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Events, deaths, births, of APR 01
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• April 1st sensation: Pride and Promiscuity... • Download the first 1.24 trillion decimals of pi... • China~US plane collision crisis... • Treaty between Pilgrims and Amerindians... • Le peuple a faim... • Author of Cyrano is born... • Guillotinés par la Terreur... • King names brother his heir... • Charlemagne is born... • Hitler imprisoned… • Battle of Okinawa begins... • L'Argentine envahit les Falklands... • Author of Manon Lescaut is born... • Soviets stop US and UK military trains to Berlin… • Hitler sentenced for putsch... • Bismarck is born... • British Royal Air Force... • First US subcompact car... • Jane Austen declines royal writing advice... • Gerstner's first day at IBM... • Funding for Babbage's Difference Engine proposed... • First metal radio tube... • North Vietnam invades South... • House banking scandal... • Search will find silver AND Tombstone... • Selznick's movie studio...
^  On a 01 April:
2010 The Pope's prayer intentions for April 2010:
General: Fundamentalism and Extremism — That every tendency to fundamentalism and extremism may be countered by constant respect, by tolerance and by dialogue among all believers.
Missionary: Persecuted Christians — That the Christians persecuted for the sake of the Gospel may persevere, sustained by the Holy Spirit, in faithfully witnessing to the love of God for the entire human race. —(091213)
2009 The Pope's prayer intentions for April 2009:
General: That the Lord may bless the farmers with an abundant harvest and sensitise the richer populations to the drama of hunger in the world
Mission: That the Christians who work in areas where the conditions of the poor, the weak and the women and children are most tragic, may be signs of hope, thanks to their courageous testimony to the Gospel of solidarity and love.
2002 The abstract painting LA Structures I, by V. Grinberg, is auctioned at Sotheby's for some $20'000. — SEE THE PICTURE  AT ART “4” APRIL
2001 Slobodan Milosevic, in a negotiated surrender, goes to jail in Belgrade, after 26-hours of police failing to overcome his bodyguards' gunfire at his Belgrade villa. He faces corruption charges carrying a maximum of 5 years in prison, not extradition to the Hague as an indicted war criminal. Riots had forced Milosevic to relinquish power on 06 October 2000. However he would later be extradited to the Hague's war crimes tribunal.
2001 Se celebran en Holanda los primeros matrimonios homosexuales con plenos derechos.
2001 Central African Republic President Ange-Félix Patasse replaces prime minister Anicet Georges Dologuele with Martin Ziguele.
Jane Austen^ 2001 Sensational texts by Jane Austen are discovered !!!
     National Public Radio, on its morning show All Things Considered of 28 March 2001, announced the publication for today's date (note which it is!), of Pride and Promiscuity — The Lost Sex Scenes of Jane Austen, recently discovered passages that were omitted from Pride and Prejudice. It was authentified by the author of Pride and Punctuation. (note today's date)
      Seriously now, born on 16 December 1775, Jane Austen was the seventh of eight children born to a clergyman in Steventon, a country village in Hampshire, England. She was very close to her older sister, Cassandra, who remained her faithful editor and critic throughout her life. The girls had five years of formal schooling, then studied with their father. Jane read voraciously and began writing stories as young as age 12, completing an early novella at age 14. [1810 pencil and watercolor, by C. Austen >]
      Austen's quiet, happy world was disrupted when her father retired to Bath in 1801. Jane hated the resort town but amused herself by making close observations of ridiculous society manners. After her father's death in1805, Jane, her mother, and sister lived with one of her brothers until 1808, when another brother provided them a permanent home at Chawton Cottage, in Hampshire. Jane concealed her writing from most of her acquaintances, slipping her writing paper under a blotter when someone entered the room. Though she avoided society, she was charming, intelligent, and funny, and had several admirers. She actually accepted the marriage proposal of a well-off friend of her family's, but the next day withdrew her acceptance, having decided she could only marry for love.
     Jane Austen published Sense and Sensibility anonymously on 30 October 1811. A small circle of people, including the Price Regent, learned Austen's identity, but most of the British public knew only that the popular book had been written "by a Lady." She published several more novels before her death, including Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1815). She died on 18 July 1817, of what today is thought to be Addison's disease. Northanger Abbey and Persuasion were published posthumously.
     Sense and Sensibility tells the story of the impoverished Dashwood sisters. Marianne is the heroine of “sensibility”—i.e., of openness and enthusiasm. She becomes infatuated with the attractive John Willoughby, who seems to be a romantic lover but is in reality an unscrupulous fortune hunter. He deserts her for an heiress, leaving her to learn a dose of “sense” in a wholly unromantic marriage with a staid and settled bachelor, Colonel Brandon, who is 20 years her senior. By contrast, Marianne's older sister, Elinor, is the guiding light of “sense,” or prudence and discretion, whose constancy toward her lover, Edward Ferrars, is rewarded by her marriage to him after some distressing vicissitudes.     
     Pride and Prejudice describes the clash between Elizabeth Bennet, the daughter of a country gentleman, and Fitzwilliam Darcy, a rich and aristocratic landowner. Although Austen shows them intrigued by each other, she reverses the convention of “first impressions”: “pride” of rank and fortune and “prejudice” against Elizabeth's inferiority of family hold Darcy aloof; while Elizabeth is equally fired both by the “pride” of self-respect and by “prejudice” against Darcy's snobbery. Ultimately, they come together in love and self-understanding. The intelligent and high-spirited Elizabeth was Jane Austen's own favourite among all her heroines and is one of the most engaging in English literature.
     Northanger Abbey combines a satire on conventional novels of polite society with one on Gothic tales of terror. Catherine Morland, the unspoiled daughter of a country parson, is the innocent abroad who gains worldly wisdom: first in the fashionable society of Bath and then at Northanger Abbey itself, where she learns not to interpret the world through her reading of Gothic thrillers. Her mentor and guide is the self-assured and gently ironic Henry Tilney, her husband-to-be.
     In its tone and discussion of religion and religious duty, Mansfield Park is the most serious of Austen's novels. The heroine, Fanny Price, is a self-effacing and unregarded cousin cared for by the Bertram family in their country house. Fanny emerges as a true heroine whose moral strength eventually wins her complete acceptance in the Bertram family and marriage to Edmund Bertram himself, after that family's disastrous involvement with the meretricious and loose-living Crawfords.
      Of all Austen's novels, Emma is the most consistently comic in tone. It centres on Emma Woodhouse, a wealthy, pretty, self-satisfied young woman who indulges herself with meddlesome and unsuccessful attempts at matchmaking among her friends and neighbors. After a series of humiliating errors, a chastened Emma finds her destiny in marriage to the mature and protective George Knightley, a neighbouring squire who had been her mentor and friend.
      Persuasion tells the story of a second chance, the reawakening of love between Anne Elliot and Captain Frederick Wentworth, whom seven years earlier she had been persuaded not to marry. Now Wentworth returns from the Napoleonic Wars with prize money and the social acceptability of naval rank; he is an eligible suitor acceptable to Anne's snobbish father and his circle, and Anne discovers the continuing strength of her love for him.

^ On 01 April 1816 Jane Austen declines royal writing advice.
      Jane Austen responds to a letter from the Prince Regent suggesting she write a historic romance, saying, "I could not sit down to write a serious romance under any other motive than to save my life." Austen's correspondence with the Prince Regent, as well as literary figures of the day, was prompted by the success of her novels.

AUSTEN ONLINE:
  • Complete on-line works
  • Emma
  • Emma
  • Emma
  • Emma (zipped PDF)
  • Lady Susan
  • Lady Susan
  • The Watsons
  • Mansfield Park
  • Mansfield Park
  • Mansfield Park
  • Northanger Abbey
  • Northanger Abbey
  • Northanger Abbey
  • Persuasion
  • Persuasion
  • Love and Freindship
  • Love and Freindship and Other Early Works
  • The Plan of a Novel According to Hints from Various Quarters
  • Pride and Prejudice
  • Pride and Prejudice
  • Pride and Prejudice (zipped PDF)
  • Sense and Sensibility
  • Letters of Jane Austen
  • 2000 La sucesión del primer ministro japonés, que sufre una embolía cerebral, provoca la crisis política en el país.
    1999  El presidente de Brasil Fernando Henrique Cardoso firma un proyecto de ley para acabar con la esclavitud en el país.
    1997 Comet Hale-Bopp Perihelion (0.914 AU)
    1996 In a case that sparked an uproar reminiscent of the Rodney King case, two Riverside County, Calif., sheriff's deputies were videotaped repeatedly clubbing a Mexican man and woman after a 110-km highway chase involving a pickup truck suspected of sneaking across the border.
    1995  El presidente ucraniano Leonid Kuchma pone bajo su control el Gobierno de Crimea tras abolir su Constitución y deponer al dirigente de la república autónoma, Yuri Meshkov.
    ^ 1993 Gerstner's first day at IBM
          Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., the first IBM chairman and chief executive ever hired from outside the company, started his new job on this day in 1993. The 51-year-old Gerstner, who had served as president of American Express and chairman of R.J.R. Nabisco, would earn a salary of $3.5 million-more than double the pay of the former IBM chairman, John Akers. Although IBM, long the world's leading producer of mainframe computers, had successfully entered the age of the personal computer with its tremendously successful IBM PC, the company fell on hard times in the '90s, suffering the first losses and layoffs in the company's history. Gerstner would bring the company back to profitability by shifting the company's focus from mainframes to client-server computing. Meanwhile, he began uprooting time-honored IBM traditions like the company's unwritten dress code of white shirts and dark suits.
    ^ 1992 The House Banking Scandal.
          The House Ethics Committee released a list of the twenty-two most flagrant abusers of the defunct House bank. The bank, which had been closed in the fall of 1991, was not a financial institution, but rather served as a common place for legislators to tuck their paychecks. The representatives in question were accused of overdrawing on this collective account. But, though the legislators' habit of overdrafting neither violated the bank's rules nor led to the loss of federal money, it reeked of fiscal irresponsibility and stirred yelps of protest from the US public. The House Ethics Committee held that legislators who had overdrafted on their payroll deposits for a minimum of eight months out of a sample thirty-nine-month stretch were indeed in the wrong. The committee's findings, as well as the decision to name names, sent Capitol Hill into a tizzy. A number of the legislators fingered on the list lashed out at what one accused representative deemed a "libelous indictment." But, such protests did little to quell the controversy: during the ensuing months, the committee revealed that some 350 former and current House members had written bad checks. With the public outcry hardly abating, fifty-three representatives tendered their resignations by 04 May of that same year.
    1991 The US Supreme Court ruled, 7-2, that trial prosecutors violate the Constitution if they bar prospective jurors for racial reasons - even when the defendant and the excluded jurors are of different races.
    1991 Iran releases British hostage Roger Cooper after 5 years.
    1991 Warsaw Pact disbands.
    1991 US minimum wage goes from $3.80 to $4.25 per hour.
    1987  La Cámara de los Comunes de Reino Unido rechaza por cuarta vez desde 1965 la reimplantación de la pena de muerte.
    1986 World oil prices dip below $10 a barrel.
    1985  Duarte consigue la victoria en las elecciones generales celebradas en El Salvador.
    1985 En Santiago de Chile el entierro de tres opositores se convierte en una protesta masiva contra Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte.
    1984 Se celebra una manifestación contra el régimen militar uruguayo.
    ^ 1982 Une guerre pour la FRIME !
         Le monde occidental connaît son premier conflit "interne " depuis la guerre de 40-45. L’Argentine, désireuse de reconquérir les îles "Malouines " (ou Falkland), concédées au XIXème siècle à l’Angleterre, envahissent celles-ci et les conquièrent en quelques heures. Les dictateurs militaires argentins espéraient ainsi "brancher" l’opinion publique soucieuse de démocratie sur un problème extérieur un "bouc émissaire " en quelque sorte. La fermeté impitoyable de la "Dame de Fer " (Mme Thatcher) surprendra tout le monde. L’Angleterre emploiera les grands moyens pour reconquérir son " Honneur " et ces quelques arpents de terre infertiles peuplés de 4000 âmes. Coût officiel : près de 10 milliards de F.F. cette année-là pour les simples opérations militaires. Plus 5 milliards (F.F.) chaque année pour reconstruire d’une part et renforcer la défense d’autre part (mais bien plus officieusement). Mais ce n’est pas grave. Ce sont les mineurs, le camionneurs, les sidérurgistes et tous les bénéficiaires des services sociaux qui vont supporter l’effort de guerre et en payer dans leur vie de tous les jours les conséquences désastreuses. Vous connaissez la suite.
    1982 Anguilla (dependent territory of UK) adopts constitution
    1982 US transfers operaiton of Canal to Panama 
    1979 Iran proclaimed an Islamic Republic following fall of Shah
    1977 Attempt for Moslem state in Chad fails.
    1976 Gracias al acelerador de partículas UNILAC, propiedad del GSI de Darmstadt, se logra, por primera vez, acelerar un ion pesado (U-238) hasta 6,7 MeV.
    1975 Cambodia President Lon Nol flees from Khmer Rouge.
    1975 El Ministerio de Sanidad alemán comunica que más de la mitad de los ciudadanos tiene exceso de colesterol en la sangre.
    1974 Ayatollah Khomeini calls for an Islamic Republic in Iran.   
    1973  El IVA comienza a aplicarse en Reino Unido.
    ^ 1972 North Vietnam invades South.
          Following three days of the heaviest artillery and rocket bombardment of the war, between 12,000 and 15,000 soldiers of Hanoi's 304th Division — supported by tanks, artillery, and antiaircraft units equipped with surface-to-air missiles — sweep across the Demilitarized Zone. They routed the South Vietnamese 3rd Division and drove them toward their rear bases. This attack was the opening move of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120'000 soldiers and approximately 1200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south.
          North Vietnam had a number of objectives in launching the offensive: impressing the Communist world and its own people with its determination; capitalizing on US antiwar sentiment and possibly hurting President Richard Nixon's chances for re-election; proving that "Vietnamization" was a failure; damaging the South Vietnamese forces and government stability; gaining as much territory as possible before a possible truce; and accelerating negotiations on their own terms. Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the South Vietnamese suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of US advisors and US airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces.
    1972  Anastasio Somoza Debayle dimite como presidente de Nicaragua.
    1970 US President Nixon signs a measure banning cigarette advertising on radio and television, to take effect after 01 January 1971.
    1969  El Tribunal Supremo español confirma la sentencia del Tribunal de Orden Público (TOP) y condena a Néstor Luján a 8 meses de prisión por publicar una carta sobre el problema de la lengua catalana.
    1966 China premier Chou en-Lai starts "Cultural revolution"
    ^ 1965 King Hussein of Jordan names brother heir
         After amending the Jordanian constitution to allow for fraternal succession, King Hussein bin Talal appointed his younger brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as crown prince and heir to the Hashemite throne. Two years earlier, King Hussein had appointed his one-year-old son Prince Abdallah as heir, but after suffering through a series of assassination attempts, the Jordanian king feared that he would not live long enough for Prince Abdallah to reach maturity. Hussein thus took the unorthodox measure of naming as heir his eighteen-year-old brother, who was by Islamic law just old enough to avoid a regency that might compromise the Hashemite dynasty.
          The Hashemites, said to be direct descendents of the Prophet Muhammad, became the rulers of Jordan following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in the early twentieth century. Hussein was named the third constitutional king of Jordan in 1952, and proved a great leader in his country and throughout the Middle East. After his son, Prince Abdallah, reached adulthood, Prince Hassan remained crown prince, and during the late 1990s served as acting king while Hussein suffered through a long illness. However, in January of 1999, weeks before his death, King Hussein made Prince Abdallah crown prince, ending Prince Hassan's thirty-four years as the Jordanian heir. On 07 February 1999, the twentieth century's longest serving executive head of state died, and thirty-seven-year-old Prince Abdallah bin Hussein ascended to the Jordanian throne.
    1964  Con motivo del vigésimo quinto aniversario del final de la Guerra Civil española se celebra un Tedeum en la basílica del Valle de los Caídos.
    1962  El Movimiento Revolucionario Liberal de Colombia proclama la candidatura de Alfonso López Michelsen, hijo del ex presidente Alfonso López Pumarejo.
    1960 U Nu elected premier of Burma.
    1960 the first weather satellite, "TIROS-One," was launched from Cape Canaveral.
    — Los Estados Unidos ponen en órbita el primer satélite meteorológico, el Tiros 1.
    1957 Trial begins in Budapest against participants in October uprising.
    1957  India adopta el sistema métrico decimal.
    1956  España y Marruecos firman un acuerdo sobre transferencia del territorio marroquí que hasta entonces era Protectorado español.
    1952 Big Bang theory proposed in Physical Review by Alpher, Bethe and Gamow.
    1950  Organización de las Naciones Unidas adopta un plan para dividir Jerusalén.
    1950 Se hace público en Moscú un proyecto de Iosif Visarionovich Dzhugashvili "Stalin" que prevé una profunda transformación de los recursos naturales de la URSS hasta los Urales.
    ^ 1948 Soviets stop US and UK military trains to Berlin.
          Soviet troops stop US and British military trains traveling through the Russian zone of occupation in Germany and demand that they be allowed to search the trains. British and US officials refused the Soviet demand, and the problems associated with the Soviet, British, and US occupation of Germany grew steadily more serious in the following months. Soviet and US differences over the post-World War II fate of Germany began even before the war ended in 1945. The Soviets were determined that Germany would never again pose a military threat to Russia and they also demanded huge postwar reparations. The United States shared the Soviet concern about German rearmament, but as the Cold War began to develop, US officials realized that a revitalized Germany might act as a bulwark against possible Soviet expansion into Western Europe. When Germany surrendered in 1945, it was divided into British, US, Russian (and, eventually, French) zones of occupation. Berlin was located within the Russian sector, but the city itself was also divided into occupation zones. As it became clear during 1946 and 1947 that the United States, acting with the British and French, were determined to economically revitalize and militarily rearm Western Germany, tensions with the Soviet Union began to mount.
          On 01 April 1948, Soviet troops begin stopping US and British military trains traveling through the Russian sector to and from Berlin. Both the British and US governments responded with indignant letters of reproach to the Soviet Union. Eventually, the stoppages ceased, but in June 1948 the Soviets began a full-scale blockade of all ground travel to and from the US-British-French sectors of Berlin. Thus began the Berlin Blockade, which was only broken when US aircraft carried out the amazing task of flying and dropping supplies into Berlin. Germany remained a major Cold War battlefield throughout the 1950s and 1960s.
    1947 - first Jewish immigrants to Israel disembark at Port of Eilat
    1946 400'000 US mine workers strike
    1946 Van Acker forms Belgian govt (without CVP)
    1946  Juan Domingo Perón Sosa es aclamado en las calles de la capital argentina y se producen atentados contra los centros judíos y socialistas.
    1945 Canadian troop free Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo and Eibergen
    1945 Ruhrgebied sealed off by US first and 9th army 1945 -
    ^ 1945 Battle of Okinawa begins during World War II.
    the US Tenth Army under Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner began the invasion of Okinawa, a Pacific island located midway between Japan and Formosa.
          Okinawa was an island large enough to provide a base for an invasion of Japan itself. Although there were over 100'000 Japanese defenders on the island, most were deeply entrenched in the island's densely forested interior, and by the evening of 01 April, 60'000 US soldiers had come ashore without substantial loss of life. However, on 04 April, Japanese land resistance stiffened and at sea, Kamikaze pilots escalated their deadly suicide attacks on US vessels.
          Over the next month, the battle raged on land and sea, with the Japanese troops and flyers making the US soldiers pay dearly for every strategic area of land and water won. On 18 June 1945, with US victory imminent, General Buckner, the hero of Iwo Jima, was killed by Japanese artillery. Three days later, Japanese resistance came to an end, and on 22 June 1945, Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima, the Japanese commander, along with a number of Japanese officers and troops, committed suicide rather than surrender.
          The Japanese lost 120'000 troops in the defense of Okinawa, while the US suffered 12'500 dead and 35'000 wounded. Of the thirty-six Allied ships lost, most were destroyed by the 2000 or so Japanese pilots who gave up their lives in Kamikaze missions. With the capture of Okinawa, the Allies prepared for the invasion of the Japanese home islands, a military operation predicted to be far bloodier than the 1944 Allied invasion of Western Europe. The plan called for invading the southern island of Kyushu in November of 1945, and the main Japanese island of Honshu in March of 1946.
         After suffering the loss of 116 planes and damage to three aircraft carriers, 50'000 US combat soldiers of the 10th Army, under the command of Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner Jr., land on the southwest coast of the Japanese island of Okinawa, 560 km south of Kyushu, the southern main island of Japan.
          Determined to seize Okinawa as a base of operations for the army ground and air forces for a later assault on mainland Japan, more than 1300 ships converged on the island, finally putting ashore 50'000 combat soldiers on 01 April. The US forces quickly seized two airfields and advanced inland to cut the island's waist. They battled nearly 120'000 Japanese army, militia, and labor troops under the command of Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima. The Japanese surprised the US forces with a change in strategy, drawing them into the mainland rather than confronting them at the water's edge.
          While US troops landed without loss of men, they would suffer more than 50'000 casualties, including more than 12'000 deaths, as the Japanese staged a desperate defense of the island, a defense that included waves of kamikaze ("divine wind") air attacks. Eventually, these suicide raids proved counterproductive, as the Japanese finally ran out of planes and resolve, with some 4000 finally surrendering. Japanese casualties numbered some 117'000. Lieutenant Buckner, son of a Civil War general, was among the casualties, killed by enemy artillery fire just three days before the Japanese surrender. Japanese General Ushijima committed ritual suicide upon defeat of his forces. The 1952 film Okinawa starring Pat O'Brien, is one of several movies to depict this decisive episode in the history of the war.
    1944 Japanese troops conquer Jessami, East-India
    1942 Mexico changes from 3 time zones to 2
    1942 Allied air raid on harbor city Kupang Timor
    1941 Nazis forbid Jews access to cafés.
    1941 Pro-German Rashid Ali al-Ghailani grabs power in Iraq.
    1941  El general Isaías Medina Angarita asume la presidencia de Venezuela.
    1939  Todas las emisoras de radio españolas difunden el último parte militar, en el que se anuncia el fin de la Guerra Civil española, lo que supone el inicio del nuevo sistema político dictatorial del general Francisco Franco Bahamonde. — US recognizes Franco government in Spain at end of Spanish civil war, which began on 18 July 1936. Pope Pius XII congratulates Generalissimo Franco for his victory.
    1937 Aden becomes British crown colony.
    1937  Birmania (Myanmar) se separa de la India y obtiene del Reino Unido estatuto de dominio.
    1936 Orissa constituted a province of British India.
    1936  Austria decide la implantación del servicio militar obligatorio.
    1936 El reglamento de médicos del Reich, promulgado por Hitler, completa la (auto) equiparación del colectivo médico que se encuentra en la Alemania nacionalsocialista.
    1933 Heinrich Himmler becomes Police Commander of Germany
    1933 Nazi Germany begins persecution of Jews, by boycotting Jewish businesses.
    1933  Heinrich Himmler es nombrado jefe de la policía política de Baviera.
    1929  Prosiguen los combates en México entre las tropas federales del presidente Emilio Portes Gil y las del general rebelde José Gonzalo Escobar.
    1928  Jiang Jieshi inicia la serie de victorias militares que le convertirán en el paladín de la China anticomunista.
    1925  La Bauhaus se instala en Dessau.
    ^ 1924 Hitler is sentenced for Beer Hall Putsch.
          Adolf Hitler is sentenced for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch of 08 November 1923. The attempted coup in Munich by right-wing members of the army and the Nazi Party was foiled by the government, and Hitler was charged with high treason. Despite his conviction, Hitler was out of jail before the end of the year, with his political position stronger than ever. Germany was in the midst of a national crisis in the early 1920s. After World War I, its economy was in shambles, and hyperinflation caused widespread discontent. Hitler and the Nazis stepped into this breach with often-racist demagoguery that attracted a significant following throughout the nation.
          The failed coup turned out to be quite a boon for Adolf Hitler. His trial brought him more attention and publicity than ever before. With a crowd of thousands-including press from around the world-watching the proceedings, Hitler made the most of this opportunity by going on the offensive. Taking every chance to turn the subject away from the putsch itself, Hitler frequently made speeches about Germany's postwar plight. He blamed the Jews, Marxism, and France for all of the country's problems, repeatedly returning to his theme of hypernationalism. The conservative-leaning judges did nothing to stop Hitler or keep the focus on the attempted coup. The prosecutors, who had been threatened by Hitler's student followers, shrank from challenging the defendant. It soon became evident that Hitler was winning the public relations battle by using the 25-day trial as a showcase for his extreme right-wing views, even if he was technically losing the case. In his closing argument, Hitler declared that he would ignore the court's verdict because the "Eternal Court of History" would acquit him. After his conviction, Hitler spent the remainder of the year in prison writing the first volume of Mein Kampf. By the time he was released, he had become more popular than ever, and within eight years he had taken over Germany.
         Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in prison for leading the Nazis' unsuccessful "Beer Hall Putsch" in the German state of Bavaria. In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler's Nazi Party swelled with resentful Germans who sympathized with the party's bitter hatred of Germany's democratic government, leftist politics, and Jews. In November 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch" — their first attempt at seizing the German government by force. Hitler hoped that his nationalist revolution in Bavaria would spread to the dissatisfied German army, which in turn would bring down the government in Berlin. However, the uprising was immediately suppressed, and Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for high treason.
          Sent to Landsberg jail, he spent his time dictating his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. After nine months in prison, political pressure from supporters of the Nazi Party forced his release. During the next few years, Hitler and the other leading Nazis reorganized their party as a fanatical mass movement that was able to gain a majority in the German parliament — the Reichstag — by legal means in 1932. In the same year, President Paul von Hindenburg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January 1933 he appointed Hitler chancellor, hoping that the powerful Nazi leader could be brought to heel as a member of the president's cabinet. However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of the new chancellor's first acts was to use the burning of the Reichstag building as a pretext for calling general elections. The police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts. In 1934, Hindenburg died and the last remnants of Germany's democratic government were dismantled, leaving Hitler the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide. 
    1923 En France, le service militaire est ramené de trois ans à dix-huit mois. Il est, en outre, de douze mois seulement pour ceux qui choisissent de préparer un brevet de préparation militaire supérieure ou pour l'aîné d'une famille nombreuse.
    1920  El Partido Obrero Alemán se convierte en el Partido Obrero Nacional Socialista (NSDAP).
    1916  Bulgaria adopta el calendario gregoriano en sustitución del juliano.
    1912  El primer ministro británico, Herbert Henry Asquith, prepara un nuevo Home Rule.
    1910 Dumitru Dan (Romania) completes a 100'000 km walk.
    1905 British East African Protectorate becomes colony of Kenya.
    1904  Un grave terremoto causa una gran devastación en Kosovo.
    Gauguin1901  Se celebran en España numerosos mítines anticlericales, especialmente en La Coruña y Málaga.
    1900  Jorge I es nombrado príncipe soberano de Creta.
    1892  Un grupo de independentista cubanos en el exilio, liderados por José Julian Martí Pérez, Antonio Maceo Grajales y Máximo Gómez fundan el Partido Revolucionario Cubano.
    1891 Painter Paul Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 – 08 May 1903] leaves Marseille for Tahiti [click on image for full portrait >]
    links to ten of his Tahiti images.
    ^ 1877 Prospecting begins that will find silver AND Tombstone.
          Ignoring the taunts of fellow miners who say he will only find his own tombstone, prospector Edward Schieffelin begins his search for silver in the area of present-day southern Arizona. Later that year, Schieffelin was not only alive and well, but he had found one of the richest silver veins in the West. He named it the Tombstone Lode. Located about 70 miles southeast of Tucson in the San Pedro Valley, the Tombstone Mining District and the town of Tombstone quickly became major economic and social centers of the Southwest. Schieffelin and his partners were able to attract vast amounts of eastern investment capital to develop their claims. Quickly making their fortunes, the original partners sold out in 1880-81 and left Arizona for more civilized locales. Tombstone, however, continued to boom. By 1881, more than 10'000 persons lived in the region and Tombstone had become the seat of the newly created Cochise County.
          The Wild West spirit of the town and large amounts of money attracted gamblers, criminals, and would-be lawmen. Of these, Doc Holliday and the Earp brothers are the most famous today, because of their brief shoot-out with the Clantons and McLaurys at the O.K. Corral in 1881. Tombstone was home to scores of other gamblers and gunslingers, though, including John Ringo, William C. Brocius, and Frank Leslie. So much violence and lawlessness marked the early years of Tombstone's history that President Chester Arthur briefly considered imposing martial law in May 1882. Upstanding civic leaders like the rancher John Slaughter worked to promote law, order, and civic growth. The wild boom days in Tombstone, however, soon waned of their own accord when miners struck groundwater, which made it too expensive to dig any deeper. By the early 1890s, most of the mines had closed and the town went into decline. Mining resumed sporadically at Tombstone during subsequent decades, but the town never regained its former glory. By 1929, Tombstone seemed to be headed for ghost town status, and the county seat moved to Bisbee. Ironically, the very gambling and violence that growth-minded town fathers once tried to suppress became its economic savior. In the post-World War II years, the people of Tombstone began to cater to the US fascination with the Wild West. Museums and the restoration of the O.K. Corral made Tombstone into a tourist destination, leading some to call it the town that is "too tough to die."
    1867 Singapore, Penang and Malakka become British crown colonies.
    1867  Se inaugura en París la Exposición Universal de Industrias y Bellas Artes, con la que Napoleón III pretende realzar su Imperio.
    1866 US Congress rejects presidential veto, gives all equal rights in US
    1865 Battle of 5 Forks, Virginia, signaling end of Lee's army
    1865 Battle at Blakely Alabama
    1865 Siege at Spanish Fort, Alabama continues
    1864 James Batterson purchases the very first travel insurance policy. The policy, issued by industry stalwart, the Travelers Insurance Company, seemingly sold Batterson on the benefits of insurance coverage: three months later he purchased Travelers' very first general insurance plan.
    1863 first wartime conscription law in US goes into effect
    1862 Shenandoah Valley campaign, Jackson's Battle of Woodstock, VA
    1862  España e Inglaterra rompen su alianza con Francia.
    1836 Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle reaches Cocos Islands
    1823 Funding for Babbage's Difference Engine proposed
          The Lords of the Treasury, the British government's finance division, requested a study of mathematician Charles Babbage's proposal for a mechanical calculator called the "Difference Engine." Eventually, the Lords agreed to provide Babbage $1,500 to develop the engine. Babbage devoted the next ten years of his life to building the Difference Engine. Unfortunately, after spending $17,000 of government funds and nearly the same amount from his own pocket, Babbage ran out of money and was never able to build the machine. In 1854, a Swedish engineer finally succeeded in constructing a Difference Engine based on Babbage's theories.
    ^ 1795 “Du pain et la constitution”.
          Le 12 germinal an III (1er avril 1795), la Convention est bloquée par une insurrection des faubourgs Saint-Marcel et Saint-Antoine aux cris de "Du pain et la constitution ;".
          L’abolition du maximum a entraîné une hausse vertigineuse des prix: celui de la livre de pain ne cesse de monter. Les boulangeries distribuent avec difficulté deux cent cinquante grammes de pain par jour et par personne. Peu soucieux d’être payés en assignats complètement dévalués, les paysans préfèrent garder leurs stocks. Inflation, chômage et disette frappent la population parisienne.
          Une nouvelle émeute éclate le 1er prairial (20 May). La veille, les habitants des faubourgs n’ont reçu que soixante grammes de pain. De là l’idée que les Conventionnels, gagnés aux idées royalistes, veulent faire mourir le peuple de faim et que seul le rétablissement de la Constitution de 1793 écarterait ce péril. En conséquence, la foule envahit la salle des séances de la Convention, assassine le député Féraud, dont la tête est présentée au bout d’une pique au président Boissy d’Anglas. Aidés des derniers Montagnards (les Crétois), dont le mathématicien Romme, député du Puy-de-Dôme, les émeutiers font décider la mise en vigueur de la Constitution de l’an I et l’établissement d’un nouveau comité de salut public sous le nom de Commission exécutive.
          Mais la garde nationale, venue des quartiers du Centre, balaie les insurgés. La Convention réagit en décrétant d’accusation les Crétois. Traduits devant une commission militaire, ils sont condamnés à mort ; Romme se suicide. Après trois jours d’insurrection, le faubourg Saint-Antoine est désarmé par la troupe : les ouvriers doivent remettre piques, fusils et canons. L’émeute de prairial est la dernière grande insurrection parisienne de la Révolution.
          Jusqu’en 1830, la capitale ne bougera plus.
    1789 the US House of Representatives held its first full meeting, in New York City. Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania was elected the first House speaker.
    1767  La Compañía de Jesús es expulsada de España por mandato de Carlos III y su primer ministro, Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea conde de Aranda.
    1767 Luis XV ordena a los franceses instalados en las Malvinas desalojar el archipiélago.
    1748 Ruins of Pompeii found.
    1734 A cause de ses liens familiaux avec Stanislas Leszcynski, Louis XV s'est investi dans la guerre de Succession de Pologne, pour cette raison, l'Autriche lui déclare la guerre avec l'aide de son empereur.
    1693 Colonial clergyman Cotton Mather's first-born son died at the age of four days. Mather suspected witchcraft as the cause, and had previously published "Wonders of the Invisible World," affirming his belief in spectral phenomena.
    1649 In France the Peace of Rueil is ratified, putting an end to the Fronde of the Parliament.
    ^ 1621 The Pilgrim-Wampanoag peace treaty
         At the Plymouth settlement in present-day Massachusetts, the leaders of the Plymouth colonists, acting on behalf of King James I, made a defensive alliance with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoags. The agreement, in which both parties promised to not "doe hurt" to one another, was the first treaty between a Amerindian tribe and a group of American colonists. According to the treaty, if a Wampanoag broke the peace, he would be sent to Plymouth for punishment; if a colonist broke the law, he would likewise be sent to the Wampanoags.
         On 11 November 1620, the Mayflower arrived to the New World carrying approximately one hundred English settlers, commonly known as the pilgrims. The majority of the pilgrims were Puritan Separatists, who traveled to America to escape the jurisdiction of the Church of England, which they believed violated the biblical precepts for true Christians. After coming to anchor in what is today Provincetown harbor in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts, a party of armed men under the command of Captain Myles Standish was sent out to explore the immediate area and find a location suitable for settlement. On 11 December, the explorers went ashore in Plymouth, where they found cleared fields and plentiful running water, and on 16 December, the Mayflower came to anchor in Plymouth harbor, and settlement began.
          The first direct contact with an Amerindian was made on 16 March, and soon after Chief Massasoit paid a visit to the settlement. After an exchange of greetings and gifts, the two peoples signed a peace treaty that would last over fifty years.
    1605 Cardinal Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici [02 Jun 1535 – 27 Apr 1605] is elected Pope to succeed Clement VIII and takes the name Leo XI.
    1578 William Harvey of England discovers blood circulation.
    1540  Francisco I rey de Francia, anuncia el Edicto de Fontainebleau, por el que se prohíbe el credo protestante.
    1328 Jeanne d'Evreux, la femme de Charles IV le Bel qui vient de mourir le 1er février à l'âge de trente-trois ans, accouche, ce jour. On espère un fils. Une fille naît. La succession au trône de France se trouve ouverte. Des trois prétendants, Philippe, comte d'Evreux, Edouard III d'Angleterre et Philippe de Valois, c'est le dernier, l'actuel régent, qui est proclamé roi le 08 Apr.
    1256  Alfonso X, "el Sabio" es proclamado emperador germánico.
    0705 Greek pope John VII chosen as successor to John VI
    0527 Justinianus becomes compassionate emperor of Byzantium
    0374 Comet 1P/374 E1 (Halley) approaches within 0.0884 AUs of Earth.
    TO THE TOP
    < 31 Mar 02 Apr >
    ^  Deaths which occurred on a 01 April:

    >2008 Natalia Dallapiccola [27 Jun 1924–], first follower (in the last days of 1943) of Chiara Lubich [22 Jan 1920 – 14 Mar 2008] in the Focolare Movement. Dallapiccola had a key role in spreading their charism of unity in the countries of Eastern Europe. Lubich sent her to West Berlin in 1959 to start the movement there. In 1962 she was sent to eastern Germany with the first group of Focolare doctors, requested there by the local bishop faced with the fleeing of medical professionals to the West. Dallapiccola also established contacts in Poland, then Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Lithuania. Though her health was already waning by 1976, she opened within Focolare the mission of interreligious dialogue, building relationships with Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist leaders. Chiara had called Natalia “Anzolon” (”angel”, in the Tridentine dialect) because of the Natalia's love for everyone. —(080407)

    2007 Fransiskus Madhu [13 May 1976–], Indonesian Catholic missionary priest of the Society of the Divine Word, who had just vested for the Palm Sunday Mass, shot by a deranged man in Mabungtot Elementary School at Lubuagan (where there is no church), Kalinga province, the Philippines. Father Madhu entered the SVD in 1995, made his perpetual religious vows on 15 August 2003, and was ordained a priest on 08 August 2004. He was sent to the Philippines in 2005 and had not had a home vacation since. He spoke the northern Ilocano dialect proficiently. —(070403)
    2007 (12 Rabi'-al-Awwal 1428 AH) Jan Mohammad Kakroo, 55, shot by terrorists as he leaves the Khwaja Sahib shrine at Khawaja Bagh in Baramulla district in the north of Indian-occupied Kashmir after morning prayers on Eid-e-Milad-un-Nabi (festival of the birth of the Prophet). His bodyguard Sonaullah is injured. Kakroo was a senior Congress Party leader and a businessman. —(070401)

    2006 US Army Staff Sgt. Darrell P. Clay, 34, and Sgt. Israel Devora Garcia, 23, of the 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, on a foot patrol in Baghdad, Iraq, killed by an improvised explosive device. —(070331)
    2006 US Army CWO Michael L. Hartwick, 37, and Capt. Timothy J. Moshier, 25, when their Apache helicopter crashed while conducting a combat air patrol in Baghdad, Iraq. They belonged to the 4th Battalion, 4th Aviation Brigade, 4th Infantry Division.. —(070331)

    2005 All 9 US soldiers aboard a US C-130 transport plane which, during a joint exercise with Albanian troops, crashes in Albania near village Rovie, in the Drizez Mountains, 100 km southeast of Tirana.
    2005 US Marine Cpl. Garrywesley T. Rimes, 30, of the 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, but attached to 2nd Marine Division, killed in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. —(070331)
    Bernal
    2004 US Marine Lance Cpl. Dustin M. Sekula, 18, of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, dies due to injuries sustained from enemy fire in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. —(070331)
    2004 Carlos Salvador Bernal, 43 [< photo], in the evering, shot by gunmen who flee on a motorcycle, as he was dining in a restaurant in Cúcuta, Colombia. Bernal, era abogado, secretario general del Partido Comunista Colombiano en el departamento del Norte de Santander, miembro del Comité Permanente por la Defensa de los Derechos Humanoso, y secretario regional de la coalición Polo Democrático Independiente. Bernal's bodyguard, Camilo Jiménez Arenas, is severely wounded in the head and dies the next day. Another customer of the restaurant is wounded in the right arm.

    2003 US Army Spc. William A. Jeffries, 39, of the National Guard Unit D Company, 1st Battalion, 152nd Infantry Regiment, dies Evansville, Indiana, died from a sudden illness in Rota, Spain, to where he had been evacuated from Kuwait. —(070331).
    2003. US Army Spc. Brandon Rowe, 20, of C Company, 1st Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), killed in an ambush by the enemy in Al Hillah, Iraq. —(070331)

    2002 Eleven Palestinians, murdered by Palestinians as collaborators with Israel: eight men being held in an intelligence building in Tulkarm, West Bank, shot by two masked gunmen; one shot in Bethlehem, two in Qalqilya.
    ^ 2001 Wang Wei, 33, pilot of a Chinese J-8 interceptor which collides with a US spy plane.
          Wang Wei's plane breaks up and he falls into the South China Sea (130 km southeast of Hainan island) after colliding with a US Navy EP-3 surveillance plane, which, together with another Chinese J-8 (piloted by Zhao Yu), he was shadowing. The damaged US plane, after plummeting 2400 meters, manages to make an emergency landing at Lingshui military airfield on Hainan island 26 minutes after the collision. The 24 military persons aboard the US plane are unhurt but are detained by the Chinese authorities, who demand an apology from the US and the cessation of the surveillance flights. Examination of the surveillance technology in the plane is of great benefit to Chinese military intelligence
         On 13 April 2001, a day after China freed the 24 crew members and they returned to the US, US officials would give a detailed account of the collision, based on the debriefing of the crew members. The Chinese pilot caused the collision by flying too close to the US plane. But Chinese officials say that the US reconnaissance plane has intruded into China's airspace and rammed a Chinese fighter. Premier Zhu Rongji said: "The US side must take the entire responsibility for the plane collision incident." Beijing says that it plans to keep the US plane pending a "thorough investigation" and will demand an end to US surveillance flights near its coast. Washington has ruled out a halt to the flights, and wants the plane back as soon as possible. The two sides are to meet on 18 April 2001.
         On 01 April 2001, two Chinese F-8 interceptors took off from Hainan island to trail the US plane, which was on a surveillance mission 103 km off the island's coast. The US plane was flying level on autopilot, on a fixed course and altitude. One of the Chinese fighters drew close to the American aircraft three times, from the left and behind, in fairly aggressive approaches. On the first two passes, it came within one meter of the left wing. On the third approach, the Chinese pilot apparently realized he was closing too fast and, instead of passing under the US plane, tried to swing his plane to cut speed. His plane hit the outermost engine on the left wing, then the inner engine, then flipped up into the nose of the EP-3E, shearing it off. The impact broke the Chinese fighter in half and the debris spiraled into the sea..
          After the collision, the US plane plummeted 2400 meters and rolled 130 degrees. The way the plane was spinning, there was no way the crew could get out. It was chaos in there. They thought they were all going to die. The first moments after the collision were like a disaster movie. Papers, pens and electronic instruments were flying around as the plane went into a plunge. After the pilot regained control, the crew broadcast 15 to 25 distress calls but got no response.
          Chinese officials say that they did not hear any call and accused the US pilot of illegally entering their airspace. The crew put on parachutes and Osborn, the pilot, considered ordering them to bail out or ditching the damaged craft in the sea. But he decided to land at the Chinese air base at Lingshui, on Hainan. Before landing, he made a 270-degree turn around the field, a standard signal that he was out of contact with the control tower. The airfield was clear, indicating that the Chinese commanders were not taking any steps to discourage the US plane from landing. The second Chinese fighter pilot would claim that he requested permission to shoot down the US plane. But no shots were fired.
         After the US plane landed, heavily armed Chinese soldiers shouted through megaphones and waved their arms outside as the crew of the US plane frantically destroyed classified material for 15 minutes. "They made it clear they wanted us off that aircraft," Navy Lt. Shane Osborn, the pilot of the EP-3E reconnaissance plane, would say. The 21 men and three women were taken into custody without a struggle when they left the aircraft. The US crew was extensively questioned by the Chinese. Despite repeated requests, US diplomats did not have their first contact with Chinese officials until nearly 12 hours after the collision. At that time, Ambassador Joseph Prueher offered US help to search for the Chinese pilot; China did not reply. China immediately took a confrontational stance. China released the US crew only after President Bush said he was "very sorry" for the loss of the pilot as well as the US plane's emergency landing afterward without advance permission.
    1993  Juan de Borbón, conde de Barcelona, hijo y padre de reyes que no pudo reinar en España.
    1984  Manuel Mújica Lainez, poeta y ensayista argentino.
    1984 Marvin Gaye, singer, shot to death by his father Marvin Gaye Sr in LA.
    1977 The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista is abolished.
    1976 Max Ernst, German French Surrealist painter and sculptor born on 02 April 1891. — MORE ON ERNST AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1974 Georges Pompidou, président de la République successeur du Général de Gaulle, professeur de lettres de formation, ayant souffert pendant plusieurs années du cancer. Cet humaniste a pu assurer la continuité de l’héritage gaulliste tout en préparant certains changements de société, mais il laissa sa place au plus jeune président que la France ait connu et aussi à la plus dramatique invention fiscale pour le petit peuple: la TVA (reprise par le monde entier)
    1968 Lev Landau, mathematician.
    ^ 1947 George II , born on 20 July 1890, king of Greece from September 1922 to March 1924 and from October 1935 until his death. His second reign was marked by the ascendancy of the military dictator Ioannis Metaxas [12 Apr 1871 – 29 Jan 1941].
          The eldest son of King Constantine I, George was excluded from the succession during World War I for his allegedly pro-German sympathies, but he came to the thronewhen his father was deposed by General Nikólaos Plastíras in September 1922. Feeling ran high against the royal family, however, and, after a royalist coup d'état had been suppressed in October 1923, George felt compelled to leave Greece on 19 December 1923 with his queen, Elizabeth. In March 1924 the Greek National Assembly voted the end of the monarchy and proclaimed Greece a republic. The king remained in exile until the conservative Populist Party, with the support of the army, gained control of the Assembly and declared the restoration of the monarchy in October 1935; a plebiscite, which was most probably manipulated by the prime minister, General Geórgios Kondílis [1879 – 31 Jan 1936], was held in November in an effort to demonstrate that the great majority of the people favored his return.
          In 1936 General Ioannis Metaxas seized power after asserting that the nation was on the verge of being taken over by the Communists. The king's support of Metaxas put the throne in a controversial position, particularly after Metaxas banned political parties, dissolved Parliament, suspended constitutional rights, and even decreed the censorship of Pericles' great funeral oration to the Athenians as recorded by Thucydides. The king was forced into exile after the German invasion of Greece in April 1941, going first to Crete, then to Alexandria, and finally to London. After the war republican sentiments again threatened his throne, but he was restored by a plebiscite supervised by the Allies and returned to Greece in September 1946. Upon his death, he was succeeded by his brother Paul.
    1946 More than 170, in tidal waves striking the Hawaiian islands.
    1933 Salvador Rueda, poeta español.

    1930 Zawditu first reigning female monarch of Ethiopia.
    1926 Charles Angrand, French artist born on 29 April 1854.
    1910 Andreas Achenbach, German realist landscape painter born on 29 September 1815.MORE ON ACHENBACH AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images. —(060331)
    1910 Mikaïl Alexandrovitch Wrubel, Russian artist born on 05 March 1856.
    1909 20'000 Arméniens sont massacrés à Adana.
    1896 Joseph Hubert Reinkens, born on 03 January 1821, German historical scholar, and a leader of the Old Catholics (Altkatholiken), a schismatic group that separated from the Catholic church because of opposition to the doctrine of papal infallibility pronounced by the First Vatican Council (1869–1870). Reinkens joined in the promulgation of the Nuremberg Declaration (1871), the constitution of the Old Catholic church in Germany, and, on 04 June 1873, was elected its first bishop. As no bishop had joined the schism, recourse was had to the Jansenist church in Holland, which had maintained a somewhat precarious existence in separation from Rome since the 18th century but had preserved an episcopal succession recognized by Rome as valid though irregular. Reinkens was consecrated bishop on 11 August 1873, by bishop Herman Heykamp of Deventer, of the Jansenist Church of Holland. Pope Pius IX excommunicated Reinkens by name on 09 November 1873.
    1896 Theodore Robinson, US Impressionist painter born on 03 June 1852. MORE ON ROBINSON AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1873: 547 passengers and crew of British White Star steamship Atlantic which sinks off Nova Scotia (another source says 481).
    1863 Steiner, mathematician.
    1839 Nicolas-Didier Boguet, French artist born on 18 February 1755.
    1802 Joseph-Siffrède Duplessis, French artist born on 22 September 1725. — MORE ON DUPLESSIS AT ART “4” SEPTEMBER with links to images.
    1793 Some 53'000 Japanese in eruption of volcano Unsen.
    1784 Johannes Janson, Dutch artist born on 17 April 1729.
    1649 fray Juan Bautista Mayno (or Maino), Spanish painter born in 1569 or 1578 MORE ON MAYNO AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1621 Cristofano Allori, Florentine painter, born on 17 Oct 1577. --MORE ON ALLORI AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1557  Lautaro, caudillo araucano, en el campo de batalla.
    1492  Lorenzo I de Médicis, el Magnífico, poeta y político italiano.
    1431 Nuno Álvares Pereira, born on 24 June 1360, outstanding Portuguese military leader, known also as the Holy Constable, whose victory over Castilian forces in the Battle of Atoleiros (06 Apr 1384) and in the historic Battle of Aljubarrota (14 Aug 1385) assured his nation's independence. Pereira, who had had a Carmelite monastery built in Lisbon in fulfillment of a vow, entered it himself as Friar Nuno de Santa Maria in 1423. He was beatified by Pope Benedict XV on 23 January 1918.
     
    < 31 Mar 02 Apr >
    ^  Births which occurred on a 01 April:

    banteng clone, 3 days old2003 Cloned banteng male [04 Apr 2003 photo >], weighing about the normal 20 kg, by cesarean section from a surrogate mother cow at a farm in Sioux Center, Iowa. In 1977 the San Diego Zoo's Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species began its Frozen Zoo program: preserving tissue samples from hundreds of endangered animals in small plastic vials, which are kept superfrozen in liquid nitrogen. It sent frozen skin cells from a male banteng who died childless in 1980 to researchers at the cloning company Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, which inserted genetic material from the banteng skin cells into 30 cow eggs that had their genetic material removed. Trans Ova Genetics of Hull, Iowa, then implanted the cloned eggs into cows in Sioux Center, Iowa. Of the 16 resulting pregnancies, 14 miscarried and this is the first to result in a birth. The other birth would take place on 03 April 2003, a male weighing 40 kg, whom the scientists would kill on 08 April, as being too overweight to have a good chance of survival. The banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) is an endangered wild bovine species from the forests of Southeast Asia, mostly in Java, and is closely related to the domesticated cow
    1976 Apple Computer is founded by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Paul Jobs [24 Feb 1955~].
    ^ 1970 The Gremlin, first US subcompact car.
          AMC, the company that first introduced the compact car in the 1950s, introduces the Gremlin, the US's first subcompact car. AMC was the only major independent car company to survive into the 1970s. AMC's success relied heavily on the vision of the company's first president, George Romney, who strongly believed that to compete with the Big Three automakers his company must offer smaller, more fuel-efficient alternatives to their cars. The AMC Rambler, a compact car, accounted for nearly all of AMC's profits through the 1950s, the era during which the company enjoyed its most substantial success. AMC's fortune faded rapidly after Romney left the company in 1962, and by the end of the '60s, the company's output had dropped to a dismal 250'000 sales per year. The release of the Gremlin in 1970 marked the company's return to Romney's vision. Designed to compete with the imported Volkswagens and Japanese sub-compacts, the Gremlin was essentially the AMC Hornet with its back end cut off. AMC President Roy Chapin attempted to re-create the vigorous personal campaign that Romney had used successfully to market the Rambler in the '50s. He appeared before the US public in advertisements to extol the virtues of the "first sub-compact" car. Unfortunately for AMC, the Gremlin was out on the market for only a short time before the Big Three released their own sub-compact models. The Gremlin, created to save AMC, floundered.
    1947 Connes, mathematician.
    1943  Oklahoma!, comedia musical que renovará este género, se estrena.

    1935 First metal radio tube
          General Electric announces that it has developed a method for making metal radio tubes. The metal tubes were smaller and sturdier than the previously used glass tubes. They were also more effective at conducting and radiating heat, which improved short-wave reception.
    1933 Dan Flavin, US Minimalist Installation artist who died in 1996. — LINKS
    1929 Yo-yo is introduced by Louie Marx.
    1929  Milan Kundera, escritor francés de origen checo.
    1927 First automatic record changer introduced, by His Master's Voice.
    1922 William Manchester, author.
    1920 Toshiro Mifune Tsing-tao China, writer/actor (Shogun)
    1919 Joseph Edward Murray, médico estadounidense, premio Nobel 1990.
    ^ 1918 The British Royal Air Force.
          The British Royal Air Force (RAF) is formed by joining the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) with the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). The RAF took its place beside the British navy and army as a separate military service with its own ministry. In April 1911, eight years after Americans Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first flight of a self-propelled, heavier-than-air aircraft, an air battalion of the British army's Royal Engineers was formed at Larkhill in Wiltshire. The battalion consisted of aircraft, airship, balloon, and man-carrying kite companies. In December 1911, the British navy formed the Royal Naval Flying School at Eastchurch, Kent. In May 1912, both were absorbed into the newly created Royal Flying Corps, which established a new flying school at Upavon, Wiltshire, and formed new airplane squadrons. In July 1914, the specialized requirements of the navy led to the creation of RNAS. One month later, on August 4, Britain declared war on Germany and entered World War I. At the time, the RFC had 84 aircraft, and the RNAS had 71 aircraft and seven airships. Later that month, four RFC squadrons were deployed to France to support the British Expeditionary Force. During the next two years, Germany took the lead in air strategy with technologies like the manual machine gun, and England suffered bombing raids and frustration in the skies against German flying aces such as Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron." Repeated German air raids led British military planners to push for the creation of a separate air ministry, which would carry out strategic bombing against Germany.
          On 01 April 1918, the RAF is formed along with a female branch of the service, the Women's Royal Air Force. That day, Bristol F.2B fighters of the 22nd Squadron carried out the first official missions of the RAF. By the war's end, on 11 November 1918, the RAF had gained air superiority along the western front. The strength of the RAF in November 1918 was nearly 300'000 officers and airmen, and more than 22'000 aircraft. At the outbreak of World War II, in September 1939, the operational strength of the RAF in Europe had diminished to about 2000 aircraft. In June 1940, the Western democracies of continental Europe fell to Germany one by one, leaving Britain alone in its resistance to Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler planned an invasion of Britain and in July 1940 ordered his powerful air force — the Luftwaffe — to destroy British ports along the coast in preparation. The outnumbered RAF fliers put up a fierce resistance in the opening weeks of the Battle of Britain, leading the Luftwaffe commanders to place destruction of the British air fleet at the forefront of the German offensive. If the Germans succeeded in wiping out the RAF, they could begin their invasion as scheduled in the fall. During the next three months, however, the RAF successfully resisted the massive German air invasion, relying on radar technology, more maneuverable aircraft, and exceptional bravery. For every British plane shot down, two Luftwaffe warplanes were destroyed. In October, Hitler delayed the German invasion indefinitely, and in May 1941 the Battle of Britain came to an end. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said of the RAF pilots, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few." By the war's end in 1945, the strength of the RAF was nearly one million personnel. Later, this number was reduced and stabilized at about 150'000 men and women.
    ^ 1916 Selznick Pictures movie studio.
          Movie mogul Lewis Selznick founds his own movie studio. Selznick's company served as a launching pad for his two sons, Myron and David, who became important players in the Hollywood filmmaking industry. One of 18 children born to a poor family in Kiev, Russia, Lewis Selznick was sent to England as a boy, where he worked in a factory until he earned enough money to sail for America. After arriving in Pittsburgh, he opened a jewelry shop that grew into a chain of successful stores by the time he was 24. In 1912, when he was in his early 40s, Selznick began investing in motion pictures and took positions first at Universal Pictures, then the World Film Corporation. In 1916, he formed Lewis Selznick Pictures, and the company flourished for several years. Selznick's oldest son, Myron, born in 1898, dropped out of Columbia University after a few months to work at the studio. Myron became the industry's youngest producer and was chief of production by age 21. By age 25, he was president of Selznick Pictures. However, when the company went bankrupt in 1923, Myron was out of a job. He produced several independent films without much success. In 1928, he became a talent agent, a career path that eventually made him one of the most powerful personalities in Hollywood — 20th Century Fox banned him from the lot in 1938, claiming he was undermining the film industry by inflating actors' salaries. Lewis Selznick's younger son, David, also joined his father's company and worked in a number of positions. After Selznick Pictures went bankrupt, his father landed David a job with a former partner and sometime rival, Louis B. Mayer, at MGM. David eventually married the boss's daughter, Irene, and left to work at Paramount and RKO before founding Selznick International in 1936. He produced Gone with the Wind in 1939, using 15 screenwriters to adapt Margaret Mitchell's novel. The film became one of the biggest box office hits in history. In 1940, David O. Selznick brought Alfred Hitchcock from England to direct Rebecca, Hitchcock's first US film.
    1904  Juan Gil-Albert, escritor español.
    1901 Jay Vivian “Whittaker” Chambers, US journalist; Communist from 1923 to 1938. On 03 August 1948, during the MacCarthyist Red Scare, Chambers accused Alger Hiss [11 Nov 1904 – 15 Nov 1996] of having been a Communist spy. Chambers later gave as evidence microfilms of government documents hidden in a pumpkin on his farm. It ended up with Hiss serving 44 months in prison for perjury, though he has always asserted his innocence. It is not known whether it was Hiss or Chambers that was lying, though General Dimitri Volkogonov, head of the Russian military intelligence archives, declared in 1992 that he found no documents indicating that Hiss had been a spy. Chambers published his autobiography, Witness, in 1952. He died of a heart attack on 09 July 1961.
    1895 Aitken, mathematician.
    1889  Manuel de Góngora y Ayustante, poeta, dramaturgo y periodista español.
    1889 First dishwashing machine marketed (Chicago)
    1875 Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace, British novelist, playwright, and journalist who produced popular detective and suspense stories and was in his time "the king" of the modern thriller. He wrote 175 books, 24 plays, and countless articles and review sketches. He died on 10 February 1932.
    1873 (20 March Julian) Sergey Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff, Russian, pianist and composer (e.g. Prelude in C Sharp Minor, Second Piano Concerto, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini), who died on 28 March 1943.
    Rostand^ 1868 Edmond Rostand, in Marseille.
          French dramatist of the period just before World War I whose plays provide a final, very belated example of Romantic drama in France.
         Rostand died on 02 December 1918, in Paris. Rostand's name is indissolubly linked with that of his most popular and enduring play, Cyrano de Bergerac. First performed in Paris in 1897, with the famous actor Constant Coquelin playing the lead, Cyrano made a great impression in France and all over Europe and the United States. The plot revolves around the emotional problems of Cyrano, who, despite his many gifts, feels that no woman can ever love him because he has an enormous nose.
                Other than a huge nose, there is a purely nominal connection between the Cyrano of the play and Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac [06 Mar 1619 – 28 Jul 1655], satirist and dramatist whose works combining political satire and science-fantasy inspired a number of later writers of romantic but unhistorical legends.
          But Rostand's stirring and colorful historical play, with its dazzling versification, skillful blend of comedy and pathos, and fast-moving plot, provided welcome relief from the grim dramas of the naturalists and Symbolists. Rostand wrote a good deal for the theatre, but the only other play of his that is still much remembered is L'Aiglon (1900). This highly emotional patriotic tragedy in six acts centres on the Duke of Reichstadt, who never ruled but died of tuberculosis as a virtual prisoner in Austria. Rostand always took pains to write fine parts for his stars, and L'Aiglon afforded Sarah Bernhardt one of her greatest triumphs. Rostand also wrote the barnyard fable Chantecler (1910). Edmond Rostand died on 2 December 1918, a victim of the widespread influenza epidemic. His son , Jean Rostand (1894–1977), was a noted biologist, moralist, and writer.
         Edmond Rostand was born in Marseille into a wealthy and cultured Provençal family. His father was an economist and a poet, a member of the Marseille Academy and the Institute de France. Rostand studied literature, history, and philosophy at the Collège Stanislas in Paris. In the 1880s he published poems and essays in the literary review Mireille. Rostand abandoned his law studies in 1890 when his first book of poems, LES MUSARDISES, appeared. His first play, LE GANT ROUGE, was produced in 1888. In 1890 he married the poet Rosemonde Gérard, a granddaughter of one of Napoleon's marshals. Their two sons, Jean and Maurice, also became writers. Maurice Rostand (1891-1968) published poems, plays (Le procès d'Oscar Wilde, 1935), and novels. His memoirs, Confession d'un demi-siècle, appeared in 1948. "It is at night that faith in light is admirable." (from Chantecler, 1907) Rostand's first successful play was LES ROMANESQUES (1894). It was produced at the Comédie Française and was based on Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. Three years later produced Cyrano de Bergerac became his most popular and enduring work. L'AIGLON (1900), a tragedy based on the life of Napoleon's son, also became popular. During its first run in 1900, the famous actress Sarah Bernhardt played the title role. Bernhardt also acted in LA SAMARITAINE (1897) and LA PRINCESSE LOINTAINE (1895), a story about an unattainable princess and a troubadour hero, who dies in her arms. "The dream, alone, is of interest. What is life, without a dream." In 1901 Rostand was elected to the Académie Française at the age of thirty-three. Suffering from poor health, he retired to his family's country estate at Cambon, in the Basque county. He continued to write plays and poetry, but his subsequent works did not gain the popularity of Cyrano de Bergerac. In 1910 appeared CHANTECLER, a story about a barnyard rooster who believes that his song makes the sun rise. Rostand died of pneumonia in Paris on December 2, 1918. His last dramatic poem was about Don Juan. It was performed posthumously but failed totally. Cyrano de Bergerac (1897) - A poetic, romantic drama set in the reign of Louis XIII. The central character, Cyrano, is a famous swordsman, and an aspiring poet-lover. Because of his grotesquely large nose "that marches on / before me by a quarter of an hour," he is convinced that he is too ugly to deserve his adored Roxane. Cyrano helps his inarticulate rival, Christian, win her heart by allowing him to present Cyrano's love poems, speeches, and letters as his own work. Soon the romance starts, Christian whispers his own love from the shadows in glorious words that Roxane believes are his. But Christian realizes that it was not his own good looks but Cyrano's letters that won Roxanne. Before his death on the battlefield, Christian asks Cyrano to confess their plot to Roxanne. Cyrano keeps their secret for fisteen years. As he is dying years later, he visits Roxanne and reveals her the truth. - The play opened at the Porte Saint-Martin Theater in December 1897. Cyrano's gallantry was seen as the reincarnation of the true Gallic spirit and Rostand became a national hero.
    Works of Rostand:
    LE GANT ROUGE, 1888 - LES MUSARDISES, 1890 - LES ROMANESQUES, 1894 - LA PRINCESSE LOINTAINE, 1895 - LA SAMARITAINE, 1897 - CYRANO DE BERGERAC, 1897- - L'AIGLON, 1900 - CHANTECLER, 1910 - ŒUVRES COMPLÈTES, 7 vols., 1910-1911 - LA DERNIÈRE NUIT DE DON JUAN, 1921 - LE CANTIQUE DE L'AILE, 1922 - LE VOL DE LA MARSEILLAISE, 1922 - THÉÂTRE, 1921-29
    1865 Richard Zsigmondy Germany, chemist (Nobel-1925)
    1856 Charles Maurin, French painter who died on 22 July 1914. MORE ON MAURIN AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1852 Edwin Austin Abbey, US English Golden Age muralist and illustrator who died on 01 August 1911. MORE ON ABBEY AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1837 Jorge Isaacs, Colombian poet and novelist who died on 17 April 1895.
    1831 Albert Anker, Swiss painter, specialized in Children, who died on 16 July 1910. MORE ON ANKER AT ART “4” APRIL with links to images.
    1821 Geskel Saloman (or Salomon), Swedish artist who died on 02 July 1902. — more with links to images (of Judgment paintings by other artists)
    Bismarck^ 1815 Otto von Bismarck, Germany, chancellor (1866-1890)
          Bismarck was called “the Iron Chancellor” and “Architect of the German Empire”. He is credited with the 1871 unification of Germany. He warned against taking the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine from France after the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, prophetically saying "A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one." [which could also apply, to the reparations imposed on Germany after its defeat in WW I and the subsequent 3rd Reich of Hitler, or to the Jews of the Holocaust and those of Ariel Sharon]. He warned against the violation of Belgian neutrality as dictated by the Schlieffen Plan. He had difficulty winning approval of alliance with Austria-Hungary. Wilhelm I was worried it would offend Russia. Bismarch was dismissed as Chancellor by Wilhelm II in March 1890. His legacy of alliances proved difficult for his successors to manage. Bismarck died on 30 July 1898.
    — Otto Von Bismarck war an 01 April 1815 am Schvnhauesen gebvren. Er ist den Vater von Deutches Kaiserreich. Von 1862 bis 1873 er war den Premierminister von Preussen, und war den erst Chancellor von Deutschland 1871 bis 1890. Er war tot an 30 Juli 1898. Er studierte Rechtswissenschaft am Universitdten Gvttingen und Berlin. Danach war er ein Rechner am Aachen. Er bekamm Ruhm in 1859, wenn er nach Russland ging, zu arbeiten wie ein Botschafter. Im März, 1862 kamm er zurück, um Botschafter zu Frankreich zu sein. Nur sechs Monate später, kamm er zu Deutschland zurück, zu Premierminister sein. Er wollte alle Deuschland zusammen bringen. Und in ein kurz Zeit, hatte er vollenden diese Arbeit. Weil er Deutschland so streng machte, hatte Deutschland zwei Kriege gewinnen; erst zwischen Deutschland und Östereich in 1866, und auch mit Frankreich in 1870. Viel andere kleine Deutschreiche hatten diese Kriege sehen, und wollen mit Deutschland verbinden. Bavaria, Württemburg, Baden, Hesse und andere hatten vereinigten unter Otto von Bismark, und sie machten ein gross Bündniss. Von dies Bündniss hatte den erst Deutschreich machen mit einem Sprach im Versailles in 1871. Der erst Kaiser war Willhelm I. Kaiser Wilhelm machte Otto von Bismark den erst Chancellor. Es war ein Beruf mit viel Prestige, weil er arbeitet nur f|r den Kaiser, nicht für die Parlimente. Parlimente machte Gesetz, aber Otto von Bismark sagte zu die Parlimente welche Gesetz zu machen. Er wählte auch die Minister für ganze Deutschland. Seine wichstige Ausführungen war ein Zentral-Bank, Zentral-Geld, und er hatte alle die Gesetz von die 17 Teile von Deutschland zusammenbringen. Er machte auch das erst System vor Sozialversicherung in alle Europa. Er war auch sehr intelligent Aussenminister. Nach die zwei Kriege, Deutschland hatte Friede für viele Jähre. Aber später, Leute hatte er nicht so viel gern. In 1890, zwei Jähre nach Wilhelm II Kaiser war, hatte er raus von Politik ging. In seine letzte Jähre, shreibte er sein Geschischte.
    — "I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made." Bismarck after the German unification of 1871
    — "Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans," Bismarck's prediction on what would provoke the next war
    — An 1887 US political cartoon depicts Chancellor Bismarck balancing the figures of war and peace on a teeter-totter made up of a powder keg and a board named "European politics". At the same time, he is juggling the great powers of Europe. An artillery piece lies in the foreground.
    1790 Louis-Charles-Auguste Couder, French painter who died in 1873. — more with links to two images.
    1783 Kulik, mathematician.
    1778 The dollar is created by Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman.
    1776 Sophie Germain, mathematician.
    1766 François-Xavier Fabre, French painter specialized in Portraits, who died on 16 March 1837. — a bit more with links to images
    1755 Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer and politician, famous as author of Physiologie du Goût, ou Méditation de gastronomie transcendante, ouvrage théorique, historique et à l'ordre du jour. (8 vols., 1825). He died on 02 February 1826.
    1753  Joseph de Maistre, filósofo católico italiano.
    1746 Jean-Etienne Portalis, French lawyer who helped draft Napoleonic Code. He died on 25 August 1807.
    1743 Karl-Sébastien von Bemmel, German artist who died on 27 November 1796.
    Abbé Prévost^ 1697 Abbé Antoine-François Prévost d'Exiles, French novelist/journalist (Manon Lescaut)
         Prévost was born in Hesdin, France and died on 25 November 1763, in Chantilly. He was a prolific French novelist whose fame rests entirely on one work — Histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut. Originally published as the final installment of a seven-volume novel, Mémoires et aventures d'un homme de qualité qui s'est retiré du monde (1728–31), Prévost's Manon Lescaut is the basis of the operas Manon, by Jules Massenet, and Manon Lescaut, by Giacomo Puccini. A classic example of the 18th-century novel of feeling, Manon Lescaut tells the story of a young man of good family who ruins his life for a courtesan.
          From an early age, Prévost displayed many of the weaknesses characteristic of the hero of his most famous work. Two enlistments in the army alternated with two entries into the novitiate of the Society of Jesus, from which he was dismissed in 1721. In that year he took vows as a Benedictine monk and in 1726 was ordained a priest.
          In 1728 he fled to England. One of his numerous love affairs caused him to lose his job there as a tutor and to go to Holland in 1730. In 1735 Prévost returned to England to escape his Dutch creditors and was briefly imprisoned in London for forgery. After secretly returning to France, he was reconciled with the Roman Catholic church (although he may have been a Protestant during his exile).
    [Abbé Prévost, detail of a drawing by Georg Friedrich Schmidt, 1745 >]  
    CharlemagnePREVOST ONLINE:
    Histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut, tirée des Mémoires d'un Homme de qualité, tome VII (1728)
    Manon Lescaut (PDF) —
    Le monde moral, ou Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire du coeur humain
    (In English translation) Manon Lescaut Manon Lescaut

    1686 Jan-Frans van Bredael I, Flemish artist who died on 19 February 1750.
    1663 Alexander van Bredael (or Bredel, Breda), Flemish artist who died on 14 July 1720.
    1640 Mohr, mathematician.
    1618 Jan Philips Righolz Conwemberg van Thielen, Flemish painter who died in 1667. — more with link to an image.

    1578 William Harvey, English physician who developed the theory of blood circulation. He died on 03 June 1657.
    ^ 0742 Charlemagne (date présumée).
          Dix ans à peine après la victoire de Poitiers (sur les Arabes) le vainqueur, Charles Martel, obtient un petit fils en la personne d’un des hommes les plus connus de son temps en Europe Occidentale, sinon dans tout le monde. Carolus Magnus, plus connu sous le nom de Charlemagne, futur roi des Francs et couronné Empereur en 800, naît en terre liégeoise (à Jupille, près de Liège, affirment beaucoup d’historiens, sans jamais le prouver). C’est la fille de Caribert de Laon, Berthe (dite au Grand Pied ?) qui enfanta Charlemagne des œuvres de son époux légitime Pépin III, dit le Bref, roi des Francs et fondateur de la dynastie Carolingienne.
    [< Dürer's conception of Charlemagne]
         Charlemagne (Charles the Great, 747-814) would be king of the Franks and Christian Emperor of the West. After the death of his father Pepin the Short and his younger brother Carloman he inherited the Frankish kingdom. He spent the following years conquering and Christianizing the neighboring kingdoms the Saxons and the Lombards. In 788 Charlemagne deposed the ruler of Bohemia and absorbed it into his empire. Father to the east he subdued the Avars (Turko-Finnish nomads) in the middle Danube basin. In 800 he entered into Italy to support Pope Leo III against the rebellious Romans and on Christmas Day, 800, in St. Peter's Church, was crowned by the pope Emperor of the Romans as 'Carolus Augustus'. Charlemagne zealously promoted education, architecture, bookmaking and the arts, created stable administrations and good laws, and encouraged agriculture, industry and commerce. His reign was a noble attempt to consolidate order and Christian culture among the nations in the western part of the former Roman Empire. There are no portraits of Charlemagne, done in his time, that is why Dürer invented his portrait. This interpretation of Charlemagne’s appearance influenced depictions of the Emperor until well into the 19th century.
     
    Feasts which occur on a 01 April:
    2294 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2283 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2221 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2210 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2153 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2142 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2131 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2114 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    2108 Easter Sunday

    2096 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2094 Holy Thursday
    2091 Palm Sunday
    2089 Good Friday
    2085 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2083 Holy Thursday
    2078 Good Friday
    2074 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2068 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    2067 Good Friday
    2063 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    2057 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    2040 Easter Sunday
    2029 Easter Sunday
    2021 Holy Thursday
    2018 Easter Sunday
    2012 Palm Sunday
    2010 Holy Thursday
    2007 Palm Sunday
    2001 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1999 Holy Thursday
    1994 Good Friday
    1990 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1988 Good Friday
    1984 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1983 Good Friday
    1979 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1973 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1962 Fourth Sunday of Lent
    1956 Easter Sunday
    1945 Easter Sunday
    1934 Easter Sunday
    1928 Palm Sunday
    1926 Holy Thursday
    1923 Easter Sunday
    1920 Holy Thursday
    1917 Palm Sunday
    1915 Holy Thursday
    1906 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1904 Good Friday
    1900 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1888 Easter Sunday
    1877 Easter Sunday
    1838 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1827 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1781 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1770 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1759 Fifth Sunday of Lent
    1483 Palm Sunday

     
    Feasts of every 01 April:
    — Saint Lazarus, patron of girls
    — Anglican: Frederick Denison Maurice, priest
    — Santa Teodora
    — San Celso
    — San Macario
    — San Hugo
    — Santo Esteban
    — San Venancio
    — San Víctor
    — April Fools' Day
    — San Marino : National Day /
    — Burma : Bank Holiday
     
    Thoughts for the day: “To retain respect for sausages and laws, one must not watch them in the making.” — Otto von Bismarck
    “God gives us relatives; thank God we can choose our friends.”
    “God gives us laws; thank God we can choose our sausages.”

    “Si mi abuela tuviera ruedas sería bicicleta.” — Spanish proverb.
    “Si una bicicleta tuviera la misma abuela que yo, sería mi prima.”

    PI DOWNLOAD CENTER.
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         If you are the impatient type and do not want to wait that long, you may be interested in the PI IN THE SKY project, which, if successful, may allow you to download the decimals from a satellite. Check back here every 1st of April for the latest on the project.
          IF YOU WANT TO DOWNLOAD, NOT A FINITE NUMBER OF DECIMALS, BUT THE WHOLE NUMBER PI, YOU CAN DO SO RIGHT NOW:
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    CHÉRIE PI (799x860pix, 50kb _ ZOOM to 1198x1291pix, 91kb)
    — and the supreme PIAZZA PI (802x950pix, 83kb _ ZOOM to 1182x1400pix, 151kb)

    Speaking of pi, there is a somewhat embellished story that the Indiana legislature passed a bill in 1897 decreeing that pi = 3. Well, I cannot quite do that, though I have found that pi is slightly less than 3.02101 under certain rare circumstances, and more than 3.93 under even rarer circumstances, though I admit that, under the circumstances which almost always prevail, it is 3. 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 8 9 7 9 3 2 3 8 4 6 2 6 4 3 3 8 3 2 7 9 5 0 2 8 8 4 1 9 7 1 6 9 3 9 9 3 7 5 1 0 5 8 2 0 9 7 4 9 4 4 5 9 2 3 0 7 8 1 6 4 0 6 2 8 6 2 0 8 9 9 8 6 2 8 0 3 4 8 2 5 3 4 2 1 1 7 0 6 7 9 8 2 1 4 8 0 8 6 5 1 3 2 8 2 3 0 6 6 4 7 0 9 3 8 4 4 6 0 9 5 5 0 5 8 2 2 3 1 7 2 5 3 5 9 4 0 8 1 2 8 4 8 1 1 1 7 4 5 0 2 8 4 1 0 2 7 0 1 9 3 8 5 2 1 1 0 5 5 5 9 6 4 4 6 2 2 9 4 8 9 5 4 9 3 0 3 8 1 9 6 4 4 2 8 8 1 0 9 7 5 6 6 5 9 3 3 4 4 6 1 2 8 4 7 5 6 4 8 2 3 3 7 8 6 7 8 3 1 6 5 2 7 1 2 0 1 9 0 9 1 4 5 6 4 8 5 6 6 9 2 3 4 6 0 3 4 8 6 1 0 4 5 4 3 2 6 6 4 8 2 1 3 3 9 3 6 0 7 2 6 0 2 4 9 1 4 1 2 7 3 7 2 4 5 8 7 0 0 6 6 0 6 3 1 5 5 8 8 1 7 4 8 8 1 5 2 0 9 2 0 9 6 2 8 2 9 2 5 4 0 9 1 7 1 5 3 6 4 3 6 7 8 9 2 5 9 0 3 6 0 0 1 1 3 3 0 5 3 0 5 4 8 8 2 0 4 6 6 5 2 1 3 8 4 1 4 6 9 5 1 9 4 1 5 1 1 6 0 9 4 3 3 0 5 7 2 7 0 3 6 5 7 5 9 5 9 1 9 5 3 0 9 2 1 8 6 1 1 7 3 8 1 9 3 2 6 1 1 7 9 3 1 0 5 1 1 8 5 4 8 0 7 4 4 6 2 3 7 9 9 6 2 7 4 9 5 6 7 3 5 1 8 8 5 7 5 2 7 2 4 8 9 1 2 2 7 9 3 8 1 8 3 0 1 1 9 4 9 1 2 9 8 3 3 6 7 3 3 6 2 4 4 0 6 5 6 6 4 3 0 8 6 0 2 1 3 9 4 9 4 6 3 9 5 2 2 4 7 3 7 1 9 0 7 0 2 1 7 9 8 6 0 9 4 3 7 0 2 7 7 0 5 3 9 2 1 7 1 7 6 2 9 3 1 7 6 7 5 2 3 8 4 6 7 4 8 1 8 4 6 7 6 6 9 4 0 5 1 3 2 0 0 0 5 6 8 1 2 7 1 4 5 2 6 3 5 6 0 8 2 7 7 8 5 7 7 1 3 4 2 7 5 7 7 8 9 6 0 9 1 7 3 6 3 7 1 7 8 7 2 1 4 6 8 4 4 0 9 0 1 2 2 4 9 5 3 4 3 0 1 4 6 5 4 9 5 8 5 3 7 1 0 5 0 7 9 2 2 7 9 6 8 9 2 5 8 9 2 3 5 4 2 0 1 9 9 5 6 1 1 2 1 2 9 0 2 1 9 6 0 8 6 4 0 3 4 4 1 8 1 5 9 8 1 3 6 2 9 7 7 4 7 7 1 3 0 9 9 6 0 5 1 8 7 0 7 2 1 1 3 4 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 3 7 2 9 7 8 0 4 9 9 5 1 0 5 9 7 3 1 7 3 2 8 1 6 0 9 6 3 1 8 5 9 5 0 2 4 4 5 9 4 5 5 3 4 6 9 0 8 3 0 2 6 4 2 5 2 2 3 0 8 2 5 3 3 4 4 6 8 5 0 3 5 2 6 1 9 3 1 1 8 8 1 7 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 3 7 8 3 8 7 5 2 8 8 6 5 8 7 5 3 3 2 0 8 3 8 1 4 2 0 6 1 7 1 7 7 6 6 9 1 4 7 3 0 3 5 9 8 2 5 3 4 9 0 4 2 8 7 5 5 4 6 8 7 3 1 1 5 9 5 6 2 8 6 3 8 8 2 3 5 3 7 8 7 5 9 3 7 5 1 9 5 7 7 8 1 8 5 7 7 8 0 5 3 2 1 7 1 2 2 6 8 0 6 6 1 3 0 0 1 9 2 7 8 7 6 6 1 1 1 9 5 9 0 9 2 1 6 4 2 0 1 9 8 9 3 8 0 9 5 2 5 7 2 0 1 0 6 5 4 8 5 8 6 3 2 7 8 8 6 5 9 3 6 1 5 3 3 8 1 8 2 7 9 6 8 2 3 0 3 0 1 9 5 2 0 3 5 3 0 1 8 5 2 9 6 8 9 9 5 7 7 3 6 2 2 5 9 9 4 1 3 8 9 1 2 4 9 7 2 1 7 7 5 2 8 3 4 7 9 1 3 1 5 1 5 5 7 4 8 5 7 2 4 2 4 5 4 1 5 0 6 9 5 9 5 0 8 2 9 5 3 3 1 1 6 8 6 1 7 2 7 8 5 5 8 8 9 0 7 5 0 9 8 3 8 1 7 5 4 6 3 7 4 6 4 9 3 9 3 1 9 2 5 5 0 6 0 4 0 0 9 2 7 7 0 1 6 7 1 1 3 9 0 0 9 8 4 8 8 2 4 0 1 2 8 5 8 3 6 1 6 0 3 5 6 3 7 0 7 6 6 0 1 0 4 7 1 0 1 8 1 9 4 2 9 5 5 5 9 6 1 9 8 9 4 6 7 6 7 8 3 7 4 4 9 4 4 8 2 5 5 3 7 9 7 7 4 7 2 6 8 4 7 1 0 4 0 4 7 5 3 4 6 4 6 2 0 8 0 4 6 6 8 4 2 5 9 0 6 9 4 9 1 2 9 3 3 1 3 6 7 7 0 2 8 9 8 9 1 5 2 1 0 4 7 5 2 1 6 2 0 5 6 9 6 6 0 2 4 0 5 8 0 3 8 1 5 0 1 9 3 5 1 1 2 5 3 3 8 2 4 3 0 0 3 5 5 8 7 6 4 0 2 4 7 4 9 6 4 7 3 2 6 3 9 1 4 1 9 9 2 7 2 6 0 4 2 6 9 9 2 2 7 9 6 7 8 2 3 5 4 7 8 1 6 3 6 0 0 9 3 4 1 7 2 1 6 4 1 2 1 9 9 2 4 5 8 6 3 1 5 0 3 0 2 8 6 1 8 2 9 7 4 5 5 5 7 0 6 7 4 9 8 3 8 5 0 5 4 9 4 5 8 8 5 8 6 9 2 6 9 9 5 6 9 0 9 2 7 2 1 0 7 9 7 5 0 9 3 0 2 9 5 5 3 2 1 1 6 5 3 4 4 9 8 7 2 0 2 7 5 5 9 6 0 2 3 6 4 8 0 6 6 5 4 9 9 1 1 9 8 8 1 8 3 4 7 9 7 7 5 3 5 6 6 3 6 9 8 0 7 4 2 6 5 4 2 5 2 7 8 6 2 5 5 1 8 1 8 4 1 7 5 7 4 6 7 2 8 9 0 9 7 7 7 7 2 7 9 3 8 0 0 0 8 1 6 4 7 0 6 0 0 1 6 1 4 5 2 4 9 1 9 2 1 7 3 2 1 7 2 1 4 7 7 2 3 5 0 1 4 1 4 4 1 9 7 3 5 6 8 5 4 8 1 6 1 3 6 1 1 5 7 3 5 2 5 5 2 1 3 3 4 7 5 7 4 1 8 4 9 4 6 8 4 3 8 5 2 3 3 2 3 9 0 7 3 9 4 1 4 3 3 3 4 5 4 7 7 6 2 4 1 6 8 6 2 5 1 8 9 8 3 5 6 9 4 8 5 5 6 2 0 9 9 2 1 9 2 2 2 1 8 4 2 7 2 5 5 0 2 5 4 2 5 6 8 8 7 6 7 1 7 9 0 4 9 4 6 0 1 6 5 3 4 6 6 8 0 4 9 8 8 6 2 7 2 3 2 7 9 1 7 8 6 0 8 5 7 8 4 3 8 3 8 2 7 9 6 7 9 7 6 6 8 1 4 5 4 1 0 0 9 5 3 8 8 3 7 8 6 3 6 0 9 5 0 6 8 0 0 6 4 2 2 5 1 2 5 2 0 5 1 1 7 3 9 2 9 8 4 8 9 6 0 8 4 1 2 8 4 8 8 6 2 6 9 4 5 6 0 4 2 4 1 9 6 5 2 8 5 0 2 2 2 1 0 6 6 1 1 8 6 3 0 6 7 4 4 2 7 8 6 2 2 0 3 9 1 9 4 9 4 5 0 4 7 1 2 3 7 1 3 7 8 6 9 6 0 9 5 6 3 6 4 3 7 1 9 1 7 2 8 7 4 6 7 7 6 4 6 5 7 5 7 3 9 6 2 4 1 3 8 9 0 8 6 5 8 3 2 6 4 5 9 9 5 8 1 3 3 9 0 4 7 8 0 2 7 5 9 0 1 0 ... etc
    For most practical purposes p (pi) can be rounded off to 3. 1 4 1 5 9 2 6 5 3 5 8 9 7 9 3 2 3 8 4 6 2 6 4 3 3 8 3 2 7 9 5 0 2 8 8 4 1 9 7 1 6 9 3 9 9 3 7 5 1 0 5 8 2 0 9 7 4 9 4 4 5 9 2 3 0 7 8 1 6 4 0 6 2 8 6 2 0 8 9 9 8 6 2 8 0 3 4 8 2 5 3 4 2 1 1 7 0 6 7 9 8 2 1 4 8 0 8 6 5 1 3 2 8 2 3 0 6 6 4 7 0 9 3 8 4 4 6 0 9 5 5 0 5 8 2 2 3 1 7 2 5 3 5 9 4 0 8 1 2 8 4 8 1 1 1 7 4 5 0 2 8 4 1 0 2 7 0 1 9 3 8 5 2 1 1 0 5 5 5 9 6 4 4 6 2 2 9 4 8 9 5 4 9 3 0 3 8 1 9 6 4 4 2 8 8 1 0 9 7 5 6 6 5 9 3 3 4 4 6 1 2 8 4 7 5 6 4 8 2 3 3 7 8 6 7 8 3 1 6 5 2 7 1 2 0 1 9 0 9 1 4 5 6 4 8 5 6 6 9 2 3 4 6 0 3 4 8 6 1 0 4 5 4 3 2 6 6 4 8 2 1 3 3 9 3 6 0 7 2 6 0 2 4 9 1 4 1 2 7 3 7 2 4 5 8 7 0 0 6 6 0 6 3 1 5 5 8 8 1 7 4 8 8 1 5 2 0 9 2 0 9 6 2 8 2 9 2 5 4 0 9 1 7 1 5 3 6 4 3 6 7 8 9 2 5 9 0 3 6 0 0 1 1 3 3 0 5 3 0 5 4 8 8 2 0 4 6 6 5 2 1 3 8 4 1 4 6 9 5 1 9 4 1 5 1 1 6 0 9 4 3 3 0 5 7 2 7 0 3 6 5 7 5 9 5 9 1 9 5 3 0 9 2 1 8 6 1 1 7 3 8 1 9 3 2 6 1 1 7 9 3 1 0 5 1 1 8 5 4 8 0 7 4 4 6 2 3 7 9 9 6 2 7 4 9 5 6 7 3 5 1 8 8 5 7 5 2 7 2 4 8 9 1 2 2 7 9 3 8 1 8 3 0 1 1 9 4 9 1 2 9 8 3 3 6 7 3 3 6 2 4 4 0 6 5 6 6 4 3 0 8 6 0 2 1 3 9 4 9 4 6 3 9 5 2 2 4 7 3 7 1 9 0 7 0 2 1 7 9 8 6 0 9 4 3 7 0 2 7 7 0 5 3 9 2 1 7 1 7 6 2 9 3 1 7 6 7 5 2 3 8 4 6 7 4 8 1 8 4 6 7 6 6 9 4 0 5 1 3 2 0 0 0 5 6 8 1 2 7 1 4 5 2 6 3 5 6 0 8 2 7 7 8 5 7 7 1 3 4 2 7 5 7 7 8 9 6 0 9 1 7 3 6 3 7 1 7 8 7 2 1 4 6 8 4 4 0 9 0 1 2 2 4 9 5 3 4 3 0 1 4 6 5 4 9 5 8 5 3 7 1 0 5 0 7 9 2 2 7 9 6 8 9 2 5 8 9 2 3 5 4 2 0 1 9 9 5 6 1 1 2 1 2 9 0 2 1 9 6 0 8 6 4 0 3 4 4 1 8 1 5 9 8 1 3 6 2 9 7 7 4 7 7 1 3 0 9 9 6 0 5 1 8 7 0 7 2 1 1 3 5

    If you want to have a few more decimals of pi, while you are waiting for the 1.24 trillion, how about a measly 100'000?
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    updated Monday 14-Dec-2009 1:35 UT
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    Note: the rare circumstances mentioned above are when base 4 is used, in the rarer circumstances it is base 64.