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ART “4” “2”-DAY  20 September v.8.80
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DEATH: 1932 SLEVOGT
BIRTH: 1819 CHASSÉRIAU
1625: FUNERAL OF PRINCE MAURICE
^ >Died on 20 September 1932: Max Slevogt, German Impressionist painter, printmaker, and illustrator, born on 08 October 1868.
— His father, adjutant and friend of the future Prince Regent, Luitpold [1821–1912], died when Slevogt was just two years old. His mother moved to Würzburg, where he spent his schooldays. Even in his childhood and adolescence, family connections brought Slevogt to Pfalz, to an aunt in Landau and to the Finkler family in Neukastel. Initially he had planned to become a musician, but he began to study painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich in 1885. His fellow students included Gabriel von Hackl [1843–1926], Karl Raupp [1837–1918], Ludwig Herterich [1856–1932], and Wilhelm von Diez [1839–1907]. In 1889 he spent a term at the Académie Julian in Paris. At that time Impressionism impressed him very little. Following a trip to Italy in 1890 with the painter Robert Breyer [1866–1941] who had befriended him at the Akademie, he began to work independently as a painter in Munich. In 1893 he participated in the first exhibition of the newly founded Munich Secession, exhibiting Wrestling School (1893); the judges wanted to refuse this painting as immoral since its entwined and naked men caused offence. In the following years his paintings often appeared harsh and non-academic to conservative Munich circles. At this time Slevogt also made contributions to the journals Jugend and Simplizissimus, which were significant in the development of his graphic work. In 1898 he married his childhood friend Antonie (‘Nini’) Finkler. In the same year he went to Neukastel and on an autumn trip to an exhibition in Amsterdam of Rembrandt’s work with the art historian Karl Voll [1867–1917]. Voll instructed him in the history of art and published the first monograph on him in 1912.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1888; 600x430pix)
–- Self-Portrait (drypoint 20x15cm; 688x545pix, 33kb _ ZOOM to 1032x818pix, 77kb)
–- different Self-Portrait (drypoint 24x18cm; 688x545pix, 33kb _ ZOOM to 1032x818pix, 77kb)
Lachsstilleben (1923; 600x802pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1871pix, 606kb)_ The pseudonymous Min Slewogre has metamorphosed this painting of a bottle and decapitated fish into not one but a series of twenty-four swirly abstract pictures (all of 932x1318pix, 622kb; ZOOMable to 2636x3728pix, 5240kb) which are related to each other (you can click instantaneously from anyone of them to the other twenty-three) in the same way as their titles, permutations of the words Amazing, Beautiful, Creative, and Delightful (or any other words with those initials which you may prefer), represented by their initials in the following table of links:
||| ABCD ||| ADCB ||| ACDB ||| BADC ||| ABDC ||| BACD |||
||| BDAC ||| CBAD ||| CDAB ||| DCBA ||| DCAB ||| CDBA |||
||| ADBC ||| DACB ||| ACBD ||| CABD ||| DABC ||| CADB |||
||| BCAD ||| CBDA ||| DBAC ||| BDCA ||| BCDA ||| DBCA |||

Fressender Tiger (im Frankfurter Zoo) (1901; 600x668pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1559pix)
Mädchen wor dem Löwenkäfig (im Frankfurter Zoo) (1901; 600x920pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2147pix)
Das Champagnerlied (der weisse Andrade) (1902; 600x440pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1027pix)
The Artist's Nephew (1891, 51x41cm)
Seeräuber (610x800pix, 158kb) grainy image (canvas texture?)
The Singer Francisco d'Andrade as Don Giovanni
Sudanesische Weiber
Frau Voll mit ihrer Tochter (1895; 600x635pix)
Segelboote auf der Alster am Abend (1905; 600x810pix)
90 images at Bildindex most of them are grayscale.
49 details of frescoes monochrome pinkish gray.
—(060919)
^ Born on 20 September 1819: Théodore Chassériau, Parisian painter and printmaker who died on 08 October 1856.
— Born in Haiti at El Limón, near Samaná (now in the Dominican Republic), Chassériau moved in 1822 with his family to Paris, where he received a bourgeois upbringing under the supervision of an older brother. A precociously gifted draftsman, he entered Ingres’s studio at the age of 11 and remained there until Ingres left to head the Académie de France in Rome in 1834. He made his Salon début in 1836 with several portraits and religious subjects, including Cain Accursed, for which he received a third-class medal. Among his many submissions in subsequent years were Susanna Bathing (1839), a Marine Venus (1838) and the Toilet of Esther (1841); these three paintings of nude female figures combine an idealization derived from Ingres with a sensuality characteristic of Chassériau.
— He was the most gifted student of Ingres, whose studio in Rome in entered when he was 11, but in the 1840s he conceived an admiration for Delacroix and attempted, with considerable success, to combine Ingres's Classical linear grace with Delacroix's Romantic color. His chief work was the decoration of the Cour des Comptes in the Palais d'Orsay, Paris, with allegorical scenes of Peace and War (1844-1848), but these were almost completely destroyed by fire. There are other examples of his decorative work, however, in various churches in Paris. Chassériau was also an outstanding portraitist and painted nudes and North African scenes (he made a visit there in 1846).

LINKS
Les Deux Soeurs (1843; _ ZOOMable to 1920x1329pix) _ The pseudonymous Dorothé Chat-Sérieux claims, not very convincingly, that Chassériau accomodated the desire of the sitters (actually standers) to be separated, which could not be done surgically, and that their real likeness is closer to what is depicted in Les Deux Soeurs Conjointes (836x590pix, 56kb _ ZOOM to 1672x1181pix, 205kb)
The Tepidarium (1853, 171x258cm) _ detail (_ ZOOMable)
Bazar à Oran (_ ZOOMable)
Harem (_ ZOOMable)
Young Teleb Seated (_ ZOOMable)
Alexis de Tocqueville (1850) _ Alexis de Tocqueville [29 Jul 1805 – 16 Apr 1859] was a French political scientist, historian, and politician, best known for his 4-volume De la Démocracie en Amérique (1835–1840), a perceptive analysis of the political and social system of the United States at the time.
Ali-Ben-Hamet, Caliph of Constantine of the Haractas, followed by his Escort (1845) _ In 1846 Chassériau was invited to Algeria by the Caliph of Constantine, the subject of the portrait he had submitted to the Salon of 1845. The incisive drawings he made there have a special psychological acuity. Accordingly, his Orientalist reputation has rested largely on the drawings and genre scenes. Contrary to Baudelaire's critique, the portrait of Ali-Ben-Hamet is an extraordinary portrait--colorful, dynamic, sly--a display of power in every sense. Commissioned by Ali-Ben-Hamet during a visit to Paris in December 1844, the work showed the French public “a good Algerian”, one who had sided with the French in their colonial wars and therefore been rewarded with the caliphate of the town of Constantine, seen in the background, as well as the Légion d'Honneur, which he wears around his neck. For his efforts, the Caliph himself becomes a decoration, a trophy of French military and diplomatic acumen, a jewel in the French crown. Here, as elsewhere in Chassériau's art, the role of art-historical tradition is critical. The painter endowed his subject with the aristocratic status implicit in the equestrian portrait, with illustrious precedents from the hands of Titian, van Dyck and Velazquez. Yet that tradition, it was clear to the critic for L'Illustration, stood in fundamental opposition to the prohibition against imagery of the portrait sitter's own culture. By sitting for the portrait, the French writer noted superciliously, the Arab retinue blithely neglected the religious traditions with which they are irreducibly associated: “without respecting the old prejudices of Muslim orthodoxy, they have complacently consented to pose for one of our collaborators the very day after their arrival.” Far from aligning the artist and his sitter with a realm of esthetic universalism, Western art-historical tradition was seen to divide and hierarchize the world.
Le Révérend Père Dominique Lacordaire, O.P. (1840) _ Jean-Baptiste-Henri Lacordaire [12 May 1802 – 21 Nov 1861] was already a renowned preacher when he joined the Dominicans (Order of Preachers) in 1838, taking Dominique as his name in religion. He was head of the French Dominicans from 1850 to 1854 and helped to make the order a religious and educational power in France.
Ernest Chassériau, frère du peintre, en uniforme de l'École Navale de Brest (1835) Ernest Chassériau [1823-1870] was 12 at the time.
Peace
Un bain au sérail (1849, 50x32cm; 452x291pix, 76kb)
 

Died on a 20 September:

1962 Robert Colquhoun, in London, Scottish painter and printmaker, born in Kilmarnock (main coverage) on 20 December 1914. — (051219)

^ 1724 David von Krafft, Swedish artist born in 1655. — Relative? of Johann Peter Krafft [15 Sep 1780 – 28 Oct 1856]?
Karl XII _ Karl XII [17 Jun 1682 – 30 Nov 1718] became king of Sweden at the death of his father Karl XI [24 Nov 1655 – 05 Apr 1697]. An absolute monarch, he defended his country for 18 years during the Great Northern War and promoted significant domestic reforms. He launched a disastrous invasion of Russia (1707–1709), resulting in the complete collapse of the Swedish armies and the loss of Sweden's status as a great power. He was, however, also a ruler of the early Enlightenment era, promoting domestic reforms of significance.
Gustaf von Psilander [1669-1738] (419x378pix, 34kb) Swedish admiral _ Den 28 juli 1704 befann sig en svensk konvoj, ledd av kaptenen Gustaf Psilander på Öland några mil sydost om Yarmouth. En engelsk eskader på 9 fartyg, ute för att försöka återfinna en fransk styrka som slunkit ut från Dunkerque, siktade svenskarna och trodde man funnit sitt byte. När engelsmännen kom närmare upptäckte de förstås sitt misstag, men det återstod ett problem. Vid den här tiden ansågs det från engelskt håll att man hade överhögheten över stora delar av Atlanten, de så kallade British Seas. Från svensk sida accepterade man inte dessa anspråk. När då den engelske kaptenen Butler krävde att Psilander skulle stryka segel hade denne inget val. Han måste, i enlighet med sin instruktion, vägra och ta strid. De dåliga oddsen till trots höll Psilander ut i mer än fyra timmar och lyckades tillfoga engelsmännen rejäla förluster innan han tvingades att ge upp. För detta har han blivit legendarisk i svensk sjöhistoria.


Born on a 20 September:

1957 Rich DiSilvio, US illustrator, new media developer, author, photographer, fine artist, digital artist, web designer, and architectural designer. He is most noted for his surreal fantasy illustrations, mostly for music album covers.
Primordial (590x1150pix, 35kb) —(080919)

^ 1807 Friedrich August Matthias Gauermann, Austrian painter who died on 07 July 1862. He was the son of the painter and copper engraver Jakob Gauermann [1773–1843] and the brother of the painter Carl Gauermann [1804–1829]. Friedrich was taught painting by his father, who emphasized especially the direct observation of nature. Friedrich Gauermann subsequently studied at the Vienna Akademie [1824–1827] in the landscape class of Josef Mössmer [1780–1845]. In Vienna Gauermann was especially attracted to the work of such 17th-century Dutch landscape painters as Philips Wouwerman, Jacob van Ruisdael, Allaert van Everdingen, Paulus Potter and Nicolaes Berchem, and he made copies of their paintings. He continued to admire such artists throughout his life, and in his own landscape painting he remained close to their form of realism. Gauermann also made study tours to see art collections in Munich and Dresden in 1827 and 1829. — LINKS
The Harvest Cart (1837, 97x81cm; 1250x1030pix, 276kb _ ZOOM to 2500x2060pix, 1160kb) _ In Gauermann’s book of earnings there is a description of this painting by the artist himself: ‘A cart laden with grain is being rushed up a hill; two horses, a grey and a chestnut, pull with great difficulty; on the first sits a youth, driving; another horse is unhitched, being led by a boy. On the hill to the left are trees bent by a storm and underneath a farmhouse. A thunderstorm is brewing above the high mountains in the background. In the center appears Lake Zell; a group of country folk are coming up the hill; the wind has blown a boy’s hat off, two men are holding on to the cart.’ In contrast to this rather sober description, the painting captivates its viewer through its loaded atmosphere. The painting exudes the special quality of the charged air preceding a storm, once described by Gauermann as his favorite theme. The almost supernatural light typical of an approaching storm also contributes to the success of the portrayal. The frantic urgency of the people is palpable as they endeavor to secure the harvest. It appears as though the energy of nature’s drama has been transferred to the people. The real subject of the painting is therefore the primal experience of natural might and its power over the fate of mankind.
Vase of FlowersHeimkehr von der Jagd am Attersee (1857, 87x105cm; _ ZOOMable)
Der Dorfbrunn (1836, 74x96cm)
Jäger vor einer Köhlerhütte (1831, 72x54cm)
Almabtrieb (Return from the mountain pasture) (64x89cm)
–-S#> Hunde stellen einen Hirschen im Wasser (137x107cm; 900x697pix, 123kb) _ Gauermann ranks among the most celebrated nineteenth-century Austrian landscape and animal painters. His depictions of game and the hunt are based on direct experience and impressions from his many sketching trips to the Salzkammergut, Tyrol, and northern Italy. The beautifully observed anatomies of the stag and the pouncing hounds reveal his genius as a draftsman. The painting also testifies to Gauermann's interest in atmospheric conditions. The carefully observed cloud-streaked sky is as central to the composition as the engagement between the dogs and stag below. Gauermann's fascination with wide open skies grew out of a deep admiration for the work of the seventeenth-century Dutch landscape painters Philips Wouverman, Jacob van Ruisdael, Paulus Potter, and Nicolaes Berchem, copies of whose work he made as a student.
–-S#> Zwei Bären an einer Quelle (June 1830, 31x40cm; 510x648pix, 103kb) _ Two bears in cave. The view is enclosed, only on the right a glimpse of sunlight on a stream of water trickling over stones.

^ 1779 Johannes-Ludvig Camradt, Danish miniaturist and painter on porcelain, who died on 04 December 1849. — Vase of Flowers >>>.


Happened on a 20 September:

^ 1625 Funeral of Prince Maurice.
      On 20 September 1625 a long line of mourners crossed the central square in Delft, heading towards the New Church. This was the funeral procession of Maurice, Prince of Orange, Count Of Nassau [13 Nov 1567 – 23 Apr 1625], successor to his father, William I the Silent [24 Apr 1533 – 10 Jul 1584]. The stadholder's embalmed remains had lain in The Hague until 16 September when a barge covered with a black cloth carried the Prince to Delft. There the body was placed at Prinsenhof until taken for burial on 20 September. The funeral was enormously expensive. The suits of clothes for the courtiers alone came to almost 12'000 guilders.
     Gillis van Scheyndel made this picture of the ceremony: Funeral Procession of Prince Maurice at Grote Markt in Delft (1625 engraving, 61x100cm; 966x1600pix, 441kb)
     To the left of the church tower is the monumental tomb of William of Orange, to the right is Maurice's insignia, shown in color and incorporating the Order of the Garter. The procession from Prinsenhof to Grote Kerk followed a precise protocol. In fact the ceremony was probably choreographed and orchestrated by the artist Jacques de Gheyn [1565-1625]. Huge crowds came to watch the event from tribunes erected for the occasion on either side of the square. At the head of the procession came the Delft militia. They were followed by a line of courtiers. Horses bore the arms of Maurice's various titles. Three banners, proclaiming Maurice as the protector of justice and religion, were carried by the senior officer Jacques Wijts and the Pince's illegitimate sons William and Louis.
     The bier carrying the Prince was led by eight halberdiers marching with the points of their pikes lowered. A halberd is a versatile weapon consisting of a long wooden shaft (measuring more than two meters) topped by a spearhead, with a blade and a pick on either side. In battle it was used for cleaving and thrusting, while the pick was used to unhorse cavalry. Halberds were borne by foot soldiers from the Middles Ages to the 16th century. They were later replaced by the pike and subsequently only borne by sergeants, generally as a sign of rank. Some kings maintained a special guard of halberdiers. The word 'halberd' derives from the German words 'Hahn' (pole) and 'Barte' (axe).
      Beside the coffin, which was draped with a cloth sporting Maurice's coat of arms, walked senior officers of the States army . The State army was the military arm of the Dutch Republic (1588-1795). In the late 16th century, during the stadholdership of Prince Maurice, the foundations were laid for what was then a highly modern army. Weaponry, organisation and tactics were all overhauled. An important innovation for a European power was the abandoning of the reliance on mercenaries and the creation of a standing army of armed professional soldiers. Maurice and his brother and successor Frederick Henry used the army to great effect.
     One of these officers in the procession was Justin of Nassau, governor of Breda and a half-brother of Maurice. Behind the cavalry captains came the relatives, including Frederick Henry. And not far behind, with his entourage, the Winter King Frederick V [1596-1632], the Elector Palatine, a Protestant, who became king of Bohemia in 1619, but a year later was defeated by his Catholic opponents. In 1620 the Winter King had fled to the Dutch Republic where his nephew Prince Maurice was stadholder.
     Following these came the counts of Nassau. The French and Venetian ambassadors were followed on foot by pages and footmen, the least disciplined group in the procession. Bringing up the rear were the members of the States General and the Raad van State (Council of State) followed by representatives of the provincial and town councils.
     The States General originated in Bruges in 1464, when representatives of the estates of the various provinces of the Netherlands assembled for the first time at the invitation of Philip the Good under the name States General. A century later, during the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish king, the States General assumed sovereign power. Under the Dutch Republic (1588-1795) the States General represented the central authority. The delegates of the seven provinces met in the Binnenhof in The Hague. Today, the States General is the name given to the combined upper and lower houses of the Dutch parliament.
     Jacques de Gheyn appears to have exercised general control over the depiction of the funeral arrangements in print. He himself was the first to portray the Prince after his death. In fact he seems to have been allowed into the room to sketch Maurice on the very day he died. His depiction of the late stadholder is highly realistic, showing the collapsed face and open mouth: Maurice on his deathbed (1625)
     The next day, the body was embalmed and laid in state. This was portrayed by Adriaen van de Venne in Maurice, Prince of Orange, Lying in State (1625, 8x13cm)


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