<< Apr 02|       HISTORY “4” “2”DAY      |Apr 04 >>
Events, deaths, births, of APR 03
v.9.20
 While connected to Internet click here for Universal Time clock (accept Script and Active~Xs) 
[For Apr 03 Julian go to Gregorian date: 1583~1699: Apr 131700s: Apr 141800s: Apr 151900~2099: Apr 16]
ALTERNATE SITES     ANY DAY  OF THE YEAR IN HISTORY     ART “4” APR 03     wikipedia
• Unabomber is arrested... • Washington Irving is born... • Patty Hearst joins her kidnappers... • Pony Express is started... • Daimler's first engine... • Japanese offensive against Bataan... • Japanese general shot for Bataan Death March... • Lindbergh baby murderer is executed... • Guillotinés par la Terreur... • The Marshall plan... • Jesse James is murdered... • ACLU will contest obscenity of HOWL... • MS starts Sidewalk... • FCC's digital TV plan... • IBM unveils its first “laptop”... • IBM introduces PS/2 and OS/2... • Internet decency lawsuit begins... • US response to North Vietnam's invasion of South... • US will "Vietnamize" the war... • Nixon cheats on taxes...
^  On a 03 April:
2007 A new official rail speed record, 574.8 km/h (= 159.6 m/s) is established at 13:13 (11:13 UT) in the municipality of Éclaires (Marne) France, by a a TGV (Très Grande Vitesse) train on a test track of the “ligne à grande vitesse” LGV Est européenne. —(070403)
^ 2005 Speculation as to who will be the next Pope.
      There is much speculation as to whom the 117 cardinals aged less than 80 will elect, at the conclave, to succeed John Paul II [18 May 1920 – 02 Apr 2005], in accordance with the Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici Gregis of 22 February 1996 (Text in English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Portuguese) which regulates all the detail of Sede Vacante, including that the conclave must start 15 to 20 days after the death of a Pope. In fact it will start on 18 April 2005 and the next day will elect the new Pope. May the pope saints intercede for him to be like them.
Here is a list of some papabili:
— Christoph Schönborn OP [22 Jan 1945–], archbishop of Vienna since 14 September 1995, ordained a priest on 27 December 1970 by Cardinal König [03 Aug 1905 – 13 Mar 2004], consecrated a bishop on 29 September 1991, made a cardinal on 21 February 1998.
— Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga SDB [29 Dec 1942–], archbishop of Tegucigalpa since 08 January 1993, ordained a priest on 28 June 1970, consecrated a bishop on 08 December 1978, made a cardinal on on 21 February 2001.
— Angelo Scola [07 Nov 1941–], archbishop of Venice since 05 Jan 2002, ordained a priest on 18 July 1970, consecrated a bishop on 21 September 1991, made a cardinal on 21 October 2003.
— Jorge Mario Bergoglio SJ [17 Dec 1936–], archbishop of Buenos Aires since 28 February 1998, ordained a priest on 13 December 1969, consecrated a bishop on 27 June 1992, made a cardinal on 21 February 2001
— Tarcisio Bertone SDB [02 Dec 1934–], archbishop of Genoa since 10 December 2002, professed a Salesian on 03 December 1950, ordained a priest on 01 July 1960, consecrated a bishop on 01 August 1991, made a cardinal on 21 October 2003.
— Claudio Hummes OFM [08 Aug 1934–], archbishop of São Paulo since 15 April 1998, ordained a priest on 03 Aug 1958, consecrated a bishop on 25 May 1975, made a cardinal on 21 February 2001.
— Dionigi Tettamanzi [14 Mar 1934–], archbishop of Milan since 11 July 2002, ordained a priest on 28 June 1957 by the then archbishop of Milan, Giovanni Montini [26 Sep 1897 – 06 Aug 1978] (who became Pope Paul VI on 21 June 1963), consecrated a bishop on 23 September 1989, appointed archbishop of Genoa on 20 April 1995, made a cardinal on 21 February 1998. Something he said in 1999:
“Our most serious missionary problem is not the non-Christians or the un-baptized; those same Christians must be helped to believe more in the Lord Jesus. In Europe today, the priority does not lie in ‘baptizing the converted’ but in ‘converting the baptized.’… Following from this: … [is] the secondary and subordinate characteristic of any ecclesial organization, no matter how important, to thus give a more true picture of the church, less preoccupied with herself and her pastoral efficiency … willing to reform her structures and to live as seed and leaven in the world that the primacy of the gospel may shine.”
— Archbishop Giovanni Battista Re [30 Jan 1934–], Vatican Prefect of Bishops since 16 September 2000, ordained a priest on 03 March 1957, consecrated a bishop on 07 November 1987 by Pope John Paul II, made a cardinal on 21 February 2001.
— Francis Arinze [01 Nov 1932–], from Nigeria, Vatican Prefect of Divine Worship and Sacraments since 01 October 2002, ordained a priest on 23 November 1958, consecrated a bishop on 29 August 1965, made a cardinal on 25 May 1985. Something he said in 1999:
“The church in Europe, as elsewhere … will always proclaim Jesus Christ, the Son of God made man, as the one and only Savior of all humanity. Inter-religious courtesy should in no way be interpreted to mean that Christians will keep silent on the fact that only in Jesus Christ do people find the fullness of religious life, truth and salvation, and only in the church, the ordinary means of salvation, are the means of salvation to be found in their fullness.”
Carlo Maria Martini SJ [15 Feb 1927–], became a Jesuit on 25 September 1944, was ordained a priest on 13 July 1952, made his final vows as a Jesuit on 02 February 1962. On 29 September 1969 became rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute; then rector of the Gregorian University on 18 July 1978. To be archbishop of Milan, he was consecrated a bishop on 06 January 1980 by John Paul II. He was made a cardinal priest on 02 February 1983. He resigned as archbishop of Milan on 11 July 2002.
— Archbishop Darío Castrillón Hoyos [04 Jul 1929–], from Colombia, Vatican Prefect of Clergy since 23 February 1998, ordained a priest on 26 Oct 1952, consecrated a bishop on 18 Jul 1971, made a cardinal on 21 February 1998. Something he said in 1999:
“European man today needs to see Christ and will see him in true priests who give answers to the challenges reason makes to the good news, whose deep dimension requires contemplative spaces of prayer. In the priestly identification with Christ fear disappears. … Was it easy to confront the sexual liberties of Athens, Corinth or Rome? Was it easy to introduce the sanctity of marriage in the eastern or western pagan world? … The priest must be a man of the church. I am not afraid of the structure when it has the seal of the divine plan. Our weaknesses are strengthened by the Petrian charism and the prow is oriented to the desired port.”
— Archbishop Angelo Sodano [23 Nov 1927–], Vatican Secretary of State since 29 June 1991, ordained a priest on 23 September 1950, consecrated a bishop on 15 January 1978, made a cardinal on 28 June 1991. [Sodano's 03 April 2005 homily at mass for John Paul II: Italian original // translations: — EnglishFrançais]
the future Pope Benedict XVI— Archbishop Joseph Ratzinger [16 Apr 1927–], Prefect of Doctrine of the Faith and President of the Biblical Commission and of the International Theological Commission since 25 November 1981, ordained a priest on 29 June 1951, consecrated a bishop on 28 May 1977 and archbishop of Munich from then until his resignation on 15 February 1982, made a cardinal on 27 June 1977, who would be elected Pope Benedict XVI on 19 April 2005.
Jean-Marie Lustiger, archbishop of Paris from 13 January 1981 until his retirement on 11 February 2005, born on 17 September 1926 in Paris of Jewish Polish immigrant parents, sheltered by a Catholic family after the June 1940 Nazi invasion of France, baptized on 25 August 1940, ordained a priest on 17 April 1954, consecrated a bishop on 08 December 1979, made a cardinal on 02 February 1983. Something he said in 1999:
“European culture has received its most noble ideals and its power to transform the conditions of human existence” from theology. Bishops should be more than watchdogs - they should encourage theological debate and centers of study. The press briefer said Lustiger added that theologians must not separate themselves from the Christian community. “Celebration of the Eucharist, reading of scripture, confessing the faith, transmission of revelation, and the love of spiritual freedom together form the concrete conditions for the practice of theology in a secular world.”
Godfried Danneels [04 Jun 1933–], archbishop of Brussels since 19 December 1979, ordained a priest on 17 August 1957, consecrated a bishop on 18 December 1977 by Cardinal Suenens [16 Jul 1904 – 06 May 1996], made a cardinal on 02 February 1983. Something he said in 1999:
“In Western Europe, we live surrounded in a culture that is like a garden where a number of venomous plants grow: unfettered consumerism, hedonism, the pride of non serviam. But each venomous plant contains its own antidote. …The religious wildness, a characteristic of our time by its thirst for interiority and meditation, is certainly positive. … In many countries, the church becomes a minority and impoverished of the personnel, of financial means, of power and prestige. It could be God is leading us towards a kind of new ‘Babylonian exile’ in order to teach us to become more humble and to live the doctrine of all-powerful grace. … Let us be grateful for our period: Everything is not so negative.”
— Ivan Dias [14 Apr 1936–], archbishop of Mumbai since 08 November 1996, ordained a priest on 08 December 1958, consecrated a bishop on 19 June 1982, made a cardinal on 21 February 2001.
Giacomo Biffi [13 Jun 1928–], archbishop of Bologna from 19 April 1984 until his retirement on 16 December 1983, ordained a priest on 23 December 1950, consecrated a bishop on 11 January 1976, made a cardinal on 25 May 1985.
Crescenzio Sepe [02 Jun 1943–], Prefect of Evangelization of Peoples since 09 Apr 2001, ordained a priest on 12 March 1967, consecrated a bishop on 26 April 1992 by Pope John Paul II, made a cardinal on 21 Feb 2001.
Ennio Antonelli [18 Nov 1936–], archbishop of Florence since 21 March 2001, ordained a priest on 02 April 1960, consecrated a bishop on 29 August 1982, made a cardinal on 21 Oct 2003.
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne [28 December 1943–], archbishop of Lima since 09 January 1999, ordained a priest on 21 August 1977 , consecrated a bishop on 03 July 1988, made a cardinal on 21 Feb 2001.
Cormac Murphy-O'Connor [24 Aug 1932–], archbishop of Westminster since 15 February 2000, ordained a priest on 28 October 1956, consecrated a bishop on 21 December 1977, made a cardinal on 21 Feb 2001.
Archbishop Alfonso Lopez Trujillo [08 November 1935–], President of Vatican Council for the Family since 08 November 1990, ordained a priest on 13 November 1960, consecrated a bishop on 25 March 1971, archbishop of Medellín from 02 June 1979 until his resignation on 09 January 1991, made a cardinal on 28 Jun 1991. Something he said in 1999:
“Facing the systematic demolition of the family in Europe and its alarming effects, born out of a listless anthropology that is spreading, it is necessary to have the centrality of the family be clear. … [The church faces] the perfidious challenges of common-law unions, of demographic winters, of the culture of death.” According to the Holy See’s press briefer, Lopez Trujillo also said: “The woman today finds her nobility as wife and mother taken from her, denounced by feminist theories as servitude rather than the noble work it is. … Today there are more coffins than cradles in Europe.”
CERN price chart2003 Cerner Corporation (CERN) announces that it expects 1st quarter 2003 earnings per share of about 14 cents, instead of the 38 cents expected by financial analysts. On the NASDAQ, there are 27.5 million trades of the 35.6 million CERN shares, which drop from their previous close of $32.09 to an intraday low of $17.44 and close at $17.63. They had traded as high as $57.05 as recently as 14 May 2002. [5~year price chart >] Cerner supplies computer networking information systems and content solutions for health organizations and consumers.
2001  Las acciones de Iberia se devalúan en un 1,68% en su debut en el mercado bursátil.
2000 A federal judge in Washington rules that Microsoft Corp. has violated US antitrust laws by keeping "an oppressive thumb" on competitors during the race to link people to the Internet. — Una sentencia del juez estadounidense Thomas Penfield Jackson acusa a la empresa de Bill Gates, Microsoft, de violar la ley antimonopolio.
1999 NATO missiles strike downtown Belgrade for the first time, destroying the headquarters of security forces accused of waging a campaign against Kosovo Albanians.
1998 The Dow Jones industrial average passes 9000 for the first time.
1998  Es detenido en México el general implicado en la matanza de Acteal.
^ 1997 MS starts local entertainment guides.
      Microsoft starts Seattle Sidewalk, the first of its local entertainment guides. Sidewalk offered reviews of restaurants, concerts, and other events, as well as showtimes for movies and real-time traffic maps. By 1998, Microsoft had launched its Sidewalk effort in nine cities. However, in late 1998, the company redesigned the struggling Sidewalk to focus on Internet shopping. The service became more like an Internet yellow-pages directory than a local entertainment guide.
^ 1997 FCC adopts digital television plan.
      The Federal Communications Commission agreed on a plan to speed the adoption of digital television on 03 April 1997. Under the plan, television stations across the country would be given a second channel, allowing them to broadcast programming in both analog and digital formats. The FCC plan required NBC, CBS, ABC, and Fox to begin digital broadcasting by fall of 1998 in the ten largest media markets. Six months later, all network affiliates in the top thirty markets would be required to begin broadcasting digitally. The stations would be allowed to broadcast on both channels for nine years, at which point the government would take back one of the stations and auction it off for commercial or government use.
^ 1997 Internet decency lawsuit begins.
      The American Civil Liberties Union and the American Library Association challenged a New York law restricting the distribution of pornography on the Internet. The suit argued that the law violated constitutionally protected free speech rights. The lawsuit came at the same time the US Supreme Court was reviewing similar issues regarding the Federal Communications Decency Act. Both the New York State law and the Communications Decency Act were overturned.
Unabomber^ 1996 Unabomber is arrested
      At his small wilderness cabin near Lincoln, Montana, Theodore Kaczynski Jr. is arrested by FBI agents and charged with being the “Unabomber”, the elusive terrorist blamed for sixteen mail bombs that killed three people and severely injured eleven others between 1978 and 1995.
      Kaczynski, born in Chicago on 22 May 1942, won a scholarship to study mathematics at Harvard University at age sixteen. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley before abruptly resigning in 1969. Apparently disillusioned with the world around him, he retreated to a family property in Montana, where he developed a philosophy of radical environmentalism and militant opposition to modern technology. 1978, he manufactured and sent his first mail bomb to a professor at Northwestern University, and a public safety officer was wounded while opening the suspicious package. 1979, his third known terrorist bomb exploded on an American Airlines flight, causing minor injuries from smoke inhalation. As Kaczynski usually targeted universities and airlines, federal investigators began calling their suspect the Unabomber, an acronym of sorts for university, airline, and bomber. 1987, a woman saw a man wearing dark glasses and a hooded sweatshirt placing what turned out to be the bomb next to a businessman's car in Salt Lake City. The sketch of the man that emerged became the only representation of the alleged Unabomber. 1993, various federal departments established the UNABOM Task Force, which intensified the search for a Unabomber suspect.
      On 19 September, 1995, The Washington Post published the so-called "Unabomber's Manifesto," a sixty-five-page thesis on what Kaczynski perceived to be the problems with America's industrial and technological society. The newspaper, which split the cost with The New York Times, was assured that by publishing the essay future bombings would be avoided. Kaczynski's brother, David, read the essay and recognized his brother's ideas and language, leading him to inform the FBI in February of 1996 that he suspected his brother was the Unabomber. On 03 April, Ted Kaczynski was arrested at his cabin in Montana, and extensive evidence, including a live bomb, was uncovered at the site. Indicted on over a dozen counts of terrorism, he appeared briefly in court in June of 1998 to plead not guilty to all charges. Over the next year and a half, Kaczynski wrangled with his defense attorneys, who, against his wishes, wanted to issue an insanity plea that he believed compromised his political motives and beliefs. In January of 1998, at the scheduled start of the Unabomber trial, he expressed his desire to acquire a new defense team. Two days later, Judge Garland Burrell rejected Kaczynski's request and also approved his attorney's plan to portray him as a paranoid schizophrenic. Kaczynski next asked the judge to allow him to represent himself, but the request was likewise denied, even after an official psychiatrist and both the prosecution and defense deemed him fit to do so. On 22 January, 1998, Ted Kaczynski pleaded guilty and was spared the death penalty. On 04 April 1998, the Unabomber was sentenced to four consecutive life sentences without the possibility of parole.
     At his small wilderness cabin near Lincoln, Montana, Theodore John Kaczynski is arrested by FBI agents and accused of being the Unabomber, the elusive terrorist blamed for 16 mail bombs that killed three people and injured 23 during an 18-year period. Kaczynski, born in Chicago in 1942, won a scholarship to study mathematics at Harvard University at age 16. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. Although celebrated as a brilliant mathematician, he suffered from persistent social and emotional problems, and in 1969 abruptly ended his promising career at Berkeley. Disillusioned with the world around him, he tried to buy land in the Canadian wilderness but in 1971 settled for a 1.4-acre plot near his brother's home in Montana.
      For the next 25 years, Kaczynski lived as a hermit, occasionally working odd jobs and traveling but mostly living off his land. He developed a philosophy of radical environmentalism and militant opposition to modern technology, and tried to get academic essays on the subjects published. It was the rejection of one of his papers by two Chicago-area universities in 1978 that may have prompted him to manufacture and deliver his first mail bomb. The package was addressed to the University of Illinois from Northwestern University, but was returned to Northwestern, where a security guard was seriously wounded while opening the suspicious package. In 1979, Kaczynski struck again at Northwestern, injuring a student at the Technological Institute. Later that year, his third bomb exploded on an American Airlines flight, causing injuries from smoke inhalation. In 1980, a bomb mailed to the home of Percy Wood, the president of United Airlines, injured Wood when he tried to open it.
      As Kaczynski seemed to be targeting universities and airlines, federal investigators began calling their suspect the Unabomber, an acronym of sorts for university, airline, and bomber. From 1981 to 1985, there were seven more bombs, four at universities, one at a professor's home, one at the Boeing Company in Auburn, Wash., and one at a computer store in Sacramento. Six people were injured, and in 1985 the owner of the computer store was killed — the Unabomber's first murder. In 1987, a woman saw a man wearing aviator glasses and a hooded sweatshirt placing what turned out to be a bomb outside a computer store in Salt Lake City. The sketch of the suspect that emerged became the first representation of the Unabomber, and Kaczynski, fearing capture, halted his terrorist campaign for six years. In June 1993, a lethal mail bomb severely injured a University of California geneticist at his home, and two days later a computer science professor at Yale was badly injured by a similar bomb.
      Various federal departments established the UNABOM Task Force, which launched an intensive search for a Unabomber suspect. In 1994, a mail bomb killed an advertising executive at his home in New Jersey. Kaczynski had mistakenly thought that the man worked for a firm that repaired the Exxon Company's public relations after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. In April 1995, a bomb killed the president of a timber-industry lobbying group. It was the Unabomber's last attack.
      Soon after, Kaczynski sent a manifesto to The New York Times and The Washington Post, saying he would stop the killing if it were published. In 1995, The Washington Post published the so-called "Unabomber's Manifesto," a 35'000-word thesis on what Kaczynski perceived to be the problems with the US's industrial and technological society. Kaczynski's brother, David, read the essay and recognized his brother's ideas and language; he informed the FBI in February 1996 that he suspected that his brother was the Unabomber.
      On 03 April 1996, Ted Kaczynski is arrested at his cabin in Montana, and extensive evidence — including a live bomb and an original copy of the manifesto — are discovered at the site. Indicted on more than a dozen federal charges, he appeared briefly in court in 1996 to plead not guilty to all charges. During the next year and a half, Kaczynski wrangled with his defense attorneys, who wanted to issue an insanity plea against his wishes. Kaczynski wanted to defend what he saw as legitimate political motives in carrying out the attacks, but at the start of the Unabomber trial in January 1998 the judge rejected his requests to get a new defense team and to represent himself. On 22 January 1998, Kaczynski pleaded guilty on all counts and was spared the death penalty. He showed no remorse for his crimes and in May 1998 was sentenced to four life sentences plus 30 years.
1992  Dimite el presidente de Albania y último jefe de Estado comunista de Europa, Ramiz Alia, tras la derrota electoral de su partido.
1991 The U.N. Security Council adopts a Gulf War truce resolution demanding that Iraq abolish weapons of mass destruction, renounce terrorism and pay reparations.
1988 Somalia and Ethiopia sign accord about Ogaden desert
1987  Cae el Gobierno portugués del socialdemócrata Aníbal Antonio Cavaco Silva.
1987 IBM introduces PS/2 and OS/2
      IBM unveiled its new PS/2 line of computers in a splashy Miami Beach debut, featuring a laser-light show and indoor fireworks. IBM hoped the new line would win back the market share that had been eaten away by clone makers.
1986 US national debt reaches $2 trillion
1986 IBM unveils its first “laptop”
      IBM unveiled the PC Convertible, a twelve-pound laptop. The company had previously introduced a bulky "portable" computer but quietly killed it after Compaq's portable model outsold it seven to one. The new Convertible, about the size of a briefcase, was criticized for its murky screen and modem problems.
1985 France government adopts proportional electoral system. — En Francia el sistema electoral mayoritario es sustituido por el proporcional.
1984 Guinea suspends constitution after coup. — El coronel Lansana Conté se hace con el poder en Guinea tras un golpe de estado.
1983 Los guineanos exiliados en España forman una coordinadora de oposición a Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.
1983  Se disuelve el Parlamento de Navarra tras cuatro años de actividad.
1981 Race riots in London's Brixton area
1979 Belgium's Martens government forms.
1979  El Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), tras el pacto con el Partido Comunista de España (PCE), se hace con los principales ayuntamientos en las elecciones municipales españolas.
1978 European market and China signs trade agreement. — China firma un tratado comercial con la Comunidad Económica Europea con concesión mutua del trato de "nación más favorecida".
1975  El soviético Anatoly Evgenievich Karpov es declarado campeón del mundo de ajedrez por incomparecencia del hasta entonces campeón, el estadounidense Bobby Fischer.
^ 1974 Nixon has cheated on taxes.
      By the spring of 1974, President Richard Nixon was in a great deal of trouble. Not only had the House Judiciary Committee turned up the heat on its investigation into the Watergate scandal, but Nixon was also facing serious questions about his tax history. 1973, word leaked out that Nixon had been paying taxes commensurate with an annual income of $15,000; as president, he had in fact earned $200,000 a year. Duly suspicious, Congress marshaled a probe into Nixon's fiscal affairs. The president conceded that a few of his deductions might in fact be cause for controversy, and handed over his tax statements to the House committee in December of 1973. After intensive review and deliberation, the committee ruled that Nixon owed the IRS $476'431. And, on 03 April 1974, Nixon agreed to pay $432'787.13 in back taxes for the past three years.
1974 Gold price reaches record $197 an ounce in Paris
^ 1974 Patty Hearst joins her kidnappers' gang
    In a tape sent to the authorities, she declares that she is joining the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) of her own free will.
      On 02 February 1974, Patricia Campbell Hearst [20 Feb 1954~], the daughter of newspaper publisher Randolph Hearst, had been kidnapped from her Berkeley, California, home by members of a small US leftist group, the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA). Ten days later, a ransom message was sent to the Hearst family demanding $70 in foodstuffs for every needy person in California. Randolph Hearst hesitantly obliged, giving away some $2 million worth of food, but Patty Hearst was not released.
      On 15 April 1974, a surveillance camera records Patty Hearst taking part in an armed robbery of a San Francisco bank. On 06 June, she was indicted by a federal grand jury for her part in the crime.
      On 17 April, Los Angeles police raided the SLA's secret headquarters, killing six of the group's nine known members. Among the dead was the SLA's leader Donald David DeFreeze [16 Nov 1943–], who called himself General Field Marshall Cinque. However, Patty Hearst and two other SLA members wanted for the 15 April bank robbery were not on the premises.
      Finally, on 18 September 1975, Hearst was captured in a San Francisco apartment and arrested for armed robbery. She was convicted on 20 March 1974, and sentenced to seven years in prison. On 09 April 1977, she was released on probation, and returned to a more routine existence.
^ 1972 Nixon orders response to North Vietnamese invasion
      The United States prepares hundreds of B-52s and fighter-bombers for possible air strikes to blunt the recently launched North Vietnamese invasion. The aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk was sent from the Philippines to join the carriers already off the coast of Vietnam and provide additional air support. This attack was the opening move of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 troops and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south.
      North Vietnam had a number of reasons for launching the offensive: impressing the communist world and its own people with its determination; capitalizing on US antiwar sentiment and possibly hurting the chances of President Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994] for re-election; proving that "Vietnamization" was a failure; damaging the South Vietnamese forces and government stability; gaining as much territory as possible before a possible truce; and accelerating negotiations on their own terms. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught.
      At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the defenders suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisors and US airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces.
1969 Nixon administration will “Vietnamize” the war.
      Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird [01 Sep 1922~] announces that the United States is moving to "Vietnamize" the war as rapidly as possible. By this, he meant that the responsibility for the fighting would be gradually transferred to the South Vietnamese as they became more combat capable. However, Laird emphasized that it would not serve the United States' purpose to discuss troop withdrawals while the North Vietnamese continued to conduct offensive operations in South Vietnam.
      Despite Laird's protestations to the contrary, the "Vietnamization" program of President Nixon [09 Jan 1913 – 22 Apr 1994], as he would announce it in June, did include a series of scheduled US troop withdrawals, the first of the war. Also on this date: US military headquarters in Saigon announce that combat deaths for the last week of March have pushed the total number of Americans killed during eight years of US involvement in Vietnam to 33'641. This was 12 more deaths than during the Korean War. By the end of the war, 47'244 Americans had been killed in action in Vietnam. An additional 10'446 died as a result of non-hostile causes like disease and accidents.
1968 North Vietnam agrees to meet with US representatives to set up preliminary peace talks.
^ 1968 In Memphis, Martin Luther King gives his last sermon,
saying, "I've been to the mountaintop. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord."
      Two weeks earlier, King had traveled to Memphis, Tennessee, in support of a sanitation workers' strike. Violence at the workers' protest march forced his departure, but, on 03 April 1968, he returned to the city to lead another demonstration.
     On 04 April 1968, King [15 Jan 1929–], the most important leader of the Black civil rights movement in the US, standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Motel Lorraine, would be shot and killed at 18:01 by sniper James Earl Ray [10 Mar 1928 – 23 Apr 1998]. That night, presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy [20 Nov 1925 – 06 Jun 1968], just two months away from his own assassination, announced King's death at a political rally in Indianapolis. Urging calm, Kennedy fell into quoting the Ancient Greek tragedian Aeschylus in an effort to articulate the inexplicable tragedy of King's murder: "In our sleep, pain that cannot forget falls drop by drop upon the heart until, in our own despair, against our will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God." As word of the assassination spread, riots broke out in several major cities, and in Washington DC fires set by enraged protestors devastated portions of the downtown area. The National Guard was subsequently called in, and for several days the armed troops patrolled the streets of the nation's capital.
      On 09 April, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., was laid to rest in Atlanta, Georgia, during a ceremony attended by one hundred thousand people.
1964 US and Panama  agree to resume diplomatic relations.
1962  Jawaharlal Nehru es designado nuevamente por su partido para ocupar el cargo de primer ministro de la India por cinco años más.
1959  En la capital argentina se producen huelgas y manifestaciones en Buenos Aires.
1958 Fidel Castro's rebels attack Havana.
1956 German war criminals Hinrichsen/Rhl/Siebens/Viebahn freed
1956 Bulgarian vice premier Traitsjo Kostov rehabilitated.
1955 En Argelia se proclama el estado de emergencia y se implanta la censura.
^ 1955 ACLU says it will contest obscenity of HOWL.
      The American Civil Liberties Union announces it will defend the book Howl of Allen Ginsberg against obscenity charges. The US Customs Department had seized some 520 copies of the book several weeks earlier as the book entered the US from England, where it had been printed. Poet Allen Ginsberg had first read the title poem, Howl, at a poetry reading in the fall of 1956 to enormous acclaim from his fellow Beat poets. The poem's racy language, frank subject matter, and lack of form offended some conservative readers, but to young people in the 1960s, it sounded a call to revolt against convention. Along with Jack Kerouac's On the Road, the poem served as the reference manual and rallying cry for a new generation. Ginsberg himself coined the term "flower power." After the seizing of Howl, American publisher and poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti announced he would publish it in the US After its publication, he was arrested and tried for promoting obscene material. The ACLU successfully defended both Ferlinghetti and the book at Ferlinghetti's trial, calling on nine literary experts to render an opinion on the book's merits. Ferlinghetti was found not guilty.
1954 Don Perry climbs a 20' rope in under 2.8 seconds (AAU record)
1949 North Atlantic Treaty, pact signed by US, Britain, France and Canada.
1949  Israel y Transjordania acuerdan un alto el fuego de un año.
^ 1948 Marshall Plan becomes US law.
      US President Harry S. Truman signs the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948 , the “Marshall Plan”. The act would eventually provide over $12 billion of assistance to aid in the economic recovery of Western Europe. In the first years following the end of World War II, the economies of the various nations of Western Europe limped along. Unemployment was high, money was scarce, and homelessness and starvation were not unknown in the war-ravaged countries. US policymakers considered the situation fraught with danger. In the developing Cold War era, some felt that economic privation in Western Europe made for a fertile breeding ground for communist propaganda. A key element of America's policy to contain the influence of the Soviet Union was the recovery of Western Germany (Eastern Germany was occupied by Soviet troops), and that recovery required the revitalization of Germany's natural markets in Western Europe. In addition, strengthening the economies of other Western European countries would better equip them to fight the threat of communism, either from Soviet expansion or from domestic communist parties.
      In June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall made a dramatic call for a massive economic recovery program, one that would provide billions for the stagnant economies of Western Europe. The result of Marshall's call to action was the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948, which was passed by wide margins in Congress. In signing the act, President Truman declared that it represented "perhaps the greatest venture in constructive statesmanship that any nation has undertaken." Secretary Marshall congratulated Congress for having "faced a great crisis with courage and wisdom." The act provided an initial grant of $4 billion for Western Europe. By the time the program came to an end in late 1951 over $12 billion had been expended. Although the Marshall Plan was not an absolute success (the large influx of US dollars led to rampant inflation in some areas), it did stabilize and revitalize the economies of Western Europe. British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin declared that it had been "a lifeline to sinking men."
1945 Nazis begin evacuation of Buchenwald concentration camp, as Red Army approaches.
1944 British dive bombers attack German battle cruiser Tirpitz.
1943  Las fuerzas del Eje se retiran de Túnez.
^ 1942 Japanese launch major offensive against Bataan.
      The Japanese infantry makes a major offensive against Allied troops in Bataan, the peninsula guarding Manila Bay of the Philippine Islands. The invasion of the Japanese 14th Army, which began in December 1941 and was led by General Masaharu Homma [27 Nov 1887 – 03 Apr 1946], had already forced from Manila the troops of General Douglas MacArthur [26 Jan 1880 – 05 Apr 1964], the Philippine capital, into Bataan, in part because of poor strategizing on MacArthur's part. By March, after MacArthur had left for Australia on President Roosevelt's orders and been replaced by Major General Edward P. King Jr., the US Luzon Force and its Filipino allies were half-starved and suffering from malnutrition, malaria, beriberi, dysentery, and hookworm. Homma, helped by reinforcements and an increase in artillery and aircraft activity, took advantage of the US and Filipinos' weakened condition. The Japanese attack signaled the beginning of the end and would result, six days later, in the surrender of the largest number of US troops in US military history, and the Bataan Death March for which Homma would be tried as a war criminal and shot.
1941 Churchill warns Stalin of German invasion.
1940  Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill es nombrado jefe del Consejo de Defensa británico.
1933  El marqués de Clydesdale y el alférez McIntyre consiguen sobrevolar la cima del Everest, a una altitud de 11'000 m.
1930 Ras Tafari becomes Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
1929 Persia agrees to Litvinov Pact.
1928  José Millán Astray y Terreros es nombrado jefe de la circunscripción de Ceuta-Tetuán. — [his name is NOT José Million Ashtrays]
1923  El Gobierno español plantea la crisis total, pero el rey ratifica su confianza en Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas.
1922 Stalin appointed General Secretary of Communist Party.
1919  El mariscal francés Ferdinand Foch [02 Oct 1851 – 20 Mar 1929] se reúne con los alemanes en Spa, Bélgica.
1919 La Asamblea Nacional germano-austriaca acuerda la nacionalización de los bienes y propiedades de la dinastía de los Habsburgo, la supresión de los títulos nobiliarios y la abolición de la pena de muerte.
1917 Lenin leaves Switzerland for Petrograd.
1900  En España se suspenden por decreto las sesiones del parlamento.
1885  Se firma en París y Pekín la ratificación de los preliminares de paz entre Francia y China.
1865 Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
1865 Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond, and Petersburg, Virginia.
1864 Skirmish at Okolona, Arkansas
^ 1860 Pony Express mail service begins
     The first Pony Express mail simultaneously left St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California, carried by Henry Wallace riding west and John Roff riding east. During the 2900-km journey, the riders changed horses dozens of times, and on 13 April, the westbound packet arrived in Sacramento, beating the eastbound packet's arrival in St. Joseph by two days.
      Operating on a semiweekly basis for nearly two years, the route followed a pioneer trail across the present-day states of Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and Nevada to California, carrying mail as well as some small freight for the young Wells Fargo Company. The Pony Express Company, a private enterprise, charged five dollars for every half-ounce of mail.
      Although short-lived and unprofitable, the Pony Express captivated the imagination of the US and helped win federal aid for a more economical overland mail service. The Pony Express also contributed to the economy of the towns on its route, and served the mail service needs of the American West in the days before the telegraph and an efficient transcontinental railroad.
      Pony Express mail service would be discontinued on 24 October 1861.
1830  Aparece publicada en la Gaceta de Madrid la Pragmática Sanción, mediante la cual se suprime en España la Ley Sálica.
1783 Sweden and US sign a treaty of Amity and Commerce.
1764 Austrian arch duke Jozef crowned himself Roman Catholic king.
1711 Felipe V introduce es España la figura administrativa de los intendentes.
1657 English Lord Protector Cromwell refuses crown
1645 English parliament accept Self-Denying Ordinance
1559 Spain and France signs 2nd Treaty of Le Cateau-Cambrésis. — Felipe II, rey de España, y Enrique II, rey de Francia, firman la Paz de Cateau-Cambrèsis.
1493  Los Reyes Católicos reciben con todos los honores a Cristóbal Colón en Barcelona.
1441  Tras la muerte [n Blanca I de Navarra se inicia una lucha por el trono entre su hijo Carlos de Viana y su esposo, el futuro Juan II de Aragón.
1376 Battle of Navarrete (Najera), English beat France.
1367  Enrique II de Trastámara es derrotado por Pedro I, rey de Castilla y León en la Batalla de Nájera.
1312 2nd council of Vienna
1043 Edward the Confessor crowned king of England
— 247 BC Origin of Parthian Era (of Arsaces)
— 311 BC Origin of Seleucid Era (Nisan 1) in the Babylonian calendar. The reckoning known as the Seleucid Era originally was the counting of regnal years of Seleucus.1 Co-regent of his father since 292 BC, Antiochus I continued after the death of Seleucus I, in 28 1, the numbering of his regnal years. His/ successors continued the counting. The reason for this computation was, probably, a technical one. Seleucus I adopted the Babylonian calendar, based on nineteen-year cycles of intercalation with a fixed year's beginning, at Nisanu 1, which fell around the spring equinox, late March or early April. But for the Macedonians (as well as for Greeks, generally) the civil year coincided with the regnal year.' Thus New Year's day corresponded to the change
TO THE TOP
< 02 Apr 04 Apr >
^  Deaths which occurred on a 03 April:
.
terrorist suicide2004 Spanish GEO (Grupo Especial de Operaciones of the police) subinspector Javier Torronteras, 41; and Sarhane Ben Abdelmahid Fakhet “el tunecino”, 35, Tunisian; Abdennabi Kounhaa “Abdallah”; Asri Rifat Anouar, and two other terrorists, who at 21:05 set off two explosions [photo >] in Leganés Norte, 15 km southwest of central Madrid, in the 40 calle Carmen Martín Gaite apartment where they were surrounded since 13:00, refusing to negotiate, and were just starting to be assaulted by the security forces surrounding it. 11 policemen and 4 others are wounded. Fakhet was suspected of been the coordinator of the group that conducted the 11 March 2004 terrorist attack on four trains in Madrid.
2003:: 966 persons massacred in the Catholic parish of Drodro and 14 surrounding villages in Ituri province, Congo, where Ugandan troops allied with the local Lendu tribe have been fighting the Union des Patriotes Congolais, which draws it support from the Hema tribe, since the Ugandans drove the UPC from Bunia, the main town in the province, in early March 2003. The war in Congo broke out in August 1998 when Rwanda and Uganda sent troops to back rebels seeking to oust then-President Laurent Kabila. They accused him of backing insurgents threatening regional security. Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia sent troops to back Kabila, splitting the country into rebel- and government-held areas. Most foreign troops withdrew after a series of peace deals took hold, but fighting among rival rebel factions, tribal fighters and Ugandan troops has continued in eastern Congo. Uganda had backed the UPC, but relations have soured in recent months after the UPC demanded the withdrawal of Ugandan troops from the region. The UPC is now backed by Rwanda. Uganda has more than 2500 soldiers still in Ituri.
2003 A suicide bomber, a woman, her unborn baby, and Staff Sgt. Nino Livaudais, 23; Spc. Ryan Long, 21; and Capt. Russell Rippetoe, 27, of the US 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, near one of its checkpoints in Iraq, 18 km southwest of Haditha Dam. In the evening a car stops by the checkpoint, the pregnant woman comes out and screams in fear, soldiers approach, the car explodes, killing the driver, the woman, and the three soldiers. Two other soldiers are injured.
2003 A US soldier killed by other US soldiers who mistake him for an Iraqi soldier as he is investigating a destroyed Iraqi tank, at 17:30 in Iraq (13:30 UT).
2003
US soldiers Spc. Donald Oaks Jr., 20; Sgt. 1st Class Randall Rehn, 36; and Sgt. Todd Robbins, 33, by a US F-15E Strike Eagle fighter plane which mistakenly bombs US ground forces in Iraq. Several US soldiers are wounded.
2003 The pilot of a US Navy F/A-18C Hornet jet plane from the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk, shot down by a (US or Iraqi) surface-to-air missile at 00:45 (Apr 02, 20:45 UT) during the US-led war on Iraq.
2003 Haji Gilani and a nephew, by 6 gunmen in Deh Rawood, Uruzgan province, Afghanistan. Gilani was the first person to give shelter in Uruzgan province to Hamid Karzai, now President of Afghanistan, when he came secretly into the country in 2001 before the collapse of the Taliban.
2003 (including 02 April) Israelis Chanah Rogan, 92, of Netanya; Zee'v Vider, 50, of Moshav Bekaot; Alter Britvich, 88, and his wife Frieda Britvich, 86, of Netanya; of injuries received on 27 March 2003 in suicide bombing at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, which caused 23 immediate deaths, and 7 delayed deaths, including these four.
2000 Jean Dominique, and Jean Claude Louissaint,
shot by unknown assailants who waited for them outside the courtyard of Radio Haiti Inter, where Louissaint was a guard and Dominique a reporter advocating for human rights and more democracy in Haiti.
1998 Mary Lucy Cartwright, English mathematician born on 17 December 1900.
^ 1996 Ronald H. Brown and 34 others from the US.
      US secretary of commerce Brown, dies along with thirty-two other US persons when their US Air Force plane crashes into a mountain near Dubrovnik, Croatia.
      Brown had been leading a delegation of business executives to the former Yugoslavia to explore business opportunities that might help rebuild the war-torn region. Brown, born in Washington, D.C., in 1941, grew up in New York City's Harlem, where he worked as a welfare caseworker before joining the US Army. After holding important positions in the National Urban League, an advocacy group for the renewal of inner cities, he became a member of the US Supreme Court bar and served as chief counsel for the Senate Judiciary Committee. 1989, he was elected chairman of the Democratic Party National Committee, becoming the first African American to hold the top position in a major political party in the United States. As chairman, Brown played a pivotal role in securing the 1992 election of Bill Clinton, the first Democratic president in twelve years. 1993, he was appointed the first African-American secretary of commerce by President Clinton, a capacity in which he served until this day in 1996, when he was killed in the crash..
1996 Carl Stokes, 68, the first Black elected mayor of a major US city (Cleveland).
1993  Eduardo Caballero Calderón, novelista y político colombiano.
1992  Juan García Hortelano, escritor español.
1991 Graham Greene, 86, English novelist.
1991 Max Frisch, escritor suizo.
1989  Carlos Castro Saavedra, escritor y poeta colombiano.
1974 More than 300, by tornadoes in the US South and Midwest, then in Canada.
1971 Joseph Valachi, 66, US gangster.
1958 Walter Vaes, Belgian artist born on 12 February 1882.
1955 Some 300 in derailment of night express train in Guadalajara.
1955::  39 niños en el incendio de una sala de cine belga.
^ 1946 Masaharu Homma, 58, by firing squad
      Japanese army general and commander of the Japanese invasion force of the Philippine Islands in World War II, Homma was a graduate (1907) of the Army Academy and of the Army War College (1915). During World War I he was an observer with the British forces in France, and in 1925 he served as Japanese resident officer in India. In 1930 Homma was appointed military attaché in London.
      In 1939 he commanded Japanese forces at Tientsin, China, when the Japanese army blockaded the foreign concession there. In December 1941, a few days after the Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor, Homma, then a lieutenant general, led the Japanese invasion of the Philippine Islands. Although it was commonly supposed that Homma had been superseded by General Tomoyuki Yamashita after the campaign bogged down at Bataan and Corregidor, subsequent evidence suggested that Homma held the supreme command throughout the campaign. He also directed the mopping-up actions against stray US and Filipino forces in the Visayas and Mindanao areas.
      Homma, who arrived in Tokyo to surrender to US forces on 14 September 1945, was brought to trial in December. He was formally charged with having been responsible for the Bataan Death March, which occurred shortly after the Japanese conquest. It was estimated that some 10'000 Filipino and US troops died during the forced march. Convicted of ordering the death march and for condoning other atrocities, Homma was executed by a firing squad.
^ 1936 Richard Bruno Hauptmann
executed by electrocution.   He had been convicted in the 1932 kidnapping and murder of the twenty-month-old son of Charles Lindbergh.
      On 01 March 1932, Charles Lindbergh Jr., the son of the famous American aviator who made the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight in 1927, was kidnapped from the nursery of the Lindbergh home in Hopewell, New Jersey. A ransom note was found on the scene of the crime demanding $50'000 in payment for the return of Charles Jr. Three days later, after Lindbergh involved the authorities against the kidnapper's advice, the ransom was increased to $70'000. Dr. John F. Condon, a civilian sympathetic to Lindbergh, volunteered to intercede in the payment of the ransom. On 02 April at New Jersey's St. Raymond's Cemetery, Condon handed over the $70'000 as Charles Lindbergh waited nearby in a car.
      However, the Lindbergh baby was not returned and nearly six weeks later, on 12 April 1932, the infant's battered and mostly decomposed body was found in the woods just a few miles from the Lindberghs' home. The cause of death was determined to be a massive fracture of the skull occurring some two to three months before.
      Following the tragic discovery, the Lindbergh kidnapping case, already a highly publicized story, became a sensational media event as authorities launched an extensive manhunt for the guilty party, using the recorded serial numbers of the ransom money as a guide. Public outrage over the Lindbergh kidnapping led to the passing of the "Lindbergh Law" by Congress, which made the crime of kidnapping a federal offense punishable by the death penalty.
      On 19 September 1934, $14'000 of the ransom money was found in the Bronx, New York, apartment of Richard Bruno Hauptmann, a German carpenter. During the subsequent criminal trial, Hauptmann maintained his innocence, claiming that a business partner, Isador Fisch, gave him the money before returning to Germany, where he died in March of 1934. On 13 February 1935, Hauptmann was convicted and, on 03 April 1936, after a series of appeals, he was executed by electrocution.
      In the years after the kidnapping, a number of people began to question Hauptmann's guilt and the quality of the criminal investigation; however, much of this criticism was likely motivated by opposition to Lindbergh following the public revelations of his Nazi sympathies.
1927  Marco Fidel Suárez, escritor y político colombiano.
1919  Modesto Urgell e Inglada, Spanish painter born on 13 June 1839.
^ 1882 Jesse James, shot in the back.
     Jesse James, 34, one of America's most notorious outlaws, is shot to death in St Joseph MO by Robert Ford, a member of his gang who hoped to collect on the bounty on Jesse's head.
      Jesse James, born in Clay County, Missouri in 1847, joined a Confederate guerilla band led by William Quantrill at the age of fifteen. Featuring several future members of the James Gang, Quantrill's guerillas terrorized Kansas and Missouri during the Civil War, and in August of 1863 massacred over a hundred unarmed civilians during a brutal raid on Lawrence, Kansas, an abolitionist town.
      After the war's end in 1865, Jesse, his brother Frank, and associates Cole, James, and Robert Younger decided to use their military raiding skills to their own advantage and turned to armed robbery. In early February of 1866, eighteen-year-old Jesse planned their first target-a bank in Liberty, Missouri.
      On 13 February, Frank James led a group of about a dozen men, including Cole Younger and other former Confederate guerrillas, in the first recorded daylight bank robbery in the United States. When they left the bank it was with $60'000 in gold and silver coins, paper money, and government securities. Jesse did not participate in the actual robbery, but he later became the leader of the James Gang, which was eventually reduced to the core unit of James, his brother, and the three Younger brothers.
      Over the next sixteen years, the James Gang became the US's most notorious outlaws, robbing banks, trains, stagecoaches, stores, and individuals of a total of some $300'000. The beginning of their downfall came in 1876 when, after killing two people and failing to secure any money in an attempted bank robbery at Northfield, Minnesota, the Younger brothers and several other key members of their gang were captured.
      The James brothers escaped and did not rob another train until 1880, the same year that Missouri Governor Thomas T. Crittenden offered a reward for the capture of the James brothers, dead or alive. James Gang member Robert Ford chose the former, and on 03 April 1882, he shot Jesse James dead.
      Frank James subsequently surrendered but was twice acquitted, eventually dying of old age on his farm near Excelsior Springs, Missouri.
1880  Manuel Castellano, pintor español.
1877 Jean-Baptiste Madou, Belgian artist born on 03 February 1796.
1856 Some 4000 by gunpowder exploding in church in Rhodes.
1897 Johannes Brahms, in Vienna, German composer and pianist born on 07 May 1833 in Hamburg. He wrote 4 symphonies, 4 concerti (2 for piano, 1 each for violin and for violin+cello), other orchestral works (Academic Festival Overture, 1880; Hungarian Dances, 1873), chamber music, piano works (Hungarian Dances, 1869), choral compositions (A German Requiem, 1868), and 214 solo songs.
1794 (14 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort comme brigands de la Vendée,       ^top^
tous ceux dans la liste ci-dessous, domiciliés à Bouguenais (ou Bourgenais, Bourguenais, Bougenais, Bouquenais, Bonquenais) canton de Nantes, département de la Loire-Inféreure, par la commission militaire séante à Nantes, et, présumément, ils sont guillotinés (ou fusillés?) le même jour ou très peu après. (* marque les noms répétés de la veille) (# “ORDENEAU, domicilié à Bouguenais, département de Mayenne et Loire” — sic)
  1. AIGRONT Julien,
  2. AMAND Pierre
  3. ARIEUX Maurice
  4. AURIEUX Pierre,
  5. BACHELIER Lucas
  6. BERTAUD Jean
  7. BEAUTRU Pierre
  8. BERTHOND Charles,
  9. BERTRAND Pierre
  10. BRIAND Pierre
  11. BOCHARD Jean
  1. BUREAU Jean
  2. CARSNAROL Joseph,
  3. CHIFFARGE François
  4. CLAGEOT Pierre
  5. COUSEAU Pierre
  6. DAVIOT Jean
  7. DELAINAY Jacques,
  8. DELAINAY Jean
  9. EGRONE Jean
  10. GANEL Thomas
  11. GUILLET Pierre
  1. GUERIN Jacques
  2. HAYET Pierre
  3. LANDRIAU Jean
  4. LANDRIAU Pierre
  5. LEERU Marthurin
  6. LEGER (dit Olivier)
  7. LEMERLE Blaise
  8. LESAGE Pierre *
  9. LIOTET Pierre
  10. LUCAS Hyacinthe
  11. LUCAS Mathurin
  1. MARET Jean
  2. MOREAU Pierre
  3. NOIREAU Julien
  4. NOISEL Mathurin
  5. ORDENEAU Joseph #
  6. ORDENEAU Guillaume #
  7. PRAULT René
  8. ROUSSEAU Jean
  9. ROUSSEAU Julien
  10. ROUSSEAU Mathurin **
  11. SAURIN Pierre
  12. TAOUMUROL René
1794 (14 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort comme brigands de la Vendée,       ^top^
par la commission militaire séante à Nantes, domiciliés dans le département de la Loire inférieure:
  1. BARTHELEMY Julien , domicilié à Verthon, canton de Nantes
  2. BERNARD François , domicilié à Cambon, canton de Nantes
  3. DUTEIL Pierre , domicilié à BaBouguenaissse-Goulaine
  4. LEROY Jean, domicilié à Château-Thibaut
  1. MORISSEAU Pierre, domicilié à Pont-St-Martin
  2. RABOTEAU Jacques, domicilié à Loitot
  3. SAURIN Pierre, domicilié à la Chevrottière.(même nom ci-dessus, domicilié à Bouguenais)
1794 (14 germinal an II) Condamnés à mort par la Révolution:       ^top^
  1. ALBERT Maurice, âgé de 30 ans, né à Lyon, commis négociant, domicilié à Bordeaux, département de la Gironde, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, pour avoir fait un commerce de lingots d'or et d'argeant, et pour avoir acheté des Louis à prix excessif.
  2. FISSON-MONEVEAU Philippe, ci-devant, écuyer et cultivateur âgé de 47 ans, né et domicilié à Faleyrac, département de la Gironde, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux, comme contre-révolutionnaire, s’étant permis les propos les plus injurieux contre les représentants du peuple en lui disant qu’il était trompé par ses députés.
  3. ARMANT Etienne Jacques (dit Rougemont), directeur de la comptabilité, domicilié à Paris, département de la Seine, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal révolutionnaire séant à Paris.
  4. BRUNET François (dit la Barthe), âgé de 32 ans, natif de Taleyrac, canton de Cadillac, département de la Gironde, ci-devant garde du roi d'Espagne, domicilié à Brasimont, même département, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux.
  5. DELBES Pierre, prêtre non conformiste, âgé de 54 ans, natif de St Genies, domicilié à St Rémy, département de l’Aveyron, comme réfractaire, par la commission militaire séante à Bordeaux.
  6. DROUET François, fabricant, domicilié à St Aubin-le-Clou, département des Deux-Sèvres, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
  7. NOIRAULT François Léon, meunier, domicilié à Ondoyé, département des Deux-Sèvres, comme brigand de la Vendée, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
  8. DUREPAIRE Jean Timothé, ex noble, chef de division de canonniers, domicilié à Ambreure, département de la Charente Inférieure, comme conspirateur, par le tribunal criminel dudit département.
  9. PANEQUIER Louis, conducteur de charrois à l’armée des Pyrénées-Orientales, domicilié à Riom, département du Puy-de-Dôme, comme contre-révolutionnaire, par le tribunal militaire du 1er arrondissement des Pyrénées-Orientales de Chauvin Dragon.
  10. RICHARD Jacques, ouvrier imprimeur, domicilié à Toulouse, département de la haute Garonne, par le tribunal criminel dudit département, comme contre-révolutionnaire
1717 Ozanam, mathematician.
1695 Melchior d'Hondecoeter, the Netherlands most renowned painter of birds. He was born in 1636. MORE ON D'HONDECOETER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1682 Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, after falling from a scaffolding while painting, Spanish painter specialized in Religious Subjects baptized on 01 January 1618. MORE ON MURILLO AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1681 Lucas Franchoys II, Flemish painter and etcher born on 28 June 1616. MORE ON FRANCHOYS AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1663 Jan Bike (or Biecker) Miel “cavaliere G. Milo”, Flemish painter active in Italy born in 1599. MORE ON MIEL AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1541  Fernando de Rojas, escritor español.
1472 Alberti , mathematician.
1287 Honorius IV, [Giacomo Savelli], Italian Pope (1285-1287)
628 Khosrow (or Chosroes) II “Parviz (=the Victorious)”, emperor of Persia, discredited by defeat by Byzantine emperer Heraclius and refusal of his peace terms, is executed in a palace coup, after seeing his youngest son and heir Mardanshah murdered. Khosrow's eldest son, Kavadh (or Qobad) II Sheroe succeeds him and signs the peace with Heraclius. Khosrow II had become emperor in 590 after the assassination of his father Hormizd IV. The Persian empire achieved its greatest expansion under Khosrow II.
...Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ, crucified (date according to astronomers Humphreys and Waddington)
 
< 02 Apr 04 Apr >
^  Births which occurred on a 03 April:

banteng clone, 1 day old2003 Cloned banteng male [04 Apr 2003 photo >], weighing about double the normal 20 kg, by cesarean section from a surrogate mother cow at a farm in Sioux Center, Iowa. In 1977 the San Diego Zoo's Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species began its Frozen Zoo program: preserving tissue samples from hundreds of endangered animals in small plastic vials, which are kept superfrozen in liquid nitrogen. It sent frozen skin cells from a male banteng who died childless in 1980 to researchers at the cloning company Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, which inserted genetic material from the banteng skin cells into 30 cow eggs that had their genetic material removed. Trans Ova Genetics of Hull, Iowa, then implanted the cloned eggs into cows in Sioux Center, Iowa. Of the 16 resulting pregnancies, 14 miscarried and this is the second to result in a birth. The other birth took place on 01 April 2003, a normal male weighing 20 kg, Scientists would, on 08 April, kill the banteng born today, as being too overweight to have a good chance of survival. The banteng is an endangered wild bovine species from the forests of Southeast Asia and is closely related to the domesticated cow
1956 Eduardo Zaplana Hernández-Soro, abogado y político español.
1948 Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Mexican economist and government official who was president of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. The son of a Mexican senator, Salinas joined the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI) at age 18 and studied economics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Mexico (UNAM) and at Harvard University, earning a Ph.D in 1978. From 1971 on he held successively more important economic-affairs posts in the government and was supported in his rise by Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado [12 Dec 1934~], who had been one of his professors at the UNAM. When Madrid became president of Mexico in 1982, he made Salinas his minister of planning and the budget, a post that Salinas held until Madrid named him in 1987 to be his successor as the presidential candidate of the PRI in 1988. No PRI candidate for the presidency had won less than 70% of the popular vote in 60 years of rigged elections. In the elections of July 1988, however, Salinas won a bare 50.4% of the vote, according to the official tallies; the opposition parties contended that Salinas' total share of the vote would have been even lower had the PRI not resorted as usual to vote fraud. As president, Salinas continued Madrid's program of economic retrenchment and privatization. He sold off hundreds of inefficient state-owned corporations to private investors and spent some of the proceeds on infrastructure and social services. He also took steps to open the protected Mexican economy to both foreign investment and foreign competition. In 1991–1992 his government participated with the US and Canada in the negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, signed on 17 December 1992), which reduced tariffs between the three countries when it went into effect on 01 January 1994.
Bishop Ochoa1943 Armando Xavier Ochoa [< photo], who would be ordained a priest of the archdiocese of Los Angeles on 23 May 1970, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Los Angeles on 29 December 1986 and consecrated a bishop on 23 February 1987, appointed Bishop of El Paso on 01 April 1996.
1939  Seamus Heaney, poeta y ensayista irlandés, Premio Nobel de Literatura 1995.
1930 Helmut Kohl, chancellor (Germany, 1982- ) By 2000, his reputation, and the fortunes of his party, would be seriously damaged by the revelation that while in office he received illegal campaign contributions. He refuses to name the donors.
1926 Virgil I. Grissom, one of three US astronauts who died in the 27 January 1967 Apollo I fire.
1926  Las de Abel, comedia de los hermanos Serafín y Joaquín Álvarez Quintero, se estrena en el teatro madrileño Infanta Isabel.
1922  José Hierro del Real, poeta español.
1915 Paul Touvier, war criminal.
1914 Asger Oluf Jörgensen Jorn, Danish artist who died on 01 May 1973.
1909 Stan Ulam , mathematician.
1900 Ingham, mathematician.
1898 Henry R. Luce, Tengchow, China, US magazine publisher who created Time, Fortune, Life and Sports Illustrated. He died on 28 February 1967.
1897 The Secessionist art movement is founded.
1893 Yvon Hitchens, English painter who died on 29 August 1979. MORE ON HITCHENS AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
1892 Italo Mus, Italian artist who died in 1967.
1892 Rademacher, mathematician.
1885 H. St. John Philby, English explorer of Arabian peninsula. He died on 30 September 1960.
^ 1885 Daimler's First Engine.
      Gottlieb Daimler [17 Mar 1834 – 06 Mar 1900] is granted a German patent for his one-cylinder, water-cooled engine design. Daimler's invention was the breakthrough that other engine builders had been waiting for. Previously no one had been able to efficiently solve the problem posed by the tremendous heat produced by internal combustion engines. In Daimler's engine, cool water circulated around the engine block, preventing the engine from overheating. Today's engines still employ Daimler's basic idea. Before the water-cooled engine, cars were practical impossibilities, as the parts on which the engine was mounted could not sustain the heat generated by the engine itself. Daimler built his first whole automobile in the fall of 1896, and in doing so took the first step in his self-named company's storied car-building history.
1884 Bud Fisher, US cartoonist who created "Mutt and Jeff". He died on 07 September 1954.
1881 Alcide de Gasperi, Italian premier (1945–1953). He died on 19 August 1954.
1870  José Juan Tablada, modernist Mexican poet who died on 02 August 1945. He was particularly noted for his haikus. — A few poems — (060402)
1860 Ulpiano Checa y Sanz, Spanish artist who died on 16 January 1916.
1842 Ulric Dahlgren, US Colonel (Union volunteers) who was killled in action behind enemy lines on 04 March 1864. — (060402)
1838 Léon Michel Gambetta, French attorney and republican statesman who died on 31 December 1882. He helped direct the defense of France during the Franco-German War of 1870–1871. In helping to found the Third Republic, he made three essential contributions: (1) By his speeches and articles, he converted many Frenchmen to the ideals of moderate democratic republicanism. (2) By his political influence and personal social contacts, he gathered support for an elective democratic political party, the Republican Union. (3) By backing Adolphe Thiers [18 Apr 1797 – 03 Sep 1877], who was elected provisional head of government by the National Assembly on 17 February 1871, against royalists and Bonapartists, he helped transform the new regime into a parliamentary republic. Gambetta was premier of France from 14 November 1881 to 16 January 1882. — (060402)
1836  Semanario pintoresco español, fundado por Ramón de Mesonero Romanos, donde publicarán sus obras autores como Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, Antonio Flores, Luis de Madrazo y Kuntz o Alfonso de Castro y Rossi, entre otros muchos, sale a la calle con su primer número.
1835 Amringe, mathematician.
1823 William Marcy “boss” Tweed, notorious US politician; leader of corrupt Tammany Hall organization in New York City. He died on 12 April 1878.
^ 1822 Edward Everett Hale, US clergyman and author who died on 10 June 1909.
     He was a grandnephew of the Revolutionary hero Nathan Hale [06 Jun 1755 – 22 Sep 1776] and a nephew of orator Edward Everett [11 Apr 1794 – 15 Jan 1865], and brother of writer Lucretia Peabody Hale [02 Sep 1820 – 12 Jun 1900]. Edward Everett Hale was trained on the Boston Daily Advertiser, the newspaper of his father Charles Hale, and turned early to writing. For 70 years he wrote numerous newspaper articles, historical essays, short stories, pamphlets, sermons, and novels in such journals as the North American Review, The Atlantic Monthly, and Christian Examiner. From 1870 to 1875 he published and edited the Unitarian journal Old and New.
    In 1850 he collaborated with his sister Lucetia on the novel Margaret Percival in America. My Double and How He Undid Me (1859) established the vein of realistic fantasy that was Hale's forte and introduced a group of loosely related characters figuring in If, Yes, and Perhaps (1868), The Ingham Papers (1869), Sybaris and Other Homes (1869), His Level Best (1872), and other collections. The Man Without a Country, which appeared first in The Atlantic Monthly in 1863, was written to inspire greater patriotism during the Civil War. East and West (1892) and In His Name (1873) were his most popular novels.
      Hale's ministry, which began in 1846, was characterized by his forceful personality, organizing genius, and liberal theology, which placed him in the vanguard of the Social Gospel movement. Many of his 150 books and pamphlets were tracts for such causes as the education of Blacks, workmen's housing, and world peace. A moralistic novel, Ten Times One Is Ten (1871),inspired the organization of several young people's groups. The reminiscent writings of his later years are rich and colorful: A New England Boyhood (1893), James Russell Lowell and His Friends (1899), and Memories of a Hundred Years (1902). His Works, in 10 volumes, appeared in 1898–1900. In 1903 he was named chaplain of the United States Senate.

— HALE ONLINE:
— The Brick Moon, and Other Stories _ The Brick Moon, and Other Stories
— The Life of Christopher Columbus: From His Own Letters and Journals and Other Documents of His Time
(illustrated)
  _ The Life of Christopher Columbus: From His Own Letters and Journals and Other Documents of His Time
— The Man Without a Country — Sybaris and Other Homes
(page images) — Kanzas and Nebraska (page images)
//— editor of Bulfinch's Mythology: The Age of Fable — Trimmer's The History of the Robins (page images)
//— contributor to: The Only True Mother Goose Melodies: An Exact Reproduction of the Text and Illustrations of the Original 1833 Edition
1817 William Alexander Anderson "Big Foot" Wallace, Texas Ranger, in Lexington, Kentucky.
1816 Otto Didrik Ottesen, Danish artist who died on 02 October 1892.
1815 Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux, French artist who died on 09 November 1884.
1807 Mary Carpenter, US philanthropist and social reformer who died on 14 June 1877.
Irving portrait by Jarvis^ 1783 Washington Irving, US author, short story writer, essayist, poet, travel book writer, biographer, and columnist, best known for the short stories The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, in which the schoolmaster Ichabold Crane meets with a headless horseman, and Rip Van Winkle, about a man who falls asleep for 20 years. Irving helped establish the short story in US literature. The charm, delicacy, and pictorial quality of Irving's writing has given it lasting value. He died on 28 November 1859.
[1809 portrait by John Wesley Jarvis >]
     The favorite and last of 11 children of an austere Presbyterian father and a genial Anglican mother, young, frail Irving grew up in an atmosphere of indulgence. He escaped a college education, which his father required of his older sons, but read intermittently at the law, notably in the office of Josiah Ogden Hoffman, with whose pretty daughter Matilda he early fell in love. He wrote a series of whimsically satirical essays over the signature of Jonathan Oldstyle, Gent., published in Peter Irving's newspaper, The Morning Chronicle, in 1802–1803. He made several trips up the Hudson, another into Canada for his health, and took an extended tour of Europe in 1804–1806.
      On his return he passed the bar examination late in 1806 and soon set up as a lawyer. But during 1807–1808 his chief occupation was to collaborate with his brother William and James K. Paulding [22 Aug 1778 – 06 Apr 1860] in the writing of a series of 20 periodical essays entitled Salmagundi. Concerned primarily with passing phases of contemporary society, the essays retain significance as an index to the social milieu.
      His A History of New York . . . by Diedrich Knickerbocker (1809) was a comic history of the Dutch regime in New York, prefaced by a mock-pedantic account of the world from creation onward. Its writing was interrupted in April 1809 by the sudden death of Matilda Hoffman, as grief incapacitated him. In 1811 he moved to Washington DC, as a lobbyist for the Irving brothers' hardware-importing firm, but his life seemed aimless for some years. He prepared a US edition of the poems of Thomas Campbell [27 Jul 1777 – 15 Jun 1844], edited the Analectic Magazine, and acquired a staff colonelcy during the War of 1812. In 1815 he went to Liverpool to look after the interests of his brothers' firm. In London he met Sir Walter Scott [15 Aug 1771 – 21 Sep 1832], who encouraged him to renewed effort. The result was The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent (1819–1820), a collection of stories and essays that mix satire and whimsicality with fact and fiction. Most of the book's 30-odd pieces concern Irving's impressions of England, but six chapters deal with US subjects. Of these, the tales The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle have been called the first US short stories. They are both Americanized versions of German folktales. The main character of Rip Van Winkle is a henpecked husband who sleeps for 20 years and awakes as an old man to find his wife dead, his daughter happily married, and 13 British colonies in America now one independent country. The tremendous success of The Sketch Book in both England and the United States assured Irving that he could live by his pen. In 1822 he produced Bracebridge Hall, a sequel to The Sketch Book. He traveled in Germany, Austria, France, Spain, the British Isles, and later in his own country.
      Early in 1826 he accepted the invitation of Alexander H. Everett to attach himself to the US legation in Spain, where he wrote his Columbus (1828), followed by The Companions of Columbus (1831). Meanwhile, Irving had become absorbed in the legends of the Moorish past and wrote A Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada (1829) and The Alhambra (1832), a Spanish counterpart of The Sketch Book.
      After a 17-year absence Irving returned to New York in 1832, where he was warmly received. He made a journey west and produced in rapid succession A Tour of the Prairies (1835), Astoria (1836), and The Adventures of Captain Bonneville (1837). Except for four years (1842–1846) as minister to Spain, Irving spent the remainder of his life at his home, “Sunnyside,” in Tarrytown, on the Hudson River, where he devoted himself to literary pursuits.

IRVING ONLINE:
  • The Adventures of Captain Bonneville
  • The Adventures of Captain Bonneville
  • The Alhambra
  • The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
  • Old Christmas
  • Little Britain
  • Rip Van Winkle
  • A Tour on the Prairies
  • Astoria: or, Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond the Rocky Mountains
  • Astoria: or, Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond the Rocky Mountains
  • A History of New York, From the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty — volume 1 — volume 2
  • The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon
  • The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon
  • Tales of a Traveller — volume 1 — volume 2 — volume 3 — volume 4
  • 1778 Pierre-Fidèle Bretonneau, French epidemiologist; he performed the first successful tracheotomy. He died on 18 February 1862.
    1367 Henry IV “Henry Bolingbroke” (his place of birth) “Henry of Lancaster”, king of England who died on 20 March 1413. He was the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the House of Lancaster. He gained the crown on 30 September 1399 by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. But he was unable to overcome the fiscal and administrative weaknesses that contributed to the eventual downfall of the Lancastrian dynasty. — (060402)
    1245 Philip III “le Hardi”, king of France (1270-1285) who died on 05 October 1285. During his reign the power of the monarchy was enlarged and the royal domain extended, though his foreign policy and military ventures were largely unsuccessful. — (060402)
    — — Pak Tai, Hong Kong, emperor (Northern Hong Kong)
     
    Holidays [Mass] Student Government Day / [Switzerland] Glarius Festival (1388)
    Observances In 0404, [Zen-Kamakura Japan] Comm services for Hojo Tokimune at Engakuji / 1253, [Ang] Richard, Bishop of Chichester / 1999, [Christian] Holy Saturday / In 2007, [Jewish] Passover/Pesach-Feast of Deliverance (Nisan 15, 5767) / In 2053, [Jewish] Passover/Pesach-Feast of Deliverance (Nisan 15, 5813) / [Franciscan] Benedict the Black, religious, - Memorial / [RC] Irene, martyr / Santos Sixto, Benigno, Nicetas, Urbicio, Ricardo y Pancracio. / Saint Richard:: D'origine pas du tout riche, Richard vécut en Angleterre au XIIIe siècle. Il devint évêque de Chichester malgré l'opposition du roi Henri III qui lui eût préféré un courtisan.
    Holy Thursday in 0397, 1890, 1947, 1958, 1969, 1980, 2042, 2053, 2064, 2110, 2121.

    Good Friday in 1885, 1896, 1931, 1942, 1953, 2015, 2026, 2037, 2048, 2105.
    Easter Sunday in 1904, 1983, 1988, 1994, 2067, 2078, 2089.
    click click

    Thoughts for the day:
    “Laugh at yourself first, before anyone else can”
    — Elsa Maxwell, US socialite columnist [24 May 1883 – 01 Nov 1963].
    “If you can't laugh at yourself, don't worry, others will.”
    “Great minds have purposes, others have wishes.”
    — Washington Irving
    “Great marine biologists mind porpoises, others have fishes.”
    TO THE TOP
    PLEASE CLICK HERE TO WRITE to HISTORY 4 2DAY
    http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4apr/h4apr03.html
    http://www.intergate.com/~canu/history/h4apr/h4apr03.html
    for this one, DON'T accept scripts: http://www.ifrance.com/7aujourdhui/history/h4apr/h4apr03.html (unless you like ads)
    updated Monday 30-Mar-2009 22:55 UT
    Principal updates:
    v.8.30 Thursday 03-Apr-2008 13:10 UT
    v.7.31 Wednesday 04-Apr-2007 23:39 UT
    v.6.30 Monday 03-Apr-2006 15:27
    v.5.36 Tuesday 19-Apr-2005 18:29 UT
    Monday 05-Apr-2004  0:51 UT

    safe site site safe for children safe site