Unabomber is arrested... Washington Irving is born... Patty Hearst joins her kidnappers... Pony Express is started... Daimler's first engine... Japanese offensive against Bataan... Japanese general shot for Bataan Death March... Lindbergh baby murderer is executed... Guillotinés par la Terreur... The Marshall plan... Jesse James is murdered... ACLU will contest obscenity of HOWL... MS starts Sidewalk... FCC's digital TV plan... IBM unveils its first laptop... IBM introduces PS/2 and OS/2... Internet decency lawsuit begins... US response to North Vietnam's invasion of South... US will "Vietnamize" the war... Nixon cheats on taxes...
a 03 April:
2007 A new official rail speed record, 574.8 km/h (= 159.6 m/s) is established at 13:13 (11:13 UT) in the municipality of Éclaires (Marne) France, by a a TGV (Très Grande Vitesse) train on a test track of the “ligne à grande vitesse” LGV Est européenne. —(070403)
2001 Las acciones de Iberia se devalúan en un 1,68% en su debut en el mercado bursátil.
2000 A federal judge in Washington rules that Microsoft Corp. has violated US antitrust laws by keeping "an oppressive thumb" on competitors during the race to link people to the Internet. Una sentencia del juez estadounidense Thomas Penfield Jackson acusa a la empresa de Bill Gates, Microsoft, de violar la ley antimonopolio.
1999 NATO missiles strike downtown Belgrade for the first time, destroying the headquarters of security forces accused of waging a campaign against Kosovo Albanians.
1998 The Dow Jones industrial average passes 9000 for the first time.
1998 Es detenido en México el general implicado en la matanza de Acteal.
1996 Unabomber is arrested
At his small wilderness cabin near Lincoln, Montana, Theodore Kaczynski Jr. is arrested by FBI agents and charged with being the “Unabomber”, the elusive terrorist blamed for sixteen mail bombs that killed three people and severely injured eleven others between 1978 and 1995.
Kaczynski, born in Chicago on 22 May 1942, won a scholarship to study mathematics at Harvard University at age sixteen. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley before abruptly resigning in 1969. Apparently disillusioned with the world around him, he retreated to a family property in Montana, where he developed a philosophy of radical environmentalism and militant opposition to modern technology. 1978, he manufactured and sent his first mail bomb to a professor at Northwestern University, and a public safety officer was wounded while opening the suspicious package. 1979, his third known terrorist bomb exploded on an American Airlines flight, causing minor injuries from smoke inhalation. As Kaczynski usually targeted universities and airlines, federal investigators began calling their suspect the Unabomber, an acronym of sorts for university, airline, and bomber. 1987, a woman saw a man wearing dark glasses and a hooded sweatshirt placing what turned out to be the bomb next to a businessman's car in Salt Lake City. The sketch of the man that emerged became the only representation of the alleged Unabomber. 1993, various federal departments established the UNABOM Task Force, which intensified the search for a Unabomber suspect.
On 19 September, 1995, The Washington Post published the so-called "Unabomber's Manifesto," a sixty-five-page thesis on what Kaczynski perceived to be the problems with America's industrial and technological society. The newspaper, which split the cost with The New York Times, was assured that by publishing the essay future bombings would be avoided. Kaczynski's brother, David, read the essay and recognized his brother's ideas and language, leading him to inform the FBI in February of 1996 that he suspected his brother was the Unabomber. On 03 April, Ted Kaczynski was arrested at his cabin in Montana, and extensive evidence, including a live bomb, was uncovered at the site. Indicted on over a dozen counts of terrorism, he appeared briefly in court in June of 1998 to plead not guilty to all charges. Over the next year and a half, Kaczynski wrangled with his defense attorneys, who, against his wishes, wanted to issue an insanity plea that he believed compromised his political motives and beliefs. In January of 1998, at the scheduled start of the Unabomber trial, he expressed his desire to acquire a new defense team. Two days later, Judge Garland Burrell rejected Kaczynski's request and also approved his attorney's plan to portray him as a paranoid schizophrenic. Kaczynski next asked the judge to allow him to represent himself, but the request was likewise denied, even after an official psychiatrist and both the prosecution and defense deemed him fit to do so. On 22 January, 1998, Ted Kaczynski pleaded guilty and was spared the death penalty. On 04 April 1998, the Unabomber was sentenced to four consecutive life sentences without the possibility of parole.
At his small wilderness cabin near Lincoln, Montana, Theodore John Kaczynski is arrested by FBI agents and accused of being the Unabomber, the elusive terrorist blamed for 16 mail bombs that killed three people and injured 23 during an 18-year period. Kaczynski, born in Chicago in 1942, won a scholarship to study mathematics at Harvard University at age 16. After receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, he became a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. Although celebrated as a brilliant mathematician, he suffered from persistent social and emotional problems, and in 1969 abruptly ended his promising career at Berkeley. Disillusioned with the world around him, he tried to buy land in the Canadian wilderness but in 1971 settled for a 1.4-acre plot near his brother's home in Montana.
For the next 25 years, Kaczynski lived as a hermit, occasionally working odd jobs and traveling but mostly living off his land. He developed a philosophy of radical environmentalism and militant opposition to modern technology, and tried to get academic essays on the subjects published. It was the rejection of one of his papers by two Chicago-area universities in 1978 that may have prompted him to manufacture and deliver his first mail bomb. The package was addressed to the University of Illinois from Northwestern University, but was returned to Northwestern, where a security guard was seriously wounded while opening the suspicious package. In 1979, Kaczynski struck again at Northwestern, injuring a student at the Technological Institute. Later that year, his third bomb exploded on an American Airlines flight, causing injuries from smoke inhalation. In 1980, a bomb mailed to the home of Percy Wood, the president of United Airlines, injured Wood when he tried to open it.
As Kaczynski seemed to be targeting universities and airlines, federal investigators began calling their suspect the Unabomber, an acronym of sorts for university, airline, and bomber. From 1981 to 1985, there were seven more bombs, four at universities, one at a professor's home, one at the Boeing Company in Auburn, Wash., and one at a computer store in Sacramento. Six people were injured, and in 1985 the owner of the computer store was killed the Unabomber's first murder. In 1987, a woman saw a man wearing aviator glasses and a hooded sweatshirt placing what turned out to be a bomb outside a computer store in Salt Lake City. The sketch of the suspect that emerged became the first representation of the Unabomber, and Kaczynski, fearing capture, halted his terrorist campaign for six years. In June 1993, a lethal mail bomb severely injured a University of California geneticist at his home, and two days later a computer science professor at Yale was badly injured by a similar bomb.
Various federal departments established the UNABOM Task Force, which launched an intensive search for a Unabomber suspect. In 1994, a mail bomb killed an advertising executive at his home in New Jersey. Kaczynski had mistakenly thought that the man worked for a firm that repaired the Exxon Company's public relations after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. In April 1995, a bomb killed the president of a timber-industry lobbying group. It was the Unabomber's last attack.
Soon after, Kaczynski sent a manifesto to The New York Times and The Washington Post, saying he would stop the killing if it were published. In 1995, The Washington Post published the so-called "Unabomber's Manifesto," a 35'000-word thesis on what Kaczynski perceived to be the problems with the US's industrial and technological society. Kaczynski's brother, David, read the essay and recognized his brother's ideas and language; he informed the FBI in February 1996 that he suspected that his brother was the Unabomber.
On 03 April 1996, Ted Kaczynski is arrested at his cabin in Montana, and extensive evidence including a live bomb and an original copy of the manifesto are discovered at the site. Indicted on more than a dozen federal charges, he appeared briefly in court in 1996 to plead not guilty to all charges. During the next year and a half, Kaczynski wrangled with his defense attorneys, who wanted to issue an insanity plea against his wishes. Kaczynski wanted to defend what he saw as legitimate political motives in carrying out the attacks, but at the start of the Unabomber trial in January 1998 the judge rejected his requests to get a new defense team and to represent himself. On 22 January 1998, Kaczynski pleaded guilty on all counts and was spared the death penalty. He showed no remorse for his crimes and in May 1998 was sentenced to four life sentences plus 30 years.
|1992 Dimite el presidente de Albania y último jefe
de Estado comunista de Europa, Ramiz Alia, tras la derrota electoral de
1991 The U.N. Security Council adopts a Gulf War truce resolution demanding that Iraq abolish weapons of mass destruction, renounce terrorism and pay reparations.
1988 Somalia and Ethiopia sign accord about Ogaden desert
1987 Cae el Gobierno portugués del socialdemócrata Aníbal Antonio Cavaco Silva.
1984 Guinea suspends constitution after coup. El coronel Lansana Conté se hace con el poder en Guinea tras un golpe de estado.
1983 Los guineanos exiliados en España forman una coordinadora de oposición a Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.
1983 Se disuelve el Parlamento de Navarra tras cuatro años de actividad.
1981 Race riots in London's Brixton area
1979 Belgium's Martens government forms.
1979 El Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), tras el pacto con el Partido Comunista de España (PCE), se hace con los principales ayuntamientos en las elecciones municipales españolas.
1978 European market and China signs trade agreement. China firma un tratado comercial con la Comunidad Económica Europea con concesión mutua del trato de "nación más favorecida".
1975 El soviético Anatoly Evgenievich Karpov es declarado campeón del mundo de ajedrez por incomparecencia del hasta entonces campeón, el estadounidense Bobby Fischer.
| 1964 US and Panama agree to resume diplomatic relations.
1962 Jawaharlal Nehru es designado nuevamente por su partido para ocupar el cargo de primer ministro de la India por cinco años más.
1959 En la capital argentina se producen huelgas y manifestaciones en Buenos Aires.
1958 Fidel Castro's rebels attack Havana.
1956 German war criminals Hinrichsen/Rhl/Siebens/Viebahn freed
1956 Bulgarian vice premier Traitsjo Kostov rehabilitated.
1955 En Argelia se proclama el estado de emergencia y se implanta la censura.
1949 North Atlantic Treaty, pact signed by US, Britain, France and Canada.
1949 Israel y Transjordania acuerdan un alto el fuego de un año.
1944 British dive bombers attack German battle cruiser Tirpitz.
1943 Las fuerzas del Eje se retiran de Túnez.
| 1941 Churchill warns Stalin of German invasion.
1940 Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill es nombrado jefe del Consejo de Defensa británico.
1933 El marqués de Clydesdale y el alférez McIntyre consiguen sobrevolar la cima del Everest, a una altitud de 11'000 m.
1930 Ras Tafari becomes Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
1929 Persia agrees to Litvinov Pact.
1928 José Millán Astray y Terreros es nombrado jefe de la circunscripción de Ceuta-Tetuán. — [his name is NOT José Million Ashtrays]
1923 El Gobierno español plantea la crisis total, pero el rey ratifica su confianza en Manuel García Prieto, marqués de Alhucemas.
1922 Stalin appointed General Secretary of Communist Party.
1919 El mariscal francés Ferdinand Foch [02 Oct 1851 20 Mar 1929] se reúne con los alemanes en Spa, Bélgica.
1919 La Asamblea Nacional germano-austriaca acuerda la nacionalización de los bienes y propiedades de la dinastía de los Habsburgo, la supresión de los títulos nobiliarios y la abolición de la pena de muerte.
1917 Lenin leaves Switzerland for Petrograd.
1900 En España se suspenden por decreto las sesiones del parlamento.
1885 Se firma en París y Pekín la ratificación de los preliminares de paz entre Francia y China.
1865 Battle at Namozine Church, Virginia (Appomattox Campaign)
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
1865 Union forces occupy Confederate capital of Richmond, and Petersburg, Virginia.
1864 Skirmish at Okolona, Arkansas
1783 Sweden and US sign a treaty of Amity and Commerce.
1764 Austrian arch duke Jozef crowned himself Roman Catholic king.
1711 Felipe V introduce es España la figura administrativa de los intendentes.
1657 English Lord Protector Cromwell refuses crown
1645 English parliament accept Self-Denying Ordinance
1559 Spain and France signs 2nd Treaty of Le Cateau-Cambrésis. Felipe II, rey de España, y Enrique II, rey de Francia, firman la Paz de Cateau-Cambrèsis.
1493 Los Reyes Católicos reciben con todos los honores a Cristóbal Colón en Barcelona.
1441 Tras la muerte [n Blanca I de Navarra se inicia una lucha por el trono entre su hijo Carlos de Viana y su esposo, el futuro Juan II de Aragón.
1376 Battle of Navarrete (Najera), English beat France.
1367 Enrique II de Trastámara es derrotado por Pedro I, rey de Castilla y León en la Batalla de Nájera.
1312 2nd council of Vienna
1043 Edward the Confessor crowned king of England
247 BC Origin of Parthian Era (of Arsaces)
311 BC Origin of Seleucid Era (Nisan 1) in the Babylonian calendar. The reckoning known as the Seleucid Era originally was the counting of regnal years of Seleucus.1 Co-regent of his father since 292 BC, Antiochus I continued after the death of Seleucus I, in 28 1, the numbering of his regnal years. His/ successors continued the counting. The reason for this computation was, probably, a technical one. Seleucus I adopted the Babylonian calendar, based on nineteen-year cycles of intercalation with a fixed year's beginning, at Nisanu 1, which fell around the spring equinox, late March or early April. But for the Macedonians (as well as for Greeks, generally) the civil year coincided with the regnal year.' Thus New Year's day corresponded to the change
2004 Spanish GEO (Grupo Especial de Operaciones of the police) subinspector Javier Torronteras, 41; and Sarhane Ben Abdelmahid Fakhet “el tunecino”, 35, Tunisian; Abdennabi Kounhaa “Abdallah”; Asri Rifat Anouar, and two other terrorists, who at 21:05 set off two explosions [photo >] in Leganés Norte, 15 km southwest of central Madrid, in the 40 calle Carmen Martín Gaite apartment where they were surrounded since 13:00, refusing to negotiate, and were just starting to be assaulted by the security forces surrounding it. 11 policemen and 4 others are wounded. Fakhet was suspected of been the coordinator of the group that conducted the 11 March 2004 terrorist attack on four trains in Madrid.
2003:: 966 persons massacred in the Catholic parish of Drodro and 14 surrounding villages in Ituri province, Congo, where Ugandan troops allied with the local Lendu tribe have been fighting the Union des Patriotes Congolais, which draws it support from the Hema tribe, since the Ugandans drove the UPC from Bunia, the main town in the province, in early March 2003. The war in Congo broke out in August 1998 when Rwanda and Uganda sent troops to back rebels seeking to oust then-President Laurent Kabila. They accused him of backing insurgents threatening regional security. Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia sent troops to back Kabila, splitting the country into rebel- and government-held areas. Most foreign troops withdrew after a series of peace deals took hold, but fighting among rival rebel factions, tribal fighters and Ugandan troops has continued in eastern Congo. Uganda had backed the UPC, but relations have soured in recent months after the UPC demanded the withdrawal of Ugandan troops from the region. The UPC is now backed by Rwanda. Uganda has more than 2500 soldiers still in Ituri.
2003 A suicide bomber, a woman, her unborn baby, and Staff Sgt. Nino Livaudais, 23; Spc. Ryan Long, 21; and Capt. Russell Rippetoe, 27, of the US 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, near one of its checkpoints in Iraq, 18 km southwest of Haditha Dam. In the evening a car stops by the checkpoint, the pregnant woman comes out and screams in fear, soldiers approach, the car explodes, killing the driver, the woman, and the three soldiers. Two other soldiers are injured.
2003 A US soldier killed by other US soldiers who mistake him for an Iraqi soldier as he is investigating a destroyed Iraqi tank, at 17:30 in Iraq (13:30 UT).
2003 US soldiers Spc. Donald Oaks Jr., 20; Sgt. 1st Class Randall Rehn, 36; and Sgt. Todd Robbins, 33, by a US F-15E Strike Eagle fighter plane which mistakenly bombs US ground forces in Iraq. Several US soldiers are wounded.
2003 The pilot of a US Navy F/A-18C Hornet jet plane from the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk, shot down by a (US or Iraqi) surface-to-air missile at 00:45 (Apr 02, 20:45 UT) during the US-led war on Iraq.
2003 Haji Gilani and a nephew, by 6 gunmen in Deh Rawood, Uruzgan province, Afghanistan. Gilani was the first person to give shelter in Uruzgan province to Hamid Karzai, now President of Afghanistan, when he came secretly into the country in 2001 before the collapse of the Taliban.
2003 (including 02 April) Israelis Chanah Rogan, 92, of Netanya; Zee'v Vider, 50, of Moshav Bekaot; Alter Britvich, 88, and his wife Frieda Britvich, 86, of Netanya; of injuries received on 27 March 2003 in suicide bombing at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, which caused 23 immediate deaths, and 7 delayed deaths, including these four.
2000 Jean Dominique, and Jean Claude Louissaint, shot by unknown assailants who waited for them outside the courtyard of Radio Haiti Inter, where Louissaint was a guard and Dominique a reporter advocating for human rights and more democracy in Haiti.
1998 Mary Lucy Cartwright, English mathematician born on 17 December 1900.
1993 Eduardo Caballero Calderón, novelista y político colombiano.
1992 Juan García Hortelano, escritor español.
1991 Graham Greene, 86, English novelist.
1991 Max Frisch, escritor suizo.
1989 Carlos Castro Saavedra, escritor y poeta colombiano.
1974 More than 300, by tornadoes in the US South and Midwest, then in Canada.
1971 Joseph Valachi, 66, US gangster.
1958 Walter Vaes, Belgian artist born on 12 February 1882.
1955 Some 300 in derailment of night express train in Guadalajara.
1955:: 39 niños en el incendio de una sala de cine belga.
|1927 Marco Fidel Suárez, escritor y político colombiano.
1919 Modesto Urgell e Inglada, Spanish painter born on 13 June 1839.
1877 Jean-Baptiste Madou, Belgian artist born on 03 February 1796.
1856 Some 4000 by gunpowder exploding in church in Rhodes.
1897 Johannes Brahms, in Vienna, German composer and pianist born on 07 May 1833 in Hamburg. He wrote 4 symphonies, 4 concerti (2 for piano, 1 each for violin and for violin+cello), other orchestral works (Academic Festival Overture, 1880; Hungarian Dances, 1873), chamber music, piano works (Hungarian Dances, 1869), choral compositions (A German Requiem, 1868), and 214 solo songs.
1695 Melchior d'Hondecoeter, the Netherlands most renowned painter of birds. He was born in 1636. MORE ON D'HONDECOETER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1682 Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, after falling from a scaffolding while painting, Spanish painter specialized in Religious Subjects baptized on 01 January 1618. MORE ON MURILLO AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1681 Lucas Franchoys II, Flemish painter and etcher born on 28 June 1616. MORE ON FRANCHOYS AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1663 Jan Bike (or Biecker) Miel cavaliere G. Milo, Flemish painter active in Italy born in 1599. MORE ON MIEL AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1541 Fernando de Rojas, escritor español.
1472 Alberti , mathematician.
1287 Honorius IV, [Giacomo Savelli], Italian Pope (1285-1287)
628 Khosrow (or Chosroes) II Parviz (=the Victorious), emperor of Persia, discredited by defeat by Byzantine emperer Heraclius and refusal of his peace terms, is executed in a palace coup, after seeing his youngest son and heir Mardanshah murdered. Khosrow's eldest son, Kavadh (or Qobad) II Sheroe succeeds him and signs the peace with Heraclius. Khosrow II had become emperor in 590 after the assassination of his father Hormizd IV. The Persian empire achieved its greatest expansion under Khosrow II.
...Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ, crucified (date according to astronomers Humphreys and Waddington)
2003 Cloned banteng male [04 Apr 2003 photo >], weighing about double the normal 20 kg, by cesarean section from a surrogate mother cow at a farm in Sioux Center, Iowa. In 1977 the San Diego Zoo's Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species began its Frozen Zoo program: preserving tissue samples from hundreds of endangered animals in small plastic vials, which are kept superfrozen in liquid nitrogen. It sent frozen skin cells from a male banteng who died childless in 1980 to researchers at the cloning company Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, which inserted genetic material from the banteng skin cells into 30 cow eggs that had their genetic material removed. Trans Ova Genetics of Hull, Iowa, then implanted the cloned eggs into cows in Sioux Center, Iowa. Of the 16 resulting pregnancies, 14 miscarried and this is the second to result in a birth. The other birth took place on 01 April 2003, a normal male weighing 20 kg, Scientists would, on 08 April, kill the banteng born today, as being too overweight to have a good chance of survival. The banteng is an endangered wild bovine species from the forests of Southeast Asia and is closely related to the domesticated cow
1956 Eduardo Zaplana Hernández-Soro, abogado y político español.
1948 Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Mexican economist and government official who was president of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. The son of a Mexican senator, Salinas joined the Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI) at age 18 and studied economics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Mexico (UNAM) and at Harvard University, earning a Ph.D in 1978. From 1971 on he held successively more important economic-affairs posts in the government and was supported in his rise by Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado [12 Dec 1934~], who had been one of his professors at the UNAM. When Madrid became president of Mexico in 1982, he made Salinas his minister of planning and the budget, a post that Salinas held until Madrid named him in 1987 to be his successor as the presidential candidate of the PRI in 1988. No PRI candidate for the presidency had won less than 70% of the popular vote in 60 years of rigged elections. In the elections of July 1988, however, Salinas won a bare 50.4% of the vote, according to the official tallies; the opposition parties contended that Salinas' total share of the vote would have been even lower had the PRI not resorted as usual to vote fraud. As president, Salinas continued Madrid's program of economic retrenchment and privatization. He sold off hundreds of inefficient state-owned corporations to private investors and spent some of the proceeds on infrastructure and social services. He also took steps to open the protected Mexican economy to both foreign investment and foreign competition. In 19911992 his government participated with the US and Canada in the negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, signed on 17 December 1992), which reduced tariffs between the three countries when it went into effect on 01 January 1994.
1943 Armando Xavier Ochoa [< photo], who would be ordained a priest of the archdiocese of Los Angeles on 23 May 1970, appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Los Angeles on 29 December 1986 and consecrated a bishop on 23 February 1987, appointed Bishop of El Paso on 01 April 1996.
1939 Seamus Heaney, poeta y ensayista irlandés, Premio Nobel de Literatura 1995.
1930 Helmut Kohl, chancellor (Germany, 1982- ) By 2000, his reputation, and the fortunes of his party, would be seriously damaged by the revelation that while in office he received illegal campaign contributions. He refuses to name the donors.
1926 Virgil I. Grissom, one of three US astronauts who died in the 27 January 1967 Apollo I fire.
1926 Las de Abel, comedia de los hermanos Serafín y Joaquín Álvarez Quintero, se estrena en el teatro madrileño Infanta Isabel.
1922 José Hierro del Real, poeta español.
1915 Paul Touvier, war criminal.
1914 Asger Oluf Jörgensen Jorn, Danish artist who died on 01 May 1973.
1909 Stan Ulam , mathematician.
1900 Ingham, mathematician.
1898 Henry R. Luce, Tengchow, China, US magazine publisher who created Time, Fortune, Life and Sports Illustrated. He died on 28 February 1967.
1897 The Secessionist art movement is founded.
1893 Yvon Hitchens, English painter who died on 29 August 1979. MORE ON HITCHENS AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1892 Italo Mus, Italian artist who died in 1967.
1892 Rademacher, mathematician.
1885 H. St. John Philby, English explorer of Arabian peninsula. He died on 30 September 1960.
1881 Alcide de Gasperi, Italian premier (19451953). He died on 19 August 1954.
1870 José Juan Tablada, modernist Mexican poet who died on 02 August 1945. He was particularly noted for his haikus. — A few poems — (060402)
1860 Ulpiano Checa y Sanz, Spanish artist who died on 16 January 1916.
1842 Ulric Dahlgren, US Colonel (Union volunteers) who was killled in action behind enemy lines on 04 March 1864. — (060402)
1838 Léon Michel Gambetta, French attorney and republican statesman who died on 31 December 1882. He helped direct the defense of France during the Franco-German War of 18701871. In helping to found the Third Republic, he made three essential contributions: (1) By his speeches and articles, he converted many Frenchmen to the ideals of moderate democratic republicanism. (2) By his political influence and personal social contacts, he gathered support for an elective democratic political party, the Republican Union. (3) By backing Adolphe Thiers [18 Apr 1797 – 03 Sep 1877], who was elected provisional head of government by the National Assembly on 17 February 1871, against royalists and Bonapartists, he helped transform the new regime into a parliamentary republic. Gambetta was premier of France from 14 November 1881 to 16 January 1882. — (060402)
1836 Semanario pintoresco español, fundado por Ramón de Mesonero Romanos, donde publicarán sus obras autores como Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, Antonio Flores, Luis de Madrazo y Kuntz o Alfonso de Castro y Rossi, entre otros muchos, sale a la calle con su primer número.
1835 Amringe, mathematician.
1823 William Marcy boss Tweed, notorious US politician; leader of corrupt Tammany Hall organization in New York City. He died on 12 April 1878.
1816 Otto Didrik Ottesen, Danish artist who died on 02 October 1892.
1815 Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux, French artist who died on 09 November 1884.
1807 Mary Carpenter, US philanthropist and social reformer who died on 14 June 1877.
1367 Henry IV “Henry Bolingbroke” (his place of birth) “Henry of Lancaster”, king of England who died on 20 March 1413. He was the first of three 15th-century monarchs from the House of Lancaster. He gained the crown on 30 September 1399 by usurpation and successfully consolidated his power in the face of repeated uprisings of powerful nobles. But he was unable to overcome the fiscal and administrative weaknesses that contributed to the eventual downfall of the Lancastrian dynasty. — (060402)
1245 Philip III “le Hardi”, king of France (1270-1285) who died on 05 October 1285. During his reign the power of the monarchy was enlarged and the royal domain extended, though his foreign policy and military ventures were largely unsuccessful. — (060402)
Pak Tai, Hong Kong, emperor (Northern Hong Kong)