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DEATHS: 1561 BERRUGUETE — 1949 MANGUIN
BIRTH: 1903 ROTHKO
^ Died on 25 September 1561: Alonso González de Berruguete, Spanish Mannerist painter and sculptor born in 1488.
— He was the most distinguished Spanish artist of the 16th century, and his style dominated the central Iberian Peninsula. He integrated the expressive qualities of Gothic art with the beauty of the Renaissance. He brought to Spain Italian Mannerist ideas both in sculpture and painting and played a leading part in their development. Berruguete’s workshop became a meeting place in the same way as the conversazioni, the precursors of the academies in Italy. Patronized by leading figures of the day, his artistic and financial independence helped to improve the status of the artist.
— One of the five sons of Pedro Berruguete [1450 – 06 Jan 1504], he learnt painting from his father but, later under the influence of Michelangelo, turned toward sculpting and became the major Spanish sculptor of the 16th century. He was trained in Italy and brought back Italian Mannerist ideas, both in sculpture and in painting. He went to Florence about 1504, where he saw and copied Michelangelo's lost cartoon for the Battle of Cascina (he is even mentioned in Michelangelo's letters). He may have been in Rome before returning to Florence for about 5 years before his final return to Spain in 1517. He was, therefore, acquainted with the early work of Pontormo and Rosso at the very beginning of Mannerism. His own work as a painter is close to Rosso, and he probably finished the Coronation of the Virgin which was left incomplete by Filippino Lippi at his death in 1504.
      He was active in Spain principally as a sculptor on such works as the altar of the Irish College, Salamanca (1529-1532) and especially the choir stalls in Toledo Cathedral (on the Epistle side), made between 1539 and 1543. These works, like his paintings, show a combination of the influences of Leonardo da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto and Raphael. He had an extremely successful career, being made Painter to the King on his return from Italy and ennobled in 1559.
— Isidro Villoldo was an assistant of Berruguete. — Francisco Giralte was a student of Berruguete.

LINKS
Salomé (1514, 88x71cm; 695x555pix, 92kb _ ZOOM to 2550x2024pix, 281kb) with the head of Saint John the Baptist, shown oversized. _ Salome was the daughter of Herodias [–39 AD], who had divorced her father, Herod Philip, and, in violation of Mosaic law, married his half-brother, Herod Antipas [39 BC - 39 AD], the Romans' puppet ruler of Galilee. Mark 6:17-28:
     Herod was the one who had John arrested and bound in prison on account of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip, whom he had married. John had said to Herod, “It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife.” Herodias harbored a grudge against him and wanted to kill him but was unable to do so. Herod feared John, knowing him to be a righteous and holy man, and kept him in custody. When he heard him speak he was very much perplexed, yet he liked to listen to him.
      She had an opportunity one day when Herod, on his birthday, gave a banquet for his courtiers, his military officers, and the leading men of Galilee. Herodias's own daughter came in and performed a dance that delighted Herod and his guests. The king said to the girl, “Ask of me whatever you wish and I will grant it to you.” He even swore (many things) to her, “I will grant you whatever you ask of me, even to half of my kingdom.”
      She went out and said to her mother, “What shall I ask for?” She replied, “The head of John the Baptist.” The girl hurried back to the king's presence and made her request, “I want you to give me at once on a platter the head of John the Baptist.” The king was deeply distressed, but because of his oaths and the guests he did not wish to break his word to her. So he promptly dispatched an executioner with orders to bring back his head. He went off and beheaded him in the prison. He brought in the head on a platter and gave it to the girl. The girl in turn gave it to her mother.
–- Madonna with Child and Saint John the Baptist as a Child (1515 round; 1102x1100pix, 123kb)
Saint Peter Martyr _ detail
Le Couronnement de la Vierge avec Saint Jérôme, Saint François d'Assise, Saint Bonaventure et Saint Louis de Toulouse (277x189cm; 492x324pix, 74kb) _ main detail (512x635pix, 105kb) _ The painting was started by Filippino Lippi [1457 – 18 Apr 1504], but was mainly painted by Berruguete between 1511 and 1518; it was retouched by an unknown painter in 1520.
—(050924)
^ >Born on 25 September 1903: Marcus Rothkowits “Mark Rothko”, Russian-born US abstract expressionist painter, who died on 25 February 1970.
— Mark Rothko was born Marcus Rothkowitz in Dvinsk, Russia (today Daugavpils, Latvia), the fourth child of Jacob Rothkowitz, a pharmacist [1859–], and Anna Goldin Rothkowitz [1870–], who had married in 1886. Rothko and his family immigrated to the United States when he was ten years old, and settled in Portland, Oregon. Rothko attended Yale University in 1921, where he studied English, French, European history, elementary mathematics, physics, biology, and economics, the history of philosophy, and general psychology. His initial intention was to become an engineer or an attorney. Rothko gave up his studies in the fall of 1923 and moved to New York City.
     In the 1920s Rothko attended classes at the Art Students League, briefly studying under Max Weber, who encouraged him to work in a style reminiscent of Cézanne.
     During the 1940s Rothko's imagery became increasingly symbolic. In the social climate of anxiety that dominated the late 1930s and the years of World War II, images from everyday life, however unnaturalistic, began to appear somewhat outmoded. If art were to express the tragedy of the human condition, Rothko felt, new subjects and a new idiom had to be found. He said, "It was with the utmost reluctance that I found the figure could not serve my purposes....But a time came when none of us could use the figure without mutilating it."
     
      One of the preeminent artists of his generation, Mark Rothko is closely identified with the New York School, a circle of painters that emerged during the 1940s as a new collective voice in American art. During a career that spanned five decades, he created a new and impassioned form of abstract painting. Rothko's work is characterized by rigorous attention to formal elements such as color, shape, balance, depth, composition, and scale; yet, he refused to consider his paintings solely in these terms. He explained: It is a widely accepted notion among painters that it does not matter what one paints as long as it is well painted. This is the essence of academicism. There is no such thing as good painting about nothing.
     By 1949 Rothko had introduced a compositional format that he would continue to develop throughout his career. Comprised of several vertically aligned rectangular forms set within a colored field, Rothko's "image" lent itself to a remarkable diversity of appearances. In these works, large scale, open structure and thin layers of color combine to convey the impression of a shallow pictorial space. Color, for which Rothko's work is perhaps most celebrated, here attains an unprecedented luminosity. His classic paintings of the 1950s are characterized by expanding dimensions and an increasingly simplified use of form, brilliant hues, and broad, thin washes of color. In his large floating rectangles of color, which seem to engulf the spectator, he explored with a rare mastery of nuance the expressive potential of color contrasts and modulations.
     Alternately radiant and dark, Rothko's art is distinguished by a rare degree of sustained concentration on pure pictorial properties such as color, surface, proportion, and scale, accompanied by the conviction that those elements could disclose the presence of a high philosophical truth. Visual elements such as luminosity, darkness, broad space, and the contrast of colors have been linked, by the artist himself as well as other commentators, to profound themes such as tragedy, ecstasy, and the sublime. Rothko, however, generally avoided explaining the content of his work, believing that the abstract image could directly represent the fundamental nature of "human drama."

LINKS
–- White, Orange, and Yellow (1200x782pix, 37kb) a dirty white and a dirty yellow irregular rectangles on a dirty orange background _ The pseudonymous Raukus Mothkowitz, with much fewer kilobytes, has pure colors and two rigorously geometrical rectangles in his screen filling
      _ Why to Range and Yell “Ow !” aka WOY (2kb) and he has 23 pure colors in his
      _ White, Orange, Yellow, Black, Green, Blue, Brown, Cyan, Pink, and Other Colors aka Local Oro (screen filling, 2kb). But Mothkowitz, while he can spoof minimalists, is really a maximalist, so he has multiplied by 8 Rothko's picture, replacing Rothco's fairly flat colors by multicolored patterns and textures, resulting in the highly original and stunning
      _ A Far Cry From Just White, Orange, and Yellow aka Loco Loro (2006; screen filling, 209kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1297kb)
–- Untitled (800x618pix, 62kb) almost nothing to be seen: three nearly black gray rough rectangles framed in very dark reddish gray. Nevertheless Mothkowitz has achieved the seemingly impossible by aggressive lightening, intensification, introduction of colors, and symmetry:
      _ Untied Lead aka Turn Rut (2006; screen filling, 209kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1297kb)
–- Untitled (800x514pix, 50kb) patches of dirty brown, orange, yellow, blue, and white. Mothkowitz cleaned up the colors and applied a thorough beautifying treatment, resulting in
      _ United Nations Treaty Intended To Lend Egypt Dollars aka Brow Orb (2006; screen filling, 209kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1297kb)
Reds Number 5 (1961; 600x510pix)
Vessels of Magic (1946)
Number 10 (1950)
Ochre and Red on Red (1954)
Center Triptych for the Rothko Chapel (1966)
—(070924)
^ Died on 25 September 1949: Henri-Charles Manguin, French Fauvist painter born on 23 March 1874.
— He studied under Gustave Moreau at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from late 1894, making friends with his fellow students Albert Marquet, Henri Matisse, Jean Puy, and Georges Rouault, who were among those later to be labeled the Fauves when they exhibited together at the Salon d’Automne in 1905. Manguin’s Nude in the Studio (1903), in its rejection of local color, conspicuously broken brushstroke and subversion of traditional perspective, is an early example of his Fauvist style, which was considerably less revolutionary than that of Matisse or Maurice de Vlaminck. The picture is, however, given a personal twist by Manguin’s unusual framing devices and ambiguous space, for example in his use of a theoretically impossible reflection in a mirror to produce a picture within a picture. The disjunction that was noted at the time by Guillaume Apollinaire between Manguin’s use of heightened, unnaturalistic color and straightforward, almost academic drawing style is evident in a Self-portrait (1905), in which broadly brushed areas and patches of color break down traditional illusionism by drawing attention to the canvas surface.

LINKS
–- Walk in Saint-Tropez (1905)
–- Fleurs (1915)
–- Paysage à Saint-Tropez (1905)
–- Matin à Cavaliere (1906)
–-S#> Colombier, le Château (1917, 50x73cm; ZOOM to 900x1330pix, 199kb)
–-S#> Jeanne à l'ombrelle, assise dans le jardin de Coulombs (1900, 65x54cm; 900x732pix, 176kb)
–-S#> La glycine à Neuilly (1922, 65x46cm; 799x565pix, 118kb)
–-S#> Roses blanches sur la table (72x59cm; 900x724pix, 388kb)
—(070912)

Died on a 25 September:


^ 1972 Aleksander Kobzdej, Polish painter born on 12 September 1920. Malarz, architekt, scenograf. Profesor warszawskiej Akademii Sztuk Pieknych i Wyzszej Szkoly Sztuk Pieknych w Hamburgu. Laureat austriackiej nagrody im. Herdera (1966). Wczesna twórczosc Kobzdeja nalezy do realizmu socjalistycznego ("Podaj cegle"). Znaczaca role w ksztaltowaniu stylu artysty odegraly podróze do Chin i Wietnamu, skad przywiózl cykl rysunków wystawianych na Biennale w Wenecji (1954). Pod koniec lat 50-tych zaczal malowac obrazy utrzymane w nurcie abstrakcji aluzyjnej. Slawe przyniosla mu seria obrazów zaliczana do malarstwa materii. Artysta róznicowal fakture, nakladal farbe grubymi warstwami, w ten sposób, by obraz zyskiwal cechy reliefu; z czasem zaczal wprowadzac do kompozycji takie materialy jak drewno, metal, tworzywa sztuczne (cykl "Szczeliny", lata 60-te).
— Kobzdej is remembered above all for two reasons: as the author of one of the best known painted works embodying the tenets of Socialist Realism and as the creator of one of the most interesting Polish versions of "matter" painting. In 1939 he began studying architecture at the Lviv Polytechnic Institute. Historical circumstances forced him to suspend his studies after only two years. He completed his degree in 1946 at the Gdansk Polytechnic Institute, where he went on to lecture (to 1950). Simultaneously, it was during the wartime occupation of Poland that he began to study painting under Wladyslaw Lam. After the war he studied at Krakow's Academy of Fine Arts under the guidance of Eugeniusz Eibisch. He began to lecture at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw in 1951. In 1965 and 1966 (while working simultaneously in Warsaw) he was head of the painting faculty at the Hochschule für Bildende Kunste in Hamburg.
     Initially Kobzdej painted in a clearly Post Impressionist vein, though he exhibited an interest in abstract art early on. Towards the end of the 1940s both his paintings and drawings began to allude to the 19th century Realist tradition. He enjoyed the widespread recognition of official authorities and received numerous state awards and distinctions. His position grew during the Socialist Realist period. Beginning in 1950 he was an active participant in official arts reviews, including the annual Polish National Visual Arts Exhibitions organized in Warsaw by the Ministry of Culture and Art. At the first of these he presented a painting titled Podaj Cegle (Pass Me a Brick; 1949). This work is considered a model realization of the principles set forth for art by Socialist Realist ideologues precisely for its optimistic and propagandistic tone and its formally schematic nature. In other compositions of this period, however, the painter ably depicted the tragic nature of superhuman effort (Ceglarki = Women Bricklayers; 1950).
     Signs of impending change appeared in Kobzdej's work at the beginning of the 1950s in a series of drawings he produced as an outgrowth of his travels to China and Vietnam (1954). These works demonstrate his interest in means of expression that do not reflect reality, and transform it instead into art. The artist abandoned the narrative bareness of representation opting for more subtle means of expression in both his paintings and drawings. His final abandonment of Socialist Realist iconography became evident in the series of paintings titled Gestwiny (Arrays; 1955). Towards the end of this same decade, the painter traveled around Western Europe. The voyage transformed his art fundamentally, to the extent that one might even say it revolutionized Kobzdej's work. He discarded representation and began to paint metaphorical compositions with a dramatic, even eschatological mood, which were impressive for their refined color schemes (see the series Idole, 1958-1959; and the triptych Na Smierc Czlowieka = For the Death of a Man; 1964). This path led him directly to Informel art. He gradually devoted more of his efforts to researching the structure of paintings. He came to underline the material status and rank of paint itself, differentiating textures and highlighting the nuances inherent in color. A masterly example of this approach, belonging firmly within the realm of "matter" painting, is the series Szczeliny (Crevices), dating from the 1960s. These works combine the properties of flat compositions with those of the technique of relief. Though they constitute integral wholes played out on a plane, they simultaneously seek to go beyond the limitations thereof. Kobzdej achieved the effect by layering paint thickly and by introducing non-painting materials, small elements of various derivation (particles of metal, wood, plastic) that seemed to emerge from between two bands of painted canvas. The next phase in Kobzdej's explorations took the form of spatial objects composed of rectangular platens that seemed to press an untamable, pulpy mass out of an invisible tube (Powierzchnia Srebrna Podparta Reliefem = Silver Surface Supported by a Relief, 1967). The artist resorted to yet other solutions during the last years of his life. At this time he created a series of several dozen highly original painterly and sculpted structures formed of a moldable mass "draped" on a metal mesh (Hors Cadre, 1969-1972). Kobzdej also created a series of paintings intended for specific interiors (Baby Goluchowskie = Babushkas for Goluchow Castle), and designed scenery, posters, and book illustrations.
— During his studies at the Architecture Faculty of the Technical University in Lwów, he took up painting under the supervision of Professor Wladyslaw Lam. After the war he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków under the guidance of Eugeniusz Eibisch. In 1947 he became a fellow of the State College of Arts in Sopot under Professor Józefa Wnuk, in the Department of Volume and Surface Composition. Apart from painting he was engaged at this time in sculpture and monumental architecture. In 1954 artist became a Professor at the Department of Painting of the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts. From then Kobzdej had been elected several times the Dean of the Faculty of Painting.
     Kobzdej is an enthusiastic painter who knows how to put life into his subject matter, how to animate it, to agitate it, whip it, extend it, to give it subdued or brilliant colours, to make it smooth or rough, to enlarge or to contract it, to compartmentate it into cells, to pleat it by differentiating the thickness, to imprint it with the sense of tragedy. The titles of his canvasses: Crushed, Stretched, Projected, Treacherous, Conflict, have something very striking about them. They are related to crude matter - one would say elementary. In its substance, the painting of Kobzdej brings our perception to grandiose themes. It suggests the conflict of elements, the cutting of stone, the splintering of wood, the surging of fire. You see, all this is based on an order of the greatest simplicity and a scale of tones which make you think of Genesis, with its rusty reds, acidic greens of rock and blues of lapis lazuli. Sometimes, it is hard to say what kind of a precious stone appears framed in a burst of splinters. Biblical quotations translated from the past onto the canvasses, rolling spaces... All this is rivalry, a jet of water or a cascade. In everything he does, Kobzdej shows an equal power. From morning till night this warrior of great tenacity is under the spell of his work. His paintings are images of action. "In my work - he tells us - I am a new man facing a new world. I feel the urge to enlarge and to deepen my domain. I am not an 'abstractionist'. I am not assembling forms. Painting, to me, is neither a chemical formula nor a rule of a game. I do not calculate. I create my universe, a concrete world which I feel very profoundly. Hence my landscapes, my people, my problems, my difficulties". And Kobzdej confides to me his dream of a marriage between the Orient and the Occident, a harmony based on the accord of two extremes. To him, each region, each culture has its moments of enlightment. The wheel is turning. His pallet ranges from sonorous blacks, through pinks of dawn, salmon colours - to the most subtle greens. This artist has a gift of a continuous rebirth of ideas, maintaining in his painting an imposing monumentality. Every canvass is to him a new adventure. His recent stay among us has enriched still more his powers by refining his scale of nuances, through an even more moving gradation of sensitivity, and by developing an even more subtle delicacy of his means of expression.
Pass a Brick 1950, National Museum, Wroclaw realistic: 3 bricklayers at work on a wall.
Kompozycja (1957, 55x45cm; 611x471pix, 178kb).
Przestrzen Nr 21 (1969, 90x60cm; 50kb) monochrome red, not much drawn. _ Amazingly the pseudonymous Sander Kornkob has transformed this painting into almost its opposite, two related pictures full of varied colors, textures, and details to explore at leisure in their large format images:
      _ Public Relations Zest for Zen aka Artistic Bounty (2006; 932x1318pix, 426kb _ ZOOM to 2636x3728pix, 3119kb) and
      _ Publicity Relative to Zen for Zest aka Bountiful Art (2006; 932x1318pix, 426kb _ ZOOM to 2636x3728pix, 3119kb)
Okreslony (1958, 110x84cm, 621x471pix, 79kb)
Hors Cadre bez tytulu (Niebieski) (1971, 84x100cm; 72kb)
Krol Macius (470x317pix, 40kb) movie poster
Autobus Odjezdza (310x211pix, 21kb) movie poster
Bambus (363x250pix, 23kb) movie poster —(060918)

1959 Paul Artaria, Swiss artchitect born on 06 August 1892. —(060918)

^ 1690 Pieter van Lint, Flemish painter born on 28 June 1609. — Relative? of Hendrik Frans van Lint “lo Studio” [26 Jan 1684– 23 Sep 1763]? — Before becoming master of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1632, van Lint worked for several years with Artus Wolffort; he recorded their collaboration in his diary. During these years he frequently copied the more famous paintings in Antwerp’s churches, not only those by Peter Paul Rubens, but also works by older masters such as Marten de Vos and the Francken brothers. His earliest known painting, an Adoration by the Shepherds (1632), shows a clear indebtedness to Wolffort’s style, which was in the pre-Rubensian, academic manner of Otto van Veen. Van Lint was active also in Italy. — LINKS
–-S#> Christ and the Adulterous Woman (74x90cm; ZOOM to 1237x1584pix, 231kb) John 8:2-11:
     Early in the morning Jesus arrived again in the temple area, and all the people started coming to him, and he sat down and taught them. Then the scribes and the Pharisees brought a woman who had been caught in adultery and made her stand in the middle. They said to him, “Teacher, this woman was caught in the very act of committing adultery. Now in the law, Moses commanded us to stone such women. So what do you say?” They said this to test him, so that they could have some charge to bring against him. Jesus bent down and began to write on the ground with his finger. But when they continued asking him, he straightened up and said to them, “Let the one among you who is without sin be the first to throw a stone at her.” Again he bent down and wrote on the ground. And in response, they went away one by one, beginning with the elders. So he was left alone with the woman before him. Then Jesus straightened up and said to her, “Woman, where are they? Has no one condemned you?” She replied, “No one, sir.” Then Jesus said, “Neither do I condemn you. Go, (and) from now on do not sin any more.”
Jephtha's Daughter (48x64cm; 575x677pix, 223kb) Judges 11:30-39:
     Jephthah made a vow to YWH. “If you deliver the Ammonites into my power,” he said, “whoever comes out of the doors of my house to meet me when I return in triumph from the Ammonites shall belong to YWH. I shall offer him up as a holocaust.” Jephthah then went on to the Ammonites to fight against them, and YWH delivered them into his power, so that he inflicted a severe defeat on them, from Aroer to the approach of Minnith (twenty cities in all) and as far as Abel-keramin. Thus were the Ammonites brought into subjection by the Israelites.
      When Jephthah returned to his house in Mizpah, it was his daughter who came forth, playing the tambourines and dancing. She was an only child: he had neither son nor daughter besides her. When he saw her, he rent his garments and said, "Alas, daughter, you have struck me down and brought calamity upon me. For I have made a vow to YWH and I cannot retract.” “Father," she replied, "you have made a vow to YWH. Do with me as you have vowed, because YWH has wrought vengeance for you on your enemies the Ammonites." Then she said to her father, "Let me have this favor. Spare me for two months, that I may go off down the mountains to mourn my virginity with my companions." "Go," he replied, and sent her away for two months. So she departed with her companions and mourned her virginity on the mountains. At the end of the two months she returned to her father, who did to her as he had vowed.
–-S#> The Adoration by the Shepherds (69x87cm; 404x510pix, 28kb) by a follower

^ 1679 Philips-Ausgustyn Immenraet, Flemish painter born on 21 February 1627.
The Wolf Hunt _ Similar subject by other artists:
   _ Alexandre-François Desportes : The Wolf Hunt
   _ Rubens : Wolf and Fox Hunt (1620)
   _ Jacques-Raymond Brascassat : Dogs attacking a Wolf


Born on a 25 September:


^ 1945 Tomasz Ciecierski, Polish painter. From the moment of the his return from Tuscany in 1998 variations of pink and of violet hold indivisible reign in his works, setting the entire tone. The artist tests the two colors, difficult and untypical for painting, in a variety of ways. In over a dozen or smaller compositions of 1999-2000, made up of four rectangular stretchers joined together on an even plane, he leaves the whole of the bottom part of the painting to various combinations of pink and of violet. The two colors become each other's inseparable shadows. The remaining two top parts of the composition are filled with bright and intermingling blue, pink and white patches. The clash of those two levels - the lover one evenly coated with paint and the dynamic upper one - reverts to the artist's works of the late 1980s. It was then that symbolic landscape became his principal subject. Ciecierski treat landscape in an extraordinary manner. His landscapes are not servile copies of actual fragments of the reality. Within the space of his painting, the artist transforms the memories of real or imagined landscapes with fictitious seas, islands, mountains and skies. In recent as in the previous works he stets a well-marked horizon that separates the air, or perhaps the sky, from a surface that might conventionally be called earth or quiet sea. Yet paradoxically, due to their regularity and the simple and resolved divisions, those works are more harmonious and peaceful than previous ones. In the bigger compositions, in turn, such as Chiara or Luka of 1999, pink and violet are interspersed with soft colors. Bright hues prevail, often applied straight from the tube. This is the case with Celeste 414 of 1999, the title being the name of a blue paint. The nostalgic deep blue of Ciecierski's previous works, the vivid and contrasting connections of red and green or of glaring yellow and dark blue have now been soothed with white. New combinations of pink with brown or of white with yellow and blue have emerged. Black slowly recedes from the canvas; if at all, it is only present as a shadow of violet. The horizon loses its importance: it grows misty and blurred, as if blown away by an invisible light breeze running across the canvas. The paints is applied in thin and thrifty coats. Combined with the bright and soft palette, its delicate texture gives Ciecierski's new works a singular light. Like never before, they glimmer and vibrate with their inner shine. The construction of both the small and the big works has been simplified. Many layers of stretchers mounted on one another are no longer necessary. The even surface of canvas is sufficient, with tiny insertions added to the bigger compositions.
Przeciag (1981, 220x156cm; 332x476pix, 173kb)
Untitled (1987; 72kb) from the series Déjà Vu.
Garden Nymphs (1987; 36kb)
Untitled (1987; 23kb)
Untitled (1987; 31kb)
Untitled (2000; 472x379pix, 73kb)
Untitled (2004, 165x165cm; 149kb)
Untitled (1991. 50x54cm; 24kb)
— (untitled?) (34kb)
Untitled (2001, 170x160cm)
Chiara (1999, 103x104cm)
Peach Sorbet (2001, 136x133cm)
Obraz alogiczny II (1989, 160x236cm; 44kb)
Untitled (2001, 103x104cm)
Horyzont (1992, 30x183cm)
Untitled (2001, 51x66cm)
Untitled (2000, 51x66cm)
Untitled (1999, 51x66cm) —(0060918)

1933 Henri Gaudin, French architect. —(060918)

1927 Tancredi Parmeggiani, Italian painter who died (main coverage) on 27 September. 1964. —(090924)

^ 1887 Marguerite Thompson, who after her marriage to the sculptor William Zorach [1889 – 15 Nov 1966] would become known as the US fauvist painter Marguerite Zorach, who died on 27 June 1968. She studied briefly at Stanford University (1908), before going to Paris to attend in 1908–1911 La Palette, a small modernist school where she met William Zorach; they married in 1912. She also traveled throughout Europe, occasionally with Jessica Dismorr. Both Dismorr and Thompson contributed to the avant-garde publication Rhythm in 1911 and 1912. She returned to Fresno, CA, by way of Italy, Morocco, Egypt, the Middle East, and East Asia (1911–1912). During the summer of 1912 she spent time in the Sierra Mountains, producing a series of bold Fauvist paintings, including Waterfall, rendered in saturated colors with great spontaneity. — LINKS
Whippoorwills (1917, 51x61cm; 528x629pix, 111kb _ ZOOM to 1008x1200pix, 331kb) _ Marguerite and William Zorach spent the winter seasons in New York City, soaking up the avant-garde ideas in the paintings and sculpture shown at Alfred Stieglitz's 291 gallery and elsewhere while seeking exhibition opportunities for their own art. The warm months were for rejuvenation; between 1915 and 1918, the Zorachs spent several summers in New Hampshire. Although each of them would later specialize in other media (Marguerite became well known as a textile artist and William became one of the leading sculptors of the modernist generation), during this period they were both active as painters. Their styles, based on their experiences as art students in Paris a few years earlier, combined the vivid palette of Fauvism with Cubist compositional structure. Each of them turned to the landscape of the surrounding White Mountains as subject matter. In this case, their responses are found on either side of a single canvas: on the back of Marguerite's 1917 Whippoorwills is William's Randolph, New Hampshire, painted two years before. It is not known why the Zorachs chose to paint on both sides of a single piece of canvas. They were extremely poor in those years and may have been driven to work in this unusual manner for reasons of economy. But the double-sided canvas is also an expression of the collaborative spirit that marked their careers, and their marriage. They frequently had joint exhibitions; Marguerite drew embroidery motifs from images in William's paintings, while he based sculptural elements on her needlework designs; and a number of Marguerite's embroidered pictures were worked on (and signed) by both of them. Both sides of this painting reflect the Zorachs' pleasure in their summers in New Hampshire, where they lived rent- and relatively care- free in handsomely sited if dilapidated farmhouses that were loaned to them by generous patrons. William presented New Hampshire as Arcadia, with sensuous, Matisse-like nudes lounging in a bucolic landscape. He uses bold, bright colors reminiscent of French Fauvism. Marguerite's response to their surroundings was much more direct. The rolling hills, leafy woodlands, little waterfalls, and houses nestled in the valleys shown here are an accurate portrayal of the cozy landscape near Plainfield, New Hampshire, where they lived in 1917. The warm earth tones emphasize the organic quality of her picture. She molds the hills and trees into flat, decorative shapes, creating a tapestry-like pattern. Her technique also resonates with her work in textiles, for she paints thinly so that the canvas weave creates a background texture for her design. At the same time, she is a keen observer of nature: she accurately portrays the whippoorwills as having short rounded wings and rounded tails. Nocturnal birds, they soar by on the surface of the picture, beneath a crescent moon. —(060918)

^ 1886 Willem van Leusden, Dutch artist who died on 08 March 1974. — Biography by his great-grandson
Rencontre mystique (1932, 85x95cm; 573x640pix, 183kb) surrealist
Composition (1929, 52x40cm; 464x272pix, 15kb) monochrome grayish blue abstract
Composition (53x40cm; 464x272pix, 15kb) very much like the preceding.
Landschap (25x20cm; 480x381pix, 137kb) mountain gorge; mostly blue and bluish green.
Visioen aka De Paarden (1932, 480x381pix, 137kb) two horses framed by clouds, monochrome yellowish gray, plus a little blue. —(060918)

^ 1879 George William Sotter, US painter who died in 1953.
–-S#> The Winding Road (56x66cm; 614x800pix, 51kb) _ 90% mostly cloudy sky, 9% fields and trees on rolling hills, 1% distant houses. No road. —(050924)

^ 1875 Fernando Álvarez de Sotomayor y Zaragoza, Spanish painter who died in 1960. A student of the history painter and portraitist Manuel Domínguez y Sánchez, Sotomayor studied in Madrid at the San Fernando Academy. At the age of 24 he went to Rome, France, and Holland. With a gathering reputation as a young artist of note, on a visit to his native Galicia in 1905 his interest in the region was re-awakened. Thereafter his work centered on the essential truths to be found in the local communities, the moral strength of the people with whom he came into contact and the beauty of the local landscape. In 1907 he went to Chile where he became director of the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Santiago, until 1911. In 1929 he was appointed Director of the Prado, and thereafter Director of the Real Academia de San Fernando, Madrid.
–-S#> Fiesta de Santa Filomena, Buño, Galicia (1946, 129x108cm; 614x510pix, 45kb) _ This is one of Sotomayor´s most panoptic views of the interior of the church in Buńo in his native Galicia. Observed from an elevated position, possibly from the pulpit or lectern immediately in front and to the right of the altar, Sotomayor depicts a sea of local faces. The priest is shown in the background, venerating a carving of Saint Filomena, while the foreground is occupied by the ruddy complexions of the rural congregation. — (050924)

^ 1865 Henri Lebasque, French painter who died in August 1937. Born in a small village near the Sarthe, Lebasque enrolled as a student at his local art school, the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in Angers. In 1886, he went to Paris and briefly studied under Bonnat. He later studied under Humbert and aided in his decorations of the Panthéon. His made his début at the Salon des Indépendants in 1896 and he also participated in the Salon des Artistes Français. In his youth he frequently visited the ageing Pissarro, who lived near Paris, and in his studio he learned the crucial lessons about line, form and colour. Undoubtedly the influence of Pissarro upon Lebasque was far greater than that of Bonnat. As the era of the first great impressionists moved towards its close with Pissarro’s death in 1903, another era in French art began, with Lebasque participating in the inaugural exhibition at the Salon d’Automne, on whose committee he gave lifelong service. He was at one time wrongly classified with the Fauves, this doubtless as a result of his exhibiting alongside them in the Salon d’Automne during the exciting and innovative first few years of the 20th century. At the Salon des Indépendants in 1893 he met Luce and Signac for the first time and under their influence adopted the pointilliste technique for some years. By 1900 he was married. He settled with his family in Lagny to the east of Paris until 1906, mostly painting scenes along the wooded banks of the Marne. At about that time, he was introduced to the Midi by his friend Albert Manguin and the region wrought a dramatic transformation on his painting, from which he never turned back. He also spent much time painting in other far-flung regions of the land, in Vendée, Brittany, Normandy, Sanary (near Toulon) and Nice. For periods in 1912, 1915 and 1921 he lived in Les Andelys, on the Seine to the west of Paris and used the backdrop of steep chalky cliffs against the leafy river to great effect in his paintings. For more than thirty years he used members of his own family as models in his paintings and the artefacts, interiors, houses, gardens, riverbanks and beaches in his pictures were drawn from places where he stayed for long periods. After spending a few seasons in Saint-Tropez and Saint-Maxime, he finally decided on Le Cannet, and made his permanent home there in 1924. Admiration as a fellow artist drew Lebasque to his friend and neighbour Bonnard, whose work bore a similarity in theme to his own. He was also acquainted with other leading artists of the day: Matisse, Rouault, Dufy, Valtat and Manguin but his connections with them did not inflate his personality and neither did it eclipse his standing as an artist in his own right. He evolved a style all his own, however, creating a distinctly pleasing, understandable, and accessible way of painting. His subjects for the most part are landscapes, flowers, still-lifes, nudes and figures, always characterised by an attractive use of light and color. During Lebasque’s lifetime his work was widely admired by the public and was well received by the all-powerful critics of the time, whose opinions carried great weight. Lebasque worked on a few public projects, most notably the décor of the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. — LINKS
Nono et Marthe dans le Jardin avec Madame Lebasque
–- Nature Morte (67x73cm; 856x950pix, 102kb _ ZOOM to 1712x1900pix, 784kb) _ fruits, tasse, évantail, avec nappe et tapisserie.
Devant la Porte du Jardin (1905, 55x38cm; 480x318pix, 25kb) —(060918)

^ 1820 Frederick Richard Pickersgill, British painter who died (main coverage) on 20 December 1900. —(050908)

1807 Marinus Adrianus Koekkoek, Dutch artist who died in 1870. — Relative? of Barend Cornelius Koekkoek [11 Oct 1803 – 05 Apr 1862], Willem Koekkoek [1839~1895]??
Unloading the Barges -- Kruseman
^ 1797 Cornelis Kruseman, Dutch artist who died on 14 November 1857. At the age of 14 he attended a drawing academy in Amsterdam, where he was taught by Charles Hodges and J. A. Daiwaille [1786–1850] among others. He painted portraits (e.g. Mrs Brak-Haskenhoff, 1818), biblical subjects and Italian peasant scenes, which are reminiscent of the works of his French contemporary Léopold Robert. He worked in a classicizing style, which favored pure line and ideal beauty. He went to Italy in 1821, spending two years in Rome, where he was particularly inspired by the picturesque details of Italian daily life and studied the Italian Old Masters. Typical of his work from this period is Piety, which combines, with careful lighting and modeling, a religious scene, a history piece and an imaginative treatment of local peasant life. After his return from Italy in 1825 Kruseman settled in The Hague, where he lived until 1854. He was in Italy again between 1841 and 1848, where he produced such paintings as The Captured Butterfly. — The students of Cornelis Kruseman included his nephew Jan Adam Kruseman [12 Feb 1804 – 17 Mar 1862], Alexander Hugo Bakker Korff, David Joseph Bles, Herman Frederik Carel ten Kate [16 Feb 1822 – 26 Mar 1891], Johan Philip Koelman, Raden Saleh. — Unloading the Barges (26x37cm) >>>

^ 1791 Karoly Markó I, Hungarian painter, teacher and illustrator, active in Italy, who died on 19 November 1860. He studied in Kolozsvár (now Cluj, Romania) and Pest and in 1822 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. His early paintings are of Hungarian landscapes (e.g. the Danube Bank at Óbuda, 1821). In 1830 he painted his best-known early work, The Castle Hill at Visegrád, which amalgamated natural elements and patriotic sentiments through its reference to the heroic past. In 1832 he moved to Rome (the rest of his family followed in 1838), and in 1833 he illustrated Perlen der heiligen Vorzeit (1821), the poems of János Pyrker, the Bishop of Eger.
     Markó's main interest, however, was in painting landscape studies (e.g. Roman Campagna, 1838) and depicting the lives of the Italian peasants (e.g. Grape Harvest, 1836). In 1838 he lived in San Giuliano and in 1843 in Florence, where he became a teacher at the Accademia di Belle Arti. He moved to Villa Appeggi, near Florence, in 1847. His animated depictions of the natural world were influenced by the landscapes of Poussin and Claude, but the natural elements in his works always formed part of an ideal landscape. In the lit middle ground between the dark foreground and the blue sky in the distant background he placed biblical figures (e.g. Abraham Receiving the Angel, 1849) and mythological characters (e.g. The Death of Eurydice, 1847) or native peasants (e.g. Landscape of Appeggi, 1848). In 1845, however, he had participated in the architectural competition for the Hungarian parliament, and in his later career he became closely involved with Hungarian art life. During a visit to Pest in 1853 he was warmly received, and his impressions of Hungary appear in Hungarian Plain Landscape with Well. In the same year he became preoccupied with Hungarian historical themes, painting several versions of Béla IV’s Escape. He sent many pictures back to Hungary to be shown in the exhibitions of the Artists Association of Pest. Among his students were Eugenio Landesio, and numerous Hungarians, including his sons Károly Markó II [22 Jan 1822 – 1891], who eventually settled in Moscow, and Ferenc Markó [1832 – 03 Aug 1874], who settled in Hungary. Another son, András Markó [29 Sep 1824 – 12 Jul 1895], worked primarily in Vienna.
The Puszta (373x500pix, 40kb)
Mountain Landscape (50x45cm)

^ 1718 Martin Johann “Kremser” Schmidt, Krems region Austrian painter who died on 28 June 1801. He was apprenticed briefly to Johann Gottlieb Starmayr (fl 1720–1740), and from 1741 he worked independently. His oeuvre is informed by thorough study of examples of early Baroque painting in Austria and also of the rich collections of prints and drawings in the monasteries of Göttweig and Dürnstein. Through these works Schmidt familiarized himself with the Venetian repertory of form (which he may also have studied while travelling in northern Italy). Schmidt paid particular attention to the prints of Jacques Callot and the prints and drawings of Rembrandt; the latter encouraged Schmidt to practice drawing in ink. Figures derived from Rembrandt’s types recur in a number of variations in the staffage of Schmidt’s altarpieces. While his drawings are retardataire in character, his manner of incorporating the types he adopted into his paintings is quite inventive.
Das Martyrium des Heiligen Vitus (1772 engraving, 313x158cm) _ About Saint Vitus nothing is known except that he was an early Christian martyr, that he prayed to against epilepsy (“Saint Vitus' dance”), and an apocryphal legend according to which he was a boy of 7 or 12. The picture shows him about to be plunged into a caldron of boiling oil and to be crowned with laurels by an angel.


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