquette. Ces deux missionnaires avaient exploré le Mississippi, la «Grande Rivière», mais ils n'avaient pas dépassé la région des Grands Lacs. Cavelier de la Salle, plus chanceux, atteint l'embouchure, sur le golfe du Mexique. De retour en France, l'explorateur offre la «Louisiane» au Roi-Soleil mais celui-ci hésite à la coloniser, craignant de trop disperser ses forces. Cavelier de la Salle périra de façon tragique au cours d'une ultime expédition. La Louisiane attendra la fin du XVIIe siècle pour recevoir ses premiers immigrants. En 1718, peu après la mort de Louis XIV, sera fondée La Nouvelle-Orléans, ainsi baptisée en l'honneur du Régent, le duc d'Orléans. La colonie fera alors l'objet d'une spéculation effrénée mais sans lendemain. Moins d'un siècle plus tard, Napoléon Bonaparte la vendra sans état d'âme aux Etats-Unis.
    1454 The city states of Venice, Milan and Florence sign a peace agreement at Lodi, Italy.
    1388 Battle of Noefels; Glarius Swiss defeat Habsburg (Austrian) army.
    1241 Battle of Liegnitz — Mongol armies defeat Poles and Germans.
    0999 Sylvester II (Gerbert of Aurillac) consecrated as first French Pope
    < 08 Apr 10 Apr >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 09 April:

    2008 Brian Thorp [30 Jan 1931–], English Mill Hill Missionary brother murdered late at night in Lamu Parish, in the Archdiocese of Mombasa at the Indian ocean coast of Kenya.. He was born at Yorkshire Bridge in Bamford, Derbyshire, England, the fourth of five sons of Clement and Mary Thorp. He attended St Michael's Primary School at Hathersage, Derbyshire, but left school when he was 14 to work as an apprentice carpenter until he was 21. He then went on to do two years of national service with the Royal Air Force as an administration orderly. He spent the next four years working in construction sites around the country. When his parents retired in 1958, he went with them to live and work in Brighton. After the death of his youngest brother in 1967, Brian Thorp decided to spend a year to reflect on his future. It was in 1968 when he decided to join the Brothers Programme of the Mill Hill Missionaries. He made his Temporary Vows on 29 June 1970, and his Perpetual Vows on 29 June 1972 at Courtfield. Brother Thorp's first appointment was to Basankusu, Dem. Rep. Congo. He arrived there in April 1973 and embarked on many building projects until he was withdrawn on 14 June 1976 and appointed to the British Region. His next missionary appointment was to Kenya and he arrived in Kisumu in February 1982. He left temporarily for Jinja, Uganda in July 1991. He eventually returned to Kenya in September 1993 to work in Bungoma Diocese. He was a Chapter Delegate in 1994. On 13 October 1997, Brother Thorp was appointed to the Mill Hill House in Jinja, Uganda. In 1999, he returned to Kenya, and was appointed to Lamu Island where he renovated the parish buildings. —(080412)
    2005 A Frenchman, dies late in the evening from injuries sustained in the 07 April 2005 terrorist bombing next to the Khan al-Khalili bazar in the historic center of Cairo, Egypt.
    2003 Eleven civilians of the Akhmedzai tribe, in a house in Shkin, Afghanistan, hit by a 450-kg laser-[mis]guided bomb from a US plane, which was intended for one of two groups of some 8 rebels each, who had attacked an Afghan government-army checkpoint; presumably they were coming from just across the border in Pakistan.
    2003 James Salisbury, 51, of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), in Shenzhen, China. Salisbury, a Mormon, was a US teacher of English at a polytechnic institute there. Probably already dead, he is sent to nearby Hong Kong, together with his son, Mickey Salisbury, 6, who has what is probably ordinary flu. His mother and 5-year-old triplet sisters had not come to China but stayed home in Orem, Utah. James Salibury also had four children from a previous marriage.
    2002 Patrick Holey, suicide by swallowing painkillers, together with his wife Jennifer Holey, 19 and pregnant, who survives. The two had been accused of an 01 April sex crime at their home against a 14-year-old girl. On 25 April 2002, Jennifer Holey is charged with first-degree criminal sexual conduct for aiding her husband in the assault. Patrick Holey's mother, Kathleen Holey, faces two charges of assisted suicide.
    2002 Five neighbors and Edward Lutes, who murders them and then kills himself. Lutes was a 15-year police veteran of Seaside Heights, New Jersey, where he was a senior member of the local SWAT team. Armed with several weapons, Lutes kills three men and two women in two homes close to his own in Dover Township near Toms River NJ sometime after 21:20 He then drives about 30 km south to Barnegat where he shoot three times Seaside Heights police chief James Costello. Costello is hospitalized in stable condition. Lutes' body would be discovered the next morning in a parked car near Barnegat.

    Sgt. LevyLt. Bar2002:: 13 Israeli reserve soldiers: Captain Ya'akov Azulai, 30, from Migdal Ha'emek; First Lieutenant Dror Bar, 28, from Kibbutz Einat; First Lieutenant Yoel Eyal, 28, from Be'er Sheva; First Sergeant Major Yoram Levy, 33, from Elad; First Sergeant Major Tiran Arazi, 33, from Hadera; First Sergeant Major Avner Yaskov, 34, from Be'er Sheva; Sergeant Major Menashe Hava, 23, from Kfar Sava; Sergeant Major Eyal Zimmerman, 22, from Ra'anana, and Major Oded Golomb, 32, Beit Yehoshua. and four others, at about 08:00 while attacking the Palestinian Jenin refugee camp. Company commander reserve Major Oded Golomb, 32, of Kibbutz Nir David, had led his men through a number of Palestinian houses, searching for wanted men. He then takes his men into a narrow courtyard between two houses. A suicide bomber runs toward them, blowing himself up as he approached. At the same time, a series of land mines explode, and gunfire comes from several houses in the area. Everyone in the force is hit. A support group of soldiers, hearing the explosions and the shooting, runs in to help, but as soon as they enter the area, they too come under heavy fire. The deputy company commander and some of his men are killed.. Seven Israeli soldiers are wounded, one of them critically.
    2002 Israeli Major Asaf Asulin, 30, from Tel Aviv, in attack on Nablus, probably by “friendly” fire.
    2002 Israeli Staff Sergeant Gedalyahu Malik, 21, from Jerusalem, by an explosive charge thrown at his patrol, in Jenin, West Bank. 12 Israeli soldiers are wounded.
    2002 Three Palestinians, including Shahin Mahmoud and Omran Flifel, during Israeli attack, supported by tanks and helicopters, on Dura, south of Hebron. Flifel, a cab driver, was killed while he was driving. Israeli Lt. Dotan Nahtomi, 22, of Kibbutz Tzuba, is wounded and would die on 12 April 2002.
    1998 More than 150 Muslims, in stampede in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, on last day of the haj pilgrimage.
    1972 James F. Byrnes, born on 02 May 1879, US politician, US representative (1911-1925) and senator (1931-1941) from South Carolina, Supreme Court justice, Director of Economic Stabilization, Director of the Office of War Mobilization, Secretary of State (1945-1947), Governor of South Carolina (1951-1955).
    1961 King Zog of Albania, 65
    1959 Frank Lloyd Wright, 89, US architect.
    1953 Hans Reichenbach, German US mathematician born on 26 September 1891. Author of Elements of Symbolic Logic (1947), and The Rise of Scientific Philosophy (1951).
    ^ 1953 Stanislaw Wojciechowski, born on 15 March 1869, one of the leaders in the struggle for Polish independence from Russia in the years before World War I. He later served as the second president of the Polish Republic (1922–1926).
          While a student at the University of Warsaw, Wojciechowski worked for the Polish Socialist movement, which was a major force in the independence effort. He was arrested in 1891, and upon his release a year later he went to Paris and then to London. In England he helped publish the Polish Socialist periodical Przedswit (“The Dawn”) and became friends with Józef Pilsudski [05 Dec 1867 – 12 May 1935]. He also studied the cooperative movement, and on returning to Poland in 1906 he spent his time working to develop Polish cooperatives.
          During World War I, because he saw Germany as Poland's main enemy, Wojciechowski in 1915 went to Moscow, and there in 1917 he was elected president of the Council of Polish Parties' Union. He returned to Warsaw at the end of the war and from January 1919 to July 1920 served as minister of the interior in three separate cabinets of the new Polish Republic. He was elected to the Sejm (Diet) as a member of the Polish Peasant Party in November 1922. When Gabriel Narutowicz [17 Mar 1865 – 16 Dec 1922], who had been sworn in as the first President of the republic on 11 December 1922, was assassinated by modernist painter Eligiusz Niewiadomski [01 Dec 1869 – 31 Jan 1923], Wojciechowski was chosen to succeed him.
          In the new government Wojciechowski and Pilsudski, then military chief of staff, differed as to the direction the nation should take. Wojciechowski supported continued parliamentary government, while Pilsudski favored a more authoritarian approach. On 12 May 1926, Pilsudski staged a successful coup d'état. On 14 May 1926 Wojciechowski resigned and then retired to private life.
    1951 Vilhelm Frimann Koren Bjerknes, Norwegian mathematician and physicist born on 14 March 1862.
    1947:: 169 persons by tornadoes in Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas.
    ^ 1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer is hanged by Nazis.
          Lutheran pastor and theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer is hanged at Flossenburg, only days before the US liberation of the POW camp. His last recorded words, the night before, were “This is the end — for me, the beginning of life.”
         Bonhoeffer was born on 04 February 1906. Two days after Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, lecturer at Berlin University, took to the radio and denounced the Nazi Fuhrerprinzip, the leadership principle that was merely a synonym for dictatorship. Bonhoeffer's broadcast was cut off before he could finish. Shortly thereafter, he moved to London to pastor a German congregation, while also giving support to the Confessing Church movement in Germany, a declaration by Lutheran and evangelical pastors and theologians that they would not have their churches co-opted by the Nazi government for propagandistic purposes. Bonhoeffer returned to Germany in 1935 to run a seminary for the Confessing Church; the government closed it in 1937. Bonhoeffer's continued vocal objections to Nazi policies resulted in his losing his freedom to lecture or publish. He soon joined the German resistance movement, even the plot to assassinate Hitler. In April 1943, shortly after becoming engaged to be married, Bonhoeffer was arrested by the Gestapo. Evidence implicating him in the plot to overthrow the government came to light and he was court-martialed and sentenced to die. While in prison, he acted as a counselor and pastor to prisoners of all denominations. Bonhoeffer's Letters and Papers from Prison was published posthumously. Among his celebrated works of theology are The Cost of Discipleship and Ethics.
         Bonhoeffer is conmemorated as a martyr by the Lutherans.
    1920 Moritz Benedikt Cantor, German historian of mathematics born on 23 August 1829. He is best remembered for the four-volume Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik a history of mathematics up to 1799.
    1914 Eben Sumner Draper, born on 17 June 1858, he was Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts in 1906-1909 and Governor of Massachusetts in 1909-1911.
    1904 Queen Isabella II, 73, Queen of Spain (1833-68)
    1895 Gunnar-Fredrik Berndtson, Swedish French artist born on 24 October 1854.
    1882 Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti, English Pre-Raphaelite poet and painter born on 12 May 1828. MORE ON ROSSETTI AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1858 Joseph Karl Stieler, German artist born on 01 November 1781. MORE ON STIELER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1852 Antoine Joseph Michel Romagnesi, French artist born in 1782.
    1839 Jean-Georges Hirn, French artist born on 15 December 1777.
    1837 Domenico Quaglio, German painter, draftsman, and printmaker, born on 01 January 1787, of a family of Italian origin. — more
    1829 Joseph-François Ducq, French artist born on 10 September 1762.
    1807 John Opie, English painter born in May 1761. MORE ON OPIE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1804 Jacques Necker financier/statesman
    ^ Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
    1794 (20 germinal an II):
    BERNARD Anne, âgée de 50 ans, couturière, née et domiciliée à Bordeaux, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, département de la Gironde, comme convaincue d'avoir favorisé des conspiration mis hors la loi, par suite des journées des 31 mai, 1er et 2 juin.
    BONNAIRE Marie Charlotte, âgée de 21 ans, femme divorcée, de L. F. Lepelletier, ex noble, officier dans le régiment du ci-devant roi, née et domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme contre-révolutionnaire d'avoir conspiré contre la République.
    MARCHAND Jean Baptiste, fripier, domicilié à Blois, département du Loir et Cher, comme rebelle à la loi, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    SENECHAUD Jean, garçon boulanger, domicilié à St Hilaire-de-Voux, département de la Vendée, par le tribunal criminel du département des Deux-Sèvres, comme instigateur de révolte.
    BARBIER François, père, négocient, domicilié à Plondalmezeau, canton de Brest, département du Finistère, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel du département du Finistère.
    BLANQUIERE Pierre, FOISSAC Pierre, et LACAN Jean, domiciliés à St Victor, canton de St Afrique, département de l'Aveyron, comme contre-révolutionnaires, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    DESCAZAUX, fils aîné, domicilié à Moissac département du Lot, comme chef de la révolte, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
    1761 William Law theologian
    1626 Francis Bacon Viscount St Albans, English philosopher, statesman, essayist, born on 22 January 1561. BACON ONLINE: Novum OrganumHistoria Regni Henrici Septimi Regis AngliæSermones FidelesThe Advancement of LearningThe Advancement of LearningThe Essayes or Counsels, Civill and MorallThe EssaysNew AtlantisNew Atlantis.
    1588 Paolo Caliari “Veronese”
    , Venetian painter born in Verona in 1528. — MORE ON VERONESE AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    ^ 1553 François Rabelais.
         He sometimes used the pseudonym (anagram) Alcofribas Nasier. Born in 1494, he was a French writer and priest who for his contemporaries was an eminent physician and humanist.
         On 17 January 1536, Rabelais was authorized to practice medicine and absolved of infractions to the Benedictine rule by Pope Paul III .
          For posterity, Rabelais is the author of the comic masterpieces about Gargantua and Pantagruel . The four novels composing this work are outstanding for their rich use of Renaissance French and for their comedy, which ranges from gross burlesque to profound satire. They exploit popular legends, farces, and romances, as well as classical and Italian material, but were written primarily for a court public and a learned one. The adjective Rabelaisian applied to scatological humor is misleading; Rabelais used scatology aesthetically, not gratuitously, for comic condemnation. His creative exuberance, colorful and wide-ranging vocabulary, and literary variety continue to ensure his popularity.
  • Les horribles et épouvantables faits et prouesses du très renommé Pantagruel, roy des Dipsodes
  • La Vie Très Horrificque du Grand Gargantua Père de Pantagruel
  • La vie inestimable du grand Gargantua
  • Tiers livre des faits et dits héroïques du noble Pantagruel  
  • Quart livre des faits et dits héroïques du noble Pantagruel
  • Pantagrueline Prognostication. Certaine, veritable & infaillible pour l'an perpetuel. Nouvellement composée au prouffit & advisement de gens estourdis & musars de nature, Par maistre Alcofribas, architriclin dudict Pantagruel.
    (images de pages):
  • Oeuvres de Rabelais. Tome I, Tome II
  • Les œuvres de Me François Rabelais,... contenant cinq livres, de la vie, faicts, et dits héroïques de Gargantua, et de son fils Pantagruel ; plus la Prognostication pantagrueline, avec l’oracle de la dive Bacbuc, & le mot de la bouteille ; augmenté des Navigations et Isle sonante,l’Isle des Apédèfres, la Cresme philosophale avec une Epistre limosine et deux autres epistres à deux vieilles de differentes moeurs
  • Five Books of the Lives, Heroic Deeds and Sayings of Gargantua and Pantagruel

  • Rabelais
    1492 Lorenzo de' Medici Florentine statesman
    1483 king of England
    ^ 1483 Edward IV, king of England from 1461 until October 1470 and again from April 1471 until his death in 1483. He was a leading participant in the Yorkist-Lancastrian conflict known as the Wars of the Roses.
          Edward was the eldest surviving son of Richard, duke of York, by Cicely, daughter of Ralph Neville, earl of Westmorland. His father was descended from two sons of the 14th-century king Edward III and, in the 1450s, led a revolt against Henry VI; in 1460, Richard's supporters declared him Henry's successor. When his father was killed in December of that year, Edward gathered an army in Wales and defeated Henry's supporters (called Lancastrians because of Henry's descent from John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster). Edward was crowned as King Edward IV in London on 28 June 1461.
         Edward at this time showed little promise, apparently caring only for fighting, drinking, women, and pageantry. He owed his throne largely to his cousin Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, who was in the first years of Edward's reign the most powerful man in England. Warwick crushed Lancastrian resistance in the far north of England between 1462 and 1464 and conducted England's diplomacy. Edward, however, was winning many friends (especially in London) by his comeliness and charm and was determined to assert his independence. On 01 May 1464, he secretly married a young widow, Elizabeth Woodville [1437 – 07 Jun 1492], of no great rank, offending Warwick and other Yorkist nobles who were planning to marry him to a French princess. By showering favors on Elizabeth's two sons by her first husband and on her five brothers and her seven sisters, Edward began to build up a group of magnates who would be a counterpoise to the Nevilles. Gradually Warwick lost all influence at court, and when he was negotiating an alliance with France, Edward humiliated him by revealing that he had already concluded an alliance (1467) with France's enemy Burgundy. Edward's sister Margaret was married in July 1468 with great pomp to Duke Charles the Bold [10 Nov 1433 – 05 Jan 1477] of Burgundy, and the brothers-in-law planned a joint invasion of France.
          Warwick, in a countermove encouraged by Louis XI [03 Jul 1423 – 30 Aug 1483] of France, seized Edward and made him a prisoner in July 1469. But Edward had by now too many supporters (especially in London) for him to be kept under tutelage for long. He regained his freedom in October; Warwick fled to France, allied himself with the Lancastrians and with Louis, and invaded England in September 1470.
          Surprised, Edward fled with a few faithful supporters to the Netherlands in October. Aided by Charles of Burgundy, he and his brother, Richard, duke of Gloucester, returned to England in March 1471. Taking London, he defeated and killed Warwick at Barnet on 14 April 1471. On the same day, Queen Margaret of Anjou [23 Mar 1430 – 25 Aug 1482] (Henry VI's wife) belatedly landed in Dorset from France with her only son, Edward, prince of Wales. Her advisers hoped to gain Lancastrian support in Wales, and it became a race for time between Edward IV's forces and hers as to whether she could get there before he overtook her. At Tewkesbury, after some remarkable forced marches (one of more than 60 km at a stretch), he caught up with her army on 04 May 1471. There he won another crushing victory. Nearly all the remaining Lancastrian leaders were killed on the field or executed afterward, and, after murdering Henry (21 May) and repelling an attack on London, Edward was secure for the remainder of his life.
          He was now able to revive the project of an invasion of France in concert with the Duke of Burgundy. He made great preparations in 1474 and obtained a large grant from Parliament. In 1475 he invaded France with the largest army, it was said, that had ever left England, but he found the Duke of Burgundy very ill-prepared and the French formidable and willing to buy him out. Hence the Treaty of Picquigny was made by which Edward agreed to withdraw from France in return for 75'000 gold crowns down and a pension of 50'000 gold crowns a year. These sums helped to free Edward from dependence on parliamentary grants. As he grew older, he showed considerable ingenuity in raising money by reviving obsolescent rights and using doubtfully legal devices. Commercial treaties with France (1475), Burgundy (1468), and the Hanseatic League (1474) combined with external peace and growing internal order to revive trade strikingly after 1475, and this benefited the customs duties and other revenues. Edward became a trader himself, transporting goods in his own ships and those of foreign merchants. He began a reorganization of the revenues from the crown estates, experimenting with methods of improving yields and promoting more efficient auditing under officials of the flexible royal household treasury instead of the unadaptable Exchequer. These and other measures enabled him to leave behind a fortune; some of his improved financial administration was continued and developed by his successors Richard III and Henry VII.
          The last decade of Edward's reign also saw an improvement in law enforcement. One especially disturbed area was Wales and the Welsh marches; Edward used the royal estates there as a foundation on which to base a council that acted in the name of his infant heir, the Prince of Wales, and employed the royal prerogative to make a start in repressing disorder. It was the forerunner of the council of Wales and the marches that subjugated the area to English rule.
          Modern research has emphasized these administrative achievements of Edward IV, and contemporary and Tudor historians viewed his later years as a time of prosperity and success. He rebuilt St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and collected illuminated Flemish manuscripts. He was also a friend and patron of the printer William Caxton, and his book collection became the foundation of the Old Royal Library, later one of the glories of the British Museum.
          Edward's promiscuity enabled Richard of Gloucester, after his death, to question the validity of his marriage and so to ruin his sons. As a young man Edward had been trustful and openhanded, but his experiences made him increasingly suspicious, leading him to execute his brother George, duke of Clarence [21 Oct 1449 – 18 Feb 1478], who in former years had sided with Warwick against him. In 1482, Louis XI, in order to come to terms with the rulers of Burgundy, tacitly repudiated the Treaty of Picquigny and the annual tribute that it provided. Edward contemplated a fresh invasion of France, but before it could be carried out he fell ill and died at the age of only 40. By Elizabeth Woodville he had seven children who survived him: two sons, Edward (afterward Edward V) and Richard, duke of York, who were probably murdered in the Tower of London in August 1483, and five daughters, of whom the eldest, Elizabeth, married Henry VII.
    1348 William of Ockham, 68, mathematical logician and philosopher excommunicated in 1328. Known for “Ockham's Razor”: “Frustra fit per plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora.” or “Essentia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem.” Author of Opus nonaginta dierum — Compendium errorum Joannis Papæ XXII — Quæstiones octo de auctoritate summi pontificis.
    0715 Pope Constantine
    < 08 Apr 10 Apr >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 09 April:

    2004 Jacob Otten, Joshua Otten, Tyler Otten, Isabella Otten, Madison Otten, and Rileigh Otten, 6 weeks premature, to Tina Otten, 29, and her husband Ron Otten, 33, of Granite City, Illinois. The three boys and three girls were conceived with the help of the injection of gonadotropins (a fertility drug), as were their sisters Hannah Otten, 4, and Abigail Otten, 2. Ron Otten is an assembler at a Ford plant.
    1931 Heisuke Hironaka, Japanese mathematician. He worked on algebraic varieties.
    ^ 1919 John Presper Eckert, ENIAC developer.
          Mathematician John Presper Eckert and his partner John Mauchly pioneered the modern computer era with their development of ENIAC, the first electronic computer; EDVAC, the first stored-program computer; and UNIVAC, the first commercial computer. Mauchly and Eckert developed ENIAC and EDVAC at the University of Pennsylvania. Although ENIAC was originally commissioned by the Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory to calculate firing tables needed in World War II, the machine was not completed until six weeks after Japan surrendered in 1945. After the war, Eckert and Mauchly recognized the potential for computers to streamline business data processing. They left the University of Pennsylvania to start their own company-the original computer start-up. They received their first order in the spring of 1946 from the Census Bureau. Unfortunately, the machine's $300'000 price tag proved far less than the machine cost to develop. The new machine, UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer), took five years to develop.
    1910 Abraham A Ribicoff (Sen-D-Ct)
    1908 Victor Vasarely, Hungarian French Abstract painter, specialized in Optical Art, who died in 1997. MORE ON VASARELY AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1905 J William Fulbright (Sen-D-Ark)
    1878 Marcel Grossmann, Hungarian Swiss mathematician who died on 07 September 1936..
    1872 Léon Blum statesman
    1869 Élie Joseph Cartan, French mathematician who died on 06 May 1951. He worked on continuous groups, Lie algebras, differential equations and geometry. His work achieves a synthesis between these areas. He is one of the most important mathematicians of the first half of the 20th century.
    1835 Léopold-Louis-Philippe-Marie-Victor, Léopold II king of the Belgians from the death of his father Léopold I (16 Dec 1790 – 10 Dec 1865) to his own death on 17 Dec 1909. He led the first European efforts to develop the Congo Basin, making himself ruler of the État Indépendant du Congo in 1885 with a lucrative wild rubber production. But the mistreatment of the natives prompted the UK and the US to pressure Belgium to annex the Congo, which it did in November 1908.
    1835 Willem Karel Nakken, Dutch British artist who died on 04 January 1926.
    1834 Edmond Laguerre, French mathematician who died on 14 August 1886. He studied approximation methods and is best remembered for the special functions: the Laguerre polynomials.
    1824 John George Naish, British artist who died in 1905.
    Baudelaire^ 1821 Charles-Pierre Baudelaire , France, symbolist poet.
          One of the most influential French poets of all time, Baudelaire [1863 photo by Nadar >] was born into great expectations, anticipating a large inheritance. He studied law until 1840 but abandoned it to become a poet. He led a wild and dissolute life in Paris, became a heavy user of opium and hashish, and contracted syphilis, which would kill him years later. He ran through half his inheritance in two years and was later put on a strict monthly allowance.
          In 1844, he met the beautiful Jeanne Duval, for whom he wrote his Black Venus cycle of love poems. He began writing reviews and criticism, and became friends with such artists as Manet, Delacroix, and Daumier. Baudelaire developed a strong taste for the macabre and discovered Edgar Allen Poe in 1852. His translations helped popularize Poe in France at a time when the writer was not widely read even in his own country.
          In 1852, Baudelaire wrote his second love-poem cycle, this time inspired by Apollonie-Aglae Sabatier, his White Venus, which was followed by a third cycle, inspired by his Green Eyed Venus, actress Marie Daubrun. He collected his poems in Les Fleurs du Mal. The poems used lyrical poetic style to describe sometimes revolting subjects. Une Charogne, for example, describes a festering corpse. On 25 June 1857, Charles Baudelaire published Les Fleurs du Mal, leading to his conviction on charges of blasphemy and obscenity.
          Baudelaire, as well as the publisher and printer, were found guilty of obscenity and fined. The book went out of print, and it was only after Baudelaire's death that he was recognized as one of the country's greatest poets. Destitute, he went on a lecture tour to Belgium and fell seriously ill in 1866. He returned to Paris and died in his mother's arms on 31 August 1867, poor and unrecognized, with almost no poetry still in print.
    —  BAUDELAIRE ONLINE: Les Fleurs du MalPetits Poèmes en Prose (Le Spleen de Paris)
    — Portrait: Baudelaire (1848; 909x1107pix) by Courbet
    1816 Charles Eugène Delaunay, French mathematician and astronomer who died on 05 August 1872.
    1813 Robert Richard Anstice, English mathematician who died on 17 December 1853.
    1813 Jan Michiel Ruyten, Belgian artist who died on 12 November 1881.
    1791 Georges Peacock, English mathematician who died on 08 November 1858. In 1830 he published Treatise on Algebra which attempted to give algebra a logical treatment comparable to Euclid's Elements.
    1656 Francesco Trevisani, cavaliere romano, Italian Rococo painter who died on 30 July 1746. MORE ON TREVISANI AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
    1652 Jean Le Fèvre, French mathematician and astronomer who died in 1706.
    1458 Camilla “Battista” Varano [–31 May 1524], . Catholic saint canonized on 17 October. (more to come) —(100220)
    Holidays: Tunisia : Martyrs' Day / US, England : Churchill Day (1963) / Bolivia : National Day (1952) / Latvia : independence (1918) / Philippines : Bataan Day (1942)

    Religious Observances: / St Hugh of Rouen / St Waldetrudis of Waudru / St Uramar / St Gaucherius / St Mary Cleophas // Ang : William Law, priest / Saint Gauthier: Abbé de Saint-Martin de Pontoise, au nord de Paris, Gauthier est aimé de ses moines mais, par souci d'humilité, ne veut pas les diriger. Il porte sa démission au pape. Celui-ci la refuse. C'est à Pontoise que Gauthier meurt le 08 janvier 1099 (l'année de la prise de Jérusalem par les Croisés).
    Easter Sunday in 1882, 1939, 1944, 1950, 2023, 2034, 2045, 2102.
    Holy Thursday in 1903, 1914, 1925, 1936, 1998, 2009, 2020, 2093, 2099.

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    Thoughts for the day:
    “Beauty seldom recommends one woman to another.”
    “One woman recommends beauty to another, especially if the one recommending is a beautician.”

    updated Saturday 20-Feb-2010 21:48 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.a0 Wednesday 26-Nov-2008 13:21 UT
    v.8.31 Saturday 12-Apr-2008 21:37 UT
    v.7.30 Friday 06-Apr-2007 22:49 UT
    Wednesday 15-Mar-2006 20:14 UT
    v.5.35 Sunday 17-Apr-2005 20:03 UT
    Wednesday 14-Apr-2004 16:47 UT

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