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ART “4” “2”-DAY  29 September v.8.80
^ Born on 29 September 1850: George Hitchcock, US painter who died on 02 August 1913.
— He was active in the Netherlands. A descendant of Roger Williams [1603 – 27 Jan/15Mar 1683] (the founder of Rhode Island), he practiced law for five years in New York before deciding in 1879 to become an artist. He studied in Paris under Gustave Boulanger [25 Apr 1824 – Oct 1888] and Jules Lefebvre [14 Mar 1836 – 24 Feb 1911], in Düsseldorf, and in The Hague under H. W. Mesdag [23 Feb 1831 – 10 Jul 1915]. He settled in Egmond-aan-Zee, near Alkmaar, in 1883, and was soon widely known for his paintings of religious subjects in contemporary settings and of sunlit views of tulip fields. He returned to the US only occasionally in later years. Hitchcock’s style, similar to Impressionism, has been appreciated more in Europe than in the US. A good example of his style is The Blessed Mother (1892).

Dutch Bride (1898, 76x61cm)
The Milkmaid (168kb)
Dutch Flower Girls (105kb)
A Dream of Christmas Eve (89x61cm; 960x752pix, 43kb)
–- Maternité(640x900pix, 43kb) _ Although on one level a simple depiction of a young peasant woman with her children, the winnowing net frames her head like a halo. The religious symbolism transforms the group into a Holy Family. Casting a gloomy portent of the Crucifixion, the woman's shadow is about to fall upon a cross formed by the creepers growing on the path.
Dutch Finery, A Marken Girl (112x81cm)
Woman Along Canal aka A Young Dutch Girl (89x61cm)
The Flight into Egypt (1892, 112x165cm)
–- The Wayfarers (1890, 109x89cm; 900x720pix, 66kb)
Looking Out to Sea (112x92cm)
The Blessed Mother aka Madonna and Child (1892, 160x112cm; 380x268pix, 24kb) _ After Hitchcock settled in Holland, he painted this Dutch peasant mother dressed in contemporary costume holding her baby and posing formally in a garden. Hitchcock was a visionary painter fascinated by the power of faith. But, like with many of his paintings, both the title and the scene here remain ambiguous, being neither clearly religious nor clearly secular. Early critics praised the work for its technical sophistication and representation of maternal tenderness, but they questioned its religious merit. Other reviewers, however, recognized religious symbolism throughout the painting. The mother's lacy headdress can represent a halo. The apple tree suggests the lost Eden, recovered through the birth of the child. The young bullock hints to the future sacrifice of Christ, and the prominent red tulip at the feet of the figures symbolizes the cup of sorrow. This painting's religious ambiguity exemplifies the 19th-century struggle to bring faith to terms with technical, philosophical and scientific advances, namely Darwinism. Left to search for meaning in life and a spiritual identity, many artists, like Hitchcock, looked to women and nature for a link to the divine.
–-S#> A Field of Crocuses (44x55cm; 639x799pix, 91kb)
^ Died on 29 September 1910: Winslow Homer, US painter, specialized mainly, but not exclusively, in maritime scenes, born on 24 February 1836.
 —    Born in Boston, Homer became a painter whose works, particularly those on marine subjects, are among the most powerful and expressive of late 19th-century US art. His mastery of sketching and watercolor lends to his oil paintings the invigorating spontaneity of direct observation from nature . His subjects, often deceptively simple on the surface, dealt in their most serious moments with the theme of man's efforts to establish his humanness in the face of an indifferent universe.
— Homer was apprenticed to a lithographer (1855-1857), then began his career as an illustrator for magazines such as Harper's Weekly (1859-1867), and specialized in watercolors of outdoor life painted in a naturalistic style which, in their clear outline and firm structure, were opposed to contemporary French Impressionism. He spent two years (1881-1883) at Tynemouth, England, and on his return to the US continued to depict the sea at Protus Neck, an isolated fishing village on the eastern seaboard, where he spent the rest of his life. His work was highly original, and is often regarded as a reflection of the US pioneering spirit.
— Homer's works, particularly those on marine subjects, are considered by some to be the most powerful and expressive of late 19th-century US art. He was a master of sketching and watercolor. He painted from direct observation of nature. (e.g. The Gulf Stream, 1899). His subjects, often deceptively simple on the surface, dealt in their most serious moments with the theme of man's efforts to establish his humanness in the face of an indifferent universe.
      Homer was born into an old New England family. When he was six, the family moved to Cambridge, then a rural village, where he enjoyed a happy country childhood. His artistic inclinations were encouraged by his mother, an amateur painter. When he was 19, he was apprenticed to the lithographic firm of John Bufford in Boston. At first, most of his work involved copying the designs of other artists, but within a few years he was submitting his own drawings for publication in such periodicals as Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly.  In 1859 Homer moved from Boston to New York City and began his career as a free-lance illustrator. The following year he exhibited his first paintings at the National Academy of Design.
     During the US Civil War, Homer made drawings at the front for Harper's, but unlike most artist-correspondents he dealt more often with views of everyday camp life than with scenes of battle. As the war continued, he concentrated increasingly on painting. In 1865 he was elected to the National Academy of Design. Admirably capturing the dominant national mood of reconciliation, his Prisoners from the Front (1866) was warmly received when exhibited at the academy shortly after the war ended.
      Although Homer's studio was in New York City, the city was rarely his theme. During the warm months he traveled to Pennsylvania, the Hudson River valley, and New England, camping, hunting, fishing, and sketching. In 1866 he went to France for about a year. Although influenced by French naturalism, Japanese prints, and contemporary fashion illustration, his work after his return to the US did not change markedly, except that the pictures were generally somewhat brighter. Such early pictures as Long Branch, New Jersey (1869) and Snap the Whip (1872) depict happy scenes, the former of fashionable ladies promenading along the seashore and the latter of children frolicking in a meadow after school. In a few early pictures a disquieting note of human isolation is struck, premonitory of Homer's later, more powerful work.
      In 1873 Homer began to work in watercolor, which allowed him to make rapid, fresh observations of nature. In this demanding medium he explored and resolved new artistic problems, and paintings of the next few years, such as Breezing Up, or A Fair Wind (1876), reflect the invigorating effect of the watercolors.
      Homer matured slowly as an artist, but his development was constant. With the passage of years his oil paintings became larger, his figures more solitary, his concern for naturalistic detail greater. He painted many women, increasingly as single figures, intimate, withdrawn, feminine. From the late 1870s Homer began to devote his summers exclusively to direct painting from nature in watercolor. Greater concern for atmospheric effects and reflected light added complexity to the images but at the same time enabled him to achieve greater pictorial unity.
      Although Homer received some recognition during his early years, he had not had any real success by midcareer. By 1880 he began to show signs of increasing antisociality, deliberately shunning the company of other people. In 1881 he unexpectedly went to England, where he spent about two years sketching and painting in Tynemouth, a remote fishing port on the North Sea. Here, at the age of 45, his period of greatest artistic growth began. He was intrigued by the life of the hardy fisherfolk of Tynemouth, who struggled against the sea to earn their livelihood, but he did not paint that struggle directly. He depicted instead the robust and courageous women of Tynemouth, who mended the nets, kept house, and waited for their men to return from the sea. The English coastal atmosphere posed a new and difficult artistic challenge, but Homer mastered the diffused light, limited in color but infinitely varied in tone, in a series of subtle watercolors.
      After Homer's return to the US in 1883, the sea became the dominant theme in his work. He moved to Prouts Neck, a fishing village on the bleak, desolate coast of Maine. He traveled extensively but always returned to his Prouts Neck studio to convert his sketches into major paintings. Solitude became for Homer not simply a preference but an absolute necessity, as he turned his mind and his art to subjects dealing with man's fate in confronting the elemental forces of nature.
      In the summer of 1883 Homer saw a demonstration in Atlantic City of the use of a breeches buoy for rescue from the sea. The following year he painted his large, impressive, and immediately popular painting The Life Line (1884), one of several he did at this time on the rescue theme, depicting the dramatic transfer of an unconscious female from a wrecked ship to shore.
      During the next few years, Homer's interest shifted from the edge of the sea to the sea itself. Perhaps inspired by a putative trip to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Can., with a fishing fleet, he painted heroic men in the act of pitting their strength, intelligence, and experience against the mighty sea. In the most impressive of these works, Fog Warning (1885), night is falling, fog is rolling in, and a lone fisherman in a dory calculates the distance and the time remaining for him to get back to his home ship in safety. Although the monumental narrative paintings Homer produced in his studio in the mid-1880s lack the freshness of his earlier works, Homer simultaneously painted innumerable brilliantly colored watercolors. during his travels north to Canada and south to the Caribbean.
      While Homer's fishermen and their women are heroic in their confrontations with the physical world, the artist occasionally took a more jaundiced view of his fellowman. In Huntsman and Dogs of 1891, set in a cheerless autumnal landscape, a sullen-faced young hunter, pausing on a hillside leveled by timbering and blackened by fire, epitomizes man as a despoiler of nature, killing for trophies rather than food.
      Homer abandoned the human subject entirely in The Fox Hunt of 1893. A fox ventures forth to forage for berries on the snow-covered land, and a sinister line of starved black crows converges to attack him. The ensuing life-and-death struggle will be over quickly, but the pulse of nature that drives the winter ocean against the cliffs in the distance will go on forever. Northeaster (1895) distills this theme, and only the viewer witnesses the endless struggle between the irresistible sea and the immovable rocky shore. In Northeaster, Homer successfully wedded the freshness of his watercolors. to the power of his oils to achieve an impressive pictorial effect that, as in many of his later works, transcends the subject matter.
      The Gulf Stream (1899) stands at the apex of Homer's career. A black man lies inert on the deck of a small sailboat. A hurricane has shredded the sails, snapped off the mast, and snatched away the rudder. Unlike the boys in Breezing Up or the fisherman in Fog Warning, this man is powerless to control his vessel. He is at the mercy of the elements. Sharks circle the boat, a waterspout hovers in the distance, and a boat on the distant horizon passes by unseeing and unseen. As in the comparable short story by Stephen Crane, The Open Boat, nature is seen as not caring whether a man lives or dies.
      Homer, ever more crusty and isolated in his old age, continued to paint vigorously and adventurously through the first decade of the 20th century. Similar in subject matter to his earlier work, although with more emphasis on pure seascape, his late paintings, in their unconventional composition and brilliant color, reflect increasing concern with the abstract and expressive possibilities of art. Homer died in his Prouts Neck studio in 1910. Although by the 1890s he had become generally recognized as one of the leading US painters, and his work brought top prices, his passing was but briefly noted, and appreciation of his artistic achievement came only in the years following his death.

Boys at Play (1870; 600x972pix, 135kb _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x2268pix, 292kb)
–- Backgammon (1877, 45x56cm; 735x1008pix, 71kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1200x1882pix, 238kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 1785x2800pix, 280kb)
Breezing Up (1876, 61x96cm; 1284x2048pix, 259kb)
–- The Bright Side (1865, 32x43cm; 792x1074pix, 84kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1188x1611pix, 177kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 1919x2603pix, 356kb) _ During the Civil War, Winslow Homer worked as an illustrator for Harper's Weekly, the foremost nationally-circulated magazine of the period. At this time photographs could not be reproduced in newspapers and magazines so the illustrations that accompanied stories provided the only visual means to present information. The drawings Homer made as a war correspondent became the basis of his first oil paintings, made shortly after the end of the war. The Bright Side is one of these early paintings. Rather than depicting scenes of men fighting, Homer was interested in scenes of everyday life around camp. This painting shows a Union army campsite with supply wagons, mules, and a cluster of tents in the background. The artist focuses on the five mule drivers whose job it was to transport most of the army supplies. One of the ironies of the Civil War was that even as the Union waged war on behalf of slaves, it did not generally allow freed slaves or free Black people to hold combat jobs in the army. The title The Bright Side may refer to the fact that the muleteers (or teamsters) sit on the bright side of the tent or that the muleteers represent the bright side of army life -- as noncombatants during the time of carnage at Gettysburg, Petersburg, and Cold Harbor. Historians disagree as to the interpretation of this scene. This painting depicts Black men enjoying a moment's rest in a war that was harsh and grueling. Each man is represented as an individual; the apparent well-being expressed in their clothes, in their relaxed poses, and the sunshine that bathes them may have been intended as a direct contrast to the abject poverty of black slaves in the South. However, some historians feel that the artist intentionally demeaned the men and made them appear lazy by creating an indirect comparison with the mules. Strong horizontal lines provide balance and stability and add to the sense of ease and tranquility in this painting. Historians know that Homer made many drawings and sketches of this subject over a period of time; he tried several compositions before settling on this one. A feeling of repose is created in part by the continuous sweeping arch made between the teamsters and the tent.
–- Prisoners From the Front
–- Dressing for the Carnival
–- Turtle Pound
–- On A Lee Shore
–- Mending the Nets
–- Watching the Tempest
–- The Lifeline
–- The Fox Hunt
–- Canoe in the Rapids
–- Hurricane Bahamas
High Cliff, Coast of Maine (1894)
Taking a Sunflower to Teacher
Summer Night (745x1000pix, 395kb)
A Game of Croquet (1864; 1576x2560pix, 330kb)
— different A Game of Croquet (1866; 496x800pix, 84kb) _ This has been transformed by the pseudonymous Loosefast Vergil into a series of colorful and finely detailed abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the asymmetrical:
      _ Go Get a Crane (2008; 550x778pix, 121kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 242kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 487kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1880x2658pix, 1280kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 1893kb) or the symmetrical
      _ Croquette de Gibier (2008; 550x778pix, 120kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 244kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 496kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1880x2658pix, 1538kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 1958kb)
–- Albert Post (1864, 32x27cm; 179kb) _ .detail (1094x460pix, 48kb _ .ZOOM to 2736x1152pix, 282kb and see why the painting is in bad need of restauration) just Albert Post, landscape cropped off.
466 images at the Athenaeum
The following are not ready: –- F*#> Cutting a Figure (04 Feb 1871 engraving, 30x47cm)–- F*#> Sunrise, Fishing in the Adirondacks (1892, 34x52cm)–- F*#> The Nooning (1873 wood engraving, 23x35cm)–- F*#> A "Norther", Key West (1886, 36x 52cm)–- F*#> A Swell of the Ocean (1883, 38x54cm)–- F*#> Burnt Mountain (1892, 35x51cm; full size; or see it the recommended–- F*#> half size)–- F*#> The War for the Union 1862 – A Bayonet Charge (wood engraving, 34x52cm)

— (080928)
—   The Gulf Stream (1899) [below] stands at the apex of Homer's career. A Black man lies inert on the deck of a small sailboat. A hurricane has shredded the sails, snapped off the mast, and snatched away the rudder. Unlike the boys in Breezing Up or the fisherman in Fog Warning, this man is powerless to control his vessel. He is at the mercy of the elements. Sharks circle the boat, a waterspout hovers in the distance, and a boat on the distant horizon passes by unseeing and unseen. As in a comparable short story, The Open Boat, by Stephen Crane [01 Nov 1871 – 05 Jun 1900], nature is seen as not caring whether a man lives or dies.
^ Born on 29 September 1703: François Boucher, French Rococo painter, engraver, and designer, who died on 30 May 1770.
— Boucher best embodies the frivolity and elegant superficiality of French court life at the middle of the 18th century. He was for a short time a student of François Lemoyne and in his early years was closely connected with Watteau, many of whose pictures he engraved. In 1727-31 he was in Italy, and on his return was soon busy as a versatile fashionable artist. His career was hugely successful and he received many honors, becoming Director of the Gobelins factory in 1755 and Director of the Academy and King's Painter in 1765. He was also the favorite artist of Louis XV's most famous mistress, Mme de Pompadour, to whom he gave lessons and whose portrait he painted several times. Boucher mastered every branch of decorative and illustrative painting, from colossal schemes of decoration for the royal châteaux of Versailles, Fontainebleau, Marly, and Bellevue, to designs for fans and slippers. In his typical paintings he turned the traditional mythological themes into wittily indecorous scčnes galantes, and he painted female flesh with a delightfully healthy sensuality, notably in the celebrated Reclining Girl (1751), which probably represents Louis XV's mistress Louisa O'Murphy. Towards the end of his career, as French taste changed in the direction of Neoclassicism, Boucher was attacked, notably by Diderot, for his stereotyped coloring and artificiality; he relied on his own repertory of motifs instead of painting from the life and objected to nature on the grounds that it was 'too green and badly lit'. Certainly his work often shows the effects of superficiality and overproduction, but at its best it has irresistible charm and great brilliance of execution. qualities he passed on to his most important student, Fragonard. Boucher's students also included François-Hubert Drouais, Hubert-François Gravelot, Jean-Baptiste Marie Huet, Jacques Charlier, Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, Gabriel Jacques de Saint-Aubin.
— François Boucher was noted for his pastoral and mythological scenes. His work embodies the frivolity and sensuousness of the rococo style. Boucher, the son of a designer of lace, was born in Paris. He studied with the painter François Le Moyne but was most influenced by the delicate style of his contemporary Antoine Watteau. In 1723 Boucher won the Prix de Rome; he studied in Rome from 1727 to 1731. After his return to France, he created hundreds of paintings, decorative boudoir panels, tapestry designs, theater designs, and book illustrations. He became a faculty member of the Royal Academy in 1734. He designed for the Beauvais tapestry works and in 1755 became director of the Gobelins tapestries. In 1765 he was made first painter to the king, director of the Royal Academy, and designer for the Royal Porcelain Works. His success was encouraged by his patron, Marquise de Pompadour, mistress to Louis XV. He painted her portrait several times. Boucher's delicate, lighthearted depictions of classical divinities and well-dressed French shepherdesses delighted the public, who considered him the most fashionable painter of his day. Examples of his work are the paintings Triumph of Venus (1740), Nude Lying on a Sofa (1752) and the tapestry series Loves of the Gods (1744). Boucher's sentimental, facile style was too widely imitated and fell out of favor during the rise of neoclassicism. He died in Paris.
— François Boucher is the quintessential artist of the rococo, a style characterized by elegance, artifice, wit, and imagination. Parisian by birth, Boucher was the son of a painter. He entered the studio of François Le Moyne about 1720, where he learned the new style, and executed drawings for the engraver Jean-François Cars. By exhibiting at the Exposition de la Jeunesse, he met the connoisseur Jean de Jullienne, who invited him to make engravings after many of Watteau's drawings. Although Boucher won the Prix de Rome in 1723, it was not until 1727 that he went to Italy to study at his own expense. There he was influenced in particular by the Venetians Veronese and Tiepolo, and Roman painting. He went back to Paris in 1731, became a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1734, and, upon the death of Carle Vanloo, was named both director of the academy and First Painter to the King in 1765. His most steadfast and influential patron was the marquise de Pompadour, mistress to Louis XV, but he was inundated with commissions throughout his official career. The range of his oeuvre includes not only paintings but decorations, tapestries, stage designs, porcelains, fans, and drawings, all executed with sure draftsmanship, inexhaustible inventiveness, and a rich palette of pastel colors. Boucher continued his amazing productivity until his death, in spite of the public's changing taste, the sharp criticism of Diderot, and his own failing eyesight.

–- Virgin and Child (1767, oval 43x35cm)
–- Pensent-ils au Raisin? (1749, 76x90cm; 1/3 size _ .ZOOM to 2/3 size)
–- F*#> Companions of Diana (1745, oval 117x92cm; full size; or see it–- F*#> half size, or–- F*#> quarter size)–- F*#> Bacchantes (1745, oval 117x97cm; full size; or see it–- F*#> half size, or recommended–- F*#> quarter size)
–- F*#> Music (oval 92x122cm, 3/5 size; or see it the recommended–- F*#> 3/10 size, or–- F*#> 3/20 size) _ four putti.
–- F*#> Vertumnus and Pomona (1757, 314x184cm; 3/4 size; or see it–- F*#> 3/8 size, or recommended–- F*#> 3/16 size, or–- F*#> 3/32 size)
Christ and John the Baptist as Children (1758)
— F*#> Un Polisson (25x20cm)
^ Died on 29 September 1930: Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Ukrainian Realist painter who was born on 05 August (24 July Julian) 1844.

— Il'ia Efimovich Repin was born in Chuguev, in the Ukraine, in the family of a soldier-settler. He received his first lessons in art in 1858, when he started working for I. M. Bunakov, a talented icon painter from Chuguev. Commissions for portraits and religious paintings allowed Repin to collect enough money to go to St. Petersburg with the goal of entering the Academy of Arts. He arrived in the capital in 1863 and enrolled in the School of Drawing attached to the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts. Working with Kramskoi, in a year the young artist developed his skills sufficiently to be accepted to the Academy. In May 1870 Repin went on a boat trip down the Volga during which he made sketches for his Barge-haulers on the Volga (The Volga Boatmen). A year later the artist finished his schooling at the Academy. His graduation work, The Resurrection of Jairus' Daughter, won the Gold Medal and a six-year scholarship (including three years of travel abroad). After traveling through Europe and staying in Paris (1872-76), Repin returned to Russia. He spent a year in Chuguev, making sketches for his famous Religious Procession in the Kursk Province. The next six years (1876-82) Repin lived in Moscow, trying to get along with the Academy, the Mamontov circle, and his old friends Stasov and Kramskoi. Tired of their constant squabbles, he moved to St. Petersburg. He made several more trips to Europe — in 1883, 1889, 1894, and 1900. He taught at the St. Petersburg Academy (1894-1907) and was an influential member of the Wanderers. In 1900, during a trip to Paris, Repin met Natalia Nordman, the "love of his life" (Repin was separated from his wife), and moved to her home, Penaty (Penates), in Kuokkala (Finland), located about an hour's train ride from St. Petersburg. Together, they organized the famous Wednesdays at the Penaty which attracted the creative elite of Russia. When Nordman died in 1914, she left the estate to the Academy, but Repin occupied it for the next sixteen years. Handicapped by the atrophy of his right hand, Repin could not produce works of the same quality as those, which brought him fame. Although he trained himself to paint with his left hand, he lived his last years under a constant financial strain. Since the artist did not accept the Revolution of 1917, he did not want to go back to Russia, even though In 1926 a delegation sent by the Ministry of Education of the Soviet Union helped him financially and tried to entice him to return. To acknowledge and commemorate Repin's artistic achievement, in 1948 Kuokkala was renamed Repino. As Fan and Stephen Jan Parker note in their monograph on Repin, "Western art historians and critics have minimized Repin's achievements and contributions either because his very "national" identity has not been grasped, or because -- and this is most likely -- Repin was neither a technical innovator nor the creator of a school of painting. Moreover, he was a realist and not a modernist. Yet in the esteem of both prerevolutionary and Soviet Russia, Repin occupies a position alongside Dostoevsky and Tolstoy, Musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. He was and is Russia's foremost national artist, whose oeuvre adheres to the requisities for national art as proposed by the noted painter and art historian Igor Grabar: it must reflect the spirit of the people, expressing their thoughts and aspirations; it must excite; and it must be understandable to the people" (Parker, 1). Among Repin's most famous canvasses are The Volga Boatmen (1872), The Archdeacon (1877), Portrait of the Composer Musorgskii (1881), Religious Procession in the Kursk Province (1878-83), Portrait of Pavel Tret'iakov (1883),
      _ They Did Not Expect Him (1884),
      _ Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan: November 16, 1581
— Repin was born in a small Ukrainian town of Tchuguev in the family of a military settler. As a boy he was trained as an icon painter. At the age of 19 he entered the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. His arrival to the capital coincided with an important event in artistic life of the 60s, the so-called ‘Riot of the Fourteen’, when 14 young artists left the Academy having refused to use mythological subjects for their diploma works. They stood on the point that art should be close to real life. Later Repin would be closely connected with some of them, the members of the Society of Peredvizhniky.
      For his diploma work Raising of Jairus' Daughter (1871) Repin was awarded The Major Gold Medal and received a scholarship for studies abroad.
      _ Barge Haulers on the Volga (1873) was the first considerable work painted by Repin after graduation. It immediately won recognition.
      In 1873, Repin went abroad. For some months he had been traveling in Italy and then settled and worked in Paris up to 1876. It was in Paris that he witnessed the first exhibition of the Impressionists, but, judging by the works created then and by his letters home, he didn't become the ardent follower of this new Paris school of painting, though he didn't share the opinion of some of his country-men who saw a dangerous departure from “the truth of life” in Impressionism.
      After returning to Russia Repin settled in Moscow. He was a frequent visitor in Abramtsevo – the country estate of Savva Mamontov, one of the most famous Russian patrons of art. It was a very fruitful period in his creative activity. During 10-12 years Repin created the majority of his famous paintings. In 1877, he started to paint religious processions (krestny khod):
      _ Krestny Khod (Religious Procession) in Kursk Gubernia (1880-1883). The composition was based on the dramatic effect of different attitude of the participants of the procession to the wonder-working icon carried at the head of the procession. There were two different versions of the picture. The second one, completed in 1883, became the most popular. At first glance, the spectator discovers an abundance of social types and human characters in the crowd .
      A series of paintings devoted to the revolution theme deserves special attention. The artist was no doubt interested in creating the character of a fighter for social justice. The range of social, spiritual and psychological problems, which attracted Repin, is revealed in his works:
      _ Unexpected Return (1884) and
      _ Refusal from the Confession (1885).
      Repin is the author of many portraits, which are an essential part of his artistic heritage. Repin never painted faces, he painted real people, managing to show his models in their natural state, to reveal their way of communicating with the world:
      _ Portrait of the Composer Modest Musorgsky (1881),
      _ Portrait of the Surgeon Nikolay Pirogov (1881),
      _ Portrait of the Author Alexey Pisemsky (1880),
      _ Portrait of the Poet Afanasy Fet (1882),
      _ Portrait of the Art Critic Vladimir Stasov (1883), and
      _ Portrait of Leo Tolstoy (1887) and many others are distinguished by the power of the visual characteristic and the economy and sharpness of execution.
      Repin rarely painted historical paintings. The most popular in this genre is Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan (1895). The expressive, intense composition and psychological insight in rendering the characters produced an unforgettable impression on the spectators. Another popular work of the genre is
      _ The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mahmoud IV (1891). The faithfully rendered spirit of the Zaporoguus freemen, who, according to the artist, had a particularly strong sense of “liberty, equality and fraternity” undoubtedly gives the picture its significance. The contemporaries saw it as a symbol of the Russian people throwing off their chains.
      The last quarter of the 19th century is the best period in Repin’s work, though his creative activity continued in the 20th century, he did not paint any masterpieces then. After the bolsheviks’ revolution in 1917 he lived and worked in his estate Penates in Finland. There is a Repin museum. The museum visitors have the opportunity of gaining a detailed knowledge of the artist's life and work.

Self-Portrait (1878)
Self-Portrait (1887)
Artist Vasily Polenov (1877)
Artist Arkhip Kuinji (1877)
Artist Pavel Tchistyakov (1878)
Artist Nikolay Gay (1880)
Artist Ivan Kramskoy (1882)
Artist Vasily Surikov
Artist Grigory Myasoedov (1886)
Maxim Gorky (1899)
Author Leonid Andreev (1905)
Author Vladimir Korolemko (1912)
Composer Modest Musorgsky (1881)
Composer Anton Rubinstein (1881)
Composer Anton Rubinstein (1887)
Composer Alexander Glazunov (1887) _ Aleksandr Konstantinovich Glazunov [1865-1936] was born in St. Petersburg on 10 August 1865. He studied under Rimsky-Korsakov, and was a professor (after 1899) and director of the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1905-1927). The Soviet government gave him the title of People’s Artist of the Republic, but he emigrated in 1928. Glazunov died in Paris on 21 March 1936. Among his compositions there are 8 symphonies, ballets Raimonda (1897), Seasons of the Year (1899) and works of every branch except opera. See also his portrait by Valentin Serov
Composer Mikhail Glinka (1887)
Composer Nikolay Rymsky-Korsakov
Dmitry Mendeleev (1885)
The Surgeon E. Pavlov in the Operating Theater (1888)
Nadya Repina, the Artist's Daughter (1881)
Nadezhda Repina, the Artist's Daughter (1900)
Girl with Flowers. Daughter of the Artist (1878)
Dragon-Fly. Portrait of Vera Repina, the Artist's Daughter (1884)
Vera Repina, the Artist's Daughter (1886)
Autumn Bouquet. Portrait of Vera Repina (1892)
Preparation for the Examination (1864)
Portrait of a Boy (1867)
Barge Haulers on the Volga (1870-1873)
A Newspaper Seller in Paris (1873)
A Fisher-Girl (1874)
Ukranian Girl (1875)
Ukranian Girl by a Fence (1876)
An Archdeacon (1877)
Refusal from the Confession (1882)
The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mahmoud IV (1886)
Putting a Propagandist Under Arrest (1891)
The Revolutionary Meeting (1883)
Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan on 16 November 1581 (1885) _ detail _ closer detail the two faces
Saint Nicholas Saves Three Innocents from Death (1888) —
Sadko (1876) _ Sadko is a hero of a Russian fairy-tale, a merchant from Novgorod. During his business trips visited many magic lands, including the Sea Kingdom, where the daughter of the Sea King, Princess Volkhova, fell in love with him and helped him to escape to land. There is an 1896 opera on the subject by Rimsky-Korsakov. Many Russian artists painted the stage set, and curtains, designed costumes for the play and opera. Among them are Repin, Vrubel.
Leo Tolstoy (1887)
— Portrait of Leo Tolstoy as a Ploughman on a Field (1887)
Leo Tolstoy in His Study (1891)
[Other portraits of Tolstoy, by Nikolay Gay _ Ivan Kramskoy _ Mikhail Nesterov]
^ Born on 29 September 1815: Andreas Achenbach, German realist landscape painter who died on 01 April 1910 {complaining about his aching back?}.
— He studied at the Düsseldorf academy under von Schadow and Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, but emancipated himself from the contemporary school of landscapists that delighted in the representation of romantic scenery. He was the first artist of the Düsseldorf school to paint nature for its own sake. During several visits to Norway, Sweden, and Italy Achenbach developed a distinctively romantic style of painting especially centered on the relation between man and nature. His pictures of Dutch canal scenes, Rhineland villages, Norwegian landscapes, and stormy North Sea coast scenes, much influenced by Dutch seventeenth-century painting, contrasted favorably with the sentimental landscapes of his contemporaries. Brother of Oswald Achenbach [02 Feb 1827 – 01 Feb 1905].
— Andreas Achenbach stammte aus einer bürgerlichen Familie. Bereits mit 12 Jahren kam er an die Düsseldorfer Akademie. Mit 14 Jahren kamen schon erste Erfolge. 1832-1833 unternahm er mit seinem Vater eine Reise. Sie fuhren nach Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Amsterdam, Hamburg und Riga. So lernte Andreas Achenbach die Malerei in Holland kennen und bewunderte vor allem die Werke von Jacob van Ruisdael und Allart van Everdingen. Obwohl er schon einen guten Ruf als Maler hatte und Bilder verkaufte, studierte er weiterhin an der Düsseldorfer Akademie. Er wollte sich bei Schirmer noch mehr Kenntnisse in der Landschaftsmalerei aneignen. 1835 verließ Andreas Achenbach die Düsseldorfer Akademie.
      Er ging nach München und anschließend nach Frankfurt am Main. Andreas Achenbach unternahm Reisen nach Dänemark, Norwegen und Schweden. 1836 besuchte er die bayerischen Alpen und Tirol. 1839 zog es ihn wiederholt nach Norwegen. 1843 reiste er nach Italien und blieb fast 3 Jahre dort. Ihm gefielen besonders die Campagna und Capri. 1846 kehrte Andreas Achenbach nach Düsseldorf zurück. Er unterrichtete neben seiner Malerei seinen Bruder Oswald Achenbach und Albert Flamm. Andreas Achenbach war in seiner Zeit ein sehr beliebter Künstler. In jungen Jahren schuf er auch Karikaturen. Sein bevorzugtes Motiv aber waren Meere und Küsten mit Schiffen und Booten. Bilder wie "Seesturm" und "Untergang des Dampfschiffes" begründeten seinen Ruhm. Die entfesselten Elemente bedrohen den Menschen... der gefahrlos das Treiben im Bild betrachten kann.

–- Landscape with a Stream (1150x996pix, 145kb)
Fishing Along the Shore (1900, 33x44cm)
Hafeneinfahrt bei rauher See (1893, 49x61cm)
A Fishing Boat Caught in a Squall off a Jetty (1865, 96x140cm)
Bringing in the Catch (1852, 31x39cm)
Don Quixote and Sancho Panza (1850, 73x107cm)
Herbstmorgen in den pontinischen Sümpfen (1846, 89x131cm)
A Fishingboat on the Beach (58x76cm)
From the Shore of Scheveningen (1850, 41x57cm) _ (norsk->) Andreas Achenbach betraktes som den ledende landskapsmaler i Düsseldorf. Han ble aldri medlem av professorkollegiet, men hadde allerede 12 ĺr gammel begynt ved akademiet. Achenbach introduserte nordiske og norske motiver til det tyske publikum. Sammen med Thomas Fearnley var han et par mĺneder i Norge sommeren 1839, hvor de mřtte bl.a. J.C. Dahl og Knud Baade. Det var Andreas Achenbach som oppmuntret den unge Gude og gav ham privatundervisning i Düsseldorf vinteren 1841-1842 etterat han sĺ ettertykkelig hadde blitt avvist av Schirmer ved Kunstakademiet. Nasjonalgalleriet kjřpte dette maleriet fra Gudes samling i 1855.
     Etter reisen til Norge besřkte Achenbach i 1840 Nederland, senere pĺ 1840-tallet Italia. Motiver fra Nordsjřkysten i storm og stille vendte han stadig tilbake til. Ikke bare den karakteristiske kystlinjen, men ogsĺ de nederlandske landskapsmalerne fra 1600-ĺrene ble et viktig studieomrĺde. Achenbach kan med sitt mettede fargeuttrykk og den urolige veksling av lys og skygge karakteriseres som romantiker. Er Dietrichson (1882) entusiastisk i sine formuleringer som f.eks.: "Med samme eminente Dygtighed forstaar han at skildre Nordens vilde og mćgtige som Sydens milde og prćgtige Natur - navnlig Kysten og Havet", kan selv ikke et upretensiřst arbeide som dette strandbilde stagge Jens Thiis' kritikk av Düsseldorferne: "Drevne farvevirtuoser - tildels af stort talent, som Andreas Achenbach - har skolen frembragt enkelte af. Malere, som med en slags musikalsk farvesans forstod at harmonisere et billede sammen, selv med ryggen til naturen - udenat."
     Under den bredt anlagte Achenbach-utstillingen i Düsseldorf og Hamburg 1997/98, som presenterer malerbrřdrene Andreas og Oswald, blir det i katalogen pekt pĺ at Andreas Achenbach er ganske nřktern i forhold til motivet nĺr det gjelder komposisjon og farvebruk, selv om han ikke helt gĺr klar av Düsseldorf-skolens hang til ĺ hřyne naturskildringen med "pathos". Toni Wappenschmidt trekker spesielt frem Nasjonalgalleriets maleri Strand ved Scheveningen for ĺ pĺvise et velgjřrende mĺtehold bĺde nĺr det gjelder farvebruk og fortellerglede, selv om Andreas Achenbach beholder en noe antikvert genremessig figurfremstilling avhengig av sine historiske forbilder.
Sturm an holländischer Küste (1870; 600x916pix)
^ Died on 29 September 1959: Matthew Smith, English painter born on 22 October 1879.
— He was interested in painting and drawing from an early age and studied art at Manchester College of Technology (1901–1905) and the Slade School of Fine Art in London (1905–1908) without, however, showing particular promise. He moved to France late in 1908, and in Etaples and Pont-Aven he painted still-lifes and portraits that are Intimist in manner, showing attention to local color and modeling (e.g. Portrait of a Young Boy, 1908). He settled in Paris and exhibited several of these works at the Salon des Indépendants before beginning to build more ambitious compositions using related and contrasting colors. These show the influence of Fauvism and of Matisse, whose studio he attended briefly in 1910. He also made an intensive study of Ingres, whose work retained particular significance for him.
      In canvases painted between 1914 and 1920, when Smith joined the London Group, he acknowledged the flatness of the picture surface with areas of strong unmodulated color and emphatic design. Fitzroy Street Nude No. 1 (1916) is characteristic in the tension created not only through a bold use of complementary colors — the green shadows of the nude against a vibrant red ground — but also in the contrast between direct observation from the model and the blatant artifice of his color and exaggerated drawing. In 1920, partly under the influence of Roderic O'Conor's views of Brittany, which he had first seen the previous year, Smith applied dark saturated color and an increasing fluidity of construction to a series of Cornish landscapes (e.g. Winter Landscape, Cornwall. Strongly Expressionist in character, these are the culmination of his early style.
      An increasing self-confidence in the 1920s led to the evolution of Smith's mature style; O'Conor's influence again probably contributed to this, together with Smith's love affair with the artist Vera Cuningham [1897–1955], who was the model for many of the figure paintings he made in 1923–1926. In marked contrast to his former approach, he now expressed a passionately spontaneous and celebratory response to his subject through an alla prima technique that enabled him to work very fast. In Couleur de rose (1924) the high-keyed, radiant color, the rapid, rhythmically applied brushstrokes and the model's abandoned pose fuse the various elements of the composition into an organic whole.
      Smith continued subsequently to work from traditional subjects, but with marked variations in his palette and use of paint. He spent the late 1920s and 1930s in France and produced many freely painted nudes, still-lifes (e.g. Still-life, 1936), portraits and landscapes. After returning to London in 1940, he moved towards darker colorations and a more emphatic solidity of form, seen for example in his portrait of Augustus John. During the 1950s he produced his largest and most decorative canvases, for example Still-life with a Pitcher II (1954). The greater fluidity of Smith's later work brought him considerable success in regular exhibitions in London, and he was twice represented at the Venice Biennale (1938 and 1950). His work also continued to appeal to later British painters, in particular Francis Bacon, who, in writing of Smith's use of paint as a means of making ‘a direct assault upon the nervous system', saw him as a precursor for his own work. Smith was knighted in 1954.

Fruit in a Dish (1915, 31x36cm)
Nude, Fitzroy Street, No. 1 (1916, 86x76cm)
Apples (1920, 46x55cm)
Cyclamen (1920, 61x51cm)
Cornish Church (1920, 53x65cm) _ After a period of prolonged illness Smith spent the autumn and winter of 1920 in the village of St Columb Major in Cornwall. Here he completed a number of landscapes, and this is the view from the window of his room. The intense colors and black sky are reminiscent of the Brücke group of German Expressionist painters, but Smith denied a connection, and felt himself to be closer to French art. In Paris in 1919 he knew well the Irish painter Roderic O'Conor, who like Smith had belonged to Gauguin's circle in Brittany. Smith saw his landscapes and nudes, in which he used radiant color in a similar constructional way.
Model Turning (1924, 65x81cm) _ The paintings of the nude made by Smith in the winter of 1923-4 in Paris were a breakthrough to a new facility with color. The use of such a harmony is French in style, and Smith was one of very few British artists to paint in this way. Here the dark skinned model is dressed only in a red skirt, pulled up above her knees, and lies on a couch on blue and mauve cushions. The black background and absence of light give a feeling of enclosure, cutting out anything but the confrontation with the nude, made dramatic by the vigorous brushstrokes and unstable pose. The body is 'modeled' in color, like the surface of a sculpture in clay - not by outline or flat areas, but with the ups and downs along the surface.
Woman Reclining (1926, 60x73cm)
Peonies (1928, 76x63cm)
Still Life (1936, 81x100cm) _ In the 1930s Smith lightened the colors of his painting. This was in contrast to the sometimes impenetrable reds and browns he had used earlier. This still life is based on the weird mauve color of the anemone flowers in the basket at the left. In some places the paint is thin, so that the white ground shines through as in a watercolor. The design is like a still life by Cézanne, but Smith's fluid brushstrokes suggest the liveliness of the fruit. This is one of Smith's largest still lifes.
Peaches (1937, 60x73cm)
Still Life with Clay Figure I (1939, 73x116cm)
The Young Actress (1943, 76x64cm) _ The actress is the artist's niece; nearly all Smith's portraits were of friends and family. There is another version of the subject, but he did not paint this sitter again.

Died on a 29 September:

2005 Patrick Caulfield, English artist born (full coverage) on 29 January 1936. —(080929)

1997 Roy Lichtenstein, US painter born (full coverage) on 27 October 1923. —(060418)

1931 William Newenham Montague Orpen, Irish painter born (full coverage) on 27 November 1878. —(051126)

^ 1806 Clément-Louis-Marie-Anne Belle, Parisian history painter and tapestry designer, born on 16 November 1722, son of Alexis-Simon Belle [12 Jan 1674 – 21 Nov 1734].— {Paris being in the northern third of France, neither of them could correctly be called a southern Belle. But were their mothers belles before they became Belles as the bells rang to celebrate their marriages?} — Clément Belle was trained by the history painter François Lemoyne and visited Rome. From 1755 he worked for the Gobelins, painting tapestry cartoons adapted from pictures by his contemporaries and from his own designs. In 1759 his altarpiece The Atonement, a work that demonstrates Belle’s gifts as a colorist, achieved great success at the Salon. Two years later he was received (reçu) as a history painter by the Académie Royale. Among his surviving works for the Gobelins is a cartoon of Leda and the Swan (1778) in the manner of François Boucher, designed to add a new subject to the famous tapestry series The Loves of the Gods. In 1788 Belle was commissioned by Louis XVI’s Directeur des Bâtiments, the Comte d’Angiviller, to design cartoons in triptych format for tapestries to decorate the Palais de Justice, Paris. He was later called on to transform them into Republican allegories by the Revolutionary authorities. The resulting monumental canvases, Allegory of the Republic and Allegory of the Revolution (both 1794), display the classicizing yet dynamic characteristics that Belle could achieve in his compositions. In 1790, shortly before its dissolution, he became Rector of the Académie Royale. Clément Belle's son Augustin-Louis Belle [1757–1841] was also a history painter, working in the Neo-classical style. — Portrait of Belle (1779; 700x560pix, 199kb) by Alexis III Loir [1712-1785]

1713 Jacob van Oost II, Flemish portrait and religious painter born on 11 February 1637 in Bruges, son and student of Jacob van Oost I [bap. 01 Jul 1601 – 1671]. Jacob II settled in Lille.

1674 Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Dutch painter born (full coverage) on 19 August 1621.

Born on a 29 September:

^ >1891 Ian Fairweather, Australian painter of Scottish birth, who died on 20 May 1974 in Brisbane. He studied at the Academie in The Hague in 1918 and at the Slade School, London, from 1920 to 1924. Fairweather had a reclusive, nomadic nature. He lived in Shanghai (1929–1933), Beijing (1935) and in Bali, the Philippines, and India. After surviving a raft voyage from Darwin to Bali in 1952, he settled on Bribie Island, in northern Australia. Fairweather was a pioneer in mixing with the cultures of Australasia and was one of the few who successfully assimilated Aboriginal painting. Of his 500 or so surviving works scarcely a dozen have Australian subjects. His years in China and his interest in calligraphy and the Chinese written language had a decisive influence, shifting him from tonal figures, as in Bathing Scene, Bali (1934, 89x132cm), to an open linear style and a restrained use of color. His oils exhibited in London from 1935 were mostly Chinese landscapes in a Post-Impressionist manner. From the 1940s he turned to gouache, thickly applied, often on poor materials, until 1958 when he used synthetic polymer paint. To evoke experiences long past he developed his own distinctive calligraphy, with traces of Cubism, as in Monastery (1961) and Monsoon (1961), which is not a fair weather Fairweather. His meditative grey abstracts of 1959–1961 remain among the most impressive in Australian art.
— He began to study Chinese while in a prisoner-of-war camp in World War I. On release, studied drawing at the Academy in The Hague, then forestry at Oxford 1919-20; gave this up in order to study at the Slade School 1920-3. Lived for two years on an island off the Canadian coast, afterwards in China and the Dutch East Indies. Began painting seriously again in Bali 1933. Visited Melbourne, Australia, in 1934 and became associated with the Melbourne Contemporary Group established by William Frater, George Bell, Arnold Shore and others, then left again for the Philippines and China. First one-man exhibition at the Redfern Gallery, London, 1935. Returned to Australia in 1938 and, after service in the British Army in India in World War II and periods in Melbourne, Darwin and Cairns, settled on Bribie Island off the coast of Queensland, living as a recluse in a grass hut. Sailed alone by raft from Darwin to Timor in 1952. His later paintings are tapestry-like, with highly abstracted figures influenced by School of Paris painting, Chinese calligraphy and batik designs.
–-S#> Balinese Woman (1933, 52x45cm; 927x800pix, 129kb) almost monochrome
–- Composition in Blue (29x25cm; 600x542pix, 49kb _ .ZOOM to 1100x995pix, 143kb) mostly pink, some dabs of blue; sketchy _ The pseudonymous Iam Thunderstorm has transformed this into many abstractions with much more blues and many other colors besides; they can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Decomposition Blues (2007; 550x778pix, 110kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 201kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 362kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 754kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 1319kb) and
      _ The Combination Blew (2007; 550x778pix, 110kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 201kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 362kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 754kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 1319kb):.
–-S#> Chinese Landscape (1933, 50x67cm; 608x800pix, 119kb) —(070928)

1881 Alexander Kanoldt, German painter who died on 24 January 1939. He studied at the academy in Karlsruhe from 1899 and went from there to the academy in Munich in 1908. He joined the Neue Künstlervereinigung in that city and later became its secretary until it was disbanded in 1911. He became one of the co-founders of the Neue Sezession in Munich the following year and remained a member of this organisation until 1920. Kanoldt fought in the First World War, only returning to Munich in 1919. He was appointed Professor at the academy in Breslau in 1925, and subsequently Professor at the academy in Berlin in 1932. — Kanoldt was born in 1881 in Karlsruhe. He began an apprenticeship as a decorative painter at the local Kunstgewerbeschule at the age of eighteen, but decided to join the Academy in 1901. He took drawing lessons with Ernst Schurth and became acquainted with Adolf Erbslöh, Hugo Troendle and other artists. During this time Kanoldt closely studied Neo-Impressionist techniques, which inspired his technically extremely sophisticated colour lithographs. Kanoldt moved to Munich in 1908 where he founded the "Neue Künstlervereinigung" together with Alexej von Jawlensky, Wassily Kandinsky, Gabriele Münter and others one year later. This group is today considered a forerunner of the "Blauer Reiter". Soon, however, differences occurred among the members of the "Neue Künstlervereinigung München", particularly between Kandinsky and Kanoldt. This resulted in Kandinsky resigning as the chairman and Kanoldt leaving the group. Kanoldt, as well as Bechtejeff, Carl Caspar, Jawlensky and Klee, was a member of the "Münchener Neue Sezession" which had been founded in 1913. Kanoldt's artistic career was interrupted by the outbreak of the war during which, from 1914 to 1918, Kanoldt was drafted as an officer. During a lengthy stay in Italy in 1924 Kanoldt produced multi-perspective architectural landscapes and serene interiors. These works mark a new beginning in Kanoldt's work and result in an invitation to exhibit works in the "Neue Sachlichkeit" exhibition in 1924 at the Kunsthalle Mannheim. His was the second largest group of works after Max Beckmann. In 1925 Oskar Moll invited him to teach at the Breslau Kunstakademie, a post that he gave up again in 1931. His family moved from Breslau to Garmisch-Patenkirchen where Kanoldt opened a private painting school. In 1932 he joined the Munich artist group "Die Sieben" and exhibited at their shows. During this period Kanoldt mostly painted still-lifes and Italian landscapes. Their rational style reflects a proximity to the "Neue Sachlichkeit". Even though he was appointed professor at the Kunstakademie in Berlin in 1933 his works were labeled "entartete Kunst" during the Nazi regime and confiscated in 1937. For health reasons he had been forced to give up his post in Berlin one year before. He died of a heart disease.
–-S#> Stilleben VII (1926, 90x70cm; 510x396pix, 33kb)
Stilleben on red cloth (432x349pix, 43kb)
Stilleben with blue box (432x300pix, 36kb)
Ein Sonnenstrahl (1918, 66x54cm, 350x287pix, 19kb) —(050928)

>1868 Boris Mihaylov [–14 Jun 1921], Bulgarian artist He graduated from the Academy of Arts in Florence in 1892. Professor of drawing in Sliven and Sofia. Professor of decorative art and study of styles (1901 - 1921) and principal (1918 - 1920) of the Industrial School of Arts in Sofia. Monumental works: the curtain of the worker’s theater in Florence (1892), the decoration of the Synod chapel in Sofia (1909), the stained glass of the mausoleum in Pleven (1907), the chapel of the Sofia seminary (1914), etc. He took part in the ornamental forming of the mural paintings and interior for the church – memorial Alexandar Nevsky, Portrait of Pencho Slaveykov in the National Gallery, Sofia.
Old Houses (54x37cm; 1043x650pix, 54kb)
Landscape (20x28cm; 482x650pix, kb) church on a cliff at lakeside. —(080702)

^ 1857 Eugene Lawrence Vail, US-French artist who died on 28 December 1934 in Paris. Son of a French mother and a US father, Eugene Vail maintained strong ties with both countries throughout his life. He was born in St. Servan, France and, as a young man, studied both in Paris and New York. Although he showed an early aptitude and enthusiasm for art, his father required that he receive a practical education; before he was twenty Vail graduated from the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey with a concentration in mechanical engineering. After college he joined the National Guard, during which time he participated in a Western expedition led by Captain George Wheeler. Vail sketched the terrain and painted portraits of his traveling companions and the Native Americans they met.
     At the end of his service, the young artist studied first under William Merritt Chase [01 Nov 1849 – 25 Oct 1916] and J. Carroll Beckwith [1852-1917] at the Art Students League in New York, then in Paris. After working under Alexandre Cabanel [28 Sep 1823 – 23 Jan 1889], Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret [07 Jan 1852 – 03 Jul 1929], and Raphael Collin [1850-1916] at the École des Beaux Arts, he left to pursue his art independently at Pont Aven and Concarneau, favorite locations of painters in Britanny. The first of his canvases to be included in the Paris Salon had as its subject a Breton peasant girl. Vail went on to paint images of peasants and fishermen in villages and towns throughout Europe. His seafaring subject, Ready About won him a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in 1889.
     Vail's realistic, anecdotal works were exhibited throughout Europe and the United States. After many successful years of producing work in the academic, "Salon" tradition, Vail's style underwent a change, gradually becoming looser and more impressionistic. His palette, too, was lightened, perhaps in response to the light and color of Italy, particularly of Venice, where he began to spend his autumns. At other times of the year he visited St. Moritz, St. Tropez, and Lake Como. He became particularly known for his light-hearted scenes of people engaged in winter sports.
The Flags, Saint Mark's, Venice - Fęte Day (1903, 82x93cm) —(050928)

1838 Charles Euphrasie Kuwasseg, French painter who died in October 1904. Born in France, Charles Euphrasie Kuwasseg was the son of Austrian painter, Karl Joseph Kuwasseg. Initially Charles Euphrasie trained and worked with his father but later became a sailor and travelled the world. On his return to France in 1883, he began his formal artistic training and studied under Durand-Brager and d’Isabey. Charles Euphrasie specialized in painting landscapes of the Breton and Normandy coast, seascapes of the North Sea and scenes of the outskirts of Paris. He collaborated with the artist Poilpot on a series of different landscapes. Kuwasseg exhibited at the Salons des Artistes Francais from early on in his career and won a 3rd class medal in 1892. He later became a professor of art, teaching such notable students as Iwill and Emile Clarel. Kuwasseg’s delicate yet strong style was highly valued during his lifetime and he was regarded by his contemporaries as one of the finest artists of his genre. — An accomplished marine and landscape painter, Charles Kuwasseg received his earliest training from his father, the Austrian artist, Karl Joseph Kuwasseg. Charles Euphrasie briefly abandoned painting, choosing instead to become a sailor and travel the world. Upon returning to France in 1883, however, he resumed his studies. Working first in the atelier of the renowned marine artists Jean Baptiste Durand-Brager then in the studio of Eugene Isabey, Charles Euphraise earned a solid foundation in drawing and composition. Kuwasseg’s favorite subjects were views of the Breton and Norman coast, particularly of the windswept North Sea, as well as tranquil lake and river scenes set in Switzerland and Italy. His paintings clearly reflect his academic training in their crisp execution, attention to minute details, clear contrasts between light and dark, and carefully planned compositions. From 1855 onward, Kuwasseg was a regular exhibitor at the annual Salon in Paris, earning a number of medals and honors throughout his career. He later became a professor of art, instructing such notable pupils as Emile Clarel. He was highly regarded by his peers and equally so by collectors drawn to his romantic and poetic renderings.
–-S#> A Path Along the Mediterranean Coast (1871, 74x93cm; 645x800pix, 75kb)
–-S#> People on a Woodland Path (46x38cm; 900x740pix, 231kb)
–-S#> Beached Boats Threatened by Heavy Seas (28x41cm; 607x900pix, 88kb)
–-S#> 2 pictures of Mountain Villages in one image (581x447pix and 581x427pix, together 147kb)
View of a River Town (62x103cm; 386x650pix, 119kb)
–-S#> Au Bord de la Rivière (46x55cm; 510x616pix, 214kb)

1824 András (or Andreas) Markó
, in Vienna, Hungarian painter and draftsman, who died on 12 July 1895. He was the son of Károly Markó I [25 Sep 1791 — 19 Nov 1860], and the brother of Károly Markó II [22 Jan 1822 – 1891] and Ferenc Markó [1832 – 03 Aug 1874]. András Markó studied first in Florence and then in 1851 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under Carl Rahl. In the early 1850s he exhibited with the Artists Association of Pest and the Hungarian National Fine Arts Association; in 1852 and 1854 his Italian landscapes were shown, and in 1854 he also exhibited his Hungarian Landscape in Milan. He worked primarily in Vienna, painting Romantic genre pictures and landscapes. Like his father, he was attracted to the beauty of the Italian landscape, which he populated with shepherds and goatherds. Some of his best works are his charcoal drawings, which are also peopled with peasants, for example Italian Landscape with Bridge and The Cows. He was a successful animal painter, as in Oxen Herders on the Bridge (1876) and also painted biblical scenes, such as Ruth and Boaz (1882). His work The Marble Mountains of Carrara was shown in 1882 in Budapest.
Italian Landscape with Galloping Horses (1871, 104x138cm; 860x1134pix, 80kb)
Italian Landscape with Shepherdess (1875, 103x136cm; 859x1196pix, 114kb)
Sunlit Italian Landscape with Goats (1889, 44x65cm; 819x1223pix, 119kb)
Itáliai táj hegyi forrásnál piheno pásztorlánnyal (1888, 93x80cm; 500x431pix _ ZOOMable to 732x631pix) _ The dog, sitting next to a girl, is supervising some sheep, a cow, and a calf, in a rocky mountain.
Itáliai táj (1863, 108x156cm; 500x727pix _ ZOOMable to 648x942pix) unsupervised sheep, a goat, and a calf, in a rocky mountain.
Találkozás a kútnál itáliai tájban (1868, 50x70cm; 500x698pix _ ZOOMable to 589x822pix) mountainous landscape with a donkey and five women conversing on a dirt road next to a well, a village beyond.
Pásztorlány itáliai tengerparton (1880, 34x41cm; 500x610pix _ ZOOMable to 661x806pix) young Italian shepherdess surrounded by sheep on a cliff overlooking the Mediterranean sea.
Campagna Romana (Napsütötte olasz táj kecskékkel) (1889, 44x65cm; 500x754pix _ ZOOMable to 947x1429pix) in a plain, just past a small stone bridge, a girl with a donkey stops to talk with a goatherd; ruins of a Roman aqueduct beyond. _ "Markó András, atyjához hasonlólag, rajong a szép olasz természetért s ábrázolására az o festékskáláján is megvannak a könnyed és ragyogó színek; a regék világa azonban ot már nem vonzza, s a felhotlen égbolt alá, a mezok buja füvére a mithosz és a biblia alakjai helyett kecskéket és teheneket orzo pásztorokat telepít. Németországi hosszabb tartózkodása megkedveltette vele a modern élet tüneményeit, s az atyjától ellesett technikai kiválóságok birtokában jeles állatfestové lett, kinek munkáit a bécsi kiállításokon mindenkor elismeréssel emlegették. A Markó-fiúk közül kétségen kívül o emelkedik ki legjobban a tehetség és eredetiség vonásaival. Képeit látva, visszaemlékezünk az apa egyes tulajdonságaira; de éreznünk kell azt is, hogy a muvész új ösvényt tört magának s ezen az ösvényen biztos léptekkel haladt elore." - e sorokat Szana Tamás, Markó Károly elso monográfusa írta 1898-ban.
Itáliai táj vágtató lovakkal (1871, 104x138cm; 500x660pix _ ZOOMable to 566x747pix) ahead of an approaching storm, five men on horseback and a dog on foot are driving a group of horses toward a stream.
Itáliai táj (1875, 103x136cm; 500x663pix _ ZOOMable to 601x797pix) on a mountain path, a girl is coming with a loaded mule and some non-loaded goats. _ "Itáliában utazni és szinte mérték nélkül élvezni mindazt, ami a természet, a történelem, a muvészet hármas forrásából oly pazar boséggel árad szét ebben a bámulatos országban, ez magában véve olyan gyönyöruséges minden kedéllyel és ízléssel bíró embernek, amelyre nemcsak magunk szeretünk emlékezni, de amelyre való visszaemlékezésünket szeretjük másokkal is közölni."- írja 1898-ban megjelent, Itáliai utiképek és tanulmányok címu munkájában Berzeviczy Albert, a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia egykori elnöke. A színpompás, ragyogó mediterrán táj, az évezredeket átfogó kultúra történelmi levegoje és a muvészeti emlékek kimeríthetetlen bosége révén Itália a XVIII. századtól fogva különleges, el nem múló vonzerot gyakorol Európa északabbi népeire. Az 1800-as évek elején önállóvá váló magyar képzomuvészet legnagyobbjai is hamar rátaláltak Olaszország inspiráló klímájára. Mintha mindannyian Pierre Henri de Valenciennes francia festo, 1800-ban megjelent, széles körben elterjedt muvészetelméleti munkájának útmutató intelmeit követték volna: "Egy tájképfesto utazzék keletre, Görögországba, Svájcba, az ideális ország azonban Itália ? Itália, te minden muvész célja, mindazoké, akik a muvészet szépségeit értékelik!" Magyar festok közül csak keveseknek adatott meg Markó Károly gyermekeinek kivételes sorsa: szinte születésüktol fogva természetes közegként mozogtak Itália tájain, az olasz muvészkörökben. A másodszülött fiú, Markó András is, a bécsi akadémiai stúdiumok mellett elsosorban apja tanácsai révén, grófok, hercegek által látogatott mutermében pallérozódott. Alkotói modora - mint képünk is bizonyítja - sok tekintetben folytatta a poussen-i, Claude Lorrain-i hagyományokon alapuló klasszicizáló tájképstílust. Hosszas természeti elotanulmányokon, közvetlen megfigyeléseken alapuló precíz, minuciózusan megfogalmazott részletek, klasszikus képszerkesztés jellemzi muveit. Apjával ellentétben azonban tájképeit a mitológia emelkedett témái helyett valóságos, hétköznapi jelenetek élénkítik, s a figurákat általában közelebbi nézopontból, nem pusztán apró staffázsalakokként alkalmazta. A Róma, Pisa vagy Firenze környéki hegyek között nyájaikat terelo, beszélgeto, jellegzetes népviseletükben ábrázolt pásztorok a mindennapi élet idilli, harmonikus szépségét jelenítik meg. Vizsgált nagyméretu kompozícióján Markó az ideális tájkép valamennyi jellegzetes rekvizitumát felvonultatja. Míg az elotér köveit a nap meleg, aranysárga színben füröszti, a sziklák között vízeséseken lezúduló patak csörgedez s a távolból apró ház bontakozik ki, füstölgo kéményével az otthon melegét idézve fel. A festo a legapróbb részletek iránt is szinte egy etnográfus lelkiismeretességével fordul: a pásztorcsalád hiteles ábrázolásához éppen úgy hozzá tartozik a jellegzetes helyi népviselet megörökítése, mint az a gondosság, ahogy a gyermekére ügyelo anya kezébe orsót és guzsalyt ad, s a tarka színu vezérkecske nyakába kolompot akaszt. Markó képeinek érto közönsége, apjához hasonlóan, az a görögös-latinos muveltségu arisztokrata, fopapi réteg volt, mely fiatalkori utazások alkalmával általában maga is megtapasztalta Itália felejthetetlen tájainak hangulatát. Muvei már életében Róma, Bologna, Firenze képtáraiba kerültek, sot néhány alkotása királyi gyujteményeket gazdagított.
Napsütötte olasz táj tehenekkel (1865, 97x41cm; 500x741pix _ ZOOMable to 947x1404pix) foothills landscape with cattle and a herdsman; in the foreground a dog is having an altercation with a bull about drinking from a puddle. _ "Markó András, atyjához hasonlólag, rajong a szép olasz természetért s ábrázolására az o festéktáláján is megvannak a könnyed és ragyogó színek; a regék világa azonban ot már nem vonzza, s a felhotlen égbolt alá, a mezok buja füvére a mithosz és a biblia alakjai helyett kecskéket és teheneket orzo pásztookat telepít. Németországban való hosszabb tartózkodása megkedveltette vele a modern élet tüneményeit s az atyjától ellesett technikai kiválóságok birtokában, jeles állatfestové lett, kinek munkáit a bécsi kiállításokon mindenkor elismeréssel emlegették. A Markó-fiúk közül kétségen kívül o emelkedik ki legjobban a tehetség és eredetiség vonásaival. Képeit látva, visszaemlékezünk az apa egyes tulajdonságaira; de éreznünk kell azt is, hogy a muvész új ösvényt tört magának s ezen az ösvényen biztos léptekkel haladt elore." - e sorokat Szana Tamás, Markó Károly elso monográfusa írta 1898-ban. Az apáról, idosebb Markó Károlyról szóló könyvében részletesen szól a Markó-fiúk munkásságáról is, akik közül Andrást tartja a legeredetibb és legtehetségesebb alkotónak. Markó András rendkívül pozitív megítélése abból is kitunik, hogy a Markó-család 1899-es kiállításán a Nemzeti Szalonban, az o képei szerepeltek a legmagasabb eladási árakon, még az apa képárait is megelozve. Az 1899-es Markó-kiállítás katalógusának elso tétele is Markó András Csorda a Campagnán címu olajfestménye volt, nagyon magas, 425 forintos áron. Noha az itt kiállított képen jellegzetesen római, a Campagnára utaló tájelemek nem láthatók, felteheto, hogy a Csorda a Campagnán talán ezzel a muvel azonos, vagy legalábbis nagyon hasonló lehetett ehhez a reprezentatív kompozícióhoz.
Hazatérok (1878, 66x92cm; 500x707pix _ ZOOMable to 651x921pix) monochrome. People and livestock returning home are crossing a small stone bridge.
Kecskepásztor (1873, 76x101cm; 550x757pix, 23kb) —(050928)

^ 1805 Christian Ernst Bernhard Morgenstern, German painter who died on 27 (26?) February 1867. — {He could have made a career as an investment adviser, but, fortunately for art, he did not think of translating his name to Morningstar}— After being trained from 1824 by Siegfried Bendixen [1786–1864] in Hamburg, he studied at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1827 and made sketching trips to Sweden and Norway. He then settled permanently in Munich. He was influenced in particular by 17th-century Dutch painters, notably Jacob van Ruisdael, the Copenhagen plein-air painters, the emerging Norwegian landscape school and the early Realist painters working in Munich, such as Johann Georg von Dillis. Morgenstern explored objective, pure landscape painting with intimate motifs in such works as Beech-tree Trunks in Fredericksdal near Copenhagen (1828). He also painted scenes combining closely rendered foreground details with extensive, light-filled backgrounds remarkable for their brilliant atmospheric colors, as in Landscape at Lake Starnberg (1840) — LINKS
View Across Lake Starnberg to the Benediktenwand (1844; 151kb)

1642 (02 Oct?) Michel Corneille II “des Gobelins”, French painter and engraver who died on 16 August 1708, son of Michel Corneille I [1602 – 13 Jan 1664]. Michel II became a prolific artist, the family’s most successful member. Like his brother Jean-Baptiste Corneille [02 Nov 1649 – 12 Apr 1695], he concentrated on religious pictures for both private and ecclesiastical patrons. Initially trained by his father, Michel II later studied under Charles Le Brun and Pierre Mignard. In 1659 he won a prize from the Académie Royale that enabled him to visit Italy. When he returned to France he was received (reçu) as a member of the Académie in 1663 with Christ Appearing to Saint Peter. He became an associate professor in 1673, a professor in 1690 and a counselor in 1691. He admired the Italian masters, especially the Carracci, and finished his training by copying their works. The rich collector Everard Jabach employed both Michel II and Jean-Baptiste to engrave the best Italian drawings in his collection.
Le Repos de la Sainte Famille en Égypte (45x62cm; 554x768pix, kb) and another version: The Rest on the Flight to Egypt (99x117cm; 320x380pix, 27kb) The Holy Family with angels, and, by an iconographic license frequent in the 17th century, the child Saint John the Baptist (and, in the second version, his mother Saint Elizabeth).. —(050928)

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updated Monday 29-Sep-2008 19:14 UT
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v.7.80 Saturday 29-Sep-2007 3:52 UT
v.6.80 Tuesday 26-Sep-2006 2:53 UT
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