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Events, deaths, births, of APR 05
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ALTERNATE SITES    ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” APR 05     wikipedia
Winston Churchill resigns... • Tito's friendship treaty with USSR... • Rosenbergs sentenced to death... • Pocahontas marries... • Guillotinés par la Terreur... • Bonaparte apôtre de la Paix... • Abortion march on Washington... • Darwin's The Origin of Species... • Howard Hughes dies... • IBM introduces a new mainframe... • $2'500'000 advance for The Road Ahead... • North Vietnamese offensive amplified... • Antiwar demonstrations across US... • Miners strike... • Exploding phone booth kills Palestinian... 
Enterasys price chart^  On a 05 April:
2002 Shares of Enterasys Networks Inc. (ETS) lose more than two-thirds of their value after the company announced the resignation of its chief executive officer and two other top executives. The network equipment company remains under scrutiny by the Securities and Exchange commission for its accounting practices. The previous day, the Portsmouth-based company, which has about 2600 employees, also announced a restructuring as it warned of a wider-than-expected losses and sharply lower revenues for the last two quarters. The company has delayed filing the results because of an ongoing investigation into possible fraud in the company's Asia Pacific operations. The company's stock falls from the previous day's close of $4.14 by 68% to close at $1.34 on the New York Stock Exchange. It has traded as high as $52 on 27 February 2000. [5~year ETS stock price chart >]
      Enrique Fiallo resigned as chairman, chief executive officer and president the previous day. J.E. Riddle, vice chairman and executive vice president of worldwide marketing, and Jerry Shanahan, chief operating officer, also resigned. Enterasys expects fourth quarter revenues of $145 million to $155 million, well below previous estimates. The company expects to report a loss from operations in the fourth quarter of 2001 and first quarter of 2002. Revenues for the first quarter, which ended on 30 March, were estimated at $110 million to $120 million. Analysts were expecting earnings of 3 cents per share in the fourth quarter on $190.9 million in revenue and earnings of 4 cents per share in the first quarter on $190.4 million in revenue. Enterasys, the main successor to the former Cabletron Systems Inc., announced in February 2002 that it and unidentified affiliates were being investigated by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
2000 Ending a two-year investigation, an independent counsel clears Labor Secretary Alexis Herman of allegations that she'd solicited $250'000 in illegal campaign contributions. 
2000 Yoshiro Mori is elected by an ample majority of the Japanese parliament as Japan's new prime minister, succeeding Keizo Obuchi, disabled by a stroke.
1999 Libya surrendered two suspects of the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 which killed 270 over Scotland to a UN representative for trial in the Netherlands. 
1999 In Laramie, Wyoming, Russell Henderson pleaded guilty to kidnapping and felony murder in the death of Matthew Shepard, a homosexual college student.
1998  Los presidentes de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) suscriben el Acta de Guayaquil, en la que puntualizaron de mecanismos para fortalecer la integración entre las cinco naciones. 
^ 1994 IBM introduces a new mainframe computer.
      IBM released a faster, smaller mainframe. The company had seen its profits on mainframes plummet from 70 percent to 40 percent in the past year, and worldwide mainframe shipments had dropped nearly 50 percent. Ironically, personal computers like IBM's own PC had reduced the demand for mainframes. IBM's new machine, the size of a refrigerator instead of a car, used technology originally developed in the 1980's but abandoned because the new computers would have required massive layoffs in mainframe factories.
1994 $2'500'000 advance for Gates's book
      Publishing company Penguin USA announces that it has won a hotly contested auction to publish a book by Bill Gates. Industry observers estimated that Penguin paid an advance of more than $2.5 million to the software tycoon. Gates raised eyebrows in the publishing industry by retaining foreign rights, demanding a first run printing of at least 500'000 copies, and requiring a marketing budget of at least $125'000. The book, The Road Ahead, became a best seller.
^ 1992 Abortion rights supporters march on Washington
      A march and rally in support of abortion rights for women draws several hundred thousand people to demonstrations in Washington, D.C. One of American history's largest protest marches on the nation's capital, the pro-choice rally comes as the US Supreme Court is about to consider the constitutionality of a Pennsylvania state law that limits access to abortions. Many abortion rights advocates fear that the high court, with its conservative majority, might go further and ban abortion altogether. 
      In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled in Roe v. Wade that women, as part of their constitutional right to privacy, could terminate a pregnancy during the first two trimesters. Only during the last trimester, when the fetus could survive outside the womb, would states be permitted to regulate abortion in a healthy pregnancy. The historic and controversial ruling, essentially reversing a century of anti-abortion legislation in America, was the result of a widespread call by American women for control over their own reproductive processes. Although defended by the Supreme Court on several occasions, the legalization of abortion became a divisive and intensely emotional public issue. The debate intensified during the 1980s, and both pro-choice and pro-life organizations strengthened their membership and political influence. 
      By 1992, twelve years of Republican rule in the White House had weakened abortion rights, and the Supreme Court, featuring several recent Republican appointees, threatened to overturn the 1973 ruling. In April of 1992, a massive pro-choice rally was held in Washington, and soon after, the high court refused to endorse the Pennsylvania's new restrictions and left the Roe v. Wade decision intact. In January of 1993, Bill Clinton, a Democrat, was inaugurated as president, and within days of taking office, the new president overturned several pieces of anti-abortion execution legislation signed by his predecessor, George Bush. In recent years, opponents of abortion rights have increasingly turned to violent methods in their campaign to make abortion illegal again. 
1991 The US government reports that the nation's jobless rate rose to 6.8% in March.
1991  El Consejo de Seguridad de la Organizacion de las Naciones UnidasONU condena la persecución de los kurdos en Irak y hace un llamamiento de ayuda mundial.
1989 Solidarity granted legal status in Poland.—  El Gobierno y la oposición firman en Varsovia un acuerdo histórico para abrir la vía a la democracia en Polonia.
1988  Con la firma de un acuerdo de paz, Etiopía y Somalia ponen fin a 10 años de enfrentamientos entre ambos países. 
1988 Democratic convention picks Michael Dukakis as its presidential candidate.
1986 Record for a throw-and-return boomerang toss is set (121m)
1982 Lord Carrington, British foreign minister, resigns due to Falkland Islands war.
1988 A 15-day hijacking begins as gunmen force a Kuwait Airways jumbo jet to land in Iran.
1979  Pol Pot huye al extranjero ante la llegada de las tropas vietnamitas.
1978  El dirigente independentista canario, Antonio Cubillo, es herido gravemente, víctima de un atentado perpetrado en Argel.
1976  Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo llega a Zaragoza tras haber permanecido en el exilio desde la Guerra Civil de España.
1976 Harold Wilson resigns as PM of England.
1974 Then tallest building, World Trade Center opens in NYC (110 stories). 
1974  El Gobierno español decide adelantar el horario del país en sesenta minutos con objeto de aprovechar más la luz solar y poder reducir así el consumo de energía eléctrica.
1973  Se forma el segundo Gobierno del primer ministro francés, Pierre-Auguste-Joseph Messmer.
^ 1972 North Vietnamese offensive is amplified.
      Moving out of eastern Cambodia, North Vietnamese troops open the second front of their offensive with a drive into Binh Long Province, attacking Loc Ninh, a border town 75 miles north of Saigon on Highway 13. At the same time, additional North Vietnamese cut the highway between An Loc, the provincial capital, and Saigon to the south, effectively isolating An Loc from outside support. This attack was the southernmost thrust of the three-pronged Nguyen Hue Offensive (later known as the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to An Loc in the south, were Quang Tri in the north, and Kontum in the Central Highlands. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders in each case were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces where government forces abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. In Binh Long, the North Vietnamese forces crossed into South Vietnam from Cambodia to strike first at Loc Ninh, then quickly encircled An Loc, holding it under siege for almost three months while they made repeated attempts to take the city. The defenders suffered heavy casualties, including 2300 dead or missing, but with the aid of US advisors and American airpower, they managed to hold An Loc against vastly superior odds until the siege was lifted on 18 June. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and they retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, which he had instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces. 
^ 1969 Demonstrations against Vietnam War across the US.
      Approximately 100'000 antiwar demonstrators march in New York City to demand that the United States withdraw from Vietnam. The weekend of antiwar protests ended with demonstrations and parades in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., and other cities. The National Mobilization Committee, the Student Mobilization Committee, and the Socialist Workers Party were among the groups that helped organize the demonstrations. At the same time, Quakers held sit-ins at draft boards and committed other acts of civil disobedience in more than 30 cities.
1971 Mount Etna erupts in Sicily Italy.
1969 Pope Paul VI abolished the galero (red hat) and red shoes and buckles customarily worn by Roman Catholic cardinals.
1966  Tras la victoria electoral del pasado 31 de marzo, el primer ministro de Reino Unido, James Harold Wilson, presenta su gabinete laboralista.
1965  La URSS entrega misiles tierra-aire a Vietnam del Norte.
1964 first driverless trains run on the London Underground.
1963  El Kremlin acepta el establecimiento de una línea directa con la Casa Blanca.
1962 NASA civilian pilot Neil A Armstrong takes X-15 to 54'600 m
^ 1956 Labor columnist is blinded by acid throw in his face.
      By the spring of 1956, the law seemingly had caught up with mafia bosses who controlled some of the nation's labor unions. Indeed, Manhattan US Attorney Paul Williams had not only marshaled two grand juries to tackle racketeering, but he had lined up a few key figures willing to testify against the mob, including his star witness, labor columnist Victor Riesel. On the eve of the trial, Riesel, an outspoken critic of racketeering whose "Inside Labor" column was read in 193 newspapers, wrote that the trial stood a chance to corral "the Mr. Bigs of the American crime syndicate." Yet the outspoken columnist feared that there would be retribution for his actions; during a radio show recorded in the early hours of 05 April, Riesel openly expressed his fears: "It's a lot more difficult to be a celebrity when it means taking your life in your hands," he noted. 
      A few hours after uttering those words, trouble found Riesel: an unknown assailant popped out of the shadows and tossed acid in the writer's face. The incident, apparently ordered by Johnny Dio, a bigwig in the garment racket and one of Williams's "prime targets," left Riesel permanently blinded. Though he complained that he felt like a "chump" for not spotting the attacker, Riesel remained undeterred and kept writing his column for the next few decades. 
^ 1955 Winston Churchill resigns
     Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, the British prime minister who helped guide Great Britain and the world through the crisis of World War II, retired as the leader of Great Britain.
      Born at Blenheim Palace in 1874, Churchill joined the British Fourth Hussars upon his father's death in 1895. Over the next five years, he enjoyed an illustrious military career, serving in India, the Sudan and South Africa, and distinguishing himself several times in battle. 
      In 1899, he resigned his commission to concentrate on his literary and political career, and in 1900 was elected to Parliament as a Conservative MP from Oldham. In 1904, he joined the Liberals, serving in a number of important posts before being appointed Britain's first lord of the admiralty in 1911, where he worked to bring the British Navy to a readiness for the war that he foresaw. In 1915, in the second year of World War I, Churchill was held responsible for the disastrous Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns and was thus excluded from the war coalition government. 
      However, in 1917, he returned to politics as a cabinet member in the Liberal government of Lloyd George. From 1919 to 1921 he was secretary of state for war, and in 1924 returned to the Conservative Party, where two years later played he a leading role in the defeat of the General Strike of 1926. Out of office from 1929 to 1939, Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of Nazi and Japanese aggression. 
      After the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Churchill returned to his post as first lord of the admiralty, and eight months later replaced Neville as prime minister of a new coalition government. In the first year of his administration, Britain stood alone against Nazi Germany, and Churchill promised his country and the world that the British people would "never surrender." During World War II, Churchill shaped the Atlantic Charter; inspired the Royal Air Force to victory in the Battle of Britain; secured US support for the British war effort from President Franklin D. Roosevelt; devised the successful strategy at El Alamein in North Africa; directed the Royal Navy to victory in the Battle of the Atlantic; and forged the grand alliance between Britain, the US, and the USSR that crushed the Axis powers. 
      After a postwar Labor Party victory in 1945, he became leader of the opposition and in 1951 he was again elected prime minister. In 1953, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his six-volume historical study of World War II and for his oratory, and in the same year he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. In 1955, he retired from the post of prime minister, but remained in Parliament until 1964, the year before his death. 
1954  Anastasio Somoza García, presidente de Nicaragua, sale ileso de un atentado atribuido a la llamada Legión del Caribe.
1953 In Washington, D.C., President Dwight Eisenhower inaugurated the Presidential Prayer Breakfast. (Its name was later changed to the Annual National Prayer Breakfast.)
1953  La compañía BOAC inaugura el enlace aéreo con Tokio, que gracias al tetrarreactor Comet se acorta de 44 a 28,5 horas.
1952  Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar se hace cargo, provisionalmente, de la Presidencia de Cuba, tras acordar ciertas enmiendas en la Constitución.
^ 1951 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg sentenced to death.
     At the end of a highly publicized espionage case, death sentences are imposed against Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, one week after the couple were found guilty of conspiring to transmit atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. Co-defendant Morton Sobell is sentenced to 30 years in prison (he would be released in 1969)
      The case began with the arrest of Klaus Fuchs, a German-born and US-employed scientist who confessed to passing classified information about the US atomic program to the Soviets. Following his 1950 conviction, US authorities began an extensive investigation of Los Alamos, New Mexico, the top secret US atomic development headquarters where Fuchs worked during the war. Harry Gold, a Philadelphia chemist, was arrested as a Fuchs accomplice, followed by David Greenglass, who had been stationed near the Los Alamos atomic testing site during the war. 
      In July of 1950, Ethel Rosenberg, the sister of Greenglass, was arrested along with her husband, Julius, an electrical engineer who had worked for the US Army Signal Corps during the war. Alleged to have Communist leanings, the couple was accused of convincing Greenglass to provide Harry Gold with atomic secrets. During their subsequent trial, the Rosenbergs maintained their innocence, although Greenglass, who had pleaded guilty, agreed to testify against them. At the trial's end in the spring of 1951, David Greenglass was sentenced to fifteen years in prison, Harry Gold was sentenced to a thirty years, and the Rosenbergs were sentenced to death. 
      Despite court appeals and pleas for executive clemency, the Rosenbergs, the first US civilians to be sentenced to death in an espionage trial, were executed by electrocution on 19 June 1953.
      The trial occurred at the height of McCarthyism in the early 1950s; critics of the case argued that the political climate of the time made a fair trial impossible. Others questioned whether the Rosenbergs deserved execution, especially as the only seriously incriminating evidence had come from a confessed spy who desired, and was granted, a reduced sentence for testifying against them. In one of her last letters before being executed, Ethel Rosenberg wrote, "My husband and I must be vindicated by history; we are the first victims of American Fascism." 
     A federal judge sentences Julius and Ethel Rosenberg to death for their roles in passing atomic secrets to the Soviets. Although the couple proclaimed their innocence, they died in the electric chair in June 1953. The Rosenbergs were convicted of playing a central role in a spy ring that passed secret data concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union during and immediately after World War II. Their part in the espionage came to light when British physicist Klaus Fuchs was arrested in Great Britain in early 1950. Under questioning, Fuchs admitted that he stole secret documents while he was working on the Manhattan Project-the top-secret US program to build an atomic bomb during World War II. He implicated Harry Gold as a courier who delivered the documents to Soviet agents. Gold was arrested a short time later and informed on David Greenglass, who then pointed the finger at his sister and brother-in-law, Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. 
      Julius was arrested in July and Ethel in August 1950. After a brief trial in March 1951, the Rosenbergs were found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. At their sentencing hearing in April, Federal Judge Irving R. Kaufman described their crime as "worse than murder" and charged, "By your betrayal you undoubtedly have altered the course of history to the disadvantage of our country." He sentenced them to death. The Rosenbergs and their attorneys continued to plead their innocence, arguing that they were "victims of political hysteria." Humanitarian organizations in the United States and around the world pleaded for leniency, particularly since the Rosenbergs were the parents of two young children. The pleas for special consideration were ignored, and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed on 19 June 1953. 
1946  Los rusos se comprometen a evacuar sus tropas en Irán.
^ 1945 Tito signs “friendship treaty” with Soviet Union
      Yugoslav partisan leader Tito signs an agreement permitting "temporary entry of Soviet troops into Yugoslav territory." 
      Josip Broz, alias "Tito," secretary general of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, led a partisan counteroffensive movement against the Axis occupying powers of Germany and Italy in 1941. Recognized by the Allies as the leader of the Yugoslav resistance, he was, in fact, the leader of a power grab meant not only to expel the Axis forces but to wrest control of Yugoslavia in the postwar environment from both royalist and democratic movements. Once the Soviet army liberated Serbia, the fate of Yugoslavia as a Communist-dominated nation was sealed. 
      Tito's task now lay in remaining independent of both the USS.R. and the West. To this end, he created a "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that became known for its nonalignment stance. As part of the agreement signed on 05 April 1945, Tito secured a proviso that the Soviets would leave Yugoslavia once its "operational task" was completed. Ensuring compliance with this clause proved problematic, as Stalin tried to maintain a presence in postwar Yugoslavia, attempting to co-opt the Yugoslav Communist Party and create another puppet state. 
      He failed; Tito played the West against the East in a Machiavellian scheme to keep his own Stalin-like grip on his country. Although he permitted cultural and scientific freedom unheard of in Soviet-bloc countries, he was also guilty of purging centrist and democratic forces fighting for reform within Yugoslavia and centralizing all power in one party. But upon Tito's death, in 1980, the center could not hold--chaos was ultimately unleashed in the form of ethnic civil war. 
    Yugoslav partisan leader Tito signs an agreement permitting "temporary entry of Soviet troops into Yugoslav territory." Josip Broz, alias "Tito," secretary general of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, led a partisan counteroffensive movement against the Axis occupying powers of Germany and Italy in 1941. Recognized by the Allies as the leader of the Yugoslav resistance, he was, in fact, the leader of a power grab meant not only to expel the Axis forces but to wrest control of Yugoslavia in the postwar environment from both royalist and democratic movements. Once the Soviet army liberated Serbia, the fate of Yugoslavia as a communist-dominated nation was sealed. Tito's task now lay in remaining independent of both the USS.R. and the West. To this end, he created a "second Yugoslavia," a socialist federation that became known for its nonalignment stance. As part of the agreement signed on 05 April 1945, Tito secured a proviso that the Soviets would leave Yugoslavia once its "operational task" was completed. Ensuring compliance with this clause proved problematic, as Stalin tried to maintain a presence in postwar Yugoslavia, attempting to co-opt the Yugoslav Communist Party and create another puppet state. He failed; Tito played the West against the East in a Machiavellian scheme to keep his own Stalin-like grip on his country. Although he permitted cultural and scientific freedom unheard of in Soviet-bloc countries, he was also guilty of purging centrist and democratic forces fighting for reform within Yugoslavia and centralizing all power in one party. But upon Tito's death, in 1980, the center could not hold--chaos was ultimately unleashed in the form of ethnic civil war. 
1945  La URSS anula el pacto de neutralidad con Japón.
1942  El Alto Mando alemán ordena concentrar la ofensiva de verano en el Cáucaso.
1942 Dimiten 5000 pastores protestantes noruegos en protesta contra el títere nazi Vidkun Quisling. 
1942 La aviación japonesa destruye la ciudad de Colombo, en Ceilán.1941.
1941 La URSS y Yugoslavia firman un pacto de amistad.
1941 Los presidentes de Colombia, Eduardo Santos Montejo, y Venezuela, Eleazar López Contreras, firman el tratado de límites entre ambos países. 
1939  Albert Lebrun es reelegido presidente de la Tercera República Francesa. 
1938 Anti-Jewish riots in Dabrowa, Poland.
1938  Tras la entrada de las primeras tropas nacionales en tierras catalanas, Francisco Franco Bahamonde declara abolido el Estatuto de Cataluña.
1938 Un congreso del Kuomintang, celebrado en Hankau, otorga a Jiang Jieshi el título de secretario general, además de concederle plenos poderes dictatoriales.
1934  Ocho empleados de prisiones son condenados, a instancias de Hermann Wilhelm Goering, a penas de cárcel por haber maltratado a presos. 
1933  El cirujano estadounidense Evarts Ambrose Graham realiza con éxito, en una sola sesión, la primera extracción del lóbulo de un pulmón afectado por un cáncer (at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri). 
1930  Mohandas Garamchand “Mahatma” Ghandi defies British colonial law by making salt in India. 
1926  Del aeropuerto de Cuatro Vientos (Madrid) despegan los tres aviones de la escuadrilla Elcano con idea de llegar a Manila.
1925  La huelga metalúrgica en Berlín es secundada por 250'000 trabajadores.
1919 Eamon de Valera becomes president of Dail Eireann.
1918  Los japoneses desembarcan en Vladivostok.
1918   El Gobierno de los Estados Unidos asume el aval para el empréstito de $3500 millones destinados a la organización de la economía de guerra.1914  Enric Prat de la Riba i Sarrà es elegido presidente de la Mancomunidad de Cataluña.
1915  El Ejército francés emprende una gran ofensiva en los ríos Mosa y Mosela.
1914  Enric Prat de la Riba i Sarrà es elegido presidente de la Mancomunidad de Cataluña.
1906 Conservationists, civic leaders, and government officials submit testimony before Congress in favor of the establishment of the National Park Service in the first of two day of the Hearing Before the Committee on Public Lands
1906 St Pius X encyclical On the Mariavites or Mystic Priests of Poland.
1906  El Vesubio entra en erupción. 
1900  Bélgica concede un crédito para la explotación del Congo.
1895 Playwright Oscar Wilde loses his criminal libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry, who had accused him of homosexual practices. John Sholto Douglas, 8th marquess of Queensberry, (1844–1900), is famous for drafting (1865), with the aid of John G. Chambers, the Queensberry rules for the sport of boxing. In 1895, objecting to the liaison between his son, Lord Alfred Douglas, and Oscar Wilde, Queensberry left an insulting letter to Wilde in a public place and was sued for libel by the writer. In this libel suit, which Wilde dropped, information was brought to light that led to the conviction of Wilde for immoral conduct. 
1895 Start of Sherlock Holmes's Adventure of the 3 Students.
1894 Start of Sherlock Holmes's Adventure of the Empty House
1889 Start of Sherlock Holmes's Adventure of The Copper Beeches.
1887 In Tuscumbia, Alabama, teacher Anne Sullivan teaches her blind and deaf pupil, Helen Keller, the meaning of the word ''water'' as spelled out in the manual alphabet. 
1881 Transvaal regains independence under British suzerainty 
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues. 
1862 Siege of Yorktown, Virginia begins.
1861 Federals abandon Fort Quitman, Texas. — [Did someone tell their commander: “Quit Quitman, man!” ?]
^ 1859 Darwin's The Origin of Species starts going to publisher.
      Naturalist Charles Darwin sends to his publishers the first three chapters of The Origin of Species, which will become one of the most influential books ever published. Knowing the fates of scientists who had published radical theories and been ostracized or worse, Darwin held off publishing his theory of natural selection for years. He secretly developed his theory during two decades of surreptitious research following his return from a five-year voyage to South America on the HMS Beagle as the ship's unpaid botanist. Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages, including the HMS Beagle's trip. By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London. Darwin began publishing studies of zoology and geology as soon as he returned from his voyage, while secretly working on his radical theory of evolution. Meanwhile, he married and had seven children. He finally published The Origin of Species after another scientist began publishing papers with similar ideas. When the book appeared in November 1859, it sold out immediately. By 1872, six editions had been published. It laid the groundwork for modern botany, cellular biology, and genetics. Darwin died in 1882. 
1843  Queen Victoria proclaims Hong Kong to be a British crown colony.  
1818  Las tropas realistas españolas de Mariano Osorio son derrotadas por las de José de San Martín en la batalla de Maipú, lo que supuso la independencia definitiva de Chile.
1815 Eruption of Tambora volcano (Sumbawa Java) 
1812 Brits storm Badajoz fortress, held by French and Spanish 
^ 1802 Bonaparte apôtre de la Paix (!!?)
      Lettre de Milan du 15 avril 1802 du Consul d'État italien Melzi au premier Consul de la République française: 
      "La paix que vous avez conclue [18020405] avec l'Angleterre couronne vos opérations guerrières. En six ans vous avez parcouru l'espace de plusieurs siècles de gloire. L'univers étonné, vous regarde comme homme unique. L'Europe gémissait sous le poids d'une guerre désastreuse, terrible, telle que l'histoire n'en offre aucun exemple. Vous avez dit : Que tant de maux cessent ; les maux ont cessé. Vous avez fermé les portes du temple de janus. Bienfaiteur sublime de l'humanité, goûtez la grande satisfaction d'avoir établi la prospérité de votre nation, d'avoir assuré la sécurité en Europe."
1795  Se firma la Paz de Basilea, por la que se pone fin a la primera guerra entre la Francia revolucionaria y la Primera Coalición contrarrevolucionaria. 
1793 Ils en font une tête ! Lors de la Révolution française, en 1793, la Convention autorise l’Accusateur du Tribunal Public de faire arrêter et poursuivre devant le Tribunal tout prévenu sur base d’une simple dénonciation, même anonyme. Des centaines d’inculpés subiront la guillotine dans les mois qui suivirent. Fraternité Egalité, Liberté, que de crimes commis en vos nom!
1792 George Washington casts first US presidential veto, rejecting a congressional measure for apportioning representatives among the states
1762 British take Grenada, West Indies, from French.
1751 Adolfo Federico de Holstein-Gottori-Eutin, obispo de Lubeck, es elegido rey de Suecia al no haber dejado hijos la reina Ulrica Leonor, hermana de Carlos XII. 
1632  Las tropas del elector Maximiliano de Baviera, bajo el mando del conde de Tilly, son derrotadas por las de Gustavo de Suecia en la batalla de Lech.
1621 Mayflower sails from Plymouth, Massachusetts on a return trip to England.
1614 2nd parliament of King James I begin session (no enactments)
4 imagined Pocahontas^ 1614 Pocahontas marries John Rolfe
[The many different depictions of Pocahontas are based solely on imagination. Pictured clockwise from top left are those of : Mary Ellen Howe (1994), Robert Matthew Sully (1855), Thomas Sully (1852), Jean Leon Ferris (1921) >]
     In Virginia, Pocahontas, the daughter of Powhatan, chief of the Algonquian Indian confederacy, married John Rolfe, a Jamestown tobacco planter. 
      Seven years earlier, approximately one hundred colonists settled along the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America. In December of the same year, Captain John Smith, an English adventurer, and two colonists were captured by Algonquian warriors while searching for provisions in the Virginia wilderness. Smith's companions were killed, but he was spared, because, according to Smith, of the intercession of Pocahontas, Chief Powhatan's teenage daughter. 
      Over the next three years, disease, starvation, and Native-American attacks wiped out most of the colony, but the London Company continually sent more settlers and supplies, and Powhatan sometimes provided supplies for the needy colonists. Pocahontas also served as an emissary for her father on several occasions, and became acquainted with the English and their ways. In 1612, John Rolfe cultivated the first tobacco at Jamestown, introducing a successful source of livelihood that would have far-reaching importance for Virginia. 
      In early 1613, Pocahontas was taken hostage by English Captain Samuel Argall, who hoped to exchange her for colonists held by her father. Brought to Jamestown, she was put under the custody of Sir Thomas Gates, the marshal of Virginia. Gates treated her as a guest rather than a prisoner, and encouraged her to better learn English customs and the Protestant religion. During this time she met John Rolfe, who sought permission from Gates to marry Pocahontas. She converted to Christianity, was baptized and given the Christian name of Rebecca, and on 05 April 1614, she marries Rolfe. 
      Their marriage brought a temporary peace between the English colonists and the Algonquians, and in 1616, the couple sailed to England. The so-called "Indian Princess" proved popular with the English gentry, and in March of 1617, Pocahontas and Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia. However, before they could leave the Thames River, Pocahontas died,- likely a victim of the wet English winter-and was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England 
     The true story: "Pocahontas" was a nickname, meaning "the naughty one" or "spoiled child". Her real name was Matoaka. The legend is that she saved a heroic John Smith from being clubbed to death by her father in 1607 - she would have been about 10 or 11 at the time. 
      The truth is that Smith's fellow colonists described him as an abrasive, ambitious, self-promoting mercenary soldier. Of all of Powhatan's children, only "Pocahontas" is known, primarily because she became the hero of Euro-Americans as the "good Indian", one who saved the life of a white man. 
phony Disney Pocahontas      The first time John Smith told the story about this rescue was 17 years after it happened, and it was but one of three reported by the pretentious Smith that he was saved from death by a prominent woman. Yet in an account Smith wrote after his winter stay with Powhatan's people, he never mentioned such an incident. In fact, the starving adventurer reported he had been kept comfortable and treated in a friendly fashion as an honored guest of Powhatan and Powhatan's brothers. Most scholars think the "Pocahontas incident" would have been highly unlikely, especially since it was part of a longer account used as justification to wage war on Powhatan's Nation.
[< the completely phony Disney Pocahontas]
      The Pocahontas story has a sad ending. In 1612, at the age of 17, Pocahontas was treacherously taken prisoner by the English while she was on a social visit, and was held hostage at Jamestown for over a year. During her captivity, a 28-year-old widower named John Rolfe took a "special interest" in the attractive young prisoner. As a condition of her release, she agreed to marry Rolfe, whom the world can thank for commercializing tobacco.
      Thus, on 05 April 1614, Matoaka, also known as "Pocahontas", daughter of Chief Powhatan, became "Rebecca Rolfe". Shortly after, they had a son, whom they named Thomas Rolfe. The descendants of Pocahontas and John Rolfe were known as the "Red Rolfes." 
      Two years later, in the spring of 1616, Rolfe took her to England where the Virginia Company of London used her in their propaganda campaign to support the colony. She was wined and dined and taken to theaters. It was recorded that on one occasion when she encountered John Smith (who was also in London at the time), she was so furious with him that she turned her back to him, hid her face, and went off by herself for several hours. Later, in a second encounter, she called him a liar and showed him the door.
      Rolfe, his young wife, and their son set off for Virginia in March of 1617, but "Rebecca" had to be taken off the ship at Gravesend. She died there on 21 March 1617, at the age of 21.
      It was only after her death and her fame in London society that Smith found it convenient to invent the yarn that she had rescued him. History tells the rest. Chief Powhatan died the following spring of 1618. The people of Smith and Rolfe turned upon the people who had shared their resources with them and had shown them friendship. During Pocahontas' generation, Powhatan's people were decimated and dispersed and their lands were taken over. 
      Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Indian confederacy, marries English tobacco planter John Rolfe in Jamestown, Virginia. The marriage ensured peace between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan Indians for several years. In May 1607, about 100 English colonists settled along the James River in Virginia to found Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America. The settlers fared badly because of famine, disease, and Indian attacks, but were aided by 27-year-old English adventurer John Smith, who directed survival efforts and mapped the area. While exploring the Chickahominy River in December 1607, Smith and two colonists were captured by Powhatan warriors.
      At the time, the Powhatan confederacy consisted of around 30 Tidewater-area tribes led by Chief Wahunsonacock, known as Chief Powhatan to the English. Smith's companions were killed, but he was spared and released, (according to a 1624 account by Smith) because of the dramatic intercession of Pocahontas, Chief Powhatan's 13-year-old daughter. Her real name was Matoaka, and Pocahontas was a pet name that has been translated variously as "playful one" and "my favorite daughter." In 1608, Smith became president of the Jamestown colony, but the settlement continued to suffer. An accidental fire destroyed much of the town, and hunger, disease, and Indian attacks continued. During this time, Pocahontas often came to Jamestown as an emissary of her father, sometimes bearing gifts of food to help the hard-pressed settlers. She befriended the settlers and became acquainted with English ways.
      In 1609, Smith was injured from a fire in his gunpowder bag and was forced to return to England. After Smith's departure, relations with the Powhatan deteriorated and many settlers died from famine and disease in the winter of 1609-10. Jamestown was about to be abandoned by its inhabitants when Baron De La Warr (also known as Delaware) arrived in June 1610 with new supplies and rebuilt the settlement--the Delaware River and the colony of Delaware were later named after him. John Rolfe also arrived in Jamestown in 1610 and two years later cultivated the first tobacco there, introducing a successful source of livelihood that would have far-reaching importance for Virginia. In the spring of 1613, English Captain Samuel Argall took Pocahontas hostage, hoping to use her to negotiate a permanent peace with her father. Brought to Jamestown, she was put under the custody of Sir Thomas Gates, the marshal of Virginia. Gates treated her as a guest rather than a prisoner and encouraged her to learn English customs. She converted to Christianity and was baptized Lady Rebecca. Powhatan eventually agreed to the terms for her release, but by then she had fallen in love with John Rolfe, who was about 10 years her senior. On 05 April 1614, Pocahontas and John Rolfe married with the blessing of Chief Powhatan and the governor of Virginia. Their marriage brought a peace between the English colonists and the Powhatans, and in 1615 Pocahontas gave birth to their first child, Thomas. 
      In 1616, the couple sailed to England. The so-called Indian Princess proved popular with the English gentry, and she was presented at the court of King James I. In March 1617, Pocahontas and Rolfe prepared to sail back to Virginia. However, the day before they were to leave, Pocahontas died, probably of smallpox, and was buried at the parish church of St. George in Gravesend, England. John Rolfe returned to Virginia and was killed in an Indian massacre in 1622. After an education in England, their son Thomas Rolfe returned to Virginia and became a prominent citizen. John Smith returned to the New World in 1614 to explore the New England coast. On another voyage of exploration in 1614, he was captured by pirates but escaped after three months of captivity. He then returned to England, where he died in 1631. 
^1566 GEUZEN: A number of Dutch noblemen present a petition to the regent of the Netherlands, Margaret of Parma, who reigns over the Low Countries on behalf of her brother, King Philip II [1527-1598]. They ask her to show leniency towards the burgeoning Protestant Reformation. The country is in the throes of an economic crisis, with unemployment and famine; if the harsh repression of the heretics continue, it is feared that unrest is bound to follow. During the audience in Margaret's palace in Brussels, one of her advisers refers, in French, to the Dutch nobles as 'gueux': beggars. The Dutch rebels would immediately adopt the word (modified to 'geuzen') as a badge of honor. The most famous would be the Sea Beggars, fugitives from the Spaniards who plied the waters as privateers. One of their fights againts the Spanish fleet was commemorated in Battle of Haarlemmermeer, 26 May 1573 (1621, 190x268cm), painted by Hendrick Vroom. That battle occured during the Eighty Years War (1568-1648) in which the Dutch fought off Spanish rule and which led to the foundation of the Dutch Republic, which comprised the seven northern United Provinces of the Netherlands (Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland), the Southern Netherlands remaining loyal to the Spanish king. The division of the Netherlands also led to a religious split. While the south remained Catholic, the northern provinces tolerated different denominations, with the Protestant Dutch Reformed Church as the official church of the Republic.

1356 Complot ! Charles le Mauvais, roi de Navarre et gendre du roi de France, complote avec le roi d'Angleterre et tente de dresser le Dauphin contre son père, Jean II le Bon. Excédé, le roi vient lui-même à Rouen où il fait enfermer son gendre. 
Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod defeats Teutonic Knights.
^ 1242 Alexandre Nevski bat les Teutons
      Au début du XIIIe siècle, Gengis Khan et les Mongols ravagent la steppe, de la Chine à la Hongrie. Le successeur de Gengis Khan s'installe sur les bords de la Volga et les princes russes, désunis, se soumettent à son autorité. C'est ainsi que l'invasion mongole brise net en Russie les progrès de la civilisation. Pendant ce temps, l'Occident brille de tous ses feux et érige ses cathédrales. Les Suédois, les Allemands et les Lituaniens profitent de la situation pour coloniser la plaine orientale. 
      Dans ce moment tragique de l'histoire russe surgit un sauveur du nom d'Alexandre. Il descend d'un aventurier suédois, Riurik, qui s'était proclamé prince de Novgorod au IXe siècle. À la tête des troupes de la cité marchande de Novgorod, le jeune prince (20 ans) vainc les Suédois au bord de la Neva. Cette première victoire lui vaut le surnom de Nevski. 
      Alexandre Nevski [1220 – 14 Nov 1263] confirme son succès le 05 Apr 1242 en massacrant les Chevaliers Teutoniques et les Chevaliers Porte-Glaives sur les glaces du lac Peïpous, à la limite de l'Estonie actuelle. Les vaincus de la «bataille de la Glace» appartiennent à des ordres monastiques allemands. Leur objectif officiel est de christianiser les populations slaves. Dans les faits, ils préfèrent décimer ces populations et les remplacer par des colons allemands. Leur défaite met un terme à la poussée des Allemands vers l'Est (le «Drang nach Osten»).
      Plus tard, l'un des fils d'Alexandre Nevski héritera de la petite principauté de Moscou. Ses descendants unifieront peu à peu la plaine russe à leur profit jusqu'à ce que l'un d'eux, Ivan IV le Terrible, s'émancipe des Mongols et instaure par la violence un État centralisé. En 1938, à la veille de la Seconde guerre mondiale, Staline commandera au cinéaste Eisenstein un film de propagande intitulé «Alexandre Nevski» pour raviver le nationalisme russe.
[Aleksandr Nevsky in paintings]
--2348 BC Noah's ark grounded, Mt Ararat (calculated date) 
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^  Deaths which occurred on a 05 April:

2007 Barry Lee Bush, 52, FBI agent, shot by the police team with which he was and which mistook him for one of the suspects of being about to rob the PNC Bank (Pittsburgh National Corporation) on Route 22 in the Whitehouse section of Readington Township, New Jersey. This happened in the parking lot of the Arvins Farm and Garden Center across Route 22 from the bank. Two suspects, Wilfredo Berrios, 28, and Michael Cruz, 21, were arrested there and the third, who escaped on foot, Francisco Herrera-Genao, 22, was arrested the next day after an intensive manhunt. —(070412)
2005 Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows on 10 June 1915, the son of Russian Jewish immigrants in Montreal, he moved as a child to Chicago, the city which became the anchor of his life and work as a writer, mostly of novels. His characterizations of modern urban man, disaffected by society but not destroyed in spirit, earned him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976. Brought up in a Jewish household and fluent in Yiddish, which influenced his energetic English style, he was representative of the Jewish-American writers whose works became central to US literature after World War II. Author of Dangling Man (1944), The Victim (1947), The Adventures of Augie March (1953), Henderson the Rain King (1959), Seize the Day (1956), Mosby's Memoirs and Other Stories (1968), To Jerusalem and Back (1976), Herzog (1964), Mr. Sammler's Planet (1970), Humboldt's Gift (1975), The Dean's December (1982), More Die of Heartbreak (1987), A Theft (1989), The Bellarosa Connection (1989), Technology and the Frontiers of Knowledge (1974), Him With His Foot in His Mouth (1984), Something to Remember Me By: Three Tales (1991), Occasional Pieces (1993), It All Adds Up: From the Dim Past to the Uncertain Future (1994), The Actual (1997), Ravelstein (2000), Collected Stories (2001).
2005 Fernando Partida Castañeda, a lawyer, shot three times in the head and three times in the chest with 9mm-caliber bullets, in the evening, in his car in the parking lot of the restaurant. Aldahabi, where he had just dined, in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico. He had defended drug traffickers.
2004 Some 40 persons in the Villa de Fuente neighborhood of Piedras Negras, Coahuila, Mexico, in dawn flash flood of the Río Escondido which rises 8 meters in 15 minutes. Some 50 persons are injured.
Whistnant2003 Ricky Whistnant, 39 [photo >], after kids grabbed bottles of soda which he had just bought, threw them at him, one bottle strikes him on the side of the head, he falls hitting his head on a radiator, the kids kick him and pour soda on him, in the lobby of the apartment building at 22 Elliott Street in a crime-ridden neighborhood of Hartford, Connecticut, where social services agency Community Enterprises had placed him, for he was retarded. The incident is recorded on a security videotape. Whistnant weighed 140 kg, occasionally dressed in a homemade Batman costume, said he was a crime-fighter, and shouted at drug dealers: “You're gonna stop all this drug dealing!”. Sometimes he would be seen slumped in the hallway, sobbing because he had been picked on by passers-by. A few hours later the police would arrest three boys accused of this crime: a 13-year-old, and Jermaine Lee and Joseph Bonner, who both will be tried as adults because they are 14; and Bonner's half-brother, Ronald Adams, 13. The mother of Bonner and Adams, Claudia Smith, is also Lee's legal guardian. The three boys were accustomed to tormenting weak and infirm people and had been arrested several times. Bonner was on homebound instruction because of misbehavior at school.
2003 Donald W. Fiske, 86, of a heart attack, US psychologist who helped establish the multiple-method approach to social science research and challenged the idea that personalities could be defined with traits that were consistent through time and across situations. Author of Strategies for Personality Research: The Observation Versus Interpretation of Behavior (1978).
2003 At least one US soldier and possibly some 2000 Iraqi soldiers and irregulars, as well as some innocent civilians caught in the crossfire, during a 3-hour incursion along 20 km of 4-to-6-lane Highway 8 through Baghdad by some 60 US tanks and armored vehicles .
2003 Benjamin Sammis, 29, a US Marine captain, pilot of a Cobra helicopter, in combat in Iraq, in the early pre-dawn hours.
2003 Some 70 prisoners, guards, and visitors as those of the gangs “Mara Salvatrucha” and “La 18” fight each other, and set fires inside the El Porvenir prison in La Ceiba, Honduras, for men awaiting trial. Guards do much of the killing. Some prisoners are locked in their cells, doused with gasoline, and set on fire. Some 70 prisoners and intervening guards are injured. Some prisoners escape.
2003 Alle Natsha, Hamas activist, killed by Israeli soldiers after he shot at the Kiryat Arba enclave settlement, West Bank. In the night of 14 to 15 April 2003, the Israeli army would destroy Natsha's home in Hebron.
2001 Ahmed Attar, 15, Palestinian, shot by Israeli soldiers during clashes with stone-throwing protesters in the central Gaza Strip. Nine other Palestinians are injured.
^ 2001 Iyad Hardan, 30, Palestinian militant, by exploding phone booth.
     In the West Bank, a Palestinian militant accused by Israel of masterminding bomb attacks is killed when a booby-trapped public phone explodes as he uses it. The Palestinians said the slaying of Iyad Hardan, a top member of the radical Islamic Jihad movement, was the latest targeting killing of a Palestinian activist by Israel -- just hours after the Palestinians asked Israel to stop the practice during negotiations Wednesday night. 
      The slaying of the Jihad militant came in the northern West Bank town of Jenin. Hardan was making a call from a pay phone outside a Palestinian prison were he has been detained when the phone exploded. Palestinian officials frequently allowed Hardan out to use the phone. 
      Israel has said that Hardan masterminded a December 2000 bombing in northern Israel that killed two Israelis and a 1998 car bombing in a Jerusalem market that killed the two Palestinian assailants and injured 21 Israelis. Hardan was released from the Palestinian jail in November 2000 after the Palestinian uprising began, but was later rearrested.
1995 Christian Pineau, plenipotenciario francés en la firma del Tratado de Roma.
1997 Allen Ginsberg, 70, in New York City, counterculture guru who shattered conventions as poet laureate of the Beat Generation. 
1992 Sam Walton, 74, Billionaire CEO (Wal-Mart founder), of cancer.
1991 John Tower (Sen-R-Tx), his daughter and 21 other persons, in commuter plane crash near Brunswick, Georgia. 
1986 US soldier and Turkish woman, in West Berlin discotheque La Belle's bombing by Lybians. 155 persons are injured. US warplanes would retaliate by bombing Lybia on 15 April 1986.
1980 (Holy Saturday) Margaret Ann Pahl, born on 06 April 1908, a Sister of Mercy of the Union, strangled then stabbed 31 times with a letter opener, in the sacristy of the chapel of Mercy Hospital, Toledo, Ohio, where she was the sacristan, preparing for the Easter Vigil, by Father Gerald Robinson [14 Apr 1938~], one of the two chaplains, who didn't get along with her. On 23 April 2004, Father Robinson would be arrested, charged with this murder, for which he would be, on 11 May 2006 convicted and sentenced to 15 years to life in prison. He was transferred from the hospital a year after the stabbing and became pastor at three parishes in Toledo. At the time of his arrest, he ministered to the sick and dying in nursing homes and hospitals. — (060511)
^ 1976 Howard Robard Hughes, 72, reclusive billionaire
     Hughes , one of the richest men to emerge from the US West during the 20th century, dies while flying from Acapulco to Houston. Born in Houston, Texas, in 1905, Hughes inherited an estate of nearly a million dollars when his father died in 1923. Hughes' father also left him the business that had created this fortune, the Hughes Tool Company, which controlled the rights to a new oil drill technology that was in high demand. The young Hughes quickly began to expand his business empire into new fields. In 1926, he moved to Hollywood, where he became involved in the rapidly growing movie industry. He produced several popular films, including Hell's Angels, Scarface, and The Outlaw. Fascinated with the new technology of airplanes, Hughes also invested heavily in the burgeoning West Coast aviation industry. With some training in engineering from the California Institute of Technology and the Rice Institute of Technology, Hughes designed his own aircraft and then had his Hughes Aircraft Company build it. In 1935, he piloted one of his airplanes to a new world-speed record of 567.23 km/h.
      His reputation as an aircraft designer and builder suffered after an ill-fated WWII government-sponsored project to build an immense plane that Hughes claimed would be able to transport 750 passengers. Nicknamed the Spruce Goose, Hughes' monstrosity flew only once: a one-mile hop on 02 November 1947. Never an extrovert, Hughes became increasingly reclusive after 1950. Operating through managers who rarely saw him in person, he bought up vast tracts of real estate in California, Arizona, and Nevada that skyrocketed in value. In 1967, he became involved in the Nevada gambling industry when he purchased the famous Desert Inn Hotel on the Las Vegas strip. Nevada gaming authorities welcomed Hughes' involvement because it counteracted the popular image that the Mafia dominated the gambling industry.
      By the early 1970s, Hughes had become the largest single landholder in Nevada, and with around 8,000 Nevada residents on his payroll, Hughes was also the state's largest employer. Although the rumors of Hughes' bizarre behavior have been exaggerated--in part due to a fraudulent memoir published in 1971--in his final years the billionaire became even more obsessed with privacy. He continually moved between his residences in Las Vegas, the Bahamas, Nicaragua, Canada, England, and Mexico. Other than a few male aides, almost nobody saw Hughes, and he sometimes worked for days at a stretch in a black-curtained room without sleeping. Emaciated and deranged from too little food and too many drugs, Hughes finally became so ill that his aides decided that he needed medical treatment. He died in his airplane en route from Acapulco to Houston at the age of 70. 
     Hughes's checkered, though certainly profitable, career started at the tender age of 17, when he assumed control of his late father's tool company. A few years later, Hughes headed to Hollywood, where he produced a string of gritty classics, including The Outlaw and Scarface. In 1948, Hughes parlayed his clout and capital into a majority stake in RKO Pictures. Hughes soon sold his shares in RKO, only to buy it outright in 1954; ever the eccentric, Hughes waited but a year to sell the studio. Along the way, the offbeat millionaire indulged his passion for aviation, establishing the Hughes Aircraft Company and later buying a majority stake in Trans World Airlines. During the 1930s, Hughes flew his own custom-made plane into the record books, breaking various speed and flight-time records. Despite his glittery achievements and hefty bankroll, Hughes was never one for publicity; he ultimately retreated from public life in 1950. Hughes eventually sequestered himself away in an ever-rotating series of luxury hotels, where he would toil for days on end, surviving on a diet that leaned more heavily toward drugs than food. Hughes's death in 1976 touched off a well-publicized scrap, as a number of wills, all supposedly in the millionaire's name, were unearthed. The wills were all ultimately dismissed as frauds.
1975 Chiang Kai-shek (= Jiang Jieshi), 87, leader of the Guomitang (Republic of China = Taiwan)
^ 1964 Douglas MacArthur, US general born on 26 January 1880, in Little Rock, Arkansas, gives the lie to his “Old soldiers never die, they just fade away” speech of 19 April 1951, though he has already “faded away”. He commanded the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II, administered postwar Japan during the Allied occupation that followed, and led United Nations forces during the first nine months of the Korean War. Early life.
     Douglas MacArthur was the third son of Arthur MacArthur, later the army's senior ranking officer, and Mary Hardy MacArthur, an ambitious woman who strongly influenced Douglas. He was graduated from West Point in 1903 with the highest honors in his class and served the next 10 years as an aide and a junior engineering officer, following this with four years on the general staff. He spent several months with the US troops that occupied Veracruz, Mexico, in 1914.
      On the 42nd Division's staff in 1917–1919, MacArthur was variously chief of staff, brigade commander, and divisional commander during combat operations in France during World War I and in the Rhine occupation that followed. During the 1920s he initiated far-reaching reforms while superintendent at West Point, served on the court-martial of pioneer of air power General William “Billy” Mitchell [29 Dec 1879 – 19 Feb 1936] (who was convicted of accusing the US military of incompetence in September 1925), held two commands in the Philippines, commanded two US corps areas, and headed the 1928 US Olympic Committee.
      Having advanced in rank to brigadier general in 1918 and to major general seven years later, MacArthur was promoted to general when he was selected as army chief of staff in 1930. His efforts as military head for the next five years were largely directed toward preserving the army's meagre strength during the Depression. MacArthur was widely criticized after he obeyed the illegal 28 July 1932 order of President Herbert Hoover [10 Aug 1874 – 20 Oct 1964] to send regular troops to brutally oust the peaceful Bonus Army of veterans from Washington. In 1935–1941 he served as Philippines military adviser (and field marshal), endeavoring, despite inadequate funds, to build a Filipino defense force. He retired from the US Army in December 1937.
      MacArthur married Louise Cromwell Brooks in 1922, but the childless union ended in divorce seven years later. In 1937 he married Jean Faircloth; Arthur, their only child, was born in Manila the next year.
      Recalled to active duty in July 1941, MacArthur conducted a valiant delaying action against the Japanese in the Philippines after the Japanese started the war on 07 December 1941. He was ordered to Australia in March 1942 to command Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific Theater. He soon launched an offensive in New Guinea that drove the Japanese out of Papua by January 1943. In a series of operations in 1943–1944, MacArthur's troops seized strategic points in New Guinea from Lae to Sansapor, while capturing the Admiralties and western New Britain. The simultaneous northward movement of South Pacific forces in the Solomons, over whom MacArthur maintained strategic control, neutralized Rabaul and bypassed many Japanese units.
      After winning a decision to invade the Philippines next rather than Formosa, MacArthur attacked Morotai, Leyte, and Mindoro in autumn 1944. Not until the Leyte operation did he have overwhelming logistical support; his earlier plans had been executed despite inadequacies of personnel and matériel and with little assistance from the Pacific Fleet. MacArthur seriously questioned his superiors' decision to give priority to the European war over the Pacific conflict and to the Central Pacific Theater over his Southwest Pacific area.
      His largest, costliest operations occurred during the seven-month Luzon campaign in 1945. That spring he also undertook the reconquest of the southern Philippines and Borneo. Meanwhile, he left the difficult mopping-up operations in New Guinea and the Solomons to the Australian Army. He was promoted to general of the army in December 1944 and was appointed commander of all US army forces in the Pacific four months later. He was in charge of the surrender ceremony in Tokyo Bay on 02 September 1945.
      As Allied commander of the Japanese occupation in 1945–1951, MacArthur effectively if autocratically directed the demobilization of Japanese military forces, the expurgation of militarists, the restoration of the economy, and the drafting of a liberal constitution. Significant reforms were inaugurated in land redistribution, education, labor, public health, and women's rights. While he was in Japan, MacArthur also headed the army's Far East command.
      When the Korean War began in 1950, MacArthur was soon selected to command United Nations forces there. After stemming the North Korean advance near Pusan, he carried out a daring landing at Inch'on in September and advanced into North Korea in October as the North Korean Army rapidly disintegrated. In November, however, massive Chinese forces attacked MacArthur's divided army above the 38th parallel and forced it to retreat to below Seoul. Two months later MacArthur's troops returned to the offensive, driving into North Korea again. On 11 April 1951, President Harry S. Truman relieved MacArthur of his commands because of the general's insubordination and unwillingness to conduct a limited war. Returning to the United States for the first time since before World War II, MacArthur at first received widespread popular support; the excitement waned after a publicized Senate investigation of his dismissal.
      In 1944, 1948, and 1952, conservative Republican groups tried in vain to obtain MacArthur'snomination for the presidency. MacArthur accepted the board chairmanship of the Remington Rand Corporation in 1952; thereafter, except for these duties and rare public appearances, he lived in seclusion in New York City. He died in Washington DC.
      In personality MacArthur was enigmatic and contradictory. To many he seemed imperious, aloof, egotistical, and pretentious. To others, especially his headquarters staff, he appeared warm, courageous, unostentatious, and even humble. Most authorities agree that he possessed superior intelligence, rare command ability, and zealous dedication to duty, honor, and country.
1948  Catorce personas al colisionar un avión soviético con un avión británico de transporte cerca de Berlín.  1947  Emma de la Barra, "César Duayen", escritora chilena.
1936: 216 persons as Tupelo, Mississipp, is almost annihilated by a tornado.
1932 Maria Guttierrez-Cueto y Blanchard, Spanish artist born in 1881.

1919: 35 young Jews, executed by the Polish Army. 
1906 Jonathan Eastman Johnson, US painter and printmaker born on 29 July 1824.
MORE ON JOHNSON AT ART “4” JULY with links to images.
1900 Joseph-Louis-François Bertrand, Paris, France, mathematician born on 11 March 1822. In 1845 Bertrand conjectured that there is at least one prime between n and 2n-2 for every n > 3, which was proved by Chebyshev [16 May 1821 – 08 Dec 1894] in 1850. Bertrand also worked on differential geometry and probability theory. His book Calcul des probabilités (1888) contains a paradox on continuous probabilities, Bertrand's paradox, which is that there are three solutions to the problem: Determine the probability that a random chord of a circle of unit radius has a length greater than the square root of 3 (the side of an inscribed equilateral triangle). Solution 1: 1/2 (randomizing the distance of the chords to the center of the circle). Solution 2: 1/3 (randomizing the endpoints of the chords on the circumference of the circle). Solution 3: 1/4 (randomizing the midpoint of the chords). This is because each method of “randomizing” yields a different probability distribution. [Links to 40 paradoxes]
^ 1894 Eleven die in miners' strike.
      Coal miners toiled endlessly in wretched conditions for paltry pay. Mines were sweltering, airless traps that sometimes collapsed and killed workers. During 1894, the situation came to something of a head. On 05 April, a group of striking miners in Connellsville, Pennsylvania, erupted in violence; eleven men died before the riot was finally quelled. The skirmish in Connellsville only set the stage for larger conflicts: later that month, 136'000 miners in Ohio hit the picket line to the protest their poor wages. All told, 1894 saw some 750,000 miners go on strike. 
1894 Johann-Heinrich-Carl Koopman, German artist born on 15 March 1797.
1869  Daniel Bakeman, 109, the last surviving soldier of the US Revolutionary War.
1862 Barend Cornelis Koekkoek, Dutch painter born on 11 October 1803. MORE ON KOEKKOEK AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1861 Ferdinand Joachimsthal, German mathematician born on 09 March 1818, after whom are named Joachimsthal surfaces and the two Joachimsthal theorems.
^ 1794 Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:
AUROUZE Jean, négociant domicilié à Arles, département des Bouches du Rhône, condamné à mort comme émigré, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel du Var.
BAGARRY Pierre, propriétaire, domicilié à Marseille, département des Bouches-du-Rhône, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel du département des Bouches-du-Rhône.
LAGIER Pierre, cultivateur, domicilié à Auriol, département des Bouches du Rhône, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme fédéraliste. 
PASCAL Nicolas, médecin, domicilié à Sègne, département du Var, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel des Bouches du Rhône, comme contre-révolutionnaire. 
PENA Joseph André, propriétaire cultivateur, domicilié à Jonques, département des Bouches du Rhône, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme fédéraliste. 
BASIRE Claude député à la convention nationale de Paris, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme tendante à avilir la convention nationale, détruire par la corruption le gouvernement républicain et pour avoir voulu favoriser la conspiration de l'étranger.= BAZIRE Claude, âgé de 29 ans, né à Dijon, ex commis aux archives des états de Bourgogne, député à la convention nationale, domicilié à la Ferrière, canton de Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme l'un des auteurs d'une conspiration tendante à avilir la représentation nationale et détruire, par la corruption le gouvernement républicain.
CAMILLE-DESMOULINS Benoît, âgé de 33 ans, natif de Guise, département de l’Aisne, homme de lettres, député à la Convention nationale, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d’un complot tendant à dissoudre la Convention, à rétablir la monarchie et a détruire le gouvernement républicain. 
CHABOT François, ex capucin, âgé de 35 ans, natif de St Geniez-Dol, département de l’Aveyron, député du département de Loire et Cher à la convention nationale de Paris, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme tendante à avilir la convention nationale, détruire par la corruption le gouvernement républicain et pour avoir voulu favoriser la conspiration de l'étranger. 
DANTON Georges Jacques, âgé de 34 ans, natif d'Arcis-sur-Aube, département de l'Aube, ex homme de loi, ex avocat aux ci-devant conseils du roi, domicilié à Paris, député à la Convention national, du département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Paris, comme complice d'une conspiration tendante à détruire la représentation nationale, le gouvernement républicain et rétablir la monarchie. Danton a été arrêté le 31 mars. Son procès s'est précipité. Il est condamné. Alors qu'il roule dans la charrette vers la guillotine et qu'il voit la foule massée sur son passage, il lance à l'adresse de ses camarades  : Les foutus bêtes ! Ils vont crier : " Vive la République " en nous voyant passer. Dans deux heures, la République n'aura plus de tête... " Au moment où il se couche sur la bascule, après l'exécution de quatorze de ses amis, il dit encore au bourreau Sanson : " N'oublie surtout pas de montrer ma tête au peuple! Il n'en voit pas tous les jours de pareille ! "
DELAINAY Joseph, âgé de 32 ans, né à Angers, département de Mayenne et Loire, homme de loi département à la convention nationale, domicilié à Paris, condamné à mort, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d’un système de corruption relatif à la compagnie des Indes et convaincu d’avoir poussé à la hausse et à la baisse, et d’avoir travaillé à deux projets de décrets favorables à ses vue. 
FABRE-D’EGLANTINE Philippe François Nazaire, homme de lettres, et député à la Convention nationale, âgé de 39 ans, natif de Varcassonne, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire, séante à Paris, comme conspirateur, en trafiquant de ses opinions, et en devenant auteur du complot de la suppression et de la falsification du décret du 17 vendémiaire, concernant la compagnie des Indes. 
HERAULT de SECHELLES Marie Jean, âgé de 34 ans, né à Paris, député à la convention nationale, ex noble, ex avocat général au ci-devant parlement de Paris, ci-devant membres du tribunal de cassation, domicilié à Paris département de la Seine, condamné à mort, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme auteur ou complice d’une conspiration tendante à rétablir la monarchie, à détruire la représentation nationale et le gouvernement républicain. 
LACROIX Jean François, député du département de la Haute Vienne à la convention nationale, âgé de 40 ans, natif de Pont-Audémer, ci-devant homme de loi, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice d'une conspiration tendante à rétablir la monarchie, à détruire la représentation nationale et le gouvernement républicain. 
PHILIPPEAUX Pierre Nicolas, député à la Convention nationale par le département de la Loire, natif de Femère, même département, âgé de 35 ans, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir trempé dans une conspiration tendante à détruire le gouvernement républicain et la représentation nationale. 
SAHUGUET Marc René (dit Despagnac), abbé, fournisseur des armées, âgé de 41 ans natif de Brive, département de la Corrèze, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir trempé dans une conspiration tendante à diffamer, à avilir la représentation nationale, et à détruire par la corruption le gouvernement républicain. 
DIDERICESEN Jean Frédéric, âgé de 41 ans, natif de Luterbourg, avocat du roi de Danemark, demeurant en France depuis 2 ans, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de la faction Danton, tendante à détruire la convention égorger les patriotes, les comités générale, et les Jacobins
GUSMAN André Marie, âgé de 41 ans, ci-devant officier dans les troupes françaises, né à Grenade en Espagne, naturalisé français en 1781, vivant de son revenu, domicilié à Paris département de la Seine, condamné à mort, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Paris, comme conspirateur et complice de d'Orléans, Dumourier, pour massacrer les patriotes, les comités de salut public et de sûreté générale, et les Jacobins. 
FREY Junius, ex noble, ex baron, âgé de 36 ans, né à Brimm en Moravie, domicilié à Vienne en Autriche, et depuis deux ans à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de la fraction de l’étranger et de la conjuration contre le Peuple Français et sa liberté, ladite conjuration tendante à diffamer et avilir la représentation nationale, et à détruire le gouvernement républicain, , par la corruption et par la falsification des décrets.
FREY Emmanuel, ex noble, ex baron, âgé de 27 ans, né à Brimm en Moravie, frère de Junius Frey, domicilié à Vienne en Autriche, et depuis deux ans à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme complice de la fraction de l’étranger et de la conjuration contre le Peuple Français et sa liberté, ladite conjuration tendante à diffamer et avilir la représentation nationale, et à détruire le gouvernement républicain, par la corruption et par la falsification des décrets.
VESTERMANN François Joseph, général de la brigade, natif de Molsen, département du Bas-Rhin, âgé de 40 ans, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d'avoir trempé dans une conspiration tendante à détruire la représentation nationale et le gouvernement républicain. 
REGNIER Pierre, tailleur d’habits, âgé de 38 ans, né et domicilié à Pontoise, département de la Seine et Oise, condamné à mort, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris, comme convaincu d’avoir tenu, depuis l "exécution de Capet, des propos tendants à rétablir la royauté. 
BEAULAINCOURT Ange Guislain Alexandre Joseph, ex noble, âgé de 54 ans, né à Vaudricourt, époux de Geneviere Françoise Albertine Alexandrine, condamné à mort à Arras le 16 germinal an II 
BLANQUART François Joseph, né à Mourbes(?), ci-devant avocat, époux de Carrault Alexandrine Joseph, condamné à Arras le 16 germinal an II 
D'AIX Lomoral Eugène François Marie, âgé de 61 ans, époux de Quarre Marie Angélique Eulalie, né le 31.01.1736, député des Etat d'Artois en 1781-1782, condamné à mort à Arras le 16 germinal an II 
LE SERGEANT Louis Ignace Joseph, âgé de 64 ans, né à Hendecourt les Ransart, condamné à mort à Arras le 16 germinal an II 
DELANNOY Ignace Godefroy, âgé de 73 ans, ex noble, né à Cambrai, condamné à mort à Arras le 16 germinal an II 
WASSERVAS Henri Evrard, âgé de 56 ans, ex noble, né à Homecourt (?), époux de Monet Catherine Philippine, condamné à mort à Arras le 16 germinal an II 
BEAUX Justin, homme de loi, domicilié à St-Jean-du-Gard, canton d'Alais, département du Gard, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel du département du Gard. 
BLANCHARDON Michel Ans., prêtre, âgé de 59 ans, natif du Mans, département de la Sarthe, domicilié à Belleville, canton de Villefranche, département du Rhône, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
BRIDET François, ex vicaire, âgé de 26 ans, né et domicilié à Beaujeu, canton de Villefranche, département du Rhône, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
CHAPUIS Marie, femme Peystel, âgée de 24 ans, née et domiciliée à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamné à mort comme conspiratrice le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon.
FAYOL Anne Marie, institutrice, âgée de 64 ans, née et domiciliée à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamnée à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Lyon, comme contre-révolutionnaire.
GENESTE, fils, chaudronnier, âgé de 22 ans, domicilié à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamné à mort, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon, comme contre-révolutionnaire. 
LA FOND Marguerite, âgée de 48 ans, marchande mercière, native d'Amplepuis, domiciliée à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamnée à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Lyon, comme conspiratrice.
LA FOND Françoise, âgée de 42 ans, marchande mercière, née et domiciliée à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamnée à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire séante à Lyon, comme conspiratrice. 
LIOTIE Thomas, âgé de 46 ans, ex chartreux, domicilié à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamné à mort comme conspirateur, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
MERCIER Antoine, âgé de 56 ans, natif de St Colombe, département de la Loire, domicilié à St Just-la-Pendue département du Rhône, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
MYOTTE Timon, âgée de 36 ans, native de Tarrare, brodeuse, domicilié à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamné à mort, comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
POINÇON Antoine, père, huissier, âgé de 60 ans, né et domicilié à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
PONCET Benoît, âgé de 40 ans, ex chartreux, natif de Montmerle, département de l'Ain, domicilié à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon, comme conspirateur.
SAINT-DIDIER Claude, ex-curé, âgé de 31 ans, natif de St Didier, domicilié à Lumière, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
VIAL Anne, ex carmélite, âgée de 62 ans, née et domiciliée à Lyon, département du Rhône, condamnée à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon. 
CLEMENT Etienne, prêtre, âgé de 46 ans, natif de St Bonnet-des-Bruyères, domicilié à Aigueperse, département du Rhône, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission révolutionnaire de Lyon.
CLEMENT René, ex vicaire, domicilié à Breilles, département d'Ille-et-Vilaine, condamné à mort comme réfractaire à la loi, le 16 germinal an 2, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
FOUCIER Benoît, domestique à Roquemadon, département du Lot, condamné à mort le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission militaire séante à Bruxelles, comme émigré.
LOIRAULT François, domicilié à Bouguenais département de la Loire Inférieure, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, le 16 germinal an 2, par la commission militaire de Nantes. 
1793 ARNAUD Jean, maréchal, domicilié à Aizenay, canton de la Roche-sur-Yon, département de la Vendée, le 5 avril 1793, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1793 CHANSON Jacques, tourneur, domicilié à Legé, département de la Loire Inférieure, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, le 5 avril 1793, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1793 ROBIN Louis, tisserand, domicilié à Nieuil, département de la Vendée, condamné à mort comme brigand de la Vendée, le 5 avril 1793, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables.
1793 MOLLÉ Jean, farinier, domicilié à Legé, département de la Loire Inférieure, condamné à mort le 5 avril 1793, par la commission militaire séante aux Sables, comme brigand de la Vendée.
1793 VINCENT Pierre Antoine, domicilié à Cloué, département de la Vienne, condamné à mort comme contre-révolutionnaire le 5 avril 1793, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
1747 (03 Apl?) l'abbate Ciccio (Francesco) Solimena, Italian artist born on 04 October 1657. MORE ON SOLIMENA AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1717 Jean-Baptiste Jouvenet, French painter born in April 1644. MORE ON JOUVENET AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1684 Brouncker, mathematician.
1678 Claude Hardy, mathematician.
1531 Richard Roose, boiled to death for trying to poison an archbishop.
1419  Saint Vicente Ferrer, Spanish Dominican friar.
 
< 04 Apr 06 Apr >
^  Births which occurred on a 05 April:

1998  The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan opens, becoming the largest suspension bridge in the world. It links Shikoku and Honshu. The bridge cost about $3.8 billion.
1949  Leka I, rey de Albania en el exilio.
1944  Pedro Juan Roselló González, político puertorriqueño. 
1937 Colin Powell (military leader: Chairman US Joint Chiefs of Staff during Desert Storm, Secretary of State under usurper-President “Dubya” Bush Jr.)
1937 Los gigantes de la montaña de Luigi Pirandello se estrena en Florencia (Italia).
1934  Roman Herzog, presidente de la República Federal de Alemania. 
1929 Hugo Claus (not related to Santa) Belgian author writing in Flemish. Claus' oeuvre includes poetry, novels, dramas, short stories, screenplays, essays, translations. He has also worked as a stage and film director. Most of Claus' writing has an experimental quality. He has been decades the dominant figure in Belgium's postwar Dutch-language literature. Claus' attacks on conventional bourgeois mores and consistently anti-authoritarian and anti-clerical brand of humanism have aroused much controversy in his own country. In 1983 Claus made his international breakthrough with The Sorrow of Belgium.  
1928  Pío Caro Baroja, escritor español.
1923 Nguyen Van Thieu president of South Vietnam.
1923 Kurt R. Sonderborg Hoffmann, German artist. — more with links to images.
^ 1923 The balloon tire's production begins.
      Firestone Tire and Rubber Company of Akron, Ohio, began balloon tire production. The company had previously experimented with large-section, thin-walled tires with small bead diameters for special purposes, but none had been put on the commercial market. Firestone had become the country's largest producer of tires when it received the contract to supply Henry Ford's Model T's with tires. The company remained on top of the tire industry, challenged for supremacy only by Goodyear. Balloon tires provided better handling and a smoother ride for car drivers. In balloon tires, an inner tube is fitted inside the tire and inflated. Firestone's innovation also ushered in the era of the flat tire. People may have had problems with their cars before 1923, but none had yet enjoyed the pleasure of standing by the roadside watching their hissing tire deflate-along with their hopes of arriving on time. 
1922  Chatichai Choonhavan, político y militar tailandés.
1920 Arthur Hailey, novelist.
1917 Robert Bloch American crime and suspense writer who acquired fame with his frightening characterizations about psychopats. The best known is Norman Bates from Psycho, a novel whose impact was strenghtened by Alfred Hitchcock's stunning film version in 1960. Bloch's writing spanned seven decades of the 20th century, and his fiction reflected most of the major trends in weird fiction that occured during this interval. . Bloch died on 23 September 1994.
1913 Antonio Clavé, Spanish painter and sculptor. MORE ON CLAVÉ AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1910 Chaim Grade, Russian-born Yiddish poet, short-story writer and novelist. He died on 26 June 1982.
1908 Jagjivan Ram, Indian politician and spokesman for the untouchables. He died on 06 July 1986.
1901 Chester Bowles, US politician and advertising entrepreneur who died on 25 May 1986.
1904 Richard Ghormley Eberhart, US poet who died on 09 June 2005. Author of Selected Poems, 1930-1965 (Pulitzer Prize 1966) — Collected Poems, 1930-1976 (National Book Award 1977) — The Quarry: New Poems (1964) — Shifts of Being (1968) — The Long Reach: New & Uncollected Poems, 1948-1984 (1984) — and some verse plays.
1898 Geer van Velde, Dutch artist who died on 05 March 1978.
1895 Fernand Mourlot, à Paris, lithographe.
1877 Faber, mathematician.
1869 Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin, in Ranenburg (now Chaplygin), Russia, mathematical physicist born on 05 April 1869 who died on 08 October 1942.
1866 Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig, Dutch artist who died on 12 October 1915.
1865 Robert Polhill Bevan, English Camden Town Group painter and lithographer who died on 08 July 1925.MORE ON BEVAN AT ART “4” APRIL with a self-portrait and links to images.
1865 Lincoln Filene, US business executive and philanthropist; chairman of Federated Department Stores. He died on 27 August 1957.
1862  José Francos Rodríguez, político y literato español.
1856 Booker T. Washington, US educator and spokesman for Blacks who died on 14 November 1915.
1837 Algernon Charles B. Swinburne, English poet and critic who died on 10 April 1909.
— SWINBURNE ONLINE: A Century of Roundels Chastelard: A TragedyLocrine: A TragedyPoems and Ballads (1866)Rosamund, Queen of the Lombards: A TragedyA Sequence of Sonnets on the Death of Robert BrowningSongs Before SunriseThe Tale of BalenThe Tale of BalenWilliam Blake: A Critical Essay (zipped) 
1832 Jules-François Camille Ferry French statesman.
1827 Joseph Lister, English surgeon and scientist , founded aseptic surgery (inventor: Listerine mouthwash). He died on 10 February 1912.
1811 Jules Dupré, French Barbizon School painter who died on 06 October 1889, specialized in landscapes. MORE ON DUPRÉ AT ART “4” OCTOBER with links to images.
1801 Vincenzo Gioberti, Italian philosopher, politician and cleric who died on 26 November 1852.
1797 Johann Fischbach, Austrian artist who died on 19 June 1871. 
1784 Ludwig Spohr, Germany, violin virtuoso/composer (Faust). He also composed the hymn tunes "I Want a Principle Within" and "All Things Bright and Beautiful".
1732 Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter who died on 22 August 1806. MORE ON FRAGONARD AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1649 Elihu Yale, US-born English merchant, philanthropist founded Yale University. He died on 08 July 1721. 
1626 Jan van Kessel I, Dutch painter specialized in Still Life who died on 17 April 1679. MORE ON VAN KESSEL AT ART “4” APR 17 with links to images.
1625 Domenico Maria Canuti, Bolognese painter who died on 06 April 1684. — more with links to images.
1622 Vincenzo Viviani, Florentine engineer, mathematician, physicist, who died on 22 September 1703. Author of Discorso intorno al difendersi degli riempimenti e dalle corrosione degli fiumi (1687).
1607 Honoré Fabri, French Jesuit priest (briefly imprisoned in Rome for being a Cartesian), astronomer, physicist, mathematician. He died on 08 March 1688.
1588 Thomas Hobbes, English mathematician, but mostly philosopher and political theorist, best known for his publications on individual security and the social contract. . Hobbes died on 04 December 1679. HOBBES ONLINE: De Cive -- The Elements of Law, Natural and Politic -- LeviathanDe Cive De CiveDe CiveDe CiveDominionDominionElements of Law Natural and PoliticElements of Law Natural and Politic Elements of Law Natural and PoliticElements of Law Natural and PoliticElements of Law Natural and PoliticLeviathanLeviathanLeviathanLeviathanLeviathan LeviathanLibertyLibertyOf Man (first part, Leviathon)On the Life and History of Thucydides ReligionReligion
 
Feasts which occur on a 05 April:
2240 Palm Sunday
2229 Palm Sunday
2218 Palm Sunday
2172 Palm Sunday
2161 Palm Sunday
2150 Palm Sunday
2099 Palm Sunday

2105 Easter Sunday
2099 Palm Sunday
2093 Palm Sunday
2082 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2076 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2071 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2048 Easter Sunday
2037 Easter Sunday
2026 Easter Sunday
2020 Palm Sunday
2015 Easter Sunday
2009 Palm Sunday
1998 Palm Sunday
1992 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1987 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1981 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1953 Easter Sunday
1942 Easter Sunday
1936 Palm Sunday
1931 Easter Sunday
1925 Palm Sunday
1914 Palm Sunday
1908 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1903 Palm Sunday
1896 Easter Sunday
1885 Easter Sunday

1868 Palm Sunday

1857 Palm Sunday

1821 Palm Sunday

1789 Palm Sunday

1716 Palm Sunday

1705 Palm Sunday

 
Holidays: Taiwan : Death of Chiang Kai-shek/Tomb Sweeping Day (1975) / Iceland : first Day of Summer (or 0418) / South Korea : Arbor Day

Religious Observances / St Ethelburga of Lyminge / St Gerard of Suave-Majeure / Earliest possible Orthodox Easter (3/23 OS) / St Albert of Montecorvino / St DerfelGadarn / St Vincent Ferrer, confessor/priest CE (opt) / Santos Vicente Ferrer, Irene y Juliana. / Sainte Irène, d'un mot grec qui signifie paix, est arrêtée avec ses sœurs à Salonique par le gouverneur romain, en 305, sous le règne de Dioclétien. Comme les jeunes filles refusent d'apostasier, elles sont brûlées vives.
Good Friday in 1901, 1912, 1985, 1996, 2075, 2080.
Holy Thursday in 1483, 1917, 1928, 2007, 2012, 2091.

What is the similarity between Ariel Sharon and Willie Sutton? — Willie Sutton attacked banks in the West, and Ariel Sharon attacked the West Bank.
click click

Thoughts for the day:
“Everyone complains of his memory, no one of his judgment.”
{but his wife complains of his memory AND of his judgement}
"Time was invented by Almighty God in order to give ideas a chance." - Nicholas Murray Butler, US educator [1862-1947].
“The best argument for the death penalty is that it enables judges, like doctors, to bury their mistakes.
“The man who says he is willing to meet you halfway is usually a poor judge of distance.”
— Laurence J. Peter
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updated Friday 15-May-2009 19:43 UT
Principal updates:
v.8.30 Friday 11-Apr-2008 22:19 UT
v.7.31 Thursday 12-Apr-2007 15:12 UT
v.6.40 Thursday 11-May-2006 18:16 UT
Wednesday 15-Jun-2005 20:41 UT
Monday 17-May-2004 15:16 UT

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