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ART “4” “2”-DAY  23 September v.9.80
BIRTHS: 1871 KUPKA — 1734 PRATT — 1879 CAMOIN — 1865 VALADON — 1629 EHRENSTRAHL 1897 DELVAUX   1866 LEIGH 
Opéra de Paris Opera ceiling
Unveiled on 23 September 1964:

      The Paris Opéra (which had opened on 05 January 1875) unveils a stunning new ceiling painted as a gift by Belorussian-born artist Marc Chagall [07 Jul 1887 – 28 Mar 1985], who spent much of his life in France. The ceiling was typical of Chagall's masterpieces — childlike in its apparent simplicity yet luminous with color and evocative of the world of dreams and the subconscious.
      Moishe Zakharovich Shagalov was born in the town of Vitebsk in the Russian empire on 07 July 1887. His parents were Jewish merchants, and the society he grew up in was in many ways a survival from the medieval era. The Jewish and Russian folkloric themes to which he was exposed in his youth would inform his artwork throughout his career. He took up drawing as a child and in 1906 went to St. Petersburg to study art with the help of a rich Jewish patron. In 1908, he was invited to the Zvantseva School to study under the prestigious theater designer Leon Bakst and that year produced one of his great works, The Dead Man, a nightmarish painting inspired by a brush with death.
      In 1910, another Jewish patron sent Chagall to Paris, rescuing him from what might have been a career confined to folk art. In Paris — the center of the Western art world — he was embraced by avant~garde artists who encouraged him to exploit the seemingly irrational tendencies of his art. Imaginative works like Moi et le Village (1911) generated widespread enthusiasm, and Chagall entered the artistic phase that many viewed as his best. His pictures, wrought in a variety of artistic mediums, showed a fantastical world in which people, animals, and other figurative elements were cast in bright and unusual colors and seemed to dance and float across the canvas.
     Chagall had his first one-man show in Berlin in 1914 and with the outbreak of World War I was stranded in Russia during a visit to Vitebsk. He welcomed the Russian Revolution of 1917, which provided full citizenship for Russian Jews and brought official recognition of Chagall and his art. He was made a commissar for art in the Vitebsk region and helped establish a local museum and art academy. However, he was soon frustrated by aesthetic and political quarrels and in 1922 left Soviet Russia for the West.
      Chagall was welcomed as an idol by the Surrealists, who saw in his paintings like Paris Through the Window (1913) an important precursor to their own irrational and dream-like art. He took up engraving and produced hundreds of illustrations for special editions of Nikolai Gogol's Dead Souls, Jean de La Fontaine's Fables, and the Bible. In 1941, he fled with his wife from Nazi-occupied Paris to the United States, where he lived in and around New York City for seven years. War~induced pessimism and sadness over the death of his wife infused much of his art from this period, as seen in the Yellow Crucifixion (1943) and Around Her (1945). In 1945, he designed the sets and costumes for the New York production of Igor Stravinsky's The Firebird, and in 1946 Chagall was given a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art.
      In 1948, Chagall returned to France, and eventually settled in the French Riviera village of St. Paul de Vence, his home for the rest of his life. In 1958, Chagall designed the sets and costumes for a production of Maurice Ravel's ballet Daphnis et Chloé at the Paris Opéra. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, he produced stained~glass windows, first for a cathedral in Metz, France, and then for a synagogue in Jerusalem. In 1964, Chagall completed a stained~glass window for the United Nations building in New York that was dedicated to the late Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld [29 Jul 1905 – 18 Sep 1961].
      Meanwhile, André Malraux, the French minister of culture, commissioned Chagall to design a new ceiling for the Paris Opéra after seeing his work in Daphnis et Chloé. Working with a surface of 560 square meters, Chagall divided the ceiling into color zones that he filled with landscapes and figures representing the luminaries of opera and ballet, in particular Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake and Moussorgsky's Boris Godounov. The ceiling is unveiled on 23 September 1964, during a performance of the same Daphnis et Chloé. As usual, a few detractors condemn Chagall's work as overly primitive, but this criticism is drowned out in the general acclaim for the work. In 1966, as a gift to the city that had sheltered him during World War II, he would paint two vast murals for New York's Metropolitan Opera House (1966). In 1977, France would honored Chagall with a retrospective exhibition at the Louvre in Paris. He would continue to work vigorously until his death on 28 March 1985.

Self~Portrait — Self Portrait With 7 Fingers on One Hand — Moi et le Village — War — White CrucifixionFeastday — Jew at Prayer — Praying Jew — Abraham About to Sacrifice Isaac — Parting of the Red Sea — Rainbow — Adam and Eve — Dan stained glass window — Joseph stained glass window — Issachar stained glass window — Levi stained glass window — Three Candles — Fiddler — Newspaper Seller — Coq — Parade — Red Nude — Birthday — The Spoonful of Milk — Le Violiniste — La Baie des Anges
^ Died on 23 September 1946: Angel Zárraga, Mexican painter born on 16 August 1886.
      — He was born in the City of Durango. He was an urban and cordial man; as an artist he went through everything: he was eulogized, censored and finally recovered. His liking for art and writing started as a young man; he attended San Ildefonso high-school where important figures of Mexican culture studied. Around 1902 he wrote for the Revista Moderna, and joined the School of Fine Arts.
      He traveled to Europe in 1904, to continue his artistic education, like many other young artists did in his time. He returned to his mother-land to show his improvements at the Academy, but he soon went back to France, to stay for near 35 years. During his stay in that country he married the Russian sportswoman Jeanette Ivanof in 1919, who liked art, and possibly was his nude model for a while. In that time he experienced the disasters of the World War I.
      Later on, he married again to an European woman, and continued his painting métier. Several churches were damaged because of the war, and Zárraga worked for them as a fresco painter to reconstruct the decoration of the temples; like the temple of Nôtre Dame Salette at Surennes, Paris, among others.
      His reputation arrived to Mexico. He was invited in 1921 by José Vaconcelos to paint the walls of public buildings at the capital city, but it was only in 1942 that he returned to live in Mexico. He accomplished many portraits and murals, like the decoration of the walls at the Monterrey city cathedral. He also painted La miseria and La abundacia at the Mexico City Bankers Club ; for this work, he was criticized by some artists, under the argument that his work was opposite to nationalism and that he was at the service of the high classes, the private enterprises and the foreign art. Nevertheless Zárraga continued his fecund labor in Mexico.

Autorretrato (1930, 73x57cm; 369x283pix)
Septiembre 1917 (1772x1206pix, 1607kb)
La Dádiva (1910; 526x600pix, 44kb)
Ex Voto: San Sebastián (1910)
Paisaje (1919, 42x33cm)

^ Born on 23 September 1871: Frantisek Kupka, Czech artist who died on 24 June 1957.
— He was one of the originators of abstract art. His early work showed a preoccupation with expressive distortion and unusual, often unrealistic, color. From 1911 to 1912, at the same time as the French painter Robert Delaunay, Kupka painted his first completely abstract works, such as Amorpha: Fugue in Two Colors (1912, Národní Galerie, Prague), consisting of colored circular forms and lines in a rhythmic arrangement. He continued his experiments in abstraction, grouping his work into five broad categories—Cycles, Verticals, Verticals and Diagonals, Triangles, and Diagonals. Not as influential as other abstract painters, Kupka did not receive deserved recognition until after his death.
— School of Paris painter and wood-engraver; a pioneer of abstract art. Born in Opocno in Eastern Bohemia. Apprenticed as a youth to a master saddler, who initiated him in spiritualism; became a medium. Began to paint and received his first instruction from Studnicka at Jaromer. Afterwards studied at Prague Academy 1889-1892 under the Nazarene painter Sequens and at the Vienna Academy 1892-1893 under Eisenmenger, also a Nazarene. Influenced by Czech folk art, abstract ornamental patterning and Theosophy. Settled in 1896 in Paris, where he worked first primarily as satirical draughtsman for magazines such as L'Assiette au Beurre and as book illustrator. A friend and neighbour of Jacques Villon from 1901, first in Montmartre, then from 1906 in Puteaux on the outskirts of Paris. His paintings influenced by Symbolism, then Fauvism; experimented from 1909 with ways of rendering figures in motion inspired by high-speed photography. From 1911 his work became abstract with cosmic themes and rhythms, intersecting arabesques, rectilinear vertical planes, etc. First Paris one-man exhibition at the Galerie Povolozky 1921. Wrote a book on his theories, La Cr-23ation dans les Arts Plastiques (first published 1923). Appointed professor by Prague Academy in 1922, to introduce Czech students in Paris to French culture. Co-founder of Abstraction-Cr-23ation 1931, and adopted a more geometrical and classical abstract style. Died in Puteaux.
— Kupka was born in Opocno in eastern Bohemia. From 1889 to 1892, he studied at the Prague art academy. At this time, he painted historical and patriotic themes. In 1892, Kupka enrolled at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, where he concentrated on symbolic and allegorical subjects. He exhibited at the Kunstverein, Vienna, in 1894. His involvement with theosophy and Eastern philosophy dates from this period. By spring 1896, Kupka had settled in Paris; there he attended the Académie Julian briefly and then studied with Jean-Pierre Laurens at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
      Kupka worked as an illustrator of books and posters and, during his early years in Paris, became known for his satirical drawings for newspapers and magazines. In 1906, he settled in Puteaux, a suburb of Paris, and that same year exhibited for the first time at the Salon d’Automne. Kupka was deeply impressed by the first Futurist manifesto, published in 1909 in Le Figaro. Kupka’s work became increasingly abstract about 1910–1911, reflecting his theories of motion, color, and the relationship between music and painting. In 1911, he attended meetings of the Puteaux group. In 1912, he exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in the Cubist room, although he did not wish to be identified with any movement.
      Creation in the Plastic Arts, a book Kupka completed in 1913, was published in Prague in 1923. In 1921, his first solo show in Paris was held at Galerie Povolozky. In 1931, he was a founding member of Abstraction-Création together with Jean Arp, Albert Gleizes, Jean Hélion, Auguste Herbin, Theo van Doesburg, and Georges Vantongerloo. During the early 1950s, Kupka gained general recognition. He died in Puteaux.

Disks of Newton, Study for Fugue in Two Colors (1912, 77x74cm) _ Kupka was one of the most adventurous artists to follow the tradition, initiated by the Impressionists and boldly continued by Matisse, of liberating color from naturalist representation. This interest in freely interacting color — together with a fascination with movement as revealed in photographic investigations of animal and human motion — led Kupka to the creation of dynamic abstract pictures like this one. The title refers to Isaac Netwon’s discovery that natural light is made up of the colors of the spectrum, and painters from Impressionism on believed that presenting these pure colors on the canvas created a direct experience of light. Kukpa uses the full range of hues — red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet, along with white — to give a sense of the sun’s emanations in the expanse of the sky. The circular forms in the painting overlap and interpenetrate each other, producing an exciting feeling of movement and an image of cosmic space. Larger meanings are suggested by the radiance of the picture, in accordance with Kupka’s love of the effects of stained-glass windows in Gothic cathedrals, whose glowing light provides spiritual associations. The fugue referred to in the title further evokes spiritual experience, in particular the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. In fugues, Kukpa wrote, “sounds evolve… intertwine, come, and go,” and their sensuous, expressive, and intellectual richness helped him progress to a completely abstract form of painting. In fact, he declared, “I believe I can find something between sight and hearing and I can produce a fugue in colors as Bach has done in music.” The ultimate goal of his art, he said, is “to give us joy, a sense of beauty.”
Money (1899)
The Wave (1902)
Organization of Graphic Motifs II (1913)
— (Plans par couleurs, grand nu (1910, 150x181cm)
The Colored One (1920, 65x54cm) _ Although he moved to Paris at a young age, Frantisek Kupka’s Bohemian origins, mysticism, and eccentric personality kept him at a distance from the avant-garde circles of the artistic capital. An individualist, he rejected association with any artistic school or trend, but his paintings’ aggressive palette and dependence on color as a means of faceting form and conveying meaning show undeniable affinities with Fauvism and the work of Henri Matisse, as well as with Orphism, Robert Delaunay’s color-based brand of Cubism. A devoted mystic, Kupka spent his life in search of a transcendental other reality, or “fourth dimension.” One of the first non-objective artists, he extended his clairvoyant practice to his art as well, by uniting a metaphysical investigation of the human body and nature with daring color and abstract form.
      Theosophy — a quack pantheistic mishmash of pseudo-philosophy, pseudo-religion, and pseudo-science — “guided” Kupka’s holistic approach to art. His paintings draw on a variety of sources, including ancient myths, color theory, and contemporary scientific developments. The invention of radiography at the turn of the century was especially significant for Kupka, whose search for an alternative dimension through a kind of painterly X-ray vision is captured in his monumental Planes by Colors, Large Nude. In this work, Kupka rendered the figure of his wife, Eugénie, in vivid shades of purple, green, yellow, and blue, devising an innovative modeling technique based on color, not line or shade, that sections her body into tonal planes in such a way that her “inner form” is made visible. This unveiling of the unseen is crucial, for Kupka believed that it is only through the senses, through physical experience, that we can reach an extrasensory, metaphysical dimension and thereafter achieve an intuitive understanding of the universal scheme underlying existence.
      Kupka painted The Colored One ten years after Planes by Colors, Large Nude. By then he had adopted a more boldly abstract mode of figural representation. (He would never abandon subject matter altogether, however, unlike pure abstractionists such as Piet Mondrian.) The Colored One also depicts a female nude, this one lying on her back with legs stretched upward, cradling a radiant yellow sun. Swirling forms outlined in concentrated colors convey the dominant theme in Kupka’s work: the organic connections that intertwine human beings with the rest of nature and the cosmos.
Study for Amorpha, Chromatique chaude and for Fugue à deux couleurs (1911, 47x48cm) _ Two of Frantisek Kupka’s earliest purely abstract compositions are Amorpha, Warm Chromatic (1912) and Amorpha, Fugue in Two Colors (1912). The present pastel study reveals an early stage in the formal evolution of both of these paintings. In 1911 Kupka strove to eliminate objective subject matter from his paintings. His development toward abstraction is evident in his work of 1909 to 1911 in his interpretations of motion and of the light and color of Gothic stained-glass windows. This pastel relates to a series of studies that followed a naturalistic painting of 1908–1909 of his stepdaughter Andrée playing naked with a red-and-blue ball in the garden of their home. More than fifty studies led Kupka from conventional representation of this subject to the abstract formulations of the paintings of 1912. In a note on one of the pencil drawings of Little Girl with Ball, Kupka details his frustrations: “Here I am only dissecting surfaces. The atmospheric copenetration is yet to be found. As long as there is a distinction in color between ground and flesh, I will fall back into the postcard photograph.”
      In the present study, Kupka articulated the girl’s motion by depicting the continuous penetration of the atmosphere by the ball. A curving brown body shape guides the ball through the blue path of its trajectory. This action occurs on a light green background plane, which suggests the three-dimensional space of the garden. Such residue of naturalistic color is abandoned in culminating versions of the study, such as Amorpha, Fugue in Two Colors, which are conceived in blue, red, black, and white. Kupka discerned a musical parallel to these abstract forms in the rhythmic patterns of the fugue, “where the sounds evolve like veritable physical entities, intertwine, come and go.” Kupka’s paintings of this period are not simple or formulaic abstractions from ultimate “sources” in nature, but are rather pictorial syntheses of the artist’s formal ideas.
^ Died on 23 September 1828: Richard Parkes Bonington, English Romantic painter specialized in coastal landscapes, born on 25 October 1801.
            Bonington was born near Nottingham, England. In about 1817, his family moved to Calais, France. In 1818, Bonington went to Paris, where he met Eugène Delacroix and made watercolor copies of Dutch and Flemish landscapes in the Louvre. In 1821-1822, he studied under Antoine-Jean Gros at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. His first works, mostly sketches of Le Havre and Lillebonne, were exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1822. He also began to work in lithography, illustrating Baron Taylor’s Voyages. In 1824, he won a gold medal at the Paris Salon. He traveled all over France and especially in Normandy, painting coastal landscapes and seaport scenes Coast of Picardy (1824), French River Scene with Fishing Boats (1824), A Boat Beached in a Port at Low Tide (1825); he also went to England and Scotland, occasionally accompanied by his friend Eugène Delacroix, in whose studio he later worked. In 1826, Bonington visited Venice, where he was deeply impressed by Veronese and Canaletto: St. Mark's Column in Venice (1828), The Doge's Palace, Venice (1827), Piazza San Marco, Venice (1827).
From 1824 he experimented increasingly in romantic subjects taken from history and studied armor. His best-known works on historical subjects followed: Francis I and Marguerite of Navarre, Henri III and the English Ambassador (1828), Venice. The Grand Canal (1827).
            Bonington, like John Constable, was one of the English artists whose landscapes were highly regarded in France. He was among the first artists in France to paint watercolors outdoors rather than in studio. His approach to nature as well as his technique stimulated the Barbizon painters and – with Eugene Isabey, Eugene Boudin and Johann Barthold Jongkind as intermediaries – paved the way for Impressionism.
            Bonington died of tuberculosis in London, only 26 years old. His style attracted many imitators in both England and France and he had an influence out of proportion with his brief life.

–- View of Naples from the water (21x33cm; 730x1180pix, 115kb)
A Fishmarket on the French Coast (1818; 1140x1772pix, 347kb)
Small Fishing Rowboat in Rough Sea (1819; 1176x1584pix, 309kb)
The Harbour of Le Havre (1822; 1192x1624pix, 287kb)
Procession before the Notre-Dame Church in Dives (1822; 1168x1372pix, 268kb)
Anne Page and Slender (Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, I.1) (1825, 1428x1184pix, 344kb)
^ >Born on 23 September 1734: Matthew Pratt, Philadelphia portrait painter who died on 09 January 1805.
— Pratt served an apprenticeship with his uncle James Claypoolee, a limner and general painter, from 1749 to 1755. Pratt opened a similar business which he interrupted with a brief speculative trading voyage to Jamaica. When he returned to Philadelphia he began in 1758 to paint portraits, at which he proved very successful. He married Elizabeth Moore in 1760, and had two sons. His earliest known work is a portrait of his wife (1760).
     In June 1764 Pratt escorted his cousin, Betsy Shewell, to London for her marriage to Benjamin West. Pratt remained in London as West's student and colleague, the first of West's many US students. During his two and a half years with West, he painted his best-known work, The American School (1765), a depiction of West giving instruction to students in his London studio. He also made portraits of West and his wife as well as copies of other paintings. He then went to Bristol, England, where for a year and a half he "practiced to much advantage in my professional line". He returned to Philadelphia in March 1768 to work full-time as a portrait painter for two years. He made a brief trip to Carlingford, Ireland, in March 1770 to claim an inheritance for his wife, and he painted a small number of portraits in Dublin and in Liverpool.
     Pratt was successful in the years immediately before the American Revolution. Charles Willson Peale remembered later that Pratt at this time painted a full-length of John Dickinson and had "a considerable number of portraits on hand." He worked in New York City in 1771-1772, where his commissions included a full-length portrait of Governor Cadwalader Colden, and he met John Singleton Copley [03 Jul 1738 – 09 Sep 1815]. Pratt next worked in Williamsburg, Virginia, where he advertised in The Virginia Gazette (04 March 1773) that he was "Lately from England and Ireland But last from New York".
     Pratt's career was less successful after the Revolution. As a partner in the firm of Pratt, Rutter & Co., which offered "Portrait and ornamental painting", he returned to the functional brand of painting for which Claypoolee had in part trained him, and was remembered by the next generation for his unusual signs. His work is difficult to characterize; few paintings are documented or firmly attributed. The American School is his only signed and dated work. This and other works from his London years show West's influence in their composition, coloring and technique. Later portraits suggest that this style changed under the influence of other English and US painters.

The American School (1765, 140kb)
Abigail Willing (75x63cm) {It would have been difficult to paint her portrait if she had been unwilling.}
Cadwallader Colden and His Grandson Warren De Lancey (1772, 127x102cm; 375x300pix, 20kb) _ Cadwallader Colden [07 Feb 1688 — 20 Sep 1776] was a colonial scholar and political leader of New York. Matthew Pratt's portrait expresses Colden's pride in his scientific pursuits, and is unusual in that through the inclusion of his grandchild it also emphasizes Colden's determination to transmit scientific ideals to his progeny. Pratt has placed Colden in a private space, clad in a mauve banyan of silk-lined damask, his arm gently encircling the standing figure of Warren De Lancey. On the table beside him are a globe, a book, and an unusual astronomical diagram that may relate to Colden's publications on gravitation such as The Principles of Action in Matter (1751). Actually Warren had a brother, Peter, and there is a portrait of
      _ Cadwallader Colden and His Grandsons Peter and Warren De Lancey (488x500pix, 23kb). However Peter was not a twin of Warren, but much older, so that this triple portrait must be a fake, probably by Matt-Hugh Prodent.
Madonna of Saint Jerome (1765, 78x60cm; 390x298pix, 35kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 76kb)
William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland (1774, 76x63cm; 600x484pix, 97kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 36kb)
–- James Stanhope Claypoole, age 24 (152x127cm; 650x541pix, 77kb) depicted seated at a rare Virginia Chippendale table with rectangular box-drawer. Recently a similar picture has been discovered showing
      _ James Claypoole and his brother John Claypoole (960x1280pix, 87kb). However the prevailing expert opinion is that James Claypoole did not have a brother named John and that the picture is a recent fake by the notorious Matt-Hugh Prodent.

^ Died on 23 September 1865: John Frederick Herring, English painter specialized in horses, born in Surrey in 1795.
— Having eloped with Anne Harris to Doncaster at the age of 18, Herring began a seven-year career as a coach driver on regular routes to London and then Halifax, meanwhile practicing as a painter in his spare time. Work with horses and constant travel through the countryside may have stimulated his interest in animal and rural subject-matter — the areas in which he specialized after becoming a full-time professional artist about 1820, having exhibited his first painting at the Royal Academy in 1818. Regular employment was provided by the Doncaster Gazette for which, since 1815, he had been painting designs for engraved portraits of the annual winner of the St Leger. Later, in a similar series, he painted the winners of the Derby between 1827 and 1847. Prominent among his early private patrons were Charles Spencer-Stanhope and Frank Hawkesworth. He moved to Newmarket in 1830 and to Camberwell in 1833, where he fell into debt and was rescued by the industrialist W. T. Copeland. He lived for some years on the latter’s estate in Essex and there produced, among many paintings, designs for hunting scenes to be used on Copeland Spode porcelain. Introductions to and commissions from Ferdinand, Duc d’Orléans, Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Kent [1786–1861] to whom he was appointed Official Painter in 1845; and her daughter Queen Victoria helped to secure his reputation among the nobility. He was able to retire to a substantial (if leased) country estate in Meopham Park, Kent, in the early 1850s. His non-sporting works of the late 1850s are perhaps among the most successful of his total output, notably The Harvest (1857), which reveals his certain competence as a landscape and figure painter. His Memoir was published in Sheffield in 1848. All three of his sons, John Frederick Herring II, Charles Herring, and Benjamin Herring II, occasionally contributed to his canvases as well as painting their own. His brother, Benjamin Herring I [1806-1830] had a brief career largely devoted to producing passable imitations of the work of several early 19th-century sporting painters.

Feeding the Arab (127x102cm; _ ZOOMable)
Mallard Ducks and Ducklings on a River Bank (1863, 28x39cm)
Horse and Foal watering at a trough (1854, 42x42cm)
The Halt (1852, 107x183cm)
The Welcome Halt (86x112cm)
Mr Johnstone's Charles XII in a Stable (1843, 71x91cm)
The Famous Trotter Confidence Drawing A Gig (1842, 98x123cm)
Waiting for the Ferry (1841, 60x83cm)
The Country Inn (1840, 94x130cm)
Vandeau, A White Greyhound (1839, 63x76cm)
"Jonathan Wild", a dark bay Race Horse, at Goodwood, T. Ryder up (1846, 35x45cm; 749x1000pix, 136kb) the image is labeled “drak bay”, which is presumably not a mispelling for Drake Bay, nor has any known relationship to Drak (not a horse, but a dragon), nor to any DRAK (DAP kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase) nor to the Drakensberg Mountains.
Lord Chesterfield's “Industry” with William Scott up at Epsom (1838, 61x76cm)
A Dark Bay Racehorse with Patrick Connolly Up (1833, 56x76cm)
Don John, The Winner of the 1838 St. Leger with William Scott Up (59x76cm)
"Comus" A Chestnut Racehorse in a Stable Yard (1831, 27x37cm)
A Favorite Coach Horse and Dog in a Stable (1822, 56x76cm)
Horses and Ducks by a River (17x24cm)
Refreshment, A Boy Watering His Grey Pony (91x71cm)
Sketch of Queen Victoria (30x27cm)
The End of the Day (35x46cm)
The Evening Hour - Horses And Cattle By A Stream At Sunset (39x60cm)
The Village Blacksmith (152x122cm)
Negotiator the Bay Horse in a Landscape (1826)
The Edinburgh and London Royal Mail (1838)
A Soldier with an Officer's Charger (1839)
The Hop Pickers (1855)
The Quarry (1858)
Horses at a well
Mazeppa Pursued by Wolves and Mazeppa Surrounded by Horses both (1833, 56x76cm) after Mazeppa aux Loups (1826; 590x759pix, 410kb) by Horace Vernet [30 Jun 1789 – 17 Jan 1863]. _ Ivan Stepanovitch Mazeppa (ou Mazepa) [1644 – 08 Sep 1709] fut hetman (chef) des cosaques d'Ukraine. La légende raconte que, dans sa jeunesse, surpris en flagrant délit d'adultère, il aurait été attaché nu sur le dos d'un cheval fougueux qui l'aurait emporté jusqu'en Ukraine. Là, recueilli par les cosaques, il devint le secrétaire de leur hetman, à qui il succéda en 1687. Après avoir été l'allié du tsar Pierre le Grand, il soutint le roi de Suède Charles XII et fut battu avec lui à Poltava (1709). Il se réfugia en Turquie, où il mourut peu après. L'épisode de sa fuite vers l'Ukraine a inspiré de nombreux peintres, poètes (Byron, qui dans son poème Mazeppa, 1819, voit dans l'aventure de Mazeppa le symbole du génie ; V. Hugo, dans le poème Mazeppa des Orientales ;...) et musiciens (Liszt : Mazeppa, poème symphonique, 1854 ; Tchaïkovski : Mazeppa, opéra, 1884).
^ Born on 23 September 1879: Charles Camoin, French Fauvist painter who died on 20 May 1965. — {C'est Camoin qu'a moins de quoi? — De ses oeuvres dignement représentées dans l'internet. Je ne trouve que quelques images pas beaucoup plus grandes que des timbres-poste.}. {Et penser qu'il aurait suffit d'intervertir son nid et son eau pour qu'il soit un camion!}
— After the death of his father, Charles was brought up by his mother alone, whose endless travels seem to have affected his studies. At 16 he simultaneously enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts, Marseille, which he attended in the morning, and at the École de Commerce. After winning a prize for drawing, he was encouraged by his mother to enter Gustave Moreau’s studio at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, which he did in May 1898, shortly before Moreau’s death. Although he barely had time to derive any benefit from Moreau’s teaching, he formed several lasting friendships among fellow students later associated with Fauvism: Manguin, Puy [1876-1960], Rouault, Matisse, and especially Marquet [27 Mar 1875 – 13 Jun 1947], with whose work his own shows marked affinities.
— Charles Camoin loses his father at an early age. It is thus his mother who enrolls him at the Beaux-Arts de Paris where he establishes an undying friendship with Henri Matisse and Alber Marquet. Charles Camoin spends his childhood between Paris, and southern towns which exert an irresistible attraction on him: Nice, Cannes, Marseille. During his military service, for which he's transferred to Aix-en-Provence, the young man provokes a meeting with Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906], with whom he will correspond actively up until the latter's death. Beginning in 1903, Camoin exhibits at the Independent's then at the Fall Salon, namely at the 1905 Salon where "Fauvism" breaks out. Quickly recognized, Camoin abandons fauvism in favor of a more gentle painting and avoids the major intellectual and artistic movements of his time such as Dadaism and Cubism. Following the rupture caused by the First World War and after his marriage in 1920, Camoin divides his time between Paris and Saint-Tropez, whose port he loves to paint, simplifying the contours and playing with light. Camoin paints portraits and also views, bouquets, and countless marine landscapes. Nobody could define his interests better than the painter himself: “I still consider myself a Fauve. there are two kinds of colors, real ones and superficial ones. You have to choose. I think you must deal with the real ones and it's what I've done since the outset”. Charles Camoin died in Paris.
— Camoin was born in Marseille and met Matisse in the class taught by Gustave Moreau [06 Apr 1826 – 18 Apr 1898] at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris. Matisse [31 Dec 1869 – 03 Nov 1954] and his friends (including Camoin, Henri Manguin [1874-1949], Albert Marquet, and Georges Rouault [27 May 1871 – 13 Feb 1958]), joined by André Derain [10 Jun 1880 – 08 Sep 1954] and Maurice de Vlaminck [04 Apr 1876 – 11 Oct 1958], two close friends then sharing a studio, and slightly after by Braque [13 May 1882 – 31 Aug 1963], Dufy [03 Jun 1877 – 23 Mar 1953], and Kees van Dongen [26 Jan 1877 – 28 May 1968], formed the original group mockingly labeled Les Fauves for their wild, expressionist use of color and their general refusal to paint like anyone else then showing at the salons. Camoin always remained close to Matisse, whose portrait he painted {not found on the Internet}, but he also came to admire Cézanne, Renoir [25 Feb 1841 – 03 Dec 1919], and Bonnard [03 Oct 1867 – 23 Jan 1947].

Voiliers à Ploumanach aka Marine (1931, 33x46cm) _ Ce voilier devant l'un des célèbres rochers de granit rose de Ploumanach, appelé en raison de sa forme "le chapeau de Napoléon" a été peint lors du séjour de Camoin chez ses amis Eiffel. Suivant une touche légère et fluide, Camoin joue avec dextérité et liberté des effets colorés et lumineux, animant cette paisible "marine" de quelques taches et coups de pinceau. Elle apparaît plus "méditerranéenne" que "bretonne" et montre que le peintre, profondément marqué par la lumière du midi, n'a pu, à l'occasion de ses trop courts séjours en Bretagne, prendre en compte les caractères particuliers des paysages et de la lumière.
Une Sévillaine (1907; 800x626pix, 82kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1096pix)
Cargo à Saint-Tropez (80x122cm)
Le Port de Saint-Tropez (1907, 32x47cm; 272x420pix, 42kb)
Minaret à Tanger (1913, 65x81cm; 484x600pix, 37kb)
Nature Morte aux Tomates (26x41cm, 363x624pix, 30kb)
— Nature Morte aux Zinias (525x655pix, 34kb)
Portrait (26x21cm, 591x432pix, 72kb)
Rue de Montmartre (14x18cm, 432x553pix, 63kb)
^ >Born on 23 September 1865: Marie~Clémentine “Suzanne” Valadon, French, fille de “Madeleine Valadon, lingère, âgée de 34 ans, et de père inconnu”. She would become an artist’s model and then a painter, who died on 19 April 1938.
— As the daughter of an unmarried and unaffectionate maid, Marie-Clémentine Valadon had a lonely childhood in Paris, seeking refuge from her bleak circumstances by living in a dream world. While residing in the Montmartre district of Paris, she became an artist’s model, working in particular with those painters who frequented Le Lapin Agile. From 1880 to 1887, for example, she sat regularly for Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, posing for both the male and female figures in The Sacred Wood (1886). She also modeled for Renoir, Luigi Zandomeneghi, Théophile Steinlein, Jean-Louis Forain, Giuseppe De Nittis, and Jean-Jacques Henner. No longer able to tolerate the passive role of the model, she became a full-time painter in 1896, making use of the working methods that she had observed in the studios of these painters.
— Transforming herself from an artist's model into a successful artist, and rising from the hardscrabble existence of a poor, barely educated street child to a wealthy lifestyle with homes in Paris and the French countryside, Suzanne Valadon led a truly remarkable life. The child of an unmarried domestic worker, Marie-Clémentine Valadon (she later changed her given name to Suzanne) grew up in the bohemian quarter of Paris called Montmartre. There Valadon supported herself from the age of 10 with a series of odd jobs: waitress, nanny, and circus performer. A fall from a trapeze persuaded her to leave the circus. From 1880 to 1893, Valadon worked as a model for several of the most important painters of her day, including Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. These masters, plus Edgar Degas-for whom she did not model but who became a close friend and mentor-had an enormous impact on Valadon's life and art. Although she could not afford formal classes, Valadon learned readily from the painters around her. Degas also helped, teaching her drawing and etching techniques.
      It was not until 1909, at the age of 44, that Valadon began painting full time. By then, her personal life had become complex: in 1883 she had a son out of wedlock (Maurice, who became painter Utrillo); in 1896 she married a wealthy older man, whom she divorced several years later; and in 1909 she started living with another man, André Utter, who became her second husband. With her first one-person show in 1911, Valadon attracted critical acclaim and numerous patrons. She continued to exhibit regularly, reaching the peak of her fame in the 1920s, and had four major retrospective exhibitions during her lifetime.
— Valadon, Suzanne painter, graphical artist france 23 Sep 1865, Bessines - 7 Apr 1938, Paris Real name: Valadon, Maria Clémentine Grave location: St.-Ouen, Seine-St.-Denis: Cimetière parisien (division 13) Suzanne Valadon was an illegitimate child and claimed (untruthfully) to be a foundling. As a child she moved with her mother to Paris and became a washergirl. They went to live in Montmartre and there she became an acrobat in a circus. An injury ended this and then she became model and mistress for painters like Dégas, Toulouse-Lautrec and Renoir. She also had an affair with the painter Puvis de Chavannes. Encouraged by Degas, Valadon became a good painter herself, but she would stand in the shadows of her strange but talented son Maurice Utrillo. Her first exhibitions in the early nineties consisted mainly of portraits, among them that of her lover Erik Satie. Their intense affair lasted from January to June 1893 and this seems to have been Satie's only love affair. In 1894 she was the first woman to be admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts. Her marriage to the exchange broker Paul Mousis in 1896 failed and she left him in 1909 for the young painter André Utter. He was twenty years her junior, but she married him in 1914. Valadon turned to painting landscapes, still lifes and female nudes, that were naked in an unashamed way that was shocking at this time. When she died Georges Braque, Andre Derain and Pablo Picasso, attented her funeral
— Born out of wedlock under the given name Marie-Clémentine, Suzanne Valadon spent her early years in Paris and Nantes, where her single mother worked as a cleaning woman. Valadon was enrolled in a religious school in Paris until 1876, then apprenticed in a dressmaking shop, a florist, and an open-air market before she started drawing. She briefly worked as a trapeze artist in a circus in the beginning of the 1880s, but a fall forced her to look for another occupation. She then began working as a model, posing for Henner, Puvis de Chavannes (q.v.), Renoir, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec [1864-1901], and several other painters. About this time she chose to be called Suzanne. When she was eighteen years old, she gave birth to a son, Maurice Utrillo [25 Dec 1883 – 05 Nov 1955], whose father is unknown (on 27 Jan 1891, journalist art critic Miguel Utrillo y Morlius would fictitiously acknowledge him as son), who would become an alcoholic and, after being (unsuccessfully) treated in the Saint-Anne mental hospital in Paris from 11 January 1900 until 14 May 1900 and his mother recommended painting as therapy, a renowned painter.
click for portrait by Utrillo Morlius      Encouraged by Degas and Renoir, she became a full-time painter in 1896, financially supported by her new husband, Paul Mousis. Degas taught her printmaking and introduced her to the dealers Durand-Ruel and Vollard. Valadon divorced Mousis in 1909 to marry André Utter [1886-1948], a painter and a friend of her son. Beginning in 1909 she exhibited regularly at the Salon d'Automne, and from 1912 she participated in the Salon des Indépendants. Valadon painted portraits, landscapes, nudes, and still lifes.
Portrait of Valadon by Miguel Utrillo y Morlius (1892; 1032x674pix, 62kb)

— <<< L'Autoportrait au pastel (1883) _ Dans ce regard on lit l'amertume d'un destin qui se répète cruellement. Elle vient d'avoir un fils dont le père est inconnu, de même que son père à elle. C'est en 1883 qu'elle signa pour la première fois avec son nouveau prénom, Suzanne, l'Autoportrait au pastel. C'est Toulouse-Lautrec, avec qui elle eut une liaison pendant deux ans, qui lui avait dit un jour: “Toi qui poses nue pour les vieillards tu devrais t'appeler Suzanne.”
–- Le Bain (1908, 60x49cm; 823x690cm; 48kb)
–- La Chambre Bleue (1904; 826x1100pix, 101kb)
–- La Poupée Abandonnée (1921; 422x295pix, 19kb)
Le Cirque (1889, 49x60cm; 309x380pix, 24kb)
–- Toilette de deux enfants dans le jardin (1910 drypoint, 34x39cm; 811x939pix, 106kb _ .ZOOM to 1216x1408pix, 228kb)
–- Toilette de Petit Garçon (1908 drypoint, 23x21cm; 844x770pix, 111kb)
–- Femme en buste, les mains jointes (20x12cm lithograph; 574x354pix, 30kb)
^ Born on 23 September 1629: David Klöcker “Ehrenstrahl”, in Hamburg, German Baroque painter, active in Sweden, who died on 23 October 1698. Some incorrectly give 27 Apr 1628 as the date of his birth. Also incorrect is 27 October 1698 as the date of his death (it may have been his burial).
Ehrenstrahl stamp— ‘Ehrenstrahl’ was an honorific title received on his ennoblement in Sweden in 1674; his eventual appointment as court steward there in 1690 reflects his status as a founding father of Swedish painting. He initially studied in the Netherlands (1648–1650), but his early works, stylistically undecided, reflect contemporary German painting. Such a work is his equestrian portrait of Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel (1652), in whose service he went to Sweden in 1651. In 1654 he went to study in Italy. In Rome he learnt from Pietro da Cortona’s allegories and his mastery of compositional devices, movement, color, light and shade. From there he went to Paris, where he became acquainted with the work and career of Charles Le Brun. When Klöcker returned to Sweden in 1661, the influence of Hedvig Eleanora, the Queen Mother, secured him a position as a court painter.
[Swedish stamp from a detail of Ehrenstrahl's 1695 The Great Deeds of Swedish Kings >>>]
— Like many of his North-German colleagues, the Hamburg-born David Klöker sought his way to Holland to study painting. His teacher was Jurian Jacobsz, an animal painter from Amsterdam. In 1652, Klöker came to Sweden in the company of Field Marshal Carl Gustav Wrangel. In Stockholm, Klöker entered the service of the Queen Dowager Hedvid Eleonora, who sent him to Italy in 1654 to learn the skills of a court painter. Klöker spent some time in Rome, Venice, Paris and London and adopted the form and ideology of international Baroque classicism. In 1661, he returned to Sweden to take up the post of court painter. Sweden was at its most powerful at that time. The young King Charles XI took the power into his own hands from the nobility. The autocrat of a great power, he needed someone to provide a worthy setting for him and to create his public image - an artist who had mastered the means of Baroque rhetoric and visual propaganda. David Klöker was just the man for this task. King Charles XI valued the talent and energies of his court painter so much that he raised him to the nobility in 1674 as David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl. Ehrenstrahl was the head of a large studio where he and his numerous assistants produced a remarkable amount of monumental paintings and parade portraits to meet the ever-increasing demand. Ehrenstrahl's court Baroque seems a little clumsy by international standards, but it obviously met the hopes and aspirations of the parvenu great power on the outskirts of Europe. Ehrenstrahl used to distinguish the paintings in which his own work predominated from the studio output by signing the latter "Ehrenstrahl fec." instead of just "Ehrenstrahl". His own works at their best are highly picturesque and surprisingly expressive. Ehrenstrahl's splendid animal paintings are another story completely - the court painter showed exceptional enthusiasm when he returned to the fountainhead of his early student years in Holland.
— Michael Dahl was a student of Ehrenstrahl.

–- The Great Deeds of Swedish Kings (1695; 869x625pix, 69kb — .ZOOM to 1738x1250pix, 142kb) _ a ceiling painting at Drottningholm Castle.
–- Fox (566x817pix, 29kb)

Count Johan Jacob Hastfehr (89x72cm; 694x577pix, 35kb) _ This portrait has been left in the sketch stage. The face is fairly accurately completed, but the arms and the breastplate are outlined in vigorous strokes using shades of brown. In the 1680s and 1690s, Ehrenstrahl painted a series of portraits of the generals of King Charles XI, and it is said that the King weeded out some of the paintings before they were ready. This portrait may have been one of them.
      Jacob Johan Hastfehr was born in Tallinn, Estonia. His family belonged to the German nobility in the Baltic States. He went to Stockholm in 1667 to be a junior officer in the King's entourage. He was captain of the Life-Guards when, in 1674, he married Sigrid Gyllenstierna, widow of the Privy Councillor, Klas Fleming. Through her family background, Sigrid belonged to the intimate circles of Charles XI and she arranged for her fiancé to gain the special attention of the King. Hastfehr distinguished himself in the Danish war and truly won the King's confidence when, as commander of the Stockholm garrison, he secured the King's rear during the unstable parliamentary sessions of the Estates in 1680.
      Charles XI had built an autocracy in Sweden and Finland and saved the national economy by the repossession of the lands and fiefs of the nobility. In the Baltic countries, Estonia and Livonia, the ownership of land and political power were still in the hands of the German nobility. Charles XI decided to extend his reforms to the Baltic region as well and needed a loyal, determined man who knew the local conditions to carry out his will there. In 1687, he nominated Jacob Johan Hastfehr governor general of Livonia and soon after that as count and a field marshal as well.
      Hastfehr began to implement the King's policies with full vigor. According to historical accounts reflecting the views of the Livonian nobility, Hastfehr was a gruff braggart and a ruthless, two-faced careerist, who would stop at nothing to achieve his own despicable aims. It is said that he accepted bribes left, right, and center, but when bought he didn't stay bought and did whatever he wanted anyway. Later historical accounts relate that he was a man of action, but in a different way; Hastfehr tried to reach an amicable agreement with the Livonian nobility and pursued hard-line policies only after it became evident that the nobility would not agree to any concessions concerning their lands and powers. Once he had broken the nobility's resistance, Hastfehr opposed all retaliation against them.

Count Johan Gabriel Stenbock [1629-1705] (147x120cm; 702x571pix, 41kb) _ In the portrait, Count Stenbock is sitting on a red velvet cushion, relaxed and self-confident, leaning against an exuberant, gold-plated console table that might be from Burchard Precht's workshop. The count is wearing a yellowish robe, the free-flowing pleats of which are painted with the firm strokes of a master. In the background, there is red drapery under which, behind a column, a strip of parkland is visible.
      John Gabriel Stenbock was born into one of the oldest and most respected families in Sweden. He began his career at court by charming Queen Christina. When the young count returned from a long tour abroad, he was appointed treasurer to the Queen Dowager. Stenbock showed strong economic sense in his work and became a privy councillor in 1668. In 1692, he resigned from the regency as he opposed its open-handed economic policy. When King Charles XI came of age, he asked Stenbock to join the council again. For the rest of his life, Stenbock remained one of the most influential men at court and in the government. A common interest in economic issues brought Stenbock close to the King. Stenbock warmly supported the economic reforms introduced by Charles XI, the most important of which was the repossession of alienated crown lands from the nobility. However, Stenbock did not neglect his own interests for the benefit of the crown. Through his privileged position, he was able to save much of his own large lands. In fact, he took advantage of the plight of his fellows and redeemed dozens of confiscated estates at very low prices. By the time of his death, he was one of the richest men in the kingdom.
      Stenbock avoided the traps set by his many lady admirers and remained single. He was a hot-tempered and outspoken man, the Queen Dowager nick-named him "grobian". Stenbock had a shrewd and inquisitive mind. He liked to give the impression of being more learned than in fact he was. His habit of dropping cultured details into conversations caught the attention of many diplomats, who mentioned it in their reports. Stenbock's interest in science may have had an influence on his being appointed Chancellor of the Turku Academy.

Karl XII: den nykrönte monarken (1697; 602x392pix, 26kb) _ David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl är mest känd för att ha skildrat Carl Gustaf Wrangel samt Karl XI och hans familj. Han inledde dock sin karriär som skrivare vid kansliet i Osbabrück men blev efter det 30-åriga kriget elev hos porträtt- och djurmålaren Jurian Jacobz. Det visade sig att den unge David Klöcker hade god potential och fick därför anställning hos Carl Gustaf Wrangel i Pommern. År 1653 reste David Klöcker ut i Europa för att bl.a. ta lärdom av den italienska barockkonsten vilket bidrog till att han år 1658 blev det svenska hovets officielle konstnär. Han adlades förövrigt 1674.
      Ehrenstrahls första porträtt av Karl XII följer i många avseenden dåtidens ideal. Men intressant är ändå att många av dessa är mer överensstämmande med originalet än Kraffts och Sparres mer "verklighetstrogna" och råa verk. Proportionerna i kungens ansikte är ofta mer riktiga hos Ehrenstrahls versioner; nässpetsen och munnen sitter inte onaturligt nära varandra, vilket dessa gör hos t.ex. Sparres skildringar. Slutsatsen vi kan dra är alltså att Ehrenstrahl verkligen var mån om realism dock en idealiserad sådan...
      Ehrenstrahls många målningar är även väldigt viktiga i det avseende att de visar oss hur kungens yttre utvecklades; från spädbarn till vuxen man. På de tidigaste porträtten finner man att kungens böjda näsa tar lite för stor plats i dennes smala ansikte, men på de senare är dragen mer proportionella.

Conrad von Falkenberg [12 Dec 1591 – 24 Mar 1654] (933x759pix, 123kb) _ Tidigare bl a kapten vid Södermanlands regemente och kommissarie i Holland, begärde avsked p g a sjuklighet.
Mauritz Posse [1632-1702] (1674, 947x772pix) _ Tidigare landshövding i Kronobergs län, friherre.
Hans Georg Mörner [04 Jun 1623 – 11 Aug 1685] (1680; 934x747pix) _ Bl a överste, generalmajor, landshövding i Jönköpings län, guvernör över Kalmar och Kronobergs län, guvernör över Jönköpings län.
Hans Wachtmeister [24 Dec 1641 – 15 Feb 1714] (1683; 930x759pix) _ Guvernör över Kalmar och Blekinge län. Orsaken till ändringen av länsdelningen var att man tänkte förlägga den svenska örlogsflottan till Kalmar där bl a ett örlogsvarv anlades 1681.Wachtmeister var även generalamiral över svenska flottan samt generalguvernör. Till sin hjälp hade han Erik Nilsson Ehrensköld 1681-1683 (1634-1684) med titeln ståthållare.
Carl Gustaf Wrangel (1662; 636x699pix, 81kb) _ Wrangel [13 Dec 1613 – 25 Jun 1676] was a Swedish general who, in 1646, succeeded Lennart Torstenson [17 Aug 1603 – 07 Apr 1651] as Swedish military and naval commander during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) and subsequent Baltic conflicts.

Died on a 23 September:

^ 1930 Emilie Preyer, German painter, specialized in still lifes with peaches, grapes and a fly, born on 06 June 1849. Daughter of Johann Wilhelm Preyer [19 Jul 1803 – 20 Feb 1889] — {Do you believe in the power of Preyer?}{Don't expect the success of a museum that doesn't have a Preyer}{What could you say about a failing museum which plans a come-back by building an extension and placing in it the best painting by this artist? Answer: That it is putting its hopes on a wing and a Preyer.}
–-S#> Stilleben mit Pfirsichen und Weintrauben (17x23cm; 661x900pix, 106kb) life-size fruit and a fly.
— a different Stilleben mit Pfirsichen und Weintrauben (16x21cm; 284x382pix, 21kb) also a different fly, plus a couple of nuts.
–-S#> Stilleben mit Pfirsich und Pflaumen (16x21cm; 282x382pix, 24kb) grapes are not mentioned, but they are there of course (behind the plums), and also a different fly in about the same position as the fly in the other paintings, plus a couple of nuts. It's only half of a not very convincing peach.
Still Life with Fruit and Nuts (16x24cm) Which fruits? Peaches, grapes, one plum. A fly in the usual position.
Still Life with Fruit (1873; 284x380pix, 15kb) More elaborate than the others (but no fly!). This composition contains many elements that show Preyer's technical abilities. She convincingly rendered the various textures juxtaposed in this composition, such as the contrast between the white cloth and the polished marble table, and the reflecting surfaces of metal, water drops, and glass versus the delicate skin of peaches and grapes. The knife that appears to project out over the side of the table is an indicator of Preyer's familiarity with the tradition of Dutch still life painting. After early training by her father, Emilie Preyer painted her first still life in 1867. For study purposes, she visited museums in Dresden, Antwerp, and the Netherlands.

1885 Carl Spitzweg, German painter born (full coverage) on 05 February 1808. —(050908)

^ 1873 George Willem Opdenhoff, Dutch painter born on 07 July 1807.
–-S#> Shipping in an Estuary (17x23cm; 888x1314pix, 147kb)
–-S#> Sailing Vessels in Choppy Waters (43x63cm; 656x960pix, 55kb)
–-S#> Sailing Vessels Near the Coast (42x54cm; 646x841pix, 69kb)

1852 John Vanderlyn, US painter born (full coverage) on 15 October 1775.

^ 1831 Jean Charles Nicaise Perrin, French painter born on 12 October 1754. He entered the Académie Royale in 1772 as a student of Gabriel-François Doyen [1726-1806] and Louis-Jacques Durameau. He won a medal in the drawing class in 1772 but did not reach the final of the Prix de Rome until 1776, when he won a second prize for Haman Confounded by Esther before Ahasuerus. He continued his attempts to win the Prix de Rome until 1780 without success, but in that year he was granted the bursary because the winner Jean-Pierre Saint-Ours was Swiss and therefore ineligible to go. In Rome from 1780 until 1784, Perrin followed the usual student practice of copying from the Old Masters (he was particularly attracted to the works of Caravaggio and Guercino) and painted original works to be sent to Paris for the judgement of the Académie. In 1784 one of these envois was particularly well received, and Perrin was encouraged ‘not to abandon his noble simplicity’. Il fut nommé en 1806 directeur de l'école libre des arts industriels.
Vénus faisant panser la blessure d'Enée (197x163cm; 462x380pix, 47kb) _ Dans cet épisode tiré du douzième livre de l'Enéide, Enée est blessé dans un combat contre Turnus, roi des Rutules. Sa mère Vénus cueille une plante médicinale, le dictame, et la transmet à Esculape ou à Iapyx, selon les sources, afin qu'il soigne le héros. Des nymphes assistent à la scène tandis que le caducée d'Esculape et les armes d'Enée jonchent le sol comme des trophées.

^ 1763 Hendrik Frans van Lint “lo Studio”, Flemish painter born on 26 January 1684. — Relative? of Pieter van Lint [28 Jun 1609 – 25 Sep 1690]? — About 1710 he settled in Rome where he became a member of a confraternity of Northern painters active in that city called the "schildersbent." His nickname "Studio" referred to the painstaking precision with which he rendered both figures and architecture. He often signed in the Italian form of his name: Enrico.
–-S#> Classical Landscape with the Nymph Egeria Mourning for Numa (95x74cm; 696x900pix, 168kb) copy of Landscape with the Nymph Egeria (1669; 537x804pix, 215kb) by Claude Gellée “le Lorrain” [1602-1682]. _ In Roman legends, Egeria was one of the Camenae water nymphs; she was associated with Diana. She married Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, whom she would meet in her sacred grove and whom she advised. When Numa Pompilius died, wept so much that she was changed into a fountain, as told by Ovid in Metamorphoses XV (text below)
Talibus atque aliis instructo pectore dictis
in patriam remeasse ferunt ultroque petitum
accepisse Numam populi Latialis habenas.
coniuge qui felix nympha ducibusque Camenis
sacrificos docuit ritus gentemque feroci
adsuetam bello pacis traduxit ad artes.
qui postquam senior regnumque aevumque peregit,
exstinctum Latiaeque nurus populusque patresque
deflevere Numam; nam coniunx urbe relicta
vallis Aricinae densis latet abdita silvis
sacraque Oresteae gemitu questuque Dianae
inpedit. a! quotiens nymphae nemorisque lacusque,
ne faceret, monuere et consolantia verba
dixerunt! quotiens flenti Theseius heros
'siste modum,' dixit 'neque enim fortuna querenda
sola tua est; similes aliorum respice casus:
mitius ista feres, utinamque exempla dolentem
non mea te possent relevare! sed et mea possunt.
'Fando aliquem Hippolytum vestras si contigit aures
credulitate patris, sceleratae fraude novercae
occubuisse neci, mirabere, vixque probabo,
sed tamen ille ego sum. me Pasiphaeia quondam
temptatum frustra patrium temerare cubile,
quod voluit, finxit voluisse et, crimine verso
(indiciine metu magis offensane repulsae?)
damnavit, meritumque nihil pater eicit urbe
hostilique caput prece detestatur euntis.
Pittheam profugo curru Troezena petebam
iamque Corinthiaci carpebam litora ponti,
cum mare surrexit, cumulusque inmanis aquarum
in montis speciem curvari et crescere visus
et dare mugitus summoque cacumine findi;
corniger hinc taurus ruptis expellitur undis
pectoribusque tenus molles erectus in auras
naribus et patulo partem maris evomit ore.
corda pavent comitum, mihi mens interrita mansit
exiliis contenta suis, cum colla feroces
ad freta convertunt adrectisque auribus horrent
quadrupedes monstrique metu turbantur et altis
praecipitant currum scopulis; ego ducere vana
frena manu spumis albentibus oblita luctor
et retro lentas tendo resupinus habenas.
nec tamen has vires rabies superasset equorum,
ni rota, perpetuum qua circumvertitur axem,
stipitis occursu fracta ac disiecta fuisset.
excutior curru, lorisque tenentibus artus
viscera viva trahi, nervos in stipe teneri,
membra rapi partim partimque reprensa relinqui,
ossa gravem dare fracta sonum fessamque videres
exhalari animam nullasque in corpore partes,
noscere quas posses: unumque erat omnia vulnus.
num potes aut audes cladi conponere nostrae,
nympha, tuam? vidi quoque luce carentia regna
et lacerum fovi Phlegethontide corpus in unda,
nec nisi Apollineae valido medicamine prolis
reddita vita foret; quam postquam fortibus herbis
atque ope Paeonia Dite indignante recepi,
tum mihi, ne praesens augerem muneris huius
invidiam, densas obiecit Cynthia nubes,
utque forem tutus possemque inpune videri,
addidit aetatem nec cognoscenda reliquit
ora mihi Cretenque diu dubitavit habendam
traderet an Delon: Delo Creteque relictis
hic posuit nomenque simul, quod possit equorum
admonuisse, iubet deponere "qui" que "fuisti
Hippolytus," dixit "nunc idem Virbius esto!"
hoc nemus inde colo de disque minoribus unus
numine sub dominae lateo atque accenseor illi.'
Non tamen Egeriae luctus aliena levare
damna valent; montisque iacens radicibus imis
liquitur in lacrimas, donec pietate dolentis
mota soror Phoebi gelidum de corpore fontem
fecit et aeternas artus tenuavit in undas.
–-S#> Piazza del Popolo, Roma (1750, 48x73cm; 524x800pix, 79kb) _ The Piazza del Popolo, one of the grandest public spaces in Rome, stands at the apex of the famous triangle of roads (Via del Babuino, Via del Corso, and Via di Ripetta) known as the "Trident." The twin churches of Santa Maria di Montesanto (at left) and Santa Maria dei Miracoli (at right), designed by Carlo Rainaldi [1611-1691], dominate the southern end of the Piazza. The obelisk at center was placed there in 1589 by Sixtus V. Over 3000 years old, it had originally been brought to Rome by Augustus after the conquest of Egypt, to adorn the Circus Maximus. Today, the piazza is ovoid, rather than rectangular as it appeared in Van Lint's time, having been transformed as such in the 19th century by Giuseppe Valadier who also designed the Pincio Gardens that lie above the Piazza.
–-S#> Piazza San Marco e Piazzetta, Venezia (48x73cm; 511x800pix, 75kb) _ Hendrick Van Lint's Venetian views are rare and it is generally surmised that he probably never visited Venice, but based his views of that city on drawings and engravings by other artists. His Venice vedute were sometimes conceived as pendants to views of Rome. The present painting was paired with a view of the Piazza del Popolo, Roma (above), though it is not known if they were originally conceived as a pair or brought together at a later date.
–-S#> Colosseum and Arch of Constantine, Rome (47x72cm; 520x800pix, 85kb)
–-S#> Veduta di Castelgandolfo e il Lago di Nemi – Veduta Costiera Presso Roma (two 1712 pictures in one image, each 34x42cm; 441x552pix and 417x550pix, together 96kb) _ Di altissima qualità, le due tele si collocano nell’attività di van Lint immediatamente successiva al suo definitivo soggiorno a Roma, avvenuto nel 1711, quando il pittore ha già acquisito una personalità artistica indipendente da quella del maestro Gaspar van Wittel, con il quale aveva probabilmente anche stretto rapporti d’affari per rispondere alla crescenti richieste della committenza, come mostrano le frequenti riprese di soggetti di van Wittel nella sua produzione. Difficilmente invece Hendrik Frans van lint ripeterà i propri temi, fortemente caratterizzati e riconoscibili rispetto a quelli degli altri vedutisti attivi a Roma negli stessi anni, frutto di ripetute e lunghe sedute lungo le sponde del Tevere o di giornate fuori porta. Come nella coppia che presentiamo, i paesaggi di van Lint sono squisite e precise visuali quasi fotografiche, rese con acuto spirito d’osservazione e riprodotte in quadri di piccole dimensioni: tutte qualità che incontravano il favore dei collezionisti dediti al “grand tour”, che potevano così portare con loro un ricordo, vivo e spontaneo, di ciò che avevano visto nei loro viaggi lungo la penisola. Le sue vedute sono sempre caratterizzate dalla piacevolezza del soggetto e dalla notevole sensibilità delle composizioni. Ed è proprio nelle opere laziali che van Lint raggiunse la sua più completa maturità stilistica ambientata in un mondo ricco di espressioni naturalistiche e popolato di preziose figurine, rigogliosi alberi, barche, carri immersi in una cristallina luminosità diffusa, all’interno di un equilibrio che mai viene meno tra disegno e colore.

1676 Claes Janszoon van der Willigen, Dutch artist born in 1630.
–-S#> River Landscape (65x87cm; 984x1344pix, 224kb) the distant background looks not quite finished. There are fishing boats unloading and travelers on a path near a village.

Born on a 23 September:

^ 1913 Carl-Henning Pedersen [–20 Feb 2007], Danish CoBrA painter, draftsman, sculptor, and designer, “the Scandinavian Chagall”. He decided to become a painter when he met the artist Else Alfelt [16 Sep 1910 – 09 Aug 1974] in 1933. They were married in 1934. Self-taught, he made his debut in 1936 at the Artists’ Autumn Exhibition in Copenhagen. His earliest paintings reveal the influence of Cubism. From the end of the 1930s he limited himself to a small group of motifs, which he presented in a great number of variations. Inspired by the fantasy vision of Paul Klee, Pedersen created his own world of fable, in which people and animals appear with sun, moon and stars in changing landscapes. He also depicted mountains, houses and towers, or ships and the sea, and he used the mask motif many times, in different forms. The draftsmanship in his paintings often has the awkwardness of child art, as in The Gobbler (1939). At first his forms were clearly delineated by his method of placing one color adjacent to another and using the brush to outline the design in black on the picture plane. He later altered his technique to heavy stains of color applied with broad strokes. The new environments he discovered on his many journeys were reflected in his subjects and his altered handling of color. His color juxtapositions gave his pigments a jewel-like radiance and strength. This required a color scale of great refinement and unusual richness. There was an almost ‘Oriental’ clarity to his color, which gave a fundamental lucidity to his fabulous imagery. During the 1940s he was associated with the Cobra group, and it was at that time that he developed an iconography of fantastic creatures in poetic contexts. Metamorphosis was central to his art: peaceful beings could suddenly become terrifying monsters, or the sun would melt and be transformed into an ocean of flame.
— (untitled?) () crude childish painting of a man and a woman (astronauts?) and other unrecognizable things, a full moon near the lower left coner, and a fish at the upper right.
–-S#> Untitled (1949?, 82x102cm; 778x961pix, 241kb) Imitation of a child's painting? Nativity? with a diminutive, triple-horned, umbrella-carrying imp? or Saint Joseph?
–-S#> Untitled (1967, 50x40cm; 960x784pix, 247kb) scribbly. Giant white fish above tiny yellow smiling dwarf man standing on ocean bottom. —(090923)

1897 Paul Delvaux, Belgian painter who died (full coverage) on 20 July 1994. —(060521)

1866 William Robinson Leigh, US painter who died (full coverage) on 11 March 1955. —(050908)

^ >1865 Pekka Halonen, Finnish painter whose life came to a finish on 01 December 1933. His father was a peasant from Lapinlahti. Halonen studied at the Art Society's drawing school in Helsinki. In 1890 he moved to Paris where he studied at the Académie Julian and later under Paul Gauguin. He was born into an artistic peasant family; his cousin was the sculptor Eemil Halonen [1875–1950]. Pekka received his initial training at the Finnish Arts Association’s School of Drawing in Helsinki (1886–1890). Over the next two years he worked in Paris at the Académie Julian, and his work was first exhibited in 1891. Halonen’s themes were the Finnish landscape and people, and his artistic approach was always rooted in Realism. The Mowers (1891) is an important example of his Realist plein-air painting, which was tinged with Jean-François Millet’s brand of idealization, while The Shortcut (1892) is a somber study of the landscape of eastern Finland. Halonen spent the years 1893–1894 in Paris as a student of Paul Gauguin; his interest in Symbolism was short-lived, but Gauguin’s decorative Synthetism, as well as Japanese woodcuts, made a lasting impression on his work, in particular on his later portrayals. — Taidemaalari, JS:n ystävä ja naapuri Halosenniemessä Tuusulassa. Halonen on Suomen taidehistorian huomattavimpia maisemamaalareita. Teki alttaritauluja Mikkelin, Karstulan, Kotkan ja Joroisten kirkkoihin. Puoliso Maija Halonen soitti AS:n kanssa nelikätisesti pianokappaleita ja sovituksia. Poika Antti Halonen kirjoitti mm. kirjan Tuusulan taiteilijayhteisön elämästä. Halosenniemi on nykyisin kotimuseo. — Hänet tunnetaan maisemamaalauksistaan, etenkin suomalaisen talvisen luonnon ja lumisen metsän kuvaajana. Halonen opiskeli Pariisissa mm. Paul Gauguinin johdolla, ja sai vaikutteita japanilaisista puupiirroksista. Hän oli kansallisromantiikan ja karelianismin edustaja, ja arvosti suomalaista talonpoikaa ja kansan kristillistä uskoa. Halonen oli yksi Tuusulanjärven taiteilijayhteisön jäsenistä; Halosenniemen erämaa-ateljee valmistui 1901. — Photo of Halonen
Helylästä (1896; 1143x780pix, 253kb)
–- Talvimaisema (1925, 40x57cm; 619x900pix, 44kb) _ The pseudonymous Begga Halonun has metamorphosed this dull picture into numerous brilliantly colorful abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Tal Vez Maiz Siembra (2007; 550x778pix, 179kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 350kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 676kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1537kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3267kb) and
      _ Telle Vie Maïs Sema (2007; 550x778pix, 179kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 350kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 676kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1537kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3267kb)
Ravio Lumessa (1913)
Myllykylan saha (600x747pix, 40kb)
— (Washing Clothes in a Hole in the Ice) (536x748pix, 29kb)
Kivikoskelta (1919, 61x56cm; 395x284pix, 25kb) —(070923)

1863 Louis Auguste Mathieu Legrand, French painter who died (main coverage) on 12 June 1951. —(060611)

^ 1808 Hermann Winterhalter, German artist who died on 27 February 1891. — Born in St. Blasien in the Black Forest, younger brother of the portrait painter Franz Xaver Winterhalter [20 Apr 1806 – 08 Jul 1873]. Studied in Munich and Rome before settling in Paris where he assisted his brother and exhibited at the Salon 1838-1841, 1847 and 1869. His portrait of his Parisian patron Nicolas-Louis Planat de la Faye is in the Louvre. On his brother's death he retired to Karlsruhe where he died.
A Girl of Frascati (before 1838, 23x18 cm)

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updated Thursday 24-Sep-2009 0:26 UT
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