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ART “4” “2”-DAY  12 September v.9.80
^ Born on 12 September 1858: Fernand Khnopff, Belgian Symbolist painter who died on 12 November 1921. — {The painter with the pfunny khname?}
— Fernand Khnopff was probably the most important of the Belgian Symbolists. Brought up in Bruges, he was influenced when young by reading Flaubert and Baudelaire. At first he studied law, but turned to painting under the influence of Xavier Mellery and showed his work at the Salon de la Rose + Croix. In 1879 he went to Paris where he was infected with enthusiam for Gustave Moreau. Péladan greatly admired Khnopff's work, hailing him as 'the equal of Gustave Moreau, of Burne-Jones, of Chavannes and of Rops.' The English Burne-Jones, with whom his work shares elements, and the Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren were strong supporters of his... he had very close ties with the Belgian Symbolist Poets and adopted their themes of "silence, solitude, deserted towns." He had a fanatical interest in precision: every effect and detail in his paintings is precisely and deliberately placed. Dreams and the unconscious were central to Khnopff's art.
— Born in Eastern Flanders, of a family of magistrates, Khnopff grew up in Bruges. He enrolled at the Law School in Brussels which he soon abandoned for the Académie des Beaux-Arts. There he studied under Xavier Mellery who taught him to consider painting as an enquiry into the meaning hidden in the "soul of things". In 1877, on a visit to Paris, he discovered the work of Delacroix, Gustave Moreau (whose fertile imagination greatly impressed him), and the Pre-Raphaelites (particularly Rossetti and Burne-Jones). The influence of these painters was to be of vital importance. On his return to Belgium he was one of the founders, in 1883, of The Twenty ("Groupe des XX") and was much admired by both painters and poets. Emile Verhaeren wrote enthusiastically about him in La Jeune Belgique and at first the rest of the press joined in his praises, though they tended to prefer his child portraits and landscapes.
      In 1892 he exhibited in Paris at the first Salon de la Rose+Croix, encouraged by his new friend, Joséphin Péladan. However, this friendship brought him trouble with The Twenty, some members having little regard for the Rose+Croix. He was a friend of the Belgian poets Georges Rodenbach and Grégoire Le Roy, some of whose books he illustrated. From this Symbolist poetry he took certain themes: silence, solitude, secretiveness and deserted towns. Already during his lifetime he was almost a cult figure, creating a personality for himself as a dandy much sought after in Society circles. He was given the Order of Leopold in recognition of his services to painting but despite this he was an exceptionally private artist. In about 1900 he had a house built to his own plans; it was like one of the structures in his pictures, a house out of a dream with false windows {and with the pfabulous pfaucets with the pfunny name?}. pfunny name

–- L'Encens (999x546pix, 72kb)
Art / Sphinx / Caresse (370x1151pix, 119kb) image slightly cropped at the top. _ uncropped (324x1000pix, 119kb)
La Ville Abandonnée (1904)
I Lock My Door Upon Myself (1891)
Marie Monnom (1887, 50x50cm)
Fillette en blanc, debout (1884, 70x50cm)
Chut! {painted for a public library?}
Une Ville Morte (1889)
Sous les Pins (1894)
Henri de Woelmont (1884; 959x1069pix) _ a seated little boy in a sailor suit, 2/3 length.
^ Born on 12 September 1829: Anselm Feuerbach, German Neoclassical painter and draftsman who died on 04 January 1880. Not to be confused with his uncle, philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach [28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872], or his grandfather, jurist Paul von Feuerbach [14 November 1775 – 29 May 1833].
— His family moved to Freiburg in 1836 and from 1845 tot 1848 he was a student of Wilhelm von Schadow, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer and Carl Friedrich Lessing at the Dusseldorf Academy. In 1848 he moved to Munich where he copied the old masters at the Pinakothek. In 1850 he studied with the history painter Gustaaf Wappers at Antwerp and in 1851 and 1852 he stayed in Paris. He moved to Karlsruhe and then to Rome, where he stayed from 1856 tot 1873. In Italy he was one of the "Deutschrömers" who were looking for the perfect synthesis between humans and culture. His paintings are not as dramatic of those of Böcklin, they tend to be far more calm and cool. In Rome he met the model Nanna Risi who became his lover. His future biographer Julius Allgeyer introduced him to Graf Adolf Friedrich von Schack, who supported Feuerbach financially. Feuerbach became a Professor at the Academy in Vienna (1873-1876). After staying in Venice and Nürnberg he died in solitary circumstances in Venice, completely neglected by his contemporaries.
— Feuerbach received his first art lessons from the anatomical draftsman at the University of Freiburg where his father, Joseph Anselm Feuerbach, lectured in Classical philology and archaeology. Anselm Feuerbach's teacher included Thomas Couture, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Carl Sohn. In 1845 Feuerbach enrolled at the Düsseldorf Akademie where he studied under Wilhelm Schadow. Though adept at academic drawing, he was urged by Schadow to simplify his rather unresolved and crowded compositional sketches and concentrate on a few figures. In 1848 he moved to Munich where he made copies after Old Master paintings in the Alte Pinakothek, being especially impressed by the work of Rubens. Though eventually studying at the Munich Akademie, he saw the landscape painter Carl Rahl as his real mentor. Works such as Landscape with a Hermit Returning Home (1849) combine the rich mood of the Munich landscape tradition with subject-matter more typical of the Düsseldorf school.
— Anselm Feuerbach, born at Spires, son of archaeologist Anselm Feuerbach Sr. and nephew of philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach [28 July 1804 – 13 Sep 1872], was the leading classicist painter of the German 19th-Century school. He was the first to realize the danger arising from contempt of technique, that mastery of craftsmanship was needed to express even the loftiest ideas, and that an ill-drawn colored cartoon can never be the supreme achievement in art. After having passed through the art schools of Düsseldorf and Munich, he went to Antwerp and subsequently to Paris, where he benefited by the teaching of Couture, and produced his first masterpiece, Hafiz at the Fountain (1852). He subsequently worked at Karlsruhe, Venice (where he fell under the spell of the greatest school of colorists), Rome, and Vienna. He was steeped in classic knowledge, and his figure compositions have the statuesque dignity and simplicity of Greek art. Disappointed with the reception given in Vienna to his design of The Fall of the Titans for the ceiling of the Sculpture Museum, he moved to Venice, where he died. His most famous works include Iphigenia; Dante at Ravenna; Medea; The Concert (his last important picture), and also The Battle of the Amazons, Pietá, The Symposium of Plato, Orpheus and Eurydice, and Ariosto in the Park of Ferrara.
— Vojtech Hynais was a student of Feuerbach.

Self-Portrait as a Young Southern Fisherman (1846, 600x424pix, 102kb _ ZOOM not recommended to fuzzy 1400x989pix, 290kb)
Self-Portrait as a Youth (1846, 600x483pix, 130kb; distractingly patterned _ ZOOM not recommended to terribly patterned 1400x1128pix, 311kb)
— Front Self-Portrait (1835, 42x33cm; 600x461pix, 61kb _ ZOOM to 1301x1000pix, 130kb)
— Profile Self-Portrait (1854, 92x72cm; 672x527pix, 104kb _ ZOOM to 2531x2024pix, 272kb)
Mandolinenspieler (1868, 137x99cm; 600x430pix, 105kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1003pix, 310kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2710x1906pix, 337kb)_ The mandolin player is barely seen, in the shadows, while the main subject is the listener and her baby, for which she cannot afford clothes (this was common in pictures other than paid portraits; it seems that babies in those days were unaffected by heat, cold, or sunburn, and had no need of diapers)
Mandolinenspielerin (1865; 79x60cm; 497x394pix, 68kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1060pix) _ Is it my imagination, or is this the same woman, in almost the same pose, who, three years later, after the birth of her baby, is, in the picture listed above, listening to a man (her husband?) playing the mandolin? Did she teach it to him?
Hafis vor der Schenke (1852, 205x258cm; 1236x1557pix)
–- Lady Holding A Fan (1866, 76x54cm; 1000x687pix)
–- Lady Wearing A Pearl Necklace (77x57cm; 1000x687pix)
Iphigenie I (1862; 600x420pix _ ZOOM to 1400x980pix) sitting
Studienkopf zur Iphigenie II (1870; 750x585pix, 100kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1092pix)
Iphigenie II (1871, 200x132cm; 600x388pix _ ZOOM to 1400x905pix _ ZOOM+ to 2463x1676pix, 339kb) sitting
Am Meer (Iphigenie III) (1875; 600x344pix _ ZOOM to 1400x803pix) standing
  _ In Greek mythology, Iphigeneia was the eldest daughter of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, and his wife Clytemnestra. When Agamemnon had assembled an army and a fleet to join the Trojan War, he had the poor judgment of going hunting in a grove dedicated to the goddess Artemis, killing a sacred deer, and boasting of his skill as a hunter. The irate Artemis sent a plague on the army and becalmed the fleet in Aulis. The prophet Calchas announced that the wrath of the goddess could only be appeased by the sacrifice of Iphigeneia. So Agamemnon sacrificed her, or so it seemed to him and to the onlookers; the plague abated, the winds started blowing, and the rest is history of the Trojan War. There are several differing continuations to the story of Iphigeneia. In the one adopted by Feuerbach, from the tragedy Iphigeneia in Tauris by Euripides, Artemis, out of compassion, spirits Iphigeneia away to Taurus in Crimea, where Iphigeneia is to serve her as priestess.
      Feuerbach felt inspired by what he termed the greatness of Antiquity and became the most important representative of Neoclassicism in German painting. In his three versions of this painting, Feuerbach shows the exiled Iphigeneia as she describes herself at the beginning ofIphigenie auf Tauris by Goethe:
“Doch immer bin ich, wie im ersten, fremd.
Denn ach! mich trennt das Meer von den Geliebten,
Und an dem Ufer steh ich lange Tage,
Das Land der Griechen mit der Seele suchend;
Und gegen meine Seufzer bringt die Welle
Nur dumpfe Töne brausend mir herüber.”
      In version II, the model Lucia Brunacci (successor since 1866 of Nanna Risi, whom Feuerbach had, since 1860, portrayed more than 20 times, as herself, the Madonna, Iphigenie I, etc.) is posed like an ancient Greek statue. The gray on gray picture, with a few accents of color, is reminiscent of an ancient fresco. This picture of unfulfilled longing, especially version II, became famous as the characteristic and frequently reproduced emblem of a whole epoch.
     Iphigeneia is a key character in another (unfinished) play by Euripides, Iphigeneia at Aulis, as well as in the tragedies Agamemnon by Aeschylus, Electra by Sophocles, Iphigénie by Racine, and the operas Iphigénie en Aulide (1774 _ libretto by Leblanc du Roullet, after Racine) and Iphigénie en Tauride (1779 _ libretto by N. F. Guillard, after Euripides) by Gluck [1714-1787].
     She is pictured in Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1942) by Rothko, The Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1671; 1240x1600pix, 259kb) by Steen, The Sacrifice of Iphigenia (1757, 350x700cm) by Tiepolo [1696-1770]
Paolo And Francesca (1863)
Ruhende Nymphe (1870, 112x190cm; 412x726pix) _ Die Komposition der Ruhenden Nymphe knüpft an den Typus der Schlafenden Venus (1510, 108x175cm; 732x1028pix, 149kb) von Giorgione an — eine Verkörperung der in sich ruhenden Natur. Ihre göttliche Beseeltheit bringt Feuerbach durch das Motiv des Schmetterlings zum Ausdruck. Den Schmetterling — in der Antike ein Sinnbild für die Seele und ihrer Sehnsucht nach dem göttlichen Ursprung — hat er in die Mittelachse der Komposition gesetzt. Statt mit einer Quelle oder einem Brunnen bringt er die Nymphe mit der Weite des Meeres in Verbindung, womit er den angestrebten Eindruck mythologischer Größe unterstreicht.
Garten des Ariost (1863, 102x153cm; 524x800pix, 104kb _ ZOOM to 2094x3200pix, 635kb) _ Ludovico Ariosto [08 Sep 1474 – 06 Jul 1533] was a Ferrara poet remembered primarily for his epic poem Orlando furioso. By 1525 Ariosto had saved enough money to buy a little house with a garden, a far cry from the vast garden at the side of the grandiose palace in Feuerbach's painting.
Pietà (1863, 600x1191pix, 244kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2778pix, 599kb)
Medea (1870, 600x1226pix, 302kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2861pix, 749kb)
The Judgment of Paris (1870, 600x1151pix, 283kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2685pix, 700kb)
The Battle of the Amazons (1870, 600x1108pix, 292kb _ ZOOM to 1400x2586pix, 750kb)
In the Spring (1868, 600x847pix, 222kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1976pix, 601kb)
Gastmahl des Plato (1869, 295x598cm; 383x780pix, 85kb _ ZOOM to 612x1280pix, 110kb)
Gastmahl des Plato II (1873, 400x750cm; with frame 437x800pix, 130kb _ ZOOM to 874x1600pix, 251kb)
Zigeunertanz (1853; 600x425pix, 69kb _ ZOOM to 2224x1576pix, 421kb)
Kinderständchen (1860, 116x231cm; 768x1554pix)
Musizierende Kinder (1864, 106x87cm; 1745x1410pix)
Kinder am Strande (1867, 138x100cm; 953x693pix)
Maria mit dem Kind zwischen musizierenden Engeln (1860, 117x96cm)
A Lady (1860, 75x62cm; 599x486pix, 55kb _ ZOOM to 1548x1276pix, 170kb)
Nanna (1860, 75x62cm; 599x473pix, 52kb _ ZOOM to 2563x2024pix, 407kb) right hand up at collar
Nanna (1861, 600x444pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1036pix) framed in a garland
Nanna (1861, 600x436pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1017pix) holding an open fan
Nanna als Virginia oder Schwarze Dame (1861, 600x488pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1139pix) holding a closed fan
Nanna (1861, 600x476pix) right hand on the back of a chair.
Nanna (1861, 600x444pix) left hand up at collar
^ >Born on 12 September 1857: George Hendrik Breitner, Dutch Impressionist painter and photographer who died on 05 June 1923.
      He was trained as a painter and draftsman at the academy in The Hague. Although the Dutch painter Charles Rochussen taught the students history and landscape painting, Breitner’s interests did not lie in this area. He also had as teachers August Allebé and Johan Philip Koelman. In 1880 Breitner worked for a year in the studio of Willem Maris after his academy training. Maris belonged to the Hague school of painters who worked in the plein-air tradition of the French Barbizon school. Breitner painted outdoor life with them, although it was not the picturesqueness of the landscape or the Dutch skies that appealed to him. With Van Gogh he roamed the working-class districts of The Hague and through the dockyards of Rotterdam. Both artists recorded the vitality of city life in their sketchbooks. Breitner consciously chose these themes and motifs: he wanted to paint people going about their daily lives, and on his trips through the towns and docks he was constantly in search of motifs and impressions that he could use in his paintings.
— Breitner was born in Rotterdam. In 1876 he enrolled at the academy in The Hague, Breitner passed the drawing exams within a year. However, he was not enthusiastic about the academy's rather traditional educational principles and within a few years he was expelled for 'unruly conduct'. After moving to Amsterdam, he decided to complete the course at the Amsterdam Rijksacademie. But by now Breitner was a famous artist with his own individual style and his return to college was less than successful. in The Hague. Later, he worked for a number of years in Willem Maris' studio and helped produce the Mesdag Panorama in Scheveningen. In this early period he was especially influenced by the painters of the Hague School.
     In 1882 he met Vincent van Gogh, with whom he often went sketching in the poorer areas of The Hague. Breitner preferred working-class models: laborers, servant girls and people from the lower class districts. He saw himself as 'le peintre du peuple'. Interest in the lot of the common people, which many artists felt in that period, was nurtured by the social conscience of French writers such as Émile Zola.
     Breitner gradually drifted away from the Hague School. In 1886 he moved to Amsterdam, where he recorded the life of the city in sketches, paintings and photos. Sometimes he made various pictures of the same subject, from different perspectives or in different weather conditions. Photos sometimes formed the immediate example for a particular painting, for instance the girls in kimono. On other occasions, Breitner used photography for general reference, to capture an atmosphere, a light effect or the weather in the city at a particular moment.
     Breitner painted with a loose brushstroke in an impressionist style. He often worked with Isaac Israels; both painters are counted among the Amsterdam Impressionists. Critics often referred to Breitner's manner of painting as 'unfinished'. But among the younger generation of writers and critics his innovative manner of painting and his Bohemian lifestyle were greatly admired.
— Cornelis Johannes Maks and Floris Verster were students of Breitner.

The Dam, Amsterdam (1895, 40x51cm) _ Looking across Dam Square in Amsterdam towards the New Church, a section of the Royal Palace is visible on the left, and on the right the Monument to the Nation's Patriotism of 1830-1831, popularly known as the 'Arse of the Dam'. Dam Square is a hive of activity, with people coming and going. Cars had not yet been invented. A row of carriages is parked where the taxis now stand. There are several horse-drawn trams in the foreground. These were introduced in 1875 and replaced by electrical trams in the early twentieth century. George Hendrik Breitner painted this watercolor around 1895. He applied thick brushstrokes in some places and a much thinner, transparent layer of paint elsewhere (for example, the roofs of the trams).
     Breitner depicted Dam Square on several occasions, using various techniques. This watercolor has almost no basic sketch lines. Although there are no known photographs or sketches of this particular view, Breitner certainly had them at his disposal. This was part of his method. 'Things [townscapes] like this difficult to make without the aid of photos', he once wrote. 'How do you expect me to depict the streets of Amsterdam? I make a few rough sketches, a study from a window if possible, and a few sketches of details.' This watercolor appears to have been based on photos and sketches from a window. This is borne out by the elevated vantage point and by the fact that the composition ends abruptly at the bottom, cutting right through one of the trams.
     Breiner having settled in Amsterdam in 1886, the city became one of his favorite subjects. He was inspired by the dynamism of the capital, by the street life, the constant motion, the hustle and bustle. While he depicted the city in all sorts of weather, in photos and drawings, watercolors and oils, he generally used warm, dark colors, with scattered touches of bright blue, red or white. Some of his works are boldly painted; featuring rapid brush strokes and lines that end abruptly.
     The invention and development of photography after 1838 had a great impact on drawing and painting. One of the products of photography was the snapshot, capturing the essence of the moment. Many artists strove to imitate this in their work, by truncating the figure, for example. This was achieved by placing the subject in an ostensibly random position so that part would be cut off by the frame, as in a photo. It gave a certain liveliness and spontaneity. Particularly compared to the work of earlier artists, who centered their compositions as much as possible. French impressionists such as Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec often employed the technique, as did the Dutch artists Breitner and Israëls. Many of Breitner's paintings, watercolors, and drawings have a certain snapshot quality. They are quite different from the tranquil townscapes painted by his friend and colleague Willem Witsen, for example in his Warehouses on an Amsterdam Canal in the Uilenburg quarter (1911, 52x42cm) . Breitner was a leading member of the Amsterdam Impressionist movement, a group of painters that included Witsen and Isaac Israels.
Bridge over the Singel near Paleisstraat in Amsterdam (1897, 100x152cm) _ A cold dark winter's day in Amsterdam. Grey wet snow lies on the bridge that crosses the waters of the Singel and on the roofs of the houses. The street is full of people. They are shown as if caught in a snapshot, like a still from a film. Girls are playing at the left while to the right a woman, possibly a serving maid, lifts her skirt to prevent it from dragging through the snow.
     In 1886 Breitner went to live in Amsterdam. The street life and the people there proved a source of inspiration. He would wander through the city and photograph bridges and squares streets and alleys in all kinds of weather, but preferably in the snow, mist, or rain, for example Oudezijds Achterburgwal. He also made drawings and watercolors of city views. Close to the Singel Bridge, but on the other side of the royal palace, Breitner made a watercolor and later an oil painting showing the New Church and Dam Square with horse-drawn trams in the foreground.
     Breitner is one of the Amsterdam Impressionists. Like other artists of this movement, Breitner's work offers an impression, here one of daily life in the city. He painted with a rapid brushstroke, providing few details. The group of girls here, if examined from close-up, is apparently composed of loose, unconnected dabs of color. It is only when the viewer takes a certain distance that the scene acquires clarity. The work of the French Impressionists is dominated by the vivid colors of a sundrenched landscape. Breitner preferred to paint the city in sombre colors of cold, misty or rainy weather, with just a few color highlights.
     This painting was originally quite different. When in 1896 it was exhibited for the first time at the Amsterdam artists' society 'Arti et Amicitiae' the woman in the foreground was not a fashionable lady but a streetwalker. Breitner often painted ordinary men and women: people who lived in working-class areas, servant girls and workers. He saw himself as the people's painter: 'I want to become the peintre du peuple, or perhaps I already am, because that's what I want to be.' He found many of his models in Amsterdam's working-class district, the Jordaan.
     The first version aroused considerable criticism. Indeed, one writer complained of the 'heavy-handed treatment' of the girl in the foreground which apparently detracted from the harmony of the composition. In 1898 an art-dealer friend of Breitner's suggested a few changes that might improve the painting and attract buyers. The Amsterdam 'streetwalker' in the foreground was transformed into a fashionable lady dressed in an orange-brown cape. The two fine ladies in the central plane were replaced by a woman in simpler dress holding a child by the hand. The picture now has a certain tranquility: even the small dog is changed from running to walking quietly through the snow.
Tram Horses on Dam Square, Amsterdam (1894, 55x76cm) _ Four large horses' heads and the face of a woman are the dominant elements in this large watercolor. The work gives the impression of Dam Square in Amsterdam in around 1894. A few years later, this typical image was to disappear: at the beginning of the twentieth century, horsepower was replaced by electricity. Influenced by photography, here George Hendrik Breitner created a courageous composition, brusquely truncating the image: the body of the woman in the foreground and the larger part of the horses' bodies are cut short. The sketchy painting technique is also unconventional, as is the use of color. The bright light shining on the horses from behind, illuminating their ears and casting long shadows across the street, is particularly unusual.
Girl in a White Kimono aka Geesje Kwak (1894, 59x57cm) _ Appearing totally relaxed, a girl wearing a Japanese kimono lies in an exotically furnished interior: spread on the floor and sofa are Eastern carpets, while behind the girl is a Japanese screen. The kimono and the background are painted with a swift, clearly visible brushstroke. The girl's face, on the other hand, is finely rendered. In Europe towards the end of the nineteenth century interest in all things Japanese was growing, and strongly influenced the artists of the time. George Hendrik Breitner, who painted this scene, was also affected for a time by 'Japanism'. In the years 1893-1894 he painted seven 'girls wearing a kimono' in various poses.
     Geesje Kwak, was Breitner's model for all his paintings of girls in kimonos. She was a 16-year-old hat-seller who lived in the Jordaan district of Amsterdam. Breitner first took photographs of Geesje, wearing a red or white kimono, standing, seated, or lying in various poses. He used the photos as the basis for his painting. However, Breitner did not copy the photos slavishly: he altered the position and the viewpoint and experimented with format and composition. Breitner was regularly using his own photographs as an aid in his paintings as early as 1885.
     Breitner's paintings of girls in kimonos show his admiration for Japan: the girl's clothing and the furniture, such as the screen. Even the composition of the picture betrays Japanese influence. The painting consists of large colored areas each having different decorative patterns. These areas - the kimono, the carpets and the screen - are juxtaposed to form a harmonious composition with little effect of depth. Such 'flat' compositions are characteristic of Japanese prints which in that period were being bought and collected in Europe on a large scale. Breitner also collected Japanese graphic art.
     Compared to other work by Breitner, the girls in kimono display a great precision. They represent a tranquil 'intermezzo' in the artist's work, more appreciated by contemporaries than the dynamic military pictures or the roughly-painted townscapes, which many found 'unfinished'. In a letter to his artist friend Willem Witsen Breitner enclosed a small sketch of 'Girl in a White Kimono'. Considering the success of the other 'Japanese ladies', he wrote that he hoped this one would also sell well.
     Breitner achieved a strong contrast between light and dark: the right side of the room is bathed in light, the other half is in shadow. The way the light catches the girl is striking: the hanging sleeve is bright and clear, while her arm is in deep shadow; there are points of light on her elbow, in her eyes and at the tip of her nose.
Horse Artillery (1886, 115x78cm) _ A group of soldiers gallops straight at the viewer, pounding across the dunes. Breitner presents the military exercise most convincingly, with a swift, rough brushstroke. Breitner, later to become famous chiefly for his scenes of city life, began his career as a painter of military subjects. When he was only eight years old he was already drawing mounted soldiers. In 1880 he produced the first of several military tableaux. At that time he lived near The Hague and in the nearby dunes he would often see army exercises. For larger and more spectacular manoeuvres he sometimes went to Brabant in the south of the Netherlands.
     This painting is full of action. Breitner tried to capture the movement and speed of horses in this work. He has used an Impressionistic style of painting, trying to give a swift and immediate impression of the action. Accuracy of detail is less important.
     It was around this time, that the photographer Eadweard Muybridge was recording the movement of people and animals in photo series. In 1882 the book Horse in Motion appeared, with analyses of various movements of a horse, based on these photographs. Breitner seems to have made a careful study of this book. It is noticeable that his subsequent renderings of trotting and galloping horses are more accurate. Furthermore, the horse on the right in Horse Cavalry resembles an illustration in Horse in Motion. A preliminary sketch for this painting confirms that Breitner must have known the book.
     Horse Artillery was Breitner's first large-scale success.
Promenadendeck mit drei Damen (57×59cm; 600x602pix, 84kb _ ZOOM to 2017x2024pix, 420kb)
De Wandelrit (14x24cm)
Two Work Horses (360x550pix, 22kb) _ Breitner ought to have used brightener on this picture, if the original was anything like this paltry reproduction
Inspection of the cavalry (1883, 81x101cm; 394x662pix, 20kb) _ Breitner was very interrested in military activities especially the cavalry, which he painted in the Hague just before his departure to Amsterdam.
Marie Breitner (1900, 74x56cm; 433x320pix, 21kb) _ Figuur uitbeelding in de Amsterdamse school stijl waarbij een beginnend expressionisme is te bespeuren. De nadruk valt op de karakteruitdrukking van het gezicht, het lichaam is in een vage bijna abstracte sfeer gelaten.
Stop of the Cavalry (1885, 60x100cm) _ A broadly painted canvas of a backlighted cavalry group. There is an autumn-like atmosphere, the men are shivering in the cold. The painting is the highlight of the Hague period of the painter.
Artillery in the dunes (1880, 21x41cm) _ At that time Breitner was still active at the Hague, from where he went to the dunes where the artillery was on maneuvers. He also cooperated with Mesdag in the painting of his famous Panorama. Breitner's style at that time was still influenced by the painters of the Hague.
Two Amsterdam maids (1890, 59x46cm) _ A typical subject of Breitner is the working people in the streets of Amsterdam, inspired by his own photographic work. He made hundreds of photographs of the people living in the downtown Amsterdam, and used them for his impressionistic paintings.
Factory girls (1898; 2204x1496pix, 1186kb) _ muddy colors
De_Wandelrit (14x24cm; 536x1000pix, 627kb) _ crackled
Still Life With Roses (29x41cm; 651x1000pix, 580kb) _ that could almost be Onions and a Side of Pork.
In the Workshop (1000x671pix, 165kb)
De Oorbel (1894; 938x631pix, 376kb) _ This painting of a woman elongated even more than those of El Greco, should not to be confused with
     _ .Doorbell (1876x631pix, 256kb) nor with the much more elongated and colorful spoof also by the pseudonymous Hattrick Brightener

     _ .Door Belle (1422x1422pix, 614kb)


Died on a 12 September:

1924 Anton Piotrowski
, Polish artist born on 07 September 1853.

^ 1854 Johann Cantius Dillis, German engraver and painter, born in 1779, brother of Johann Georg von Dillis and Ignaz Dillis. He lived in Munich from 1789 and studied under his brother Johann Georg Dillis [26 Dec 1759 – 28 Sep 1841], at whose instigation he was appointed court copperplate engraver in 1801 and court painter in 1807. In 1796 Cantius accompanied Johann Georg to Linz, where paintings from the gallery were taken for safe keeping during the advance of French forces under Napoleon. In 1805 the two men went to Rome, and in 1815 to Paris to bring back paintings that had been removed by the French. The earliest of the six known etchings by Cantius Dillis dates from 1790. His first known painting, the landscape Grottaferrata (1806), shows the influence of Johann Georg’s teaching but also reveals a certain independence. He helped Johann Georg with larger commissions, such as the eight wall paintings for the Schilcher Forestry Commission at Dietramszell (1809); these are idealized landscapes in the style of Gaspard Dughet, mainly painted by Cantius from Johann Georg’s sketches. His brother was certainly instrumental in procuring Cantius the commission for the painting Waterfall near Golling (1813) for Maximilian I Joseph to decorate a wall at Schloss Nymphenburg. The drawings and oil sketches of Cantius often resemble those of Johann Georg, but his style usually lags behind in development. When unsigned, such works have easily been confused with the work of his eldest brother. Another brother was Ignaz Dillis [1772-1808].

1733 Karel Breydel chevalier d'Anvers, Flemish artist born on 27 March 1678.

1653 Andries (or Andrea) Snellinck, Flemish artist born on 28 January 1587.

Born on a 12 September:

^ 1916 Jon Schueler, US painter who died on 05 August 1992. — His web site
Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Parents, George Arnold and Clara (nee Haase) Schueler. Childhood and adolescence in Milwaukee where his father is a distributor of Hood tires.
1934-1940 Studies at the University of Wisconsin. B.A. in Economics (1938). M.A. in English Literature (1940).
1940-1941 Works for the New Haven Evening Register.
1941-1944 Summer at the Breadloaf School of English as a scholarship student. Wants to be a writer. In September joins Air Corps of the United States Army. Basic training in the US. Marries Jane Elton, August 1942. (Divorced 1952.) Sent, November 1942, to Molesworth, England. B17 navigator, 303rd Bomber Group, 427th Squadron. Missions over France and Germany. Spring of 1943, Assistant Command Navigator, 8th Bomber Command. 1st Lieutenant. Hospitalized. Medical retirement 1944.
1944-1947 Living in Los Angeles. Tries to write a book on his war experience, but meanwhile articles for magazines, radio announcing jobs and a scheme to set up a night club where Anita O' Day would be the principal singer. Builds a house in Topanga Canyon. Two children born.
1945 Schueler and his wife sign up for a portrait painting class with David Lax in Los Angeles.
1947-1948 Moves, with the family, to San Francisco, California, where he teaches English Literature at the University of San Francisco.
1948-1951 Summer of 1948 at the California School of Fine Arts (now the San Francisco Art Institute) : San Francisco. Decides to sign on full time for the fall semester. Particularly respects Clyfford Still, but also studies under Richard Diebenkorn, David Park, Hassel Smith. Mark Rothko teaches there summer semester of 1949.
1951 In August, moves to New York. Clyfford Still introduces him to his friends; visits Rothko's studio; meets Newman, Kline, Reinhardt, etc.
1951-1962 Lives in New York. Marries Joellen Hall Todd, Oct 1956. (Divorced March 10, 1959.)
1957 In September sails for Britain and sets up a studio in Mallaig, a small fishing village in Scotland.
1958 Leaves Mallaig in March. Visits Italy before finding a studio in the Parisian suburb of Clamart and then Arcueil.
1959 Returns in January to his studio in New York.
1960-1962 Teaches at Yale Summer School, Norfolk 1960 and 1961. Visiting artist at Yale University School of Art, New Haven 1960-1962. Lives in Guilford, CT, fall of 1960 to early summer 1961.
1962 Marries Judy Dearing, Jan 27. (Divorced April 25.)
1963-67 Visiting artist at the Maryland Institute.
1964 June 20, marries Mary Rogers. (Annulled 05 May 1965.)
1965 Summer in Galileo, Majorca, writing.
1967-Jan 1970 Based in Chester, CT.
1968-1969 Head of Graduate and Undergraduate Painting and Sculpture at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
1970 Travels to Scotland and finds a studio in Mallaig.
1970-1975 Based entirely in Mallaig.
1971 Films of Scotland produces a half-hour documentary film on him.
1972 Spends three months in Paris, writing.
1975 Moves back to New York. Keeps the studio in Mallaig for the rest of his life. Most years spends three months in Mallaig.
1976 July 29, marries Magda Salvesen.
1981 The Talbot Rice Art Centre, University of Edinburgh, becomes his studio and exhibition space for 6 weeks while he paints enormous paintings.
Blue Series I (1973, 35x30cm; 2076x1732pix, 2737kb) faintly shaded blue with two yellowish and one pinkish slight smears.
Snow Cloud over the Sound of Sleat (sic) (1969, 228x198cm; 927x810pix, 424kb) _ The pseudonymous John Lehrer has amazingly combined this and some ten other Schueler pictures and thoroughly transformed them, elevating them into two series of symmetrical abstractions (rather than enlarge as in a zoom, each level is a different picture, which adds to the edges and the center of the previous picture) (you can click instantly from one series to the other at the same level)(for the three highest levels, whose size exceeds most computer screens, there is an alternate image reduced to size 6, 932x1318pix):
      _ Won Snow, level 1 (2006; 165x233pix, 14kb _ level 2 to 233x330pix, 26kb _ level 3 to 330x466pix, 44kb _ level 4 to 466x660pix, 90kb _ level 5 to 659x932pix, 166kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 322kb _ level 7 to 1318x1864pix, 675kb _ level 8 to 1864x2636pix, 1465kb _ level 9 to 2636x3728pix, 2970kb ||| _ level 7 size 6, 405kb _ level 8 size 6, 466kb _ level 9 size 6, 448kb) and
      _ Teal Sleet, level 1 (2006; 165x233pix, 14kb _ level 2 to 233x330pix, 26kb _ level 3 to 330x466pix, 44kb _ level 4 to 466x660pix, 90kb _ level 5 to 659x932pix, 166kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 322kb _ level 7 to 1318x1864pix, 675kb _ level 8 to 1864x2636pix, 1465kb _ level 9 to 2636x3728pix, 2970kb ||| _ level 7 size 6, 405kb _ level 8 size 6, 466kb _ level 9 size 6, 448kb)
Black Light (1953, 228x203cm; 944x859pix, 570kb) black blotches on a yellow background.
September Crossing (1960, 225cm x 203cm; 564x650pix, 118kb)
Red Night Blues (1987, 183x165cm; 500x454pix, 84kb)
— A Yellow Sun (1958) detail (290x271pix, 30kb) _ compare
      _ Untitled (red flower, green grass, blue sky, yellow sun) (900x1332pix, 144kb) scribble by an anonymous Headstart girl (age 3, 4, or 5) at Hallmark Heights School, 605 Hightower St., Valdosta, Georgia; and
      _ Untitled (with yellow sun) (1536x2048pix, 567kb) collage by Brookside Elementary School kindergarden (2005-2006) student Tyrone in Norwalk CT.
Line Study – Black + White (1951, 178x127cm; 432x305pix, 10kb) 4 white scratches, 99.9% black.
–- A Red Day in Summer (1050x840pix, 168kb)
–- Time Has Three Suns - Study II ((1959, 30x160cm; 455x2370pix, 58kb) no sun, nor anything else recognizable, except perhaps clouds of chemical contaminants. _ Lehrer has metamorphosed this into numerous abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Tim Has Three Sons (2007; 550x778pix, 94kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 171kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 354kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 941kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2205kb) and
      _ Thyme Has Tree Stumps (2007; 550x778pix, 94kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 171kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 354kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 941kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2205kb)
24 small images at Artnet —(070911)

1846 Louis Auguste Georges Loustaunau, French painter of genre, military, monastery, and coastal scenes, who died in 1898. — {Did he switch to painting after hearing once too many times his music teacher exclaim: “Loose tone! No, Loustaunau!”}
–- Embarquement pour New York (115x95cm; 1575x1285pix, 177kb)
La Layette d'après Loustaunau, gravure en couleurs de Varin (1885, 25x16cm; 721x439pix, 90kb). —(080911)

1758 Jacques Albert Senave, Belgian artist who died on 22 February 1823. — {De quoi Senave se navre?}
Apelles and the shoemaker (2276x2836pix, 1150kb) _ detail (2906x2912pix, 2289kb)
Copistes dans la Grande Galerie du Louvre (1795, 28x23cm; 653x541pix, 96kb) sous le Directoire, avant les travaux de décoration de 1796. Le Muséum Central, qui venait juste d’être ouvert au public; se résumait alors à cette Galerie et au Salon Carré; il avait été créé pour l’éducation des artistes, et était constitué des saisies de la collection royale et des biens des émigrés. Les envois d’Italie étaient encore à venir. —(090911)

1727 Heinrich Hirt, German artist who died on 03 September 1796. — {Would Hirt be hurt to know that so few examples of his masterpieces is to be found on the internet?}
The Young Seamstresses (1000x795pix, 224kb) —(090911)

1707 Michel-Hubert Descours, French artist who died on 17 November 1775. — {Est-elle vraie la rumeur qui courre que si Descours donnait des cours, Descours ne donnait pas des Descours, il les vendait? Mais, de nos jours, qui donc sait quoi que ce soit des cours des Descours?}
— (Une dame) (450x352pix, 19kb)

^ 1659 Dirk Maas (or Maes), Dutch painter, draftsman, and engraver, who died on Christmas 1717. He was a student of Nicolaes Berchem and Hendrick Mommers [1623–1693]. Maas entered the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke in 1678, later moving to The Hague, where he entered the Guild in 1697. He accompanied William III, Prince of Orange Nassau, to England and joined him on his Irish campaign. A large drawing of The Battle of the Boyne, signed and dated 01 July 1690, served as the basis for an unknown number of paintings. He also made two engravings of the battle. He was back in the Netherlands by 1693 and apparently continued working for William III, decorating his hunting lodge at Soestdijk. He painted three versions of William III Stag Hunting, one dated 1696. Most of Maas’s pictures contain horses. His preferred subjects include cavalry skirmishes, hunting parties, horse fairs, and, occasionally, winter scenes. Their settings are sometimes Italianate, but the costumes are usually northern and often military. His style stems from his teachers and from his friend Jan van Huchtenburg [1647–1733], who was an important influence, but his color scheme, predominantly green, is more somber than theirs. His numerous drawings are in red or black chalk, often with watercolor. — Relative? of Dutch painters Johannes Maas Jr. [1655~1690]? Nicolaes Maes [1634~1693]?

^ 1632 (infant baptism) Claude Lefèbvre, in Fontainebleau, French painter and engraver who died on 25 April 1675 in Paris. He was the son of painter Jean Lefèbvre [1600–1675], and joined the studio of Claude d’Hoey [1585–1660] at Fontainebleau. In 1654 he was a student of Eustache Le Sueur in Paris and in 1655 of Charles Le Brun. Under Le Brun’s direction he seems to have assisted with the cartoons for the series of tapestries illustrating the History of the King. He appears to have painted a Nativity for Louis XIV, but Le Brun apparently considered his compositions weak and advised him to specialize in portraiture; in 1663 Lefèbvre was received (reçu) as a member by the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture with his portrait of Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Lefèbvre was an assistant professor at the Académie from 1664. At the height of his fame he exhibited ten pictures (nine of which were portraits) at the Salon of 1673. Apart from that of Colbert, Lefèbvre’s painted portraits are now known only through the work of such engravers as Gérard Edelinck, Nicolas de Poilly and Pierre-Louis van Schuppen. Among works attributed to him on the basis of such evidence is the portrait of Charles Couperin with the Artist’s Daughter. He was also a talented engraver, and examples of his work in this medium include a Self-portrait and a portrait of Alexandre Boudan. Claude Lefèbvre should not be confused with Roland Lefèbvre, a portrait painter who died in London in 1677.— Relative? of Jules-Joseph Lefebvre [1836-1911]? — LINKS
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1666, 118x113cm) _ Colbert was the controller general of finance (from 1665) and secretary of state for the navy (from 1668) under King Louis XIV of France. He carried out the program of economic reconstruction that helped make France the dominant power in Europe.
Un Précepteur et son élève (135x111cm; 1000x832pix, 41kb) _ Lefebvre's surviving works are all attributions. The portraits associated with his name have the softness of those of Bourdon combined with the stronger realism of Philippe de Champaigne. This picture shows an unusual double portrait, on account of the obvious intimacy between master and student. Ce tableau semble être un fragment d'une composition plus vaste. En dépit de l'attribution traditionnelle, il pourrait s'agir d'une oeuvre flamande ou hollandaise.
Madame de Sévigné (1662)

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