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DEATHS: 1506 MANTEGNA — 1873 ROSALES 1975 MUNAKATA 1847 MARILHAT 
BIRTHS: 1928 “INDIANA” — 1861 WAUGH 1838 MAUVE 1829 MARKS  1601 BRUEGHEL
^ Born on 13 September 1928: Robert Clark “Indiana”, US pop artist.
— He was born Robert Clark, in New Castle, Indiana. Between 1945 and 1948 he studied at art schools in Indianapolis and Utica, and from 1949 to 1953 at the Chicago Art Institute School and the Skowhgan School of Painting and Sculpture, Maine. In 1953 and 1954 he studied at the Edinburgh College of Art and London University, after which he settled in New York. He took up contact with the painters Ellsworth Kelly, Jack Smith and Youngerman. His early works were inspired by traffic signs, automatic amusement machines, commercial stencils and old tradenames. In the early sixties he did sculpture assemblages and developed his style of vivid color surfaces, involving letters, words and numbers. In 1966 he had exhibitions in Düsseldorf, Eindhoven (Van Abbemuseum), Krefeld (Museum Haus Lange) and Stuttgart (Württembergische Kunstverein). He was represented at the documenta "4" exhibition, Kassel, in 1968. He became known for silkscreen prints, posters and sculptures which took the word LOVE as their theme. The brash directness of these works stemmed from their somewhat symmetrical arrangements of color and form.

LINKS
American Dream (1971 color print, 76x91cm; 724x603pix, 70kb _ ZOOM to 1440x1200pix, 179kb) four round badges with a 5-point star in each. _ This has been transformed by the pseudonymous Robin Clock “Kansas” into two stunning series of symmetrical abstractions (each level is a different picture, which does not enlarge the previous one, but adds to its edges and center) (you can click instantly from one series to the other at the same level) (for levels 7, 8, and 9, whose size exceeds most computer screens, there is an alternate image reduced to size 6, 932x1318pix):
      _ American Cream, level 1 (2006; 165x233pix, 14kb _ level 2 to 233x330pix, 26kb _ level 3 to 330x466pix, 44kb _ level 4 to 466x660pix, 90kb _ level 5 to 659x932pix, 166kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 322kb _ level 7 to 1318x1864pix, 675kb _ level 8 to 1864x2636pix, 1465kb _ level 9 to 2636x3728pix, 2970kb ||| _ level 7 size 6, 405kb _ level 8 size 6, 466kb _ level 9 size 6, 448kb) and
      _ American Stream, level 1 (2006; 165x233pix, 14kb _ level 2 to 233x330pix, 26kb _ level 3 to 330x466pix, 44kb _ level 4 to 466x660pix, 90kb _ level 5 to 659x932pix, 166kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 322kb _ level 7 to 1318x1864pix, 675kb _ level 8 to 1864x2636pix, 1465kb _ level 9 to 2636x3728pix, 2970kb ||| _ level 7 size 6, 405kb _ level 8 size 6, 466kb _ level 9 size 6, 448kb)
Love (1563x1487pix, 284kb) one of a multitude of images (and sculptures) by Indiana, practically identical except for the flat colors, filled by the letters LO (with a tilted O) above the letters VE. In this case the letters are orange, the background partly green and partly blue. “Kansas” could not let this go by without transforming the top half of Indiana's repetitive simplistic pictures into images rich in color and detail:
      _ LOL aka Laughing Out Loud (2006; screen filling, 329kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1130kb),
      _ Laughing Outrageously Loud (2006; screen filling, 622kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 3487kb), and
      _ GOG aka Gamma Omicron Gamma (2006; screen filling, 297kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1358kb).
Love (284kb) in this one the letters are yellow, on a partly red, partly black background.
Love (1916x1878pix, 723kb) red letters, partly blue, partly white background. _ “Kansas” has changed and enriched the colors, given them texture, switched two letters, added a vole (and many more voles in the colorful page background), resulting in the impressive and aptly titled
      _ VOLE (2006; 956x939pix, 234kb _ ZOOM to 1912x1878pix, 939kb) {psst... all you always wanted to know about voles but were afraid to ask}
140 images at Artnet (many are photos of sculptures).
—(061107)
^ Died on 13 September 1506: Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter born in 1431.
— Mantegna was one of the foremost north Italian painters of the 15th century. A master of perspective and foreshortening, he made important contributions to the compositional techniques of Renaissance painting. Born probably at Isola di Carturo, between Vicenza and Padua, Mantegna became the apprentice and adopted son of the painter Francesco Squarcione of Padua. He developed a passionate interest in classical antiquity. The influence of both ancient Roman sculpture and the contemporary sculptor Donatello are clearly evident in Mantegna's rendering of the human figure. His human forms were distinguished for their solidity, expressiveness, and anatomical correctness.
     Mantegna's principal works in Padua were religious. His first great success was a series of frescoes on the lives of St. James and St. Christopher in the Ovetari Chapel of the Church of the Eremitani (1456; badly damaged in World War II). In 1459 Mantegna went to Mantua to become court painter to the ruling Gonzaga family and accordingly turned from religious to secular and allegorical subjects. His masterpiece was a series of frescoes (1465-1474) for the Camera degli Sposi of the Palazzo Ducale. In these works, he carried the art of illusionistic perspective to new limits. His figures depicting the court were not simply applied to the wall like flat portraits but appeared to be taking part in realistic scenes, as if the walls had disappeared. The illusion is carried over onto the ceiling, which appears to be open to the sky, with servants, a peacock, and cherubs leaning over a railing. This was the prototype of illusionistic ceiling painting and was to become an important element of baroque and rococo art.
      Mantegna's later works varied in quality. His largest undertaking, a fresco series on the Triumphs of Caesar (1489, Hampton Court Palace, England), displays a rather dry classicism, but Parnassus (1497), an allegorical painting commissioned by Isabelle d'Este, is his freshest, most animated work. His work never ceased to be innovative. In Madonna of Victory (1495), he introduced a new compositional arrangement, based on diagonals, which was later to be exploited by Correggio, while his Dead Christ was a tour de force of foreshortening that pointed ahead to the style of 16th-century Mannerism.
     One of the key artistic figures of the second half of the 15th century, Mantegna was the dominant influence on north Italian painting for 50 years. It was also through him that German artists, notably Albrecht Dürer, were made aware of the artistic discoveries of the Italian Renaissance. He died in Mantua. — In April 1985, The Adoration by the Magi sold for £8'100'000, world auction record for the artist.

LINKS
Agony in the Garden (1459, 63x80cm; _ ZOOMable) _ detail (_ ZOOMable)
Crucifixion (1459, 67x93cm)
Madonna with Sleeping Child (1468, 43x32cm _ ZOOM)
The Holy Family with Saint Elizabeth and the Infant John the Baptist (_ ZOOM)
The Holy Family with Saint John the Baptist (_ ZOOM)
The Resurrection (_ ZOOM)
Presentation at the Temple (1460, 67x86cm) _ detail
The Court of Mantua (1474) _ detail 1 (749x933pix, 199kb) _ detail 2 (727x1050pix, 176kb)
Altarpiece (1460, 480x450 cm)
Madonna and Child with Cherubs
Saint George (1460, 66x32cm)
The Protonary Carlo de' Medici aka Portrait of a Cardinal (1466, 54x42cm)
Christ the Redeemer
Adoration by the Magi (1505, 49x66cm; _ ZOOM) _ detail (_ ZOOM)
The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (1490, 68x81cm; 954x1082pix, 404kb)
The Adoration by the Shepherds (1451, 102x141cm _ ZOOM)
—different Adoration by the Shepherds (1453, 40x56cm; 780x1085pix, 187kb) — _ A prodigy, Andrea Mantegna established his reputation when he was barely 20 years old. This painting is an early work, but already his highly individual style is evident. The hard, precise drawing, the astonishing clarity of even the smallest details in the distant landscape, and the refined, pure color are typical of his work, as are the intensely serious expressions of the figures. The Adoration seems to have been painted for Borso d' Este, ruler of Ferrara, and the coarse realism of the shepherds probably reflects Flemish paintings collected by the Este.
Agony in the Garden (1459 , 160x203cm, 710x927pix, 156kb _ ZOOM) _ detail (ZOOM) _ In 1453 or 1454 Mantegna married Nicolosia Bellini and in so doing allies himself professionally with her brother, Giovanni, to whom he imparts Donatellian ideas. The two London panels depicting the Agony in the Garden by Mantegna and Bellini respectively define the artistic interdependence of the two brothers-in-law: the technical innovations and organization of the Paduan painter and the pre-eminence of the Venetian in the field of light and color. _ detail of Judas who leads the soldiers to Jesus (950x696pix, 181kb)
San Luca Altarpiece (1453, 177x230cm; 827x1029pix, 170kb) _ The work (12 panels) was commissioned in 1453, when the artist was twenty-two years old, for the chapel of S. Luca in the church of S. Giustina, Padua. The figures represented, reading from upper left, are: Saint Daniel of Padua, Saint Jerome, the Virgin, Christ, Saint John, Saint Augustine, Saint Sebastian, Saint Scolastica, Saint Prosdocimus, Saint Benedict and Saint Justina. The original wooden frame in which Mantegna's signature had been incised was destroyed by lightning in the seventeenth century. Its loss radically alters the composition, as can be seen by the considerable difference in scale between the two registers. It is thus worth attempting a reconstruction, in order to grasp the meaning of the whole work. Probably commissioned by the donors to execute a Gothic-type altarpiece, Mantegna must have succeeded in altering the scheme substantially by inserting a thick molding between the two orders. This division set the two ranges much farther apart than they are today. Another device used by the artist to avoid the effect of caged images is the perspective in the center of the composition whereby the upper panels were made smaller to suggest distance while the lower panels were made larger to imply that they are closer to the spectator. But the most sensational means is the stepped pavement, which must have been the ground plane of the suggested architectural construction. The whole must have made a sort of two-storied loggia, housing figures engaged in a Sacra Conversazione. Even without its original framework, the separate figures remain highly impressive. A lyric quality, unequalled in Mantegna's other work, is generated by the illusionistic effect of the figures, achieved by means of their "wet drapery," which Mantegna must have rediscovered by studying classic Roman sculpture. _ detail: Saint Justina (1236x450pix, 85kb)
Death of the Virgin (1461 Panel, 54x42cm; 837x649pix, 136kb _ ZOOM) _ The Virgin Mary lies on her deathbed, surrounded by eleven Apostles. Through the window, the Borgo di San Giorgio and the Laguna of Mantua can be seen in the background. This scene depicts the Virgin Mary's final moment on earth. According to the Apocrypha, her body and soul were carried up to Heaven by Jesus following her earthly death. This moment is also known as the “Dormition of the Virgin.” The composition is dominated by the search for perspective, which is achieved mostly through the geometric pattern of the flooring, the scaling of the figures and the window in the back, which acts as a “vanishing point.” Also remarkable here is the strong individualization of the characters' physiognomies and the masterful rendering of the landscape. Indeed, this is one of the first Italian paintings with a recognizable topography. The scene is derived from a mosaic in Saint Marcos of Venice designed by Andrea del Castagno, and from the vaulted architecture visible in drawings by Jacopo Bellini, the painter's father in law. Mantegna entered the service of the Gonzaga family of Mantua in 1549 and this work was painted for them. The upper third is missing, but a part of it, Christ Receiving the Virgin, is at the Pinacoteca Nazionale in Ferrara.
Profile of a Man (1460; 1010x787, 174kb)
Presentation at the Temple (1460, 67x86cm) Staatliche Museen, Berlin 904*730pix, 149kb) _ detail (840x563pix, 77kb)
Saint George (1460, 66 x32cm) Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice 525*1100pix, 180kb)
Altarpiece 1457-60 Panel, 480x450cm) San Zeno, Verona 947*637pix, 164kb)
Crucifixion 1457-59 Wood, 67x93cm) ; 908*740pix, 179kb)
Saint Sebastian with arrows in head and neck (1458, 68x30cm; 1200x541pix, 169kb) _ The vertical inscription at the right side of the saint is the signature of Mantegna in Greek.
Saint Sebastian without arrows in head or neck (1459, 255x140 cm; 1061x568pix, 167kb) — The painting is part of the High Altar of San Zeno in Verona. Painted in dull colors, with the exception of the touches of red and yellow of the archers, shows the love of the painter for antique ruins and the precision of his careful study of the human body.
The Madonna of the Cherubim (1485, 88x70cm; 1006x815pix, 135kb)
Judith and Holofernes (1495; 800x466pix, 94kb)
Cardinal Lodovico Trevisano (1469; _ ZOOM)
Parnassus 1497, 160x 192cm) ; 857*685pix, 144kb)
Ceiling Oculus (1474, round 270cm diameter; 919x757pix, 177kb)
Suite of Cardinal Francesco (detail) (1474; 981x679pix, 106 kb)

—(080912)
^ Born on 13 September 1861: Frederick Judd Waugh, US painter specialized in Maritime Scenes, who died in 1940. He studied under Thomas Anshutz and Thomas Eakins.
— Waugh was born in Bordentown, New Jersey. Between 1880 and 1881 he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy, where he met Eakins. He then went to Paris to attend the Académie Julian where he was a student of Bouguereau and Lefebvre. In 1885 he settled in Philadelphia. In 1894 he moved to England and lived in Saint Ives, Cornwall. He contributed a number of illustrations to London periodicals and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1894 and 1895. In 1892 he had shown paintings at the Salon in Paris. In 1907 he returned to the United States.

LINKS
The Knight of the Holy Grail (1912, 238x319cm)
Southwesterly Gale, St. Ives (1907, 76x127cm)
The Swiss Alps (1887, 76x127cm)
Late Afternoon (63x76cm)
Breakers at Floodtide (1909, 89x102cm) _ Frederick Judd Waugh's prodigious output is defined by his achievements as a marine painter. Breakers at Floodtide is an accomplished, ambitious seascape, painted shortly after his return from Europe. The expressive and realistic effects were the result of Waugh's exhaustive study of light, shadow, and motion of waves breaking on rocky shores. As he wrote, "one should not conflict actualities in nature with artistic representation.... It is impossible to paint the sea in literal movement or to carry to the nostrils the tang of the salt sea brine, yet all these are somehow felt in a work of art. Being able to present such feeling is where the artist should excel." By adhering to this philosophy, Waugh attained great stature as a marine painter, garnering a strong popular and commercial following during his lifetime. Born in Bordentown, New Jersey, Waugh's father was Samuel Bell Waugh, the noted portrait painter. From 1880 to 1883, he studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts with Thomas Eakins and Thomas Anshutz, and in 1883, enrolled in the Acad6mie Julian, Paris. However, it was a visit in 1893 to the Island of Sark, off the French coast, that proved to be a decisive turn. Waugh remained for two years, studying the rocky shoreline, making notes, sketches, and studies. He traveled to St. Ives, Cornwall, in 1895, where he continued intensive analysis of the seascape subject. Waugh left England for the United States in 1907, in an effort to establish his reputation as a marine painter on his native continent.
     Breakers at Floodtide shows an assured virtuosity in paint application, rendering, and composition. Works of this period are characterized by vigorous brushwork and a rich surface texture created by the building up of layers of impasto. Waugh outlined his outlook and working methods in several essays and manuscripts, stating that "the sea is a pliable element and the wind and rocks and sands heave it up and twist it and turn it, pretty much the same way every time, until the observer learns to know the repeated forms he sees, and becomes at last so familiar with them that they can be painted from memory ... I spend part of each summer studying the sea ... and what I learn from it then, lasts me until the next time." Breakers at Floodtide is likely taken from studies executed in the summer of 1908 or 1909 at Bailey Island, Maine. Waugh's studies done during these summer visits were later worked into finished compositions, enlarged or integrated into composite views upon returning to his studio.
      Waugh exhibited Breakers at Floodtide in the 1916 Spring Annual at The Detroit Institute of Arts. It is a fine example of the painter's style, typical of the period, and executed in a controlled manner with more detail evident than in his later works. His passionate exploration of this subject resulted in a singular ability to capture the aura and movement of the tumultuous waves and the generalized sensation and atmosphere of the sea, establishing Waugh as one of the US's foremost marine painters.
 
^ Murió el 13 de septiembre de1873: Eduardo Rosales Gallina (o Rosales Martínez), pintor realista español, nacido el 04 noviembre 1836.
— Nacido en Madrid, cursó estudios en la Academia de San Fernando, donde fue discípulo de Luis Ferrant y de Federico Madrazo, entre otros ilustres profesores. En 1855 trasladó su residencia a Roma y allí trabajó como copista. En 1862 decidió mandar una de sus obras a la Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes, gracias a la cual obtuvo una Mención Honorífica. Su arte volvió a ser premiado en la Exposición de 1864, por su obra Testamento de Isabel la Católica, que obtuvo una medalla de Primera Clase. Repitió éxito en la Exposición Universal de París, en 1867, con El Duque de Atenas, al serle concedida la Cruz de la Legión de Honor, y en la Exposición de 1871, donde obtuvo de nuevo la medalla de Primera Clase por La muerte de Lucrecia. Fue nombrado director de la Academia Española de Bellas Artes de Roma, pero murió antes de poder tomar posesión del cargo. Sus últimas obras fueron los evangelistas San Juan y San Mateo para la Iglesia de Santo Tomás de Madrid. Algunas de sus creaciones más famosas son Don Juan de Austria es presentado a su padre Carlos V retirado en Yuste, Retrato de Manuel Cortina, Naranjero o La venta de novillos.
— Eduardo Rosales nació en el seno de una familia muy modesta, y murió en Madrid, en plena madurez, a la edad de treinta y siete años. Tuvo una salud muy delicada que contrastaba con sus anhelos de dedicarse a la pintura. Se le puede definir como un pintor romántico, que se inspiró en su propio dolor. A pesar de su prematura muerte, le daría tiempo para legarnos el patrimonio de sus inestimables pinturas. Un día, paseando por las calles de Florencia, entró a visitar la casa franciscana de San Salvador. Inmediatamente le acometió la tentación de quedarse a vivir con los frailes franciscanos por el resto de su vida. Se imaginaba feliz vistiendo el hábito austero de la orden, pero muriendo lentamente en la paz del convento. El silencio conventual y la vida de los frailes que trataban de ganar el cielo llevando una vida de trabajo y de oración, le impresionó sobremanera. La iglesia, los claustros, los pinos y los cipreses que rodeaban al monasterio afloraban en su alma profundas emociones.
      Comenzó sus estudios en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando de Madrid, en la que fue discípulo de Luis Ferrant y Federico Madrazo. No obstante lo delicado de su salud, viajó a Roma en el año 1855 para completar su formación artística, gracias a la ayuda que recibió de sus amigos. En la capital italiana permaneció durante algunos años, pasando toda clase de privaciones y necesidades. Para poder sobrevivir, tuvo que dedicarse a copiar cuadros. Su único aliento fue su vocación de pintor. En el año 1859, siendo ministro de Fomento el marqués de Cervera, le fue concedida una pensión, que le permitió dedicarse a su trabajo de artista. Participó en el año 1862 en la Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes de Madrid con su pintura Niña sentada en una silla. En la obra, muestra a una niña italiana jugando con un gato. Fue en 1864 cuando obtuvo su primer gran éxito artístico con El testamento de Isabel la Católica, con el que obtuvo la primera medalla de oro de la Exposición Nacional de Madrid. La pintura fue adquirida por el Estado español para el Museo Nacional. Los éxitos le fueron llegando en años sucesivos, pues en 1865 obtuvo en París la primera medalla de oro y la Legión de Honor.
      Se casó en el año 1868 con una prima suya, Maximina Fernández Pedrosa. Regresó nuevamente a Roma y pintó otro magnífico cuadro, Desnudo de mujer. En la Exposición de 1871, presentó el cuadro La muerte de Lucrecia, que ya había iniciado cuando estuvo en Roma. La pintura fue premiada con la medalla de primera clase. Cultivó los temas históricos, entre ellos Presentación de don Juan de Austria a Carlos V en Yuste; y el retrato, entre los que merece la pena destacar el que realizara a #>La condesa de Santovenia. Poseyó un estilo colorista, con tendencia al naturalismo y una técnica espontánea y libre. Para combatir la tuberculosis que sufría, marchó a Murcia, donde trabajó en obras de pequeñas dimensiones. De esta época es La venta de novillos. Rechazó el ofrecimiento de dirigir el Museo del Prado, pero aceptó el de director de la Academia Española de Bellas Artes de Roma, cargo del que no pudo tomar posesión por sobrevenirle la muerte. Su última obra fue Los evangelistas San Juan y San Mateo, para la iglesia de Santo Tomás de Madrid. En el año 1881, el gobierno español adquirió para el Museo Nacional su pintura La muerte de Lucrecia, mencionada anteriormente.

LINKS
Testamento de Isabel la Católica (290x400cm; 604x800pix, 116kb _ .ZOOM to 1057x1400pix, 130kb) This canvas afforded Rosales, whose many problems and illness made his artistic life less than perfect, definite recognition, and it was only at the end of his life that his worth was truly appreciated. This canvas earned him first prize — and the sale of the canvas to the State — at the Spanish National Exposition in 1864. He also presented it in Paris where it earned him the First Medal and the title of Knight of the Legion of Honor. When Rosales was searching for a theme for his entry for the National Exposition he wanted to “find a matter of great importance in our history”, which turned out to be the will that Isabel la Católica [22 Apr 1451 – 26 Nov 1504] left upon her death, considered the best testament to her character and to her political philosophy. Isabel appears on her deathbed, with canopy and curtains, dictating to her seated scribe the contents of her will. Sitting in a chair, bent over and defeated, is king Fernando II el Católico [10 Mar 1452 – 25 Jan 1516], with their daughter and heiress, Princess Juana “La Loca” [6 Nov 1479 – 12 Apr 1555]. In the group on the right is the covered figure of Cardinal Cisneros [1436 – 08 Nov 1517], who would later become the Regent of Castile.
–- Presentación de don Juan de Austria a Carlos V en Yuste (412x675pix, 29kb)
La Muerte de Lucrecia (1871, 257x347cm; 440x600pix, 33kb) _ “Pisadas de varón ajeno se hallan sobre tu lecho, Colatino, mas sólo el cuerpo fue mancillado, no el corazón, y de esto será buena prueba mi muerte; libre como estoy de pecado, no quiero librarme de castigo, para que ninguna romana no casta viva con el ejemplo de Lucrecia.” (Tito Livio)
      Con estas palabras la patricia Lucrecia relataba a su esposo Colatino, a su padre Lucrecio Tricipitino y a otros amigos de la familia cómo había sido violada por Sexto Tarquino, hijo del rey de Roma. A continuación, sacó un cuchillo de entre sus vestidos y se lo clavó en el pecho. Espantados unos ante el terrible final de la virtuosa romana, se ocultaban el rostro con los brazos, pero Bruto, levantando su puñal al cielo, hacía juramento de venganza. Corría el año 510 AC, y este trágico suceso provocaría la caída de la monarquía y el advenimiento de la República Romana.
      Lucrecia sería considerada a partir de entonces como modelo de la fidelidad conyugal, aunque para los primeros autores cristianos el hecho del suicidio no resultaba demasiado apropiado. No obstante, durante la Edad Media se convertirá en una suerte de heroína virtuosa, personificación de la castidad y víctima de la lascivia, como en De Claris mulieribus de Bocaccio (1361-62), tanto que en numerosos cassoni o arcones de boda italianos aparece representada la figura de Lucrecia como referencia obligada de la fidelidad marital. La literatura y arte posterior tampoco se olvidaron de esta célebre figura, pudiéndose mencionar de entre los primeros a Maquiavelo, Shakespeare, La Fontaine, Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla, etc., y entre los segundos a Tiziano, Guido Reni, Lorenzo Lotto, Tintoretto, Rembrandt o Tiépolo.
      En nuestro caso, no es la primera vez que Rosales trataba en un cuadro el tema de una mujer cuya muerte traería consigo importantes cambios políticos. Años antes (1864) había pintado el Testamento de Isabel la Católica, pero ahora lejos de reflejar la atmósfera de quietud y de tranquila espera ante ese momento final que veíamos en aquel cuadro, la presenta cargada de gran dramatismo, con los hechos ya consumados.
      Considerada por el propio autor como su mejor y más conseguida obra, obtuvo la medalla de oro en la Exposición Nacional de 1871. Como nota curiosa, esta composición fue reproducida en 1931 por el Banco de España en una emisión de billetes de 50 pesetas, según grabado realizado en 1874 por José María Galván y Candela [01 Aug 1837 – 11 Oct 1899].
   _ Compare The Death of Lucretia (1679, 38x17cm) by Frans van Mieris the Elder [16 Apr 1635 – 12 March 1681].

—(080912)

Died on a 13 September:


1975 Shiko Munakata, Japanese printmaker born (full coverage) on 05 September 1903.—(060911)

^ 1944 William Heath Robinson, British cartoonist and illustrator, born on 31 May 1872, “the British Rube Golberg”. Brother of Charles Robinson [1869–] and Thomas Heath Robinson [1869–]. — Relative? of William Robinson [1777-1848]? F. Cayley Robinson? — In the 1930s Heath Robinson was known as "The Gadget King" and he is still most widely remembered for his wonderful humorous drawings. But humorous art was only his third choice of career, and one that he turned to almost by accident. On leaving the Royal Academy Schools in 1895 his ambition was to become a landscape painter. He soon realized that such painting would not pay the bills, so he followed his two older brothers into book illustration. He rapidly established himself as a talented and original practitioner in his chosen field, and in 1903 felt sufficiently secure to marry. However, the following year a publisher who had commissioned a large quantity of drawings was declared bankrupt. The young Heath Robinson, who had just become the father of a baby girl, had quickly to find a new source of income. He turned to the high class weekly magazines such as The Sketch and The Tatler who paid well for large, highly finished humorous drawings, and within a year was being acclaimed as a unique talent in the field of humorous art. For a number of years, he combined his careers as illustrator and humorist with equal and growing success, but by the end of World War One the market for lavishly illustrated gift books, which had flourished during the first decade of the century, had all but disappeared. The resulting gap was readily filled since his talents as a humorist were in ever increasing demand, especially for advertising. For the remainder of his career his main employment was in providing his unique brand of humor to magazines and advertising, supplemented by occasional commissions for fantasy illustrations. For his own pleasure, he continued to paint in watercolors, experimenting with effects of light and color. His importance, as an innovator in the fields of illustration and advertising, and perhaps more importantly as the heir of Rowlandson and Cruikshank in the British humorous tradition, has yet to be fully appreciated. At the time of his death only a minority of his public remembered his work as a serious illustrator, but like Hogarth and Rowlandson before him the appeal of his humorous art was largely the result of his considerable talents as a serious artist. He was unusually prolific, with a seemingly inexhaustible stock of good ideas. The basis of his humor was human nature, and so the majority of his work seems as fresh and relevant today as when it was first published.
Falstaff and Doll an unpublished illustration for the Cape Shakespeare.
Cricket Practice How to train yourself to avoid being caught at any part of the field (The Bystander, 30 June 1926, p.849)
— #>The First Aero Wedding (1917; 500x332pix, 39kb)
Bluebeard from Old Time Stories (1921)
–-S#> Stymied (40x28cm cartoon; 510x358pix, 186kb) for The Bystander magazine: “Stymied, the sort of things that sometimes happen when thunderbolts are flying about.”
–-S#> The Kind Caddy-Bird of St. Andrews (40x28cm cartoon; 510x363pix, kb) for The Bystander magazine.
–-S#> Incurable (43x33cm cartoon; 510x389pix, 86kb)
Stout members of the sixth column dislodge an enemy machine gun post on the dome of St Paul's.
Romantic possibilities in modern flats.
Modern carpet designs may provide endless entertainment for your guests.
The Aeronaut (1902).
The Fairy's Birthday.
Testing artificial teeth in a modern tooth works

^ 1907 Emilio Sánchez Perrier, Spanish artist born on 15 October 1855.
Landscape with Boat and Men (35x53cm; ZOOMable)
Río Alcalá (35x56cm)
On the River Bank (1885, 41x33cm)
Boating at the Edge of the Town (43x25cm)
Calm Waters at Chaponval (24x41cm)
Feu de camp au bord d'une rivière (31x56cm) and its mirror image A Campfire by the River's Edge (31x56cm)
Fisherman and Washerwomen by the River (33x41cm)
L'Oise sur Auvers (42x33cm)
On the River's Edge at Dusk (52x92cm)
The Boating Party (41x32cm)
The Ferry (27x52 cm)
Wash Day, Guillena (23x48cm; 297x640pix, 25kb)
Venice (1885, 23x36cm; 419x640pix, 39kb)
Fuego de Amantes, Chaponval (24 ¼ x 18 ½ inches; 550x400pix, 52kb)

^ 1903 Karl (or Carl) Schuch, Viennese painter born on 30 September 1846. He was taught by the Naturalist painter Ludwig Halauska (1827–1882) in Vienna, and in 1871 he introduced Wilhelm Leibl [23 Oct 1844 – 04 Dec 1900] to a group of gifted young Munich painters, which subsequently became known as the Leibl circle. Between 1871 and 1872 he worked together with Albert Lang [1847–] and Wilhelm Trübner. He led a life of restless travel, spending most of his time abroad; the cities in which he stayed longest were Venice (1876–1882) and Paris (1882–1894). Due to his wealthy family background, he was able to survive financially while hardly ever exhibiting, selling his work or receiving commissions and could thus be seen as embodying ‘art for art’s sake’, the slogan of the Leibl group.

^ 1891 Johannes Bosboom, Dutch painter born on 18 February 1817. In 1831 he joined the studio of Bartholomeus J. van Hove, the Hague cityscape painter, who lived next door to his family. Initially Bosboom helped his teacher paint sets for the theatre and a number of cityscapes. Around the age of 20 he decided to concentrate on depicting church interiors. This decision determined his entire career, as his works in this genre were to establish his reputation. In his autobiography, Bosboom explained that his first successes with church interiors (at exhibitions in 1836 and 1838), together with his natural inclination to record the impressions that churches made on him, had led to his choice. Subsequently, he wrote, he was influenced by the Romantic movement, particularly by Wijnand Johannes Josephus Nuyen. Although Nuyen’s influence is apparent in his early work, for example View of the Parisian Quay at Rouen (1839), Bosboom gradually abandoned Romanticism for a more sober treatment of his subjects. — LINKS
Church Interior With People Attending Mass (26x19cm)
Interior of the Askenazi Synagogue, The Hague (44x34cm)
People in a Street of a Dutch Town, a Church in the Background (50x48cm)
Worshippers in the Central Aisle of the Pieterskerk, Leyden (63x53cm)
Beach Of Scheveningen (659x1024pix, 245kb)
–- Church in the Hague (19x15cm; 606x487pix, 34kb)
The Choir of the Grote Kerk in the Hague (1856, 88x70cm) —(060912)

^ 1885 Henri Charles Antoine Baron, French painter and illustrator born on 23 June 1816. — {Napoléon III aurait dû l'ennoblir, il aurait été le baron Baron...}— He was a student of Jean Gigoux in Paris about 1835 and traveled through Italy with him and François-Louis Français. He made his début at the Salons of 1837 and 1838 with Under the Willows (1837) and Macbeth and the Witches in collaboration with Français and showing the paintings under Français’ name. Baron emerged as a reputable painter of genre and idyllic scenes, painting fanciful scenes, often set in Renaissance Venice. His rather precious style and romantic, dashing subject-matter won him lasting success with a clientele much enamoured of facile compositions. Such works included Sculpture Studio (1840), Fêtes galantes (1845) and La mère de famille (1847). Baron paid homage to several famous painters in such anecdotal works as An Evening with Giorgione (1844) and Andrea del Sarto Painting (1847). Among other works were the spirited Wedding of Gamache (1849) and Cabaret Scene (1859), purchased by Napoleon III. Baron also illustrated books, including François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon’s Aventures de Télémaque (1846), and he collaborated on La Peau de chagrin (1838) of Honoré de Balzac [1799-1850] and an edition of Boccaccio’s Decameron. With Français and Célestin Nanteuil [1813–1873] he also produced the three-volume Les Artistes anciens et modernes (1848–1862), a collection of lithographs after works by contemporary artists.
— #>La partie de cerf volant (57x42cm; 1410x1062pix, 206kb)
— #>La Sérénade (43x33cm; 1033x798pix, 162kb)

1847 Prosper Georges Antoine Marilhat, French painter born (full coverage) on 20 March 1811.

^ 1677 Simon Renard de Saint-André, French painter born in 1613 (1614?). He specialized in complex 'Vanitas' pieces of dramatic clarity. The general influence on his art is Netherlandish, and it is likely that his unsigned pictures are still classified under the Northern schools. Most of his pictures are dominated by a grisly skull surrounded by numerous other indications of the brevity of life. He was received into the French Academy in 1663 as a portraitist. — LINKS
Vanitas (52x44cm, 882x744pix, 104kb) with violin.
— a different Vanitas (1650) with flute.
— #>Allegory of Charles I of England and Henrietta of France in a Vanitas Still Life (1670, 475x360pix, 60kb)

^ 1625 Tommaso (“Mao”) Salini (or Salinas, or Solini), Roman painter born in 1575 {who had no Chinese descendants and didn't even very much like the color red}. He has long been famed as a witness in the lawsuit of 1603 brought by his friend and biographer, Giovanni Baglione, against Caravaggio. His activity as a painter of religious works, still-lifes and genre paintings has been reconstructed in the decades following 1950, although his chronology remains uncertain. He entered the Accademia di S Luca in 1605 but was afterwards expelled on account of his ‘difetto’, to be readmitted in 1618. He was decorated with the Order of the Golden Spur and became a member of the Congregazione di Virtuosi al Pantheon.
— “Mao” supported Giovanni Baglione, his friend, biographer and artistic mentor, in his 1603 libel suit against Onorio Longhi, Caravaggio, Orazio Gentileschi and Filippo Trisegni. Much bad feeling existed: in his testimony Caravaggio contemptuously described Salini as Baglione's "guardian angel", dismissing his daubs and denying having ever seen any of his works. In his life of Salini, Baglione not only described several of the painter's public commissions, but also credited him as the first to paint and arrange flowers with leaves in vases. Those pictures that have been identified include his altarpiece dedicated to San Nicola da Tolentino in Sant'Agostino, Rome, the main altarpiece from Sant'Agnese in Agone in Piazza Navona showing Saint Agnes saved by an angel, and the standard for the Compagnia degli Scalpellini at Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome.
     Baglione reserved highest praise for Salini's subjects drawn from life. Though today their identification and chronology are problematic, in the seventeenth century his still-lifes were much in demand. The inventory made at his death lists numerous paintings of flowers and fruits, twelve of which entered the Medici collection in 1620, for which Salini, of Florentine patronage, was rewarded with a medal on a gold chain. The Ludovisi owned 36 "vasi dei fiori" and a flower piece by Salini was listed in the 1627 Del Monte inventories. Genre pictures developing original motifs and unusual themes indebted to Caravaggio's early scenes have also been attributed to him.
      A member of the Accademia di San Luca from 1605, Salini was expelled but later readmitted. The donation in 1618 of his ecstasy of Saint Francis commemorated his reentry, though his hostility towards Antidiluvio Gramatica {correction: that was “Antiveduto”, which I ought to have foreseen means “Foreseen”; and he had no connection with antediluvian grammar, nor with the illustrated book La terre avant le déluge (1863) by Louis Figuier} led to further disputes. Cited as Cavaliere in a census of 1623, Salini was awarded the order of Lo Speron d'Oro.
— Mario dei Fiori was a student of Salini. — LINKS
Still-life with Fruit, Vegetables and Animals (1621, 55x95cm; 700x1235pix, 171kb) _ Vegetables and fruit, scattered freely and in baskets, are arranged on a surface whose shape and material cannot be clearly distinguished. In the foreground a viper aims its forked tongue at the leaves of a cabbage and, on a higher shelf, beside a ceramic vase, a mouse gnaws at a nut. The attribution of this painting to Tommaso Salini is dubious.
Boy with a Flask and Cabbages (1610, 99x73cm, 1073x802pix, 111kb) Illuminated from the upper left, a smiling boy is seen in three-quarter profile. He turns to his left where something or someone has caught his eye. He holds a flask above his shoulder and is surrounded by large cabbages, which occupy about a third of the painting. The attribution of this painting to Tommaso Salini is dubious.
— #>Pastorella con ariete {e bambino} (160x112cm; 600x408pix, 86kb) _ Caravaggio's influence can be seen in the strong light, which enhances the solidity of the figures. Mars the God of War is represented here by the ram of the Zodiac and was often depicted this way in pastoral scenes associated with the month of March. Salini may also be suggesting a religious connection, as the Virgin Mother is traditionally shown wearing blue and red.
–-S#> Still Life of Birds, with 4 apples (73x92cm; 713x900pix, 146kb) There are a partridge, a woodcock, woodpeckers, a pigeon, finches, and other birds on a stone ledge.
–-S#> Still life of fruit, vegetables, and a duck (72x96cm; 368x500pix, 56kb) _ The fruits, except the big lemon, are in a straw basket. The vegetables include asparagus, artichokes, cardoons, and mushrooms.


Born on a 13 September:


1943 Luis Eduardo Aute Martínez, Spanish painter, film director, poet, musician, and singer-songwriter. —(090912)

^ 1902 Richard Paul Lohse, Zurich Swiss painter and printmaker who died in 1988. He experimented with several styles and subjects before adopting Concrete art in the 1940’s. He then began producing paintings that were mathematically produced patterns, normally of grids.
–- 4 Equal Figures With a Quadratic in the Middle (1965, 64x64cm; 597x600pix, 18kb _ .ZOOM to 1195x1200pix, 52kb) _ The pseudonymous Poorard Paush Wihnne has made a much more byte-saving version: 3kb even in its 8.1-billion-pixel size:
      _ Rip Grip (2006; 720x720pix, 3kb _ ZOOM to 900x900pix, 3kb _ WIDEZOOM to screen-filling, 3kb _ HUMONGAZOOM to 90'000x90'000pix, 3kb). But Wihnne can also be a maximalist, and he proved it but thoroughly transforming Lohse's simple picture into the highly complex
      _ 4 Different Figures (Man, Lion, Deer, Bird) and 4 Equal Figures 4 With a Quadratic in the Middle of a Square and a Variety of Rectangles aka Quad Squad (2006, screen filling, 211kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2058kb).
Elemente zu rhythmischen Gruppen konzentriert (1946, 90x90cm; 635x640pix, 228kb).
untitled (1981, 66x66cm; 492x492pix, 11kb) a square divided into nine equal squares of various colors.
untitled (1981, 66x66cm; 492x492pix, 12kb) another square divided into nine equal squares of various colors.
untitled (1981, 66x66cm; 492x492pix, 10kb) another square divided into nine equal squares of various colors.
untitled (1981, 66x66cm; 492x492pix, 11kb) another square divided into nine equal squares of various colors.
untitled (1981, 66x66cm; 492x492pix, 12kb) another square divided into nine equal squares of various colors.
untitled (1981, 66x66cm; 492x492pix, 12kb) another square divided into nine equal squares of various colors. —(070912)

^ >1842 Guglielmo Ciardi, Italian painter who died on 05 October 1917. — Father of Beppe Ciardi [1875-1932] and of Emma Ciardi [1879-1933]. — Guglielmo Ciardi developed his mature style of painting in Venice during a period of revived artistic discussion, led by artists Telemaco Signorini [18 Aug – 10 Feb 1901] and Giuseppe Abbati [13 Jan 1836 – 21 Feb 1868]. Ciardi trained at the Accademia de Belle Arti, but found its professors restrictive and abandoned the remainder of his classical studies to follow the influences of more avant garde artists such as Federico Zandomeneghi [02 Jun 1841 – 31 Dec 1917]. After studying with painters in Florence and Naples, Ciardi returned to Venice to spend the remainder of his career capturing the lagoons and river landscapes of his birthplace. — Studia nel collegio di Santa Caterina e poi all'Accademia di Belle Arti della sua città. Nel gennaio del 1868 lascia Venezia per un viaggio d' istruzione che lo porta prima a Firenze, dove incontra i macchiaioli e Nino Costa [1826 – 31 Jan 1903], poi a Roma e a Napoli dove lavora per diversi mesi a contatto con gli artisti della Scuola di Posillipo e della Scuola di Resina oltre che con Filippo Palizzi [16 Jun 1818 – 11 Sep 1899]. Ai primi del 1869 è di nuovo a Venezia: i soggetti dei suoi dipinti sono quelli della laguna veneta e quelli della campagna trevigiana, dove si reca per lunghi soggiorni. Nel 1874 sposa Linda Locatello e ha 4 figli. Mantiene i contatti con i principali centri artistici italiani: Firenze, Torino, Milano, Genova, Roma e Napoli ed è spesso presente a manifestazioni internazionali. Dal 1885 trascorre i periodi estivi in varie località delle Dolomiti e così la sua pittura si arricchisce di un nuovo soggetto, quello della montagna. Nel 1894 gli viene assegnata la cattedra di "Scuola di vedute di paese e di mare" all'Accademia di Belle Arti che mantiene fino alla morte. Acclamato dal pubblico e dalla critica che non colgono come la sua vena, negli ultimi anni dell'800, perda di nitidezza e di forza d'ispirazione. Egli continua infaticabile a lavorare e a viaggiare finché le forze lo sorreggono: paralizzato alle gambe, muore a Venezia il 5 ottobre 1917.
–- Il canal grande dal ponte di Rialto (1889, 56x100cm; 871x1570pix, 123kb) unfinished _ Il dipinto si pone in relazione compositiva e cronologica fra due versioni di identico soggetto, una, del 1888 conservata nella Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna di Roma, l’altra, del 1889 appartenente alla collezione Marzotto (.Canal Grande; 438x740pix, 29kb) . L’opera del museo romano è interamente finita ma manca delle figure che salgono la scalinata del ponte. La presente tela, rimasta incompiuta, si avvicina di più a quella della raccolta Marzotto, di cui sembra costituire la “prova generale”, data la stretta somiglianza per conformità di soggetto, identità di inquadratura e di figure. Non si comprende, tuttavia, il perché, a opera quasi ultimata, l’artista abbia abbandonato il lavoro per replicare lo stesso soggetto in una maggiore dimensione, ma perdendo in quest’ultima il senso, nel presente dipinto ottimamente reso, di quella singolare staticità che è propria delle distese lagunari dei canali in certe ore di calma assoluta. Insolita nella produzione di Guglielmo Ciardi è la tematica di questa ampia tela, tutta impostata sulla scenografia urbana di Venezia, senza alcuno sfondo sul mare aperto in cui si possa esprimere l’inconfondibile sigla dell’artista. I personaggi vivificano le architetture in una raffigurazione di grande complessità e coerenza. La popolana in primo piano si compone con la scalinata del ponte, mentre la donna con la spesa segna il secondo piano. Seguono via via il banco del pesce, altri personaggi, alcune gondole che tagliano il canale, i tetti e i muri delle case al sole, il tutto reso come una serie di particolari esatti che formano però un insieme coerente. Realizzato con grande perizia, dovuta alla continua osservazione e all’incessante elaborazione artistica dei suoi elementi. Erano anni che egli dipingeva lagune, canali e marine sforzandosi di rendere i diversi spessori e le numerevoli colorazioni delle loro acque, dei loro cieli e delle loro rive, finchè lo sforzo non si sciolse per tramutarsi in una franca attitudine capace di ogni perfezione.
Mattino di Maggio (57x75cm; 635x901pix, 93kb)
–-S#> Village Life Outside Venice (1882, 79x128cm; 480x800pix, 55kb)
–-S#> Canale a Chioggia (1885, 24x40cm; 533x900pix, 71kb)
Via d'Acqua a Venezia (32x50cm; 409x640pix, 351kb)
Laguna Rosa (14 x 18-3/4 inches; 345x500pix, 63kb)
Una giornata di novembre (316x450pix, 23kb)
—#> Campagna trevigiana (1870, 74x101cm; 350x450pix, 36kb) —(080912)

1838 Anton Mauve, Dutch painter who died (full coverage) on 05 February 1888.

1829 Henry Stacy Marks, English painter who died (full coverage) on 09 January 1898.

^ 1797 Joseph Stannard, Norwich English painter and printmaker who died of tuberculosis on 07 December 1830. — Relative? of Henry John Sylvester Stannard [1870-1951]? Theresa Sylvester Stannard [1898-1947]? Lilian Stannard [1884-1944] and her father the sporting painter Henry Stannard? —Although he is traditionally considered a student of Robert Ladbrooke, this influence is not reflected in his work. He first exhibited in London at the British Institution in 1819. After his visit to the Netherlands in 1821 his oil technique showed a new crispness of handling and a high finish. A corresponding interest in boats and the accurate depiction of marine subjects suggests that the works of the Dutch marine painters were a strong influence. — Born in Norwich, Joseph Stannard exhibited at the Norwich School of Artists from 1811 through to his death. He studied painting under Robert Ladbrooke, another Norwich School artist. In 1821 he visited Holland, and this strongly influenced his style, which was thereafter more highly finished in the Dutch style. His major work was the lively Thorpe Water Frolic (1825), and his subjects in oil (and less frequently watercolor) included the coasts and landscapes of Norfolk. Stannard married Emily Coppin [1803-1885], who became a still life painter and teacher, and his brother Alfred Stannard [1806-1889] was also a painter, of landscapes and marine subjects. His students included two offspring, Eloise Harriet Stannard [1829-1915] and Alfred George Stannard [1810-1873], and his most well known student was Henry Bright [1810-1873].
— F#*>/F#*>Boats at Braydon (1825 etching, 14x21cm; full size, 74kb)

1601 Jan Brueghel Jr., Flemish painter who died (full coverage) on 01 September 1678.

^ 1436 Benvenuto di Giovanni di Meo del Guasto (or di Giovanni Guasta), Siena painter who died after 1518. He was the son of a bricklayer and lived and worked in or near Siena all his life. He is first recorded working as an artist in 1453 when he was painting in the Siena Baptistery, probably with il Vecchietta. In a tax return of 1465, Benvenuto declared himself to be without property or relations and to be living near the baptistery. The following year he married Jacopa di Tommaso da Cetona with whom he had seven children. They owned a vineyard, and Benvenuto served at least two terms in public office. Among his extant works, nine are signed and dated altarpieces, four are identifiable through documents and many others can be attributed to him on stylistic grounds. Their dates span 43 years, and they include panel paintings, frescoes, manuscripts and designs for the decorative pavement of Siena Cathedral. — Bernardino Fungai was a student of Benvenuto. — LINKS
The Annunciation (1466) detail: the angel.

click for full image
Happened on a 13 September:

1759 British General James Wolfe dies of wounds suffered earlier in the day during his victorious battle in the Plains of Abraham near Quebec. This would be the subject of the painting The Death of General Wolfe (1770, 153x215cm) by Benjamin West.[10 Oct 1738 – 11 Mar 1820]. —(050911)


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