• April 1st sensation: Pride and Promiscuity... • Download the first 1.24 trillion decimals of pi... • China~US plane collision crisis... • Treaty between Pilgrims and Amerindians... • Le peuple a faim... • Author of Cyrano is born... • Guillotinés par la Terreur... • King names brother his heir... • Charlemagne is born... • Hitler imprisoned… • Battle of Okinawa begins... • L'Argentine envahit les Falklands... • Author of Manon Lescaut is born... • Soviets stop US and UK military trains to Berlin… • Hitler sentenced for putsch... • Bismarck is born... • British Royal Air Force... • First US subcompact car... • Jane Austen declines royal writing advice... • Gerstner's first day at IBM... • Funding for Babbage's Difference Engine proposed... • First metal radio tube... • North Vietnam invades South... • House banking scandal... • Search will find silver AND Tombstone... • Selznick's movie studio...
a 01 April:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for April 2010:
General: Fundamentalism and Extremism — That every tendency to fundamentalism and extremism may be countered by constant respect, by tolerance and by dialogue among all believers.
Missionary: Persecuted Christians — That the Christians persecuted for the sake of the Gospel may persevere, sustained by the Holy Spirit, in faithfully witnessing to the love of God for the entire human race. —(091213)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for April 2009:
General: That the Lord may bless the farmers with an abundant harvest and sensitise the richer populations to the drama of hunger in the world
Mission: That the Christians who work in areas where the conditions of the poor, the weak and the women and children are most tragic, may be signs of hope, thanks to their courageous testimony to the Gospel of solidarity and love.
2002 The abstract painting LA Structures I, by V. Grinberg, is auctioned at Sotheby's for some $20'000. SEE THE PICTURE AT ART 4 APRIL
2001 Slobodan Milosevic, in a negotiated surrender, goes to jail in Belgrade, after 26-hours of police failing to overcome his bodyguards' gunfire at his Belgrade villa. He faces corruption charges carrying a maximum of 5 years in prison, not extradition to the Hague as an indicted war criminal. Riots had forced Milosevic to relinquish power on 06 October 2000. However he would later be extradited to the Hague's war crimes tribunal.
2001 Se celebran en Holanda los primeros matrimonios homosexuales con plenos derechos.
2001 Central African Republic President Ange-Félix Patasse replaces prime minister Anicet Georges Dologuele with Martin Ziguele.
2001 Sensational texts by Jane Austen are
National Public Radio, on its morning show All Things Considered of 28 March 2001, announced the publication for today's date (note which it is!), of Pride and Promiscuity The Lost Sex Scenes of Jane Austen, recently discovered passages that were omitted from Pride and Prejudice. It was authentified by the author of Pride and Punctuation. (note today's date)
Seriously now, born on 16 December 1775, Jane Austen was the seventh of eight children born to a clergyman in Steventon, a country village in Hampshire, England. She was very close to her older sister, Cassandra, who remained her faithful editor and critic throughout her life. The girls had five years of formal schooling, then studied with their father. Jane read voraciously and began writing stories as young as age 12, completing an early novella at age 14. [1810 pencil and watercolor, by C. Austen >]
Austen's quiet, happy world was disrupted when her father retired to Bath in 1801. Jane hated the resort town but amused herself by making close observations of ridiculous society manners. After her father's death in1805, Jane, her mother, and sister lived with one of her brothers until 1808, when another brother provided them a permanent home at Chawton Cottage, in Hampshire. Jane concealed her writing from most of her acquaintances, slipping her writing paper under a blotter when someone entered the room. Though she avoided society, she was charming, intelligent, and funny, and had several admirers. She actually accepted the marriage proposal of a well-off friend of her family's, but the next day withdrew her acceptance, having decided she could only marry for love.
Jane Austen published Sense and Sensibility anonymously on 30 October 1811. A small circle of people, including the Price Regent, learned Austen's identity, but most of the British public knew only that the popular book had been written "by a Lady." She published several more novels before her death, including Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815). She died on 18 July 1817, of what today is thought to be Addison's disease. Northanger Abbey and Persuasion were published posthumously.
Sense and Sensibility tells the story of the impoverished Dashwood sisters. Marianne is the heroine of “sensibility”—i.e., of openness and enthusiasm. She becomes infatuated with the attractive John Willoughby, who seems to be a romantic lover but is in reality an unscrupulous fortune hunter. He deserts her for an heiress, leaving her to learn a dose of “sense” in a wholly unromantic marriage with a staid and settled bachelor, Colonel Brandon, who is 20 years her senior. By contrast, Marianne's older sister, Elinor, is the guiding light of “sense,” or prudence and discretion, whose constancy toward her lover, Edward Ferrars, is rewarded by her marriage to him after some distressing vicissitudes.
Pride and Prejudice describes the clash between Elizabeth Bennet, the daughter of a country gentleman, and Fitzwilliam Darcy, a rich and aristocratic landowner. Although Austen shows them intrigued by each other, she reverses the convention of “first impressions”: “pride” of rank and fortune and “prejudice” against Elizabeth's inferiority of family hold Darcy aloof; while Elizabeth is equally fired both by the “pride” of self-respect and by “prejudice” against Darcy's snobbery. Ultimately, they come together in love and self-understanding. The intelligent and high-spirited Elizabeth was Jane Austen's own favourite among all her heroines and is one of the most engaging in English literature.
Northanger Abbey combines a satire on conventional novels of polite society with one on Gothic tales of terror. Catherine Morland, the unspoiled daughter of a country parson, is the innocent abroad who gains worldly wisdom: first in the fashionable society of Bath and then at Northanger Abbey itself, where she learns not to interpret the world through her reading of Gothic thrillers. Her mentor and guide is the self-assured and gently ironic Henry Tilney, her husband-to-be.
In its tone and discussion of religion and religious duty, Mansfield Park is the most serious of Austen's novels. The heroine, Fanny Price, is a self-effacing and unregarded cousin cared for by the Bertram family in their country house. Fanny emerges as a true heroine whose moral strength eventually wins her complete acceptance in the Bertram family and marriage to Edmund Bertram himself, after that family's disastrous involvement with the meretricious and loose-living Crawfords.
Of all Austen's novels, Emma is the most consistently comic in tone. It centres on Emma Woodhouse, a wealthy, pretty, self-satisfied young woman who indulges herself with meddlesome and unsuccessful attempts at matchmaking among her friends and neighbors. After a series of humiliating errors, a chastened Emma finds her destiny in marriage to the mature and protective George Knightley, a neighbouring squire who had been her mentor and friend.
Persuasion tells the story of a second chance, the reawakening of love between Anne Elliot and Captain Frederick Wentworth, whom seven years earlier she had been persuaded not to marry. Now Wentworth returns from the Napoleonic Wars with prize money and the social acceptability of naval rank; he is an eligible suitor acceptable to Anne's snobbish father and his circle, and Anne discovers the continuing strength of her love for him.
^ On 01 April 1816 Jane Austen declines royal writing advice.
Jane Austen responds to a letter from the Prince Regent suggesting she write a historic romance, saying, "I could not sit down to write a serious romance under any other motive than to save my life." Austen's correspondence with the Prince Regent, as well as literary figures of the day, was prompted by the success of her novels.
| 2000 La sucesión del primer ministro japonés, que
sufre una embolía cerebral, provoca la crisis política en el país.
1999 El presidente de Brasil Fernando Henrique Cardoso firma un proyecto de ley para acabar con la esclavitud en el país.
1997 Comet Hale-Bopp Perihelion (0.914 AU)
1996 In a case that sparked an uproar reminiscent of the Rodney King case, two Riverside County, Calif., sheriff's deputies were videotaped repeatedly clubbing a Mexican man and woman after a 110-km highway chase involving a pickup truck suspected of sneaking across the border.
1995 El presidente ucraniano Leonid Kuchma pone bajo su control el Gobierno de Crimea tras abolir su Constitución y deponer al dirigente de la república autónoma, Yuri Meshkov.
1991 Iran releases British hostage Roger Cooper after 5 years.
1991 Warsaw Pact disbands.
1991 US minimum wage goes from $3.80 to $4.25 per hour.
1987 La Cámara de los Comunes de Reino Unido rechaza por cuarta vez desde 1965 la reimplantación de la pena de muerte.
1986 World oil prices dip below $10 a barrel.
1985 Duarte consigue la victoria en las elecciones generales celebradas en El Salvador.
1985 En Santiago de Chile el entierro de tres opositores se convierte en una protesta masiva contra Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte.
1984 Se celebra una manifestación contra el régimen militar uruguayo.
1982 US transfers operaiton of Canal to Panama
1979 Iran proclaimed an Islamic Republic following fall of Shah
1977 Attempt for Moslem state in Chad fails.
1976 Gracias al acelerador de partículas UNILAC, propiedad del GSI de Darmstadt, se logra, por primera vez, acelerar un ion pesado (U-238) hasta 6,7 MeV.
1975 Cambodia President Lon Nol flees from Khmer Rouge.
1975 El Ministerio de Sanidad alemán comunica que más de la mitad de los ciudadanos tiene exceso de colesterol en la sangre.
1974 Ayatollah Khomeini calls for an Islamic Republic in Iran.
1973 El IVA comienza a aplicarse en Reino Unido.
1970 US President Nixon signs a measure banning cigarette advertising on radio and television, to take effect after 01 January 1971.
1969 El Tribunal Supremo español confirma la sentencia del Tribunal de Orden Público (TOP) y condena a Néstor Luján a 8 meses de prisión por publicar una carta sobre el problema de la lengua catalana.
1966 China premier Chou en-Lai starts "Cultural revolution"
1962 El Movimiento Revolucionario Liberal de Colombia proclama la candidatura de Alfonso López Michelsen, hijo del ex presidente Alfonso López Pumarejo.
1960 U Nu elected premier of Burma.
1960 the first weather satellite, "TIROS-One," was launched from Cape Canaveral. Los Estados Unidos ponen en órbita el primer satélite meteorológico, el Tiros 1.
1957 Trial begins in Budapest against participants in October uprising.
1957 India adopta el sistema métrico decimal.
1956 España y Marruecos firman un acuerdo sobre transferencia del territorio marroquí que hasta entonces era Protectorado español.
1952 Big Bang theory proposed in Physical Review by Alpher, Bethe and Gamow.
1950 Organización de las Naciones Unidas adopta un plan para dividir Jerusalén.
1950 Se hace público en Moscú un proyecto de Iosif Visarionovich Dzhugashvili "Stalin" que prevé una profunda transformación de los recursos naturales de la URSS hasta los Urales.
1946 400'000 US mine workers strike
1946 Van Acker forms Belgian govt (without CVP)
1946 Juan Domingo Perón Sosa es aclamado en las calles de la capital argentina y se producen atentados contra los centros judíos y socialistas.
1945 Canadian troop free Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo and Eibergen
1945 Ruhrgebied sealed off by US first and 9th army 1945 -
1942 Mexico changes from 3 time zones to 2
1942 Allied air raid on harbor city Kupang Timor
1941 Nazis forbid Jews access to cafés.
1941 Pro-German Rashid Ali al-Ghailani grabs power in Iraq.
1941 El general Isaías Medina Angarita asume la presidencia de Venezuela.
1939 Todas las emisoras de radio españolas difunden el último parte militar, en el que se anuncia el fin de la Guerra Civil española, lo que supone el inicio del nuevo sistema político dictatorial del general Francisco Franco Bahamonde. — US recognizes Franco government in Spain at end of Spanish civil war, which began on 18 July 1936. Pope Pius XII congratulates Generalissimo Franco for his victory.
1937 Aden becomes British crown colony.
1937 Birmania (Myanmar) se separa de la India y obtiene del Reino Unido estatuto de dominio.
1936 Orissa constituted a province of British India.
1936 Austria decide la implantación del servicio militar obligatorio.
1936 El reglamento de médicos del Reich, promulgado por Hitler, completa la (auto) equiparación del colectivo médico que se encuentra en la Alemania nacionalsocialista.
1933 Heinrich Himmler becomes Police Commander of Germany
1933 Nazi Germany begins persecution of Jews, by boycotting Jewish businesses.
1933 Heinrich Himmler es nombrado jefe de la policía política de Baviera.
1929 Prosiguen los combates en México entre las tropas federales del presidente Emilio Portes Gil y las del general rebelde José Gonzalo Escobar.
1928 Jiang Jieshi inicia la serie de victorias militares que le convertirán en el paladín de la China anticomunista.
1925 La Bauhaus se instala en Dessau.
1920 El Partido Obrero Alemán se convierte en el Partido Obrero Nacional Socialista (NSDAP).
1916 Bulgaria adopta el calendario gregoriano en sustitución del juliano.
1912 El primer ministro británico, Herbert Henry Asquith, prepara un nuevo Home Rule.
1910 Dumitru Dan (Romania) completes a 100'000 km walk.
1905 British East African Protectorate becomes colony of Kenya.
1904 Un grave terremoto causa una gran devastación en Kosovo.
1901 Se celebran en España numerosos mítines anticlericales, especialmente en La Coruña y Málaga.
1900 Jorge I es nombrado príncipe soberano de Creta.
1892 Un grupo de independentista cubanos en el exilio, liderados por José Julian Martí Pérez, Antonio Maceo Grajales y Máximo Gómez fundan el Partido Revolucionario Cubano.
1891 Painter Paul Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 – 08 May 1903] leaves Marseille for Tahiti [click on image for full portrait >] — links to ten of his Tahiti images.
^ 1877 Prospecting begins that will find silver AND Tombstone.
Ignoring the taunts of fellow miners who say he will only find his own tombstone, prospector Edward Schieffelin begins his search for silver in the area of present-day southern Arizona. Later that year, Schieffelin was not only alive and well, but he had found one of the richest silver veins in the West. He named it the Tombstone Lode. Located about 70 miles southeast of Tucson in the San Pedro Valley, the Tombstone Mining District and the town of Tombstone quickly became major economic and social centers of the Southwest. Schieffelin and his partners were able to attract vast amounts of eastern investment capital to develop their claims. Quickly making their fortunes, the original partners sold out in 1880-81 and left Arizona for more civilized locales. Tombstone, however, continued to boom. By 1881, more than 10'000 persons lived in the region and Tombstone had become the seat of the newly created Cochise County.
The Wild West spirit of the town and large amounts of money attracted gamblers, criminals, and would-be lawmen. Of these, Doc Holliday and the Earp brothers are the most famous today, because of their brief shoot-out with the Clantons and McLaurys at the O.K. Corral in 1881. Tombstone was home to scores of other gamblers and gunslingers, though, including John Ringo, William C. Brocius, and Frank Leslie. So much violence and lawlessness marked the early years of Tombstone's history that President Chester Arthur briefly considered imposing martial law in May 1882. Upstanding civic leaders like the rancher John Slaughter worked to promote law, order, and civic growth. The wild boom days in Tombstone, however, soon waned of their own accord when miners struck groundwater, which made it too expensive to dig any deeper. By the early 1890s, most of the mines had closed and the town went into decline. Mining resumed sporadically at Tombstone during subsequent decades, but the town never regained its former glory. By 1929, Tombstone seemed to be headed for ghost town status, and the county seat moved to Bisbee. Ironically, the very gambling and violence that growth-minded town fathers once tried to suppress became its economic savior. In the post-World War II years, the people of Tombstone began to cater to the US fascination with the Wild West. Museums and the restoration of the O.K. Corral made Tombstone into a tourist destination, leading some to call it the town that is "too tough to die."
1867 Singapore, Penang and Malakka become British crown colonies.
1867 Se inaugura en París la Exposición Universal de Industrias y Bellas Artes, con la que Napoleón III pretende realzar su Imperio.
1866 US Congress rejects presidential veto, gives all equal rights in US
1865 Battle of 5 Forks, Virginia, signaling end of Lee's army
1865 Battle at Blakely Alabama
1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
1864 James Batterson purchases the very first travel insurance policy. The policy, issued by industry stalwart, the Travelers Insurance Company, seemingly sold Batterson on the benefits of insurance coverage: three months later he purchased Travelers' very first general insurance plan.
1863 first wartime conscription law in US goes into effect
1862 Shenandoah Valley campaign, Jackson's Battle of Woodstock, VA
1862 España e Inglaterra rompen su alianza con Francia.
1836 Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reaches Cocos Islands
1767 La Compañía de Jesús es expulsada de España por mandato de Carlos III y su primer ministro, Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea conde de Aranda.
1767 Luis XV ordena a los franceses instalados en las Malvinas desalojar el archipiélago.
1748 Ruins of Pompeii found.
1734 A cause de ses liens familiaux avec Stanislas Leszcynski, Louis XV s'est investi dans la guerre de Succession de Pologne, pour cette raison, l'Autriche lui déclare la guerre avec l'aide de son empereur.
1693 Colonial clergyman Cotton Mather's first-born son died at the age of four days. Mather suspected witchcraft as the cause, and had previously published "Wonders of the Invisible World," affirming his belief in spectral phenomena.
1649 In France the Peace of Rueil is ratified, putting an end to the Fronde of the Parliament.
1578 William Harvey of England discovers blood circulation.
1540 Francisco I rey de Francia, anuncia el Edicto de Fontainebleau, por el que se prohíbe el credo protestante.
1328 Jeanne d'Evreux, la femme de Charles IV le Bel qui vient de mourir le 1er février à l'âge de trente-trois ans, accouche, ce jour. On espère un fils. Une fille naît. La succession au trône de France se trouve ouverte. Des trois prétendants, Philippe, comte d'Evreux, Edouard III d'Angleterre et Philippe de Valois, c'est le dernier, l'actuel régent, qui est proclamé roi le 08 Apr.
1256 Alfonso X, "el Sabio" es proclamado emperador germánico.
0705 Greek pope John VII chosen as successor to John VI
0527 Justinianus becomes compassionate emperor of Byzantium
0374 Comet 1P/374 E1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0884 AUs of Earth.
>2008 Natalia Dallapiccola [27 Jun 1924–], first follower (in the last days of 1943) of Chiara Lubich [22 Jan 1920 – 14 Mar 2008] in the Focolare Movement. Dallapiccola had a key role in spreading their charism of unity in the countries of Eastern Europe. Lubich sent her to West Berlin in 1959 to start the movement there. In 1962 she was sent to eastern Germany with the first group of Focolare doctors, requested there by the local bishop faced with the fleeing of medical professionals to the West. Dallapiccola also established contacts in Poland, then Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Lithuania. Though her health was already waning by 1976, she opened within Focolare the mission of interreligious dialogue, building relationships with Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist leaders. Chiara had called Natalia “Anzolon” (”angel”, in the Tridentine dialect) because of the Natalia's love for everyone. —(080407)
2007 Fransiskus Madhu [13 May 1976–], Indonesian Catholic missionary priest of the Society of the Divine Word, who had just vested for the Palm Sunday Mass, shot by a deranged man in Mabungtot Elementary School at Lubuagan (where there is no church), Kalinga province, the Philippines. Father Madhu entered the SVD in 1995, made his perpetual religious vows on 15 August 2003, and was ordained a priest on 08 August 2004. He was sent to the Philippines in 2005 and had not had a home vacation since. He spoke the northern Ilocano dialect proficiently. —(070403)
2007 (12 Rabi'-al-Awwal 1428 AH) Jan Mohammad Kakroo, 55, shot by terrorists as he leaves the Khwaja Sahib shrine at Khawaja Bagh in Baramulla district in the north of Indian-occupied Kashmir after morning prayers on Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi (festival of the birth of the Prophet). His bodyguard Sonaullah is injured. Kakroo was a senior Congress Party leader and a businessman. —(070401)
2006 US Army Staff Sgt. Darrell P. Clay, 34, and Sgt. Israel Devora Garcia, 23, of the 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, on a foot patrol in Baghdad, Iraq, killed by an improvised explosive device. —(070331)
2006 US Army CWO Michael L. Hartwick, 37, and Capt. Timothy J. Moshier, 25, when their Apache helicopter crashed while conducting a combat air patrol in Baghdad, Iraq. They belonged to the 4th Battalion, 4th Aviation Brigade, 4th Infantry Division.. —(070331)
2005 All 9 US soldiers aboard a US C-130 transport plane which, during a joint exercise with Albanian troops, crashes in Albania near village Rovie, in the Drizez Mountains, 100 km southeast of Tirana.
2005 US Marine Cpl. Garrywesley T. Rimes, 30, of the 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, but attached to 2nd Marine Division, killed in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. —(070331)
2004 US Marine Lance Cpl. Dustin M. Sekula, 18, of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, dies due to injuries sustained from enemy fire in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. —(070331)
2004 Carlos Salvador Bernal, 43 [< photo], in the evering, shot by gunmen who flee on a motorcycle, as he was dining in a restaurant in Cúcuta, Colombia. Bernal, era abogado, secretario general del Partido Comunista Colombiano en el departamento del Norte de Santander, miembro del Comité Permanente por la Defensa de los Derechos Humanoso, y secretario regional de la coalición Polo Democrático Independiente. Bernal's bodyguard, Camilo Jiménez Arenas, is severely wounded in the head and dies the next day. Another customer of the restaurant is wounded in the right arm.
2003 US Army Spc. William A. Jeffries, 39, of the National Guard Unit D Company, 1st Battalion, 152nd Infantry Regiment, dies Evansville, Indiana, died from a sudden illness in Rota, Spain, to where he had been evacuated from Kuwait. —(070331).
2003. US Army Spc. Brandon Rowe, 20, of C Company, 1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), killed in an ambush by the enemy in Al Hillah, Iraq. —(070331)
2002 Eleven Palestinians, murdered by Palestinians as collaborators with Israel: eight men being held in an intelligence building in Tulkarm, West Bank, shot by two masked gunmen; one shot in Bethlehem, two in Qalqilya.
1984 Manuel Mújica Lainez, poeta y ensayista argentino.
1984 Marvin Gaye, singer, shot to death by his father Marvin Gaye Sr in LA.
1977 The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista is abolished.
1976 Max Ernst, German French Surrealist painter and sculptor born on 02 April 1891. MORE ON ERNST AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1974 Georges Pompidou, président de la République successeur du Général de Gaulle, professeur de lettres de formation, ayant souffert pendant plusieurs années du cancer. Cet humaniste a pu assurer la continuité de l’héritage gaulliste tout en préparant certains changements de société, mais il laissa sa place au plus jeune président que la France ait connu et aussi à la plus dramatique invention fiscale pour le petit peuple: la TVA (reprise par le monde entier)
1968 Lev Landau, mathematician.
1933 Salvador Rueda, poeta español.
1930 Zawditu first reigning female monarch of Ethiopia.
1926 Charles Angrand, French artist born on 29 April 1854.
1910 Andreas Achenbach, German realist landscape painter born on 29 September 1815. MORE ON ACHENBACH AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images. —(060331)
1910 Mikaïl Alexandrovitch Wrubel, Russian artist born on 05 March 1856.
1909 20'000 Arméniens sont massacrés à Adana.
1896 Joseph Hubert Reinkens, born on 03 January 1821, German historical scholar, and a leader of the Old Catholics (Altkatholiken), a schismatic group that separated from the Catholic church because of opposition to the doctrine of papal infallibility pronounced by the First Vatican Council (1869–1870). Reinkens joined in the promulgation of the Nuremberg Declaration (1871), the constitution of the Old Catholic church in Germany, and, on 04 June 1873, was elected its first bishop. As no bishop had joined the schism, recourse was had to the Jansenist church in Holland, which had maintained a somewhat precarious existence in separation from Rome since the 18th century but had preserved an episcopal succession recognized by Rome as valid though irregular. Reinkens was consecrated bishop on 11 August 1873, by bishop Herman Heykamp of Deventer, of the Jansenist Church of Holland. Pope Pius IX excommunicated Reinkens by name on 09 November 1873.
1896 Theodore Robinson, US Impressionist painter born on 03 June 1852. MORE ON ROBINSON AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1873: 547 passengers and crew of British White Star steamship Atlantic which sinks off Nova Scotia (another source says 481).
1863 Steiner, mathematician.
1839 Nicolas-Didier Boguet, French artist born on 18 February 1755.
1802 Joseph-Siffrède Duplessis, French artist born on 22 September 1725. MORE ON DUPLESSIS AT ART 4 SEPTEMBER with links to images.
1793 Some 53'000 Japanese in eruption of volcano Unsen.
1784 Johannes Janson, Dutch artist born on 17 April 1729.
1649 fray Juan Bautista Mayno (or Maino), Spanish painter born in 1569 or 1578 MORE ON MAYNO AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1621 Cristofano Allori, Florentine painter, born on 17 Oct 1577. -- MORE ON ALLORI AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1557 Lautaro, caudillo araucano, en el campo de batalla.
1492 Lorenzo I de Médicis, el Magnífico, poeta y político italiano.
1431 Nuno Álvares Pereira, born on 24 June 1360, outstanding Portuguese military leader, known also as the Holy Constable, whose victory over Castilian forces in the Battle of Atoleiros (06 Apr 1384) and in the historic Battle of Aljubarrota (14 Aug 1385) assured his nation's independence. Pereira, who had had a Carmelite monastery built in Lisbon in fulfillment of a vow, entered it himself as Friar Nuno de Santa Maria in 1423. He was beatified by Pope Benedict XV on 23 January 1918.
2003 Cloned banteng male [04 Apr 2003 photo >], weighing about the normal 20 kg, by cesarean section from a surrogate mother cow at a farm in Sioux Center, Iowa. In 1977 the San Diego Zoo's Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species began its Frozen Zoo program: preserving tissue samples from hundreds of endangered animals in small plastic vials, which are kept superfrozen in liquid nitrogen. It sent frozen skin cells from a male banteng who died childless in 1980 to researchers at the cloning company Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, which inserted genetic material from the banteng skin cells into 30 cow eggs that had their genetic material removed. Trans Ova Genetics of Hull, Iowa, then implanted the cloned eggs into cows in Sioux Center, Iowa. Of the 16 resulting pregnancies, 14 miscarried and this is the first to result in a birth. The other birth would take place on 03 April 2003, a male weighing 40 kg, whom the scientists would kill on 08 April, as being too overweight to have a good chance of survival. The banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) is an endangered wild bovine species from the forests of Southeast Asia, mostly in Java, and is closely related to the domesticated cow
1976 Apple Computer is founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Paul Jobs [24 Feb 1955~].
^ 1970 The Gremlin, first US subcompact car.
AMC, the company that first introduced the compact car in the 1950s, introduces the Gremlin, the US's first subcompact car. AMC was the only major independent car company to survive into the 1970s. AMC's success relied heavily on the vision of the company's first president, George Romney, who strongly believed that to compete with the Big Three automakers his company must offer smaller, more fuel-efficient alternatives to their cars. The AMC Rambler, a compact car, accounted for nearly all of AMC's profits through the 1950s, the era during which the company enjoyed its most substantial success. AMC's fortune faded rapidly after Romney left the company in 1962, and by the end of the '60s, the company's output had dropped to a dismal 250'000 sales per year. The release of the Gremlin in 1970 marked the company's return to Romney's vision. Designed to compete with the imported Volkswagens and Japanese sub-compacts, the Gremlin was essentially the AMC Hornet with its back end cut off. AMC President Roy Chapin attempted to re-create the vigorous personal campaign that Romney had used successfully to market the Rambler in the '50s. He appeared before the US public in advertisements to extol the virtues of the "first sub-compact" car. Unfortunately for AMC, the Gremlin was out on the market for only a short time before the Big Three released their own sub-compact models. The Gremlin, created to save AMC, floundered.
1947 Connes, mathematician.
1943 Oklahoma!, comedia musical que renovará este género, se estrena.
1929 Yo-yo is introduced by Louie Marx.
1929 Milan Kundera, escritor francés de origen checo.
1927 First automatic record changer introduced, by His Master's Voice.
1922 William Manchester, author.
1920 Toshiro Mifune Tsing-tao China, writer/actor (Shogun)
1919 Joseph Edward Murray, médico estadounidense, premio Nobel 1990.
1901 Jay Vivian Whittaker Chambers, US journalist; Communist from 1923 to 1938. On 03 August 1948, during the MacCarthyist Red Scare, Chambers accused Alger Hiss [11 Nov 1904 15 Nov 1996] of having been a Communist spy. Chambers later gave as evidence microfilms of government documents hidden in a pumpkin on his farm. It ended up with Hiss serving 44 months in prison for perjury, though he has always asserted his innocence. It is not known whether it was Hiss or Chambers that was lying, though General Dimitri Volkogonov, head of the Russian military intelligence archives, declared in 1992 that he found no documents indicating that Hiss had been a spy. Chambers published his autobiography, Witness, in 1952. He died of a heart attack on 09 July 1961.
1895 Aitken, mathematician.
1889 Manuel de Góngora y Ayustante, poeta, dramaturgo y periodista español.
1889 First dishwashing machine marketed (Chicago)
1875 Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace, British novelist, playwright, and journalist who produced popular detective and suspense stories and was in his time "the king" of the modern thriller. He wrote 175 books, 24 plays, and countless articles and review sketches. He died on 10 February 1932.
1873 (20 March Julian) Sergey Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff, Russian, pianist and composer (e.g. Prelude in C Sharp Minor, Second Piano Concerto, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini), who died on 28 March 1943.
1856 Charles Maurin, French painter who died on 22 July 1914. MORE ON MAURIN AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1852 Edwin Austin Abbey, US English Golden Age muralist and illustrator who died on 01 August 1911. MORE ON ABBEY AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1837 Jorge Isaacs, Colombian poet and novelist who died on 17 April 1895.
1831 Albert Anker, Swiss painter, specialized in Children, who died on 16 July 1910. MORE ON ANKER AT ART 4 APRIL with links to images.
1821 Geskel Saloman (or Salomon), Swedish artist who died on 02 July 1902. — more with links to images (of Judgment paintings by other artists)
1783 Kulik, mathematician.
1778 The dollar is created by Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman.
1776 Sophie Germain, mathematician.
1766 François-Xavier Fabre, French painter specialized in Portraits, who died on 16 March 1837. — a bit more with links to images
1755 Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer and politician, famous as author of Physiologie du Goût, ou Méditation de gastronomie transcendante, ouvrage théorique, historique et à l'ordre du jour. (8 vols., 1825). He died on 02 February 1826.
1753 Joseph de Maistre, filósofo católico italiano.
1746 Jean-Etienne Portalis, French lawyer who helped draft Napoleonic Code. He died on 25 August 1807.
1743 Karl-Sébastien von Bemmel, German artist who died on 27 November 1796.
^ 1697 Abbé Antoine-François Prévost d'Exiles, French novelist/journalist (Manon Lescaut)
Prévost was born in Hesdin, France and died on 25 November 1763, in Chantilly. He was a prolific French novelist whose fame rests entirely on one work — Histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut. Originally published as the final installment of a seven-volume novel, Mémoires et aventures d'un homme de qualité qui s'est retiré du monde (1728–31), Prévost's Manon Lescaut is the basis of the operas Manon, by Jules Massenet, and Manon Lescaut, by Giacomo Puccini. A classic example of the 18th-century novel of feeling, Manon Lescaut tells the story of a young man of good family who ruins his life for a courtesan.
From an early age, Prévost displayed many of the weaknesses characteristic of the hero of his most famous work. Two enlistments in the army alternated with two entries into the novitiate of the Society of Jesus, from which he was dismissed in 1721. In that year he took vows as a Benedictine monk and in 1726 was ordained a priest.
In 1728 he fled to England. One of his numerous love affairs caused him to lose his job there as a tutor and to go to Holland in 1730. In 1735 Prévost returned to England to escape his Dutch creditors and was briefly imprisoned in London for forgery. After secretly returning to France, he was reconciled with the Roman Catholic church (although he may have been a Protestant during his exile).
[Abbé Prévost, detail of a drawing by Georg Friedrich Schmidt, 1745 >]
Histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut, tirée des Mémoires d'un Homme de qualité, tome VII (1728)
Manon Lescaut (PDF)
Le monde moral, ou Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire du coeur humain
(In English translation) Manon Lescaut Manon Lescaut
1686 Jan-Frans van Bredael I, Flemish artist who died on 19 February 1750.
1663 Alexander van Bredael (or Bredel, Breda), Flemish artist who died on 14 July 1720.
1640 Mohr, mathematician.
1618 Jan Philips Righolz Conwemberg van Thielen, Flemish painter who died in 1667. — more with link to an image.
1578 William Harvey, English physician who developed the theory of blood circulation. He died on 03 June 1657.
^ 0742 Charlemagne (date présumée).
Dix ans à peine après la victoire de Poitiers (sur les Arabes) le vainqueur, Charles Martel, obtient un petit fils en la personne d’un des hommes les plus connus de son temps en Europe Occidentale, sinon dans tout le monde. Carolus Magnus, plus connu sous le nom de Charlemagne, futur roi des Francs et couronné Empereur en 800, naît en terre liégeoise (à Jupille, près de Liège, affirment beaucoup d’historiens, sans jamais le prouver). C’est la fille de Caribert de Laon, Berthe (dite au Grand Pied ?) qui enfanta Charlemagne des œuvres de son époux légitime Pépin III, dit le Bref, roi des Francs et fondateur de la dynastie Carolingienne.
[< Dürer's conception of Charlemagne]
Charlemagne (Charles the Great, 747-814) would be king of the Franks and Christian Emperor of the West. After the death of his father Pepin the Short and his younger brother Carloman he inherited the Frankish kingdom. He spent the following years conquering and Christianizing the neighboring kingdoms the Saxons and the Lombards. In 788 Charlemagne deposed the ruler of Bohemia and absorbed it into his empire. Father to the east he subdued the Avars (Turko-Finnish nomads) in the middle Danube basin. In 800 he entered into Italy to support Pope Leo III against the rebellious Romans and on Christmas Day, 800, in St. Peter's Church, was crowned by the pope Emperor of the Romans as 'Carolus Augustus'. Charlemagne zealously promoted education, architecture, bookmaking and the arts, created stable administrations and good laws, and encouraged agriculture, industry and commerce. His reign was a noble attempt to consolidate order and Christian culture among the nations in the western part of the former Roman Empire. There are no portraits of Charlemagne, done in his time, that is why Dürer invented his portrait. This interpretation of Charlemagne’s appearance influenced depictions of the Emperor until well into the 19th century.
which occur on a 01 April:
2294 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2283 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2221 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2210 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2153 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2142 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2131 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2114 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2108 Easter Sunday
2096 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2094 Holy Thursday
2091 Palm Sunday
2089 Good Friday
2085 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2083 Holy Thursday
2078 Good Friday
2074 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2068 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2067 Good Friday
2063 Fifth Sunday of Lent
2057 Fourth Sunday of Lent
2040 Easter Sunday
2029 Easter Sunday
2021 Holy Thursday
2018 Easter Sunday
2012 Palm Sunday
2010 Holy Thursday
2007 Palm Sunday
2001 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1999 Holy Thursday
1994 Good Friday
1990 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1988 Good Friday
1984 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1983 Good Friday
1979 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1973 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1962 Fourth Sunday of Lent
1956 Easter Sunday
1945 Easter Sunday
1934 Easter Sunday
1928 Palm Sunday
1926 Holy Thursday
1923 Easter Sunday
1920 Holy Thursday
1917 Palm Sunday
1915 Holy Thursday
1906 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1904 Good Friday
1900 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1888 Easter Sunday
1877 Easter Sunday
1838 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1827 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1781 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1770 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1759 Fifth Sunday of Lent
1483 Palm Sunday
of every 01 April:
— Saint Lazarus, patron of girls
— Anglican: Frederick Denison Maurice, priest
— Santa Teodora
— San Celso
— San Macario
— San Hugo
— Santo Esteban
— San Venancio
— San Víctor
— April Fools' Day
— San Marino : National Day /
— Burma : Bank Holiday