ART 4 2-DAY 25 September v.9.80
BIRTH: 1903 ROTHKO
Died on 25 September 1561: Alonso González de Berruguete,
painter and sculptor born in 1488.
— He was the most distinguished Spanish artist of the 16th century, and his style dominated the central Iberian Peninsula. He integrated the expressive qualities of Gothic art with the beauty of the Renaissance. He brought to Spain Italian Mannerist ideas both in sculpture and painting and played a leading part in their development. Berruguete’s workshop became a meeting place in the same way as the conversazioni, the precursors of the academies in Italy. Patronized by leading figures of the day, his artistic and financial independence helped to improve the status of the artist.
One of the five sons of Pedro Berruguete [1450 – 06 Jan 1504], he learnt painting from his father but, later under the influence of Michelangelo, turned toward sculpting and became the major Spanish sculptor of the 16th century. He was trained in Italy and brought back Italian Mannerist ideas, both in sculpture and in painting. He went to Florence about 1504, where he saw and copied Michelangelo's lost cartoon for the Battle of Cascina (he is even mentioned in Michelangelo's letters). He may have been in Rome before returning to Florence for about 5 years before his final return to Spain in 1517. He was, therefore, acquainted with the early work of Pontormo and Rosso at the very beginning of Mannerism. His own work as a painter is close to Rosso, and he probably finished the Coronation of the Virgin which was left incomplete by Filippino Lippi at his death in 1504.
He was active in Spain principally as a sculptor on such works as the altar of the Irish College, Salamanca (1529-1532) and especially the choir stalls in Toledo Cathedral (on the Epistle side), made between 1539 and 1543. These works, like his paintings, show a combination of the influences of Leonardo da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto and Raphael. He had an extremely successful career, being made Painter to the King on his return from Italy and ennobled in 1559.
— Isidro Villoldo was an assistant of Berruguete. — Francisco Giralte was a student of Berruguete.
Salomé (1514, 88x71cm; 695x555pix, 92kb _ ZOOM to 2550x2024pix, 281kb) with the head of Saint John the Baptist, shown oversized. _ Salome was the daughter of Herodias [–39 AD], who had divorced her father, Herod Philip, and, in violation of Mosaic law, married his half-brother, Herod Antipas [39 BC - 39 AD], the Romans' puppet ruler of Galilee. Mark 6:17-28:
— Saint Peter Martyr _ detail
— Le Couronnement de la Vierge avec Saint Jérôme, Saint François d'Assise, Saint Bonaventure et Saint Louis de Toulouse (277x189cm; 492x324pix, 74kb) _ main detail (512x635pix, 105kb) _ The painting was started by Filippino Lippi [1457 – 18 Apr 1504], but was mainly painted by Berruguete between 1511 and 1518; it was retouched by an unknown painter in 1520.
>Born on 25 September 1903: Marcus
Rothkowits Mark Rothko, Russian-born US abstract
expressionist painter, who died on 25 February 1970.
Mark Rothko was born Marcus Rothkowitz in Dvinsk, Russia (today Daugavpils, Latvia), the fourth child of Jacob Rothkowitz, a pharmacist [1859–], and Anna Goldin Rothkowitz [1870–], who had married in 1886. Rothko and his family immigrated to the United States when he was ten years old, and settled in Portland, Oregon. Rothko attended Yale University in 1921, where he studied English, French, European history, elementary mathematics, physics, biology, and economics, the history of philosophy, and general psychology. His initial intention was to become an engineer or an attorney. Rothko gave up his studies in the fall of 1923 and moved to New York City.
In the 1920s Rothko attended classes at the Art Students League, briefly studying under Max Weber, who encouraged him to work in a style reminiscent of Cézanne.
During the 1940s Rothko's imagery became increasingly symbolic. In the social climate of anxiety that dominated the late 1930s and the years of World War II, images from everyday life, however unnaturalistic, began to appear somewhat outmoded. If art were to express the tragedy of the human condition, Rothko felt, new subjects and a new idiom had to be found. He said, "It was with the utmost reluctance that I found the figure could not serve my purposes....But a time came when none of us could use the figure without mutilating it."
One of the preeminent artists of his generation, Mark Rothko is closely identified with the New York School, a circle of painters that emerged during the 1940s as a new collective voice in American art. During a career that spanned five decades, he created a new and impassioned form of abstract painting. Rothko's work is characterized by rigorous attention to formal elements such as color, shape, balance, depth, composition, and scale; yet, he refused to consider his paintings solely in these terms. He explained: It is a widely accepted notion among painters that it does not matter what one paints as long as it is well painted. This is the essence of academicism. There is no such thing as good painting about nothing.
By 1949 Rothko had introduced a compositional format that he would continue to develop throughout his career. Comprised of several vertically aligned rectangular forms set within a colored field, Rothko's "image" lent itself to a remarkable diversity of appearances. In these works, large scale, open structure and thin layers of color combine to convey the impression of a shallow pictorial space. Color, for which Rothko's work is perhaps most celebrated, here attains an unprecedented luminosity. His classic paintings of the 1950s are characterized by expanding dimensions and an increasingly simplified use of form, brilliant hues, and broad, thin washes of color. In his large floating rectangles of color, which seem to engulf the spectator, he explored with a rare mastery of nuance the expressive potential of color contrasts and modulations.
Alternately radiant and dark, Rothko's art is distinguished by a rare degree of sustained concentration on pure pictorial properties such as color, surface, proportion, and scale, accompanied by the conviction that those elements could disclose the presence of a high philosophical truth. Visual elements such as luminosity, darkness, broad space, and the contrast of colors have been linked, by the artist himself as well as other commentators, to profound themes such as tragedy, ecstasy, and the sublime. Rothko, however, generally avoided explaining the content of his work, believing that the abstract image could directly represent the fundamental nature of "human drama."
–- White, Orange, and Yellow (1200x782pix, 37kb) a dirty white and a dirty yellow irregular rectangles on a dirty orange background _ The pseudonymous Raukus Mothkowitz, with much fewer kilobytes, has pure colors and two rigorously geometrical rectangles in his screen filling
_ Why to Range and Yell “Ow !” aka WOY (2kb) and he has 23 pure colors in his
_ White, Orange, Yellow, Black, Green, Blue, Brown, Cyan, Pink, and Other Colors aka Local Oro (screen filling, 2kb). But Mothkowitz, while he can spoof minimalists, is really a maximalist, so he has multiplied by 8 Rothko's picture, replacing Rothco's fairly flat colors by multicolored patterns and textures, resulting in the highly original and stunning
_ A Far Cry From Just White, Orange, and Yellow aka Loco Loro (2006; screen filling, 209kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1297kb)
–- Untitled (800x618pix, 62kb) almost nothing to be seen: three nearly black gray rough rectangles framed in very dark reddish gray. Nevertheless Mothkowitz has achieved the seemingly impossible by aggressive lightening, intensification, introduction of colors, and symmetry:
_ Untied Lead aka Turn Rut (2006; screen filling, 209kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1297kb)
–- Untitled (800x514pix, 50kb) patches of dirty brown, orange, yellow, blue, and white. Mothkowitz cleaned up the colors and applied a thorough beautifying treatment, resulting in
_ United Nations Treaty Intended To Lend Egypt Dollars aka Brow Orb (2006; screen filling, 209kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1297kb)
— Reds Number 5 (1961; 600x510pix)
Vessels of Magic (1946)
Number 10 (1950)
Ochre and Red on Red (1954)
Center Triptych for the Rothko Chapel (1966)
Died on 25 September 1949: Henri-Charles
Manguin, French Fauvist painter born on 23 March 1874.
— He studied under Gustave Moreau at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from late 1894, making friends with his fellow students Albert Marquet, Henri Matisse, Jean Puy, and Georges Rouault, who were among those later to be labeled the Fauves when they exhibited together at the Salon d’Automne in 1905. Manguin’s Nude in the Studio (1903), in its rejection of local color, conspicuously broken brushstroke and subversion of traditional perspective, is an early example of his Fauvist style, which was considerably less revolutionary than that of Matisse or Maurice de Vlaminck. The picture is, however, given a personal twist by Manguin’s unusual framing devices and ambiguous space, for example in his use of a theoretically impossible reflection in a mirror to produce a picture within a picture. The disjunction that was noted at the time by Guillaume Apollinaire between Manguin’s use of heightened, unnaturalistic color and straightforward, almost academic drawing style is evident in a Self-portrait (1905), in which broadly brushed areas and patches of color break down traditional illusionism by drawing attention to the canvas surface.
–- Walk in Saint-Tropez (1905)
–- Fleurs (1915)
–- Paysage à Saint-Tropez (1905)
–- Matin à Cavaliere (1906)
–-S#> Colombier, le Château (1917, 50x73cm; ZOOM to 900x1330pix, 199kb)
–-S#> Jeanne à l'ombrelle, assise dans le jardin de Coulombs (1900, 65x54cm; 900x732pix, 176kb)
–-S#> La glycine à Neuilly (1922, 65x46cm; 799x565pix, 118kb)
–-S#> Roses blanches sur la table (72x59cm; 900x724pix, 388kb)
|Early in the morning Jesus arrived again in the temple area, and all the people started coming to him, and he sat down and taught them. Then the scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught in adultery and made her stand in the middle. They said to him, “Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of committing adultery. Now in the law, Moses commanded us to stone such women. So what do you say?” They said this to test him, so that they could have some charge to bring against him. Jesus bent down and began to write on the ground with his finger. But when they continued asking him, he straightened up and said to them, “Let the one among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her.” Again he bent down and wrote on the ground. And in response, they went away one by one, beginning with the elders. So he was left alone with the woman before him. Then Jesus straightened up and said to her, “Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?” She replied, “No one, sir.” Then Jesus said, “Neither do I condemn you. Go, (and) from now on do not sin any more.”|
made a vow to YWH. “If you deliver the Ammonites into my power,”
he said, “whoever comes out of the doors of my house to meet me when
I return in triumph from the Ammonites shall belong to YWH. I shall offer
him up as a holocaust.” Jephthah then went on to the Ammonites to
fight against them, and YWH delivered them into his power, so that he inflicted
a severe defeat on them, from Aroer to the approach of Minnith (twenty cities
in all) and as far as Abel-keramin. Thus were the Ammonites brought into
subjection by the Israelites.
When Jephthah returned to his house in Mizpah, it was his daughter who came forth, playing the tambourines and dancing. She was an only child: he had neither son nor daughter besides her. When he saw her, he rent his garments and said, "Alas, daughter, you have struck me down and brought calamity upon me. For I have made a vow to YWH and I cannot retract.” “Father," she replied, "you have made a vow to YWH. Do with me as you have vowed, because YWH has wrought vengeance for you on your enemies the Ammonites." Then she said to her father, "Let me have this favor. Spare me for two months, that I may go off down the mountains to mourn my virginity with my companions." "Go," he replied, and sent her away for two months. So she departed with her companions and mourned her virginity on the mountains. At the end of the two months she returned to her father, who did to her as he had vowed.