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ART “4” “2”-DAY  18 September v.9.80
^ Died on 18 September 1426: Hubert van Eyck, Flemish painter born before 1390.
— He was the elder brother of Jan van Eyck [1390 – 09 Jul 1441 bur.], Lambert van Eyck, and Margareta van Eyck. He was born at Maeseyck, near Mons; the date is unknown. The name Hubert itself, which was not common in Ghent, may well indicate his foreign origin. A few facts can be gleaned from his tombstone. An inscription engraved on a copper plate which has since disappeared but which was once affixed to the stone, recorded 18 September 1426 as the date of his death.
      However, the most crucial piece of information to have come down to us is the quatrain inscribed on the frame of the Adoration of the Lamb, the Van Eyck brothers' most celebrated work. The verse was placed there when the altarpiece was installed on 06 May 1432. It states that the polyptych was begun by Pictor Hubertus Eyck, and finished by his brother Jan, at the request of Jodocus Vyd, deputy burgomaster of Ghent, warden of the church of Saint John, and of his wife, Elisabeth Borluut, who commissioned it. The quatrain was discovered in 1823.
      A stylistic analysis of the painting reveals the work of two different hands. The overall conception of the altarpiece is certainly the work of Hubert, along with the execution of certain parts, such as the panels in the lower tier: Here, the manner is archaic, and reflects the continuing dominance of the international style that was practised by Broederlam. The composition is typically unoriginal: the landscape is still conceived as a distant background, with which the figures at the front have no organic relation, an effect that is reinforced by the bird's eye point of view.

The Three Marys at the Tomb (71x89cm)
The Birth of Saint John the Baptist
The Mytical Lamb Polyptych _ center _ detail eight singers at an ornate lectern, two of them look pained, and one seems distracted.
38 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia

Died on a 18 September:

^ >1972 Fritz Glarner, Swiss US painter born on 20 July 1899. Brought up in France and Italy, he studied at the Regio Istituto di Belle Arti in Naples from 1914 to 1920. Three years later he moved to Paris, where he studied at the Académie Colarossi intermittently between 1924 and 1926 and became acquainted with modernist artists, including Hans Arp, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Alexander Calder, Theo van Doesburg, Jean Hélion, Fernand Léger, Piet Mondrian and Georges Vantongerloo. During the late 1920s and 1930s Glarner’s work consisted largely of semi-abstract still-lifes and interior scenes such as Painting (1937), in which flat, hard-edged areas of color are used to indicate the simplified forms of a table in the corner of a room. Although right angles predominate, a limited number of diagonal edges and overlapping forms serve to establish a sense of spatial recession and indicate the naturalistic origin of the imagery. — Painter and printmaker Fritz Glarner's art is one of bold colors and abstract shapes. Born in Zurich, Switzerland, and trained in Italy, he moved to the United States in 1936. Working in New York, he met other abstract artists and introduced them to the Dutch school of geometric abstraction, known as De Stijl, in which he had been trained. Influenced by the work of Dutch artist Piet Mondrian, Glarner's work, for example the lithograph Drawing for Tondo, recalls the balanced arrangement of abstract shapes in Mondrian's paintings. Unlike the Dutch painter, Glarner often worked on an architectural scale. He produced paintings for vast spaces such as the Dag Hammmarskjold Library at the United Nations and the lobby of the Time-Life building in New York. Glarner was among the artists invited to work at Universal Limited Art Editions, an important print workshop in West Islip, Long Island. During the 1960s, it offered printmaking equipment to a generation of abstract artists and fostered the growth of modern lithography in the US. — Photo of Glarner (480x480pix, 64kb) — Make your own, it might be the Glarnest!LINKS
Relational Painting Tondo No. 4 (round;597x600pix, 60kb)
Relational Painting No. 64 (1953, 51x51cm; 451x450pix, 109kb)
Relational Painting No. 66 (1953; 348x400pix, 15kb)
Relational Painting Tondo No. 43 (1956 round, 40cm diam.; 377x377pix, 27kb)
Relational Painting Tondo No. 40 (1956 round, 112cm diam.; 362x362pix, 18kb)
Relational Painting Tondo No. 52 (round; 400x400pix, 23kb)
Relational Painting Tondo No. 61 (1964 round, 125cm diam.; 469x470pix, 17kb) _ The pseudonymous Frites Glaneur has combined these and a few other Glarner paintings, which are mostly round, filled in the empty corners, introduced bright colors and textures, and completely metamorphosed the result into two related pictures:
      _ Relatively Rational Pain Tin To Do No Number aka Absolutely Beautiful (2006; 932x1318pix, 387kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1572kb) and
      _ Relativité du Pantin Dans Ton Dos aka Beautifully Absolute (2006; 932x1318pix, 387kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1572kb) —(060916)

^ 1929 Hippolyte Petitjean, French painter born on 11 September 1854. — He initially studied art at his home town of Macon. He later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-arts de Paris. At age 30 he fell under the influence of his friend Seurat. He adapted the pointillist theories and produced at least 237 paintings in the "divisionist" style. In 1919 he went back to the impressionist style of Monet.— He began his studies in drawing in Mâcon before going to Paris in 1885 to join the Neo-Impressionists. He became very close to Seurat, who was generous with his advice and instruction and greatly influenced Petitjean’s conté crayon drawings. In 1887 he submitted paintings to the Salon in Stockholm and from 1891 was accepted by the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in Paris. In 1893 he was welcomed in Brussels; in 1898 he gained a new German clientele in Berlin, and in 1903 and 1921 his works were hung in Weimar and Wiesbaden. — LINKS
Landscape (1920, 38x55cm)

1914 Albert Kappis, German Impressionist artist born on 20 August 1836.

^ 1886 Eduard Jakob von Steinle, Austrian painter born on 02 July 1810. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1823, where he was taught by Vincenz Georg Kininger. His training under Leopold Kupelwieser had a lasting influence on his work, for it was during this period (1826–1828) that he learnt about Italian painting of the Quattrocento. In 1828 he went to Rome, where he joined Philipp Veit, who influenced his style, Friedrich Overbeck and Joseph Führich. He sketched a Visitation, and an Annunciation for the church of Trinità dei Monti in Rome; these were painted as frescoes by his friend Josef Tunner. — Frederic Leighton [1830-1896] was a student of Steinle.
The Lorelei (1864, 211x135cm)
The Tower Watchman (1859, 139x68cm)
Adam and Eve after the Fall (1853, 130x107cm)
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

^ 1807 Franciszek Smuglewicz, Polish painter born on 06 October 1745. — {Smuggle which witch?} — The son, not of a smuggler, but of the Warsaw craft painter Lukasz Smuglewicz [1709–1780], he was apprenticed to Szymon Czechowicz. Living from 1763 to 1784 in Rome, he initially studied under Anton von Maron and then from 1766 at the Accademia di San Luca on a scholarship given by King Stanislas V. There he became influenced by classicizing academicism, a style to which he remained faithful. He became proficient in fresco painting and at oil portraits (e.g. The Byres Family in Rome, 1776). He also did watercolor copies (1770–1776) of antique frescoes, being at that time conversant with international antiquarian and collecting circles. — Jonas Rustemas was an assistant of Smuglewicz. — Portrait of Franciszek Smuglewicz (1800) by Jozef Peszka.
Portrait of the Prozor Family (1789; 944x750pix, 81kb)
Przysiega T. Kosciuszki na rynku krakowskim 24. 3. 1794 (1797; 612x700pix, 128kb)
Battle of Chocim (476x748pix, 36kb)

Born on a 18 September:

19?? Bill Inxlay, pseudonymous artist whose date of birth is most likely not 18 September, but there was more space available on this web page than on those of most other dates. He (or she?) is known (or unknown) for only one series of of colorful and elaborate abstractions, which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the asymmetrical:
Pit Stop (2009; 928x1312pix, 501kb _ ZOOM to 2624x3712pix, 1773kb) or the symmetrical
Pot's Top (2009; 928x1312pix, 494kb _ ZOOM to 2624x3712pix, 1727kb). —(090907)

1923 Xavier Valls i Subira [–16 Sep 2006], Barcelona Catalan painter, active in France, dies of cancer of the colon. — Va apendre en Barcelona la tècnica pictòrica al costat del suís sculptor Charles Collet, amit de la família. L'any 1949 va traslladar-se a París, on es relacionà amb Tristan Tzara, Fernand Léger, Antoni Clavé o Alberto Giacometti, i ciutat en la qual establí la seva residència definitiva, tot i que passava els estius a la ciutat de Barcelona. És el pare del polític francès Manuel Valls [13 Aug 1962~] (naturalisé en 1982). L'any 2003 publicà un llibre de memòries La meva capsa de Pandora. Interessat en els seus orígens en el cubisme, la seva obra va evolucionar vers el constructivisme, l'asbtracció i, a partir de la dècada del 1970, vers el figurativisme. La seva obra, plena de paisatges, naturaleses mortes, vistes de París i retrats, està basada en un realisme matisat mitjançant la tècnica de la difuminació i amb clares influències del romanticisme alemany.
Nature Morte au Citron et Deux Mandarines (1970; 616x512pix, 34kb) —(090915)

^ 1859 Thomas Austen (or Austin) Brown, British artist who died in 1924.
–-S#> Morning Pasture (1134x900pix, 228kb)

^ 1854 Fausto Zonaro, Italian painter who died on 19 July 1929. Born in 1854 in Masi , a village near Padua. He started his working life as an apprentice bricklayer. His need to earn money eventually came second to his artistic tendencies, and the young artist studied design in Lendinara. He then studied at the Accademia Cignora in Verona for a time, and then graduated from the Rome Academy of Art. The artist displayed his paintings in Italy in the late 1800s. he then went to Paris, and rented a studio at 36 boulevard de Clichy. Zonaro adopted the Bohemian artist life until 1891. He and his wife then moved to Istanbul from Venice in 1891, and settled down in a wooden house in Taksim. His most interesting works emerged during this period, with the paintings he made in central neighbourhoods of the city. During the Trablusgarp War in 1911, at the time of the Battle of Tripoli, he moved to San Remo from Istanbul with his family. The artist died in in San Remo.
     Zonaro moved to Constantinople in 1890 at the behest of his wife to be, his student Elisa Pante. The couple married in Constantinople and settled in a house on the northern bank of the Golden Horn. Making this his base, Zonaro became absorbed by the city's sites, customs, and mores, the subjects of his best paintings. The talented Italian soon came to the attention of Abdül Hamid II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1876 to 1909, who appointed him painter to the Court. He was even granted a palace overlooking the Bosphorus. Through his position, Zonaro mingled not only in court circles but with members of the diplomatic community, from whom he would receive commissions. Though accustomed to moving in court and diplomatic circles, Zonaro remained fascinated by the city's sites, customs, and mores, which he continued to paint alongside his grander royal commissions. From dervishes to beggars, soldiers to public scribes, there was virtually no aspect of life in Constantinople which escaped Zonaro's brush.
     In 1902 Zonaro exhibited at the Pera Salon, which had been inaugurated the previous year. He also became a teacher at the School of Fine Art founded by Osman Hamdy Bey, patronised by the Sultan. Zonaro's career in Constantinople came to an abrupt end in 1911, when the new government of the `Young Turks' ordered the expulsion of Italians in retaliation for Italy's invasion of Libya. He settled in San Remo, but Constantinople remained a constant inspiration. After the First World War he collaborated with the poet Adolphe Thalasso on an illustrated book on the city, Stamboul porte du bonheur, scènes de la vie turque (1925).
Self-Portrait (1900, 48x39cm; 732x600pix, 69kb)
Self-Portrait (1927 sketch, 72x53cm; 672x490pix, 70kb)
–-S#> Porto di Istambul (18x33cm; 483x900pix, 127kb) _ Questo dipinto, raffigurante un luminoso scorcio della città di Costantinopoli, rivela la tecnica sicura e vigorosa dell’artista padovano, che a Costantinopoli fu Pittore di Corte. La veduta è realizzata con geniale forza di rappresentazione, sicurezza di disegno, pastosità di colore e un largo spontaneo, vivace impressionismo. “… Zonaro fu artista consapevole e curioso della realtà che dipingeva e che conosceva intimamente, ben lungi dai superficiali manierismi di molti suoi predecessori che in Oriente avevano fatto qualche viaggio senza enucleare l’essenza di quel mondo complesso che solo la vita in esso vissuta, il sentirlo come patria potevano disvelare…” (Giuseppe Luigi Marini). L’artista dunque non fu pittore cartolinesco, egli seppe ritrarre la vera anima della Turchia, la sua luce, i suoi colori, il suggestivo esotismo. Egli scrisse nelle sue memorie “… L’arte senza lo studio preventivo dell’ambiente, non solo non è arte, ma si traduce in cose erronee, per cui l’opera pittorica diventa una satira atroce dell’autore…”.
–-S#> The Scribe (38x60cm; 483x900pix, 571x900pix, 94kb) one of two versions.
–-S#> The Sedan Chair (49x77cm; 510x835pix, 142kb) _ The sitter being borne and escorted by the Sultan's guard is Lady Carrie, daughter of the British ambassador to Constantinople. She married the son of the Belgian ambassador Baron de Groote.
The 10th of Muharram (140x252cm) _ The 10th day of Muharram (first month of the Islamic year) or Day of Aashurah (meaning “ten” in Arabic), sometimes spelled 'Ashurah or Aashoorah , commemorates the martyrdom of Husayn bin Ali [626 – 10 Oct 680], the grandson of Muhammad [570 – 08 Jun 632] and the third Imam of the Shi'as, at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram 61 AH (= 10 Oct 680 AD). After nine days of preparatory celebrations, on the 10th day of Muharram, the Shi'as fast and form large processions holding banners and carrying models of the mausoleum of Husayn. They show their grief and sorrow by inflicting wounds on their own bodies with sharp metal tied to chain with which they scourge themselves. The Islamic year being shorter than the solar year, Islamic dates correspond to different Gregorian dates, every year 10 to 12 Gregorian dates earlier. For example 10 Muharram falls on 09 February 2006, 29 Jan 2007, 19 Jan 2008, 07 Jan 2009, 27 Dec 2009, 16 Dec 2010.
Dolmabaçe (42x68cm; 512x694pix, 65kb)
View of the Salacak mosque (66x45cm; 633x446pix 47kb)
–-S#> L'imbarcazione, Constantinopoli (55x97cm; 285x510pix, 19kb) one of three versions _ Zonaro painted this from Üsküdar on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, looking back towards the European side. Directly behind the figures is the mouth of the Golden Horn. In the background on the left can be seen the Topkapi Palace and the dome and minaret of the Haghia Sophia. To the right can be seen the distinctive silhouette of the Galata Tower.
–-S#> In medium stat virtus (84x59cm; 350x238pix, 33kb)
23 images at insecula

^ 1838 Friedrich Otto Gebler, German painter who died in February 1917.
Shepherdess _ detail
Schafe Eine Vogelscheuche Betrachtend (74x118cm)

^ 1764 Mauro Gandolfi, Bolognese painter and printmaker who died on 04 January 1834. Son of Gaetano Gandolfi [31 Aug 1734 – 20 Jun 1802] and nephew of Ubaldo Gandolfi [28 Apr 1728 – 27 Jul 1781]. The work of the three reflects the transition from late Bolognese Baroque through Neo-classicism and into early Italian Romanticism. During their period of collective productivity, from 1760 to 1820, the Gandolfi produced paintings, frescoes, drawings, sculptures and prints. Their drawings made an outstanding contribution to the great figurative tradition of Bolognese draftsmanship that had begun with the Carracci. Their prolific output and their activity as teachers gave them considerable influence throughout northern Italy, except in Venice. Mauro’s daughter, Clementina Gandolfi [1795–], was an artist and amateur musician, and his son by a second marriage, Democrito Gandolfi [1796–, studied under Antonio Canova but was an unsuccessful sculptor. He delivered a eulogy at Mauro’s funeral and sculpted the portrait bust that stands on the tomb of Gaetano and Mauro in the Certosa di Bologna. — Mauro Gandolfi was the eldest of seven children. By his own rather boastful account he ran away from home at the age of 16, joined the French army and returned home to Bologna only in 1786. By 1791 he was enrolled in the school of the Accademia Clementina, as two superb figure drawings dated 1791 and 1792 are among those preserved in the archives of the present Accademia di Belle Arti. His chief mentor was his own father. In 1792 he married Laura Zanetti, and in 1794 he was made a professor of the Accademia Clementina. The fine Self-portrait with a Lute (1794) may have been painted to commemorate this latter occasion. The decade of the 1790s was the most professionally productive time of Mauro’s long life. In his manuscript autobiography written in 1833, he listed his oeuvre, all of which he claimed to have done between 1786 and 1796: 1 painted carriage, 6 ceilings, about 28 ‘quadretti’, 20 large drawings, 40 ‘cappricci disegnati all’ inchiostro con diversi colori all’ acquarello di for a adattabile a tabacchiere’, 8 to 10 miniatures, over 100 ‘nudi’ (drawings?) and the pen drawing of his father.
La Vergine porge il Bambino a San Gaetano Thiene (262x316pix, 39kb)
–-S#> A Man (1785, 53x40cm; 350x272pix, 31kb) _ A very bold and freely painted testa di carattere, head and shoulders, with a sketch of an allegorical woman in the background, of which only the head and foot are now visible but which can be seen in its entirety in an x-ray, and which is the work of Gaetano. Mauro must have taken an old sheet of paper left in the studio and painted over his father's composition.
Eight Heads (1805 drawing; 640x516pix, 111kb)

^ 1739 Jean-Jacques Lagrenée “le jeune”, Parisian painter, designer, and engraver, who died on 13 February 1821. He was a student of his brother Louis Lagrenée “l 'aîné” [21 Jan 1724 – 19 Jun 1805], with whom he went to Russia, where he stayed from 1760 to 1762. Although in 1760 he had only obtained second place in the Prix de Rome competition, he received permission to stay at the Académie de France in Rome, where he spent the years 1763 to 1768. In Rome he discovered the works of antiquity and followed the example of Giovanni Battista Piranesi [1720-1778] in drawing and engraving antique sculpture. He also painted a ceiling in the Palazzo Senatorio ‘in the arabesque taste’ (since destroyed). He was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1769. He exhibited regularly at the Salon between 1771 and 1804 and he was as prolific as his brother. LINKS
–- Helen Recognizing Telemachus, Son of Odysseus (1795)
Allégorie relative à l'établissement du Muséum dans la Grande Galerie du Louvre (1783, 52x68cm, 107kb) _ Présenté par la Peinture, la Bienfaisance et l'Immortalité, le Portrait du comte d'Angiviller par Duplessis évoque le rôle prépondérant du directeur des Bâtiments dans le projet de création du Muséum au Louvre. A droite, deux génies portent la Mort de saint Bruno de Lesueur, qui venait d'être acquis, tandis que d'autres, depuis la voûte, procèdent à l'accrochage de la galerie.
–-S#> A Young Woman Reading at Her Desk (18x14cm; 350x257pix, 29kb)
L'Hiver aka Éole déchaîne les vents (76kb)

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