ART 4 2-DAY 08 September v.9.80
1504: MICHELANGELO'S DAVID
Died on 08 September 1845: William
James Müller, Bristol British painter and draftsman
born on 28 June 1812.
— He was the son of a Prussian émigré and his Bristol-born wife. He began drawing at an early age and in 1827 was apprenticed to James Baker Pyne, a follower of Turner. By the early 1830s Müller had acquired a reputation for the rapidity and proficiency of his sketching. His first subjects were predominantly the picturesque back streets of Bristol and the woods and lanes of the surrounding countryside. While influenced by the landscapes of older Bristol colleagues such as Samuel Jackson [1794–1869], Müller also adopted stylistic elements from other artists, including Samuel Prout and John Sell Cotman. This eclecticism was to continue throughout Müller’s career and was both a strength and a weakness in his art.
— David Cox was a student of Müller.
— The Statuette Seller (1843, 75x50cm)
— Piazetta and the Doge's Palace, Venice (1836, 74x111cm)
— A Rocky Stream, Lyndale, Devon (1844, 33x52cm)
View of Bologna: Capriccio with Eastern Figures (1835, 60x90cm)
30 works at the Tate
Born on 08 September 1787: Abraham
Cooper, British painter specialized in horses,
who died on 24 December 1868. — He was not related to Thomas
Sidney Cooper [26 Sep 1803 – 07 Feb 1902], whom he encouraged
to become an artist. — Relative? of George
Bogart Cooper [1802-1889], William
Cooper Jr. [1740-1814]?
— Abraham Cooper was born in London, the son of a tobacconist and innkeeper. At the age of thirteen he became an employee at Astley's Amphitheatre, and was afterwards groom in the service of Sir Henry Meux. When. he was twenty-two, wishing to have a portrait of a favorite horse under his care, he bought a manual of painting, learned something of the use of oil-colors, and painted the picture on a canvas hung against the stable wall. His master bought it and encouraged him to continue in his efforts. He accordingly began to copy prints of horses, and was introduced to Benjamin Marshall, the animal painter, who took him into his studio, and seems to have introduced him to The Sporting Magazine, an illustrated periodical to which he was himself a contributor. In. 1814 he exhibited his Tam O'Shanter (296x452pix, 108kb gif) and in 1816 he won a prize for his Battle of Ligny. In 1817 he exhibited his Battle of Marston Moor (a 1644 battle of the English Civil War) and was made associate of the Academy, and in. 1820 he was elected Academician. Cooper, although ill educated, was a clever and conscientious artist; his coloring was somewhat flat and dead, but he was a master of equine portraiture and anatomy, and had some antiquarian knowledge. He had a special fondness for Cavalier and Roundhead pictures.
–- Mr. Stillwell with his Favorite Hunter (a horse, of course) (71x92cm; 667x444pix, 47kb _ .ZOOM to 1000x666pix, 72kb)
Draught Horses (1828)
The Day Family (1838)
Battle Piece (36x41cm)
7 works at the Tate
Died on 08 September 1879: William Morris
Hunt, US Barbizon
School painter, printmaker, sculptor, teacher, born on 21 (31?) March
1824. Not to be confused with English painter William Holman Hunt
April 1827 07 September 1910]
Born in Brattleboro, Vermont, William Morris Hunt spent much of his youth in New Haven, Connecticut. Ill health ended a three-year enrollment at Harvard College, where he had studied sculpture under Henry Kirke Brown [1814-1886]. In 1843 he left for Europe, eventually enrolling at the Dusseldorf Academy in Germany. Tiring of its rigid approach to art, Hunt soon departed for France, where he entered the atelier of Thomas Couture [1815-1879]. The French instructor was less strict than his German counterparts but still highly structured in his teaching methods. The disenchanted Hunt eventually found his way into the circle of the French Barbizon landscape painters, becoming especially close to Jean François Millet [1814-1875].
Hunt returned to the United States in 1855, settling first in Newport, Rhode Island, and later in Boston, where he became important as both a painter and teacher. He was a powerful artistic force, bringing Boston into contact with European art, particularly that of the Barbizon School. By 1859 Hunt had become a very successful portrait painter. In the years just after the Civil War his commissions reached a peak.
— While a student at Harvard College, Hunt exhibited precocious talents in the arts and studied under John Crookshanks King [1806–1882], a sculptor working in Boston. In 1843 Hunt went to Europe with his mother and siblings, his father having died of cholera in 1832. They visited Paris and Rome, where he studied briefly under the US Neo-classical sculptor Henry Kirke Brown [1814–1886]. In 1845 he toured the Near East with his family and Thomas Gold Appleton, a patron and essayist from Boston, visiting Corfu and Athens en route. Later that year, he took the advice of Emanuel Leutze and enrolled in the Düsseldorf Academy, but he remained there only nine months. In 1846 Hunt went to Paris with the intention of joining the workshop of the sculptor James Pradier, but he was inspired to become a painter after seeing The Falconer (1855, 51x38cm) of Thomas Couture. Hunt never abandoned his sculptural training, however, and continued to produce work such as the plaster relief of The Horses of Anahita (1848). From 1847 to 1852 he worked in Couture’s studio, where he rapidly became a favorite student. An example of his early figure painting is La Marguerite (1852, 116x90cm), which reflects Couture’s influence in its centralized composition, its definition of form through broad masses of light and dark and its rich and elegant textures. Using the same techniques as Couture, Hunt created shaded areas with smooth sepia turpentine washes and contrasted these with dramatic highlights of thick impasto. Couture was a consummate technician, and his student assimilated and quickly mastered his doctrine of the primacy of style.
— Hunt's students included John La Farge, Elizabeth Duveneck, Daniel Chester French, Henry James.
–- Governor's Creek, Florida (1874, 63x99cm; 745x1176pix, 71kb _ .ZOOM to 1491x2352pix, 515kb)
Peasant Girl (1852)
Agnes Elizabeth Claflin (1873)
— Gardeuse de Vaches (31x23cm; 1496x1000pix) _ ought to be named Gardeuse d'une Vache.
–- The Fortune Teller (monochrome lithograph 19x19cm; 836x835pix, 75kb)
–- Girl at a Fountain (1857 monochrome lithograph 25x19cm; 1094x830pix, 143kb)
Captain William Madigan (1866, 132x92cm) Hunt's strong affiliation with Boston probably led to his being selected to paint this posthumous military portrait of the Boston-born William Madigan. The work was commissioned by Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew during the Civil War and is one of several portraits done by Hunt of Civil War heroes.
Like most of Hunt's portraits of the time, Captain William Madigan is sober and straightforward in execution. As he often did in offcial male portraits, Hunt silhouetted the dark form of the offcer against a light background to produce a bold, imposing image, appropriate for a memorial. His painting techniques at this time varied from a loose, visible brushwork to the smooth, controlled sfumato shown here.
William Madigan served in the Ninth Regiment of the Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, also known as the "Irish North." He was killed on 27 June 1862, at the age of thirty-six in the Battle of Chickahominy in Gaines Mill, Virginia. A contemporary account of his regiment recorded:
There [in Virginia] Captain Madigan ßourished, a wit and every inch a gentleman; a brave soldier who perished gallantly fighting at the battle of Chickahominy. Madigan was a punster and a vocalist; could tell a pleasing story, or perpetrate a good joke. He was greatly beloved by his brother officers, and his death, noble and patriotic though it was, filled them with profound sorrow.
None of Madigan's light-hearted side is evident in Hunt's appropriately ennobling portrait. He looms large against a very low horizon line, inviting us to look up at him from a somewhat reverential viewpoint. Hunt has cropped the figure at knee length; it is as if Madigan is floating against the sky, no longer of the earth. His posture with hands folded and his somber expression also invite an attitude of veneration. The surrounding space is lacking in extraneous detail, forcing the viewer to remain entirely focused on his image. The only visual detractions are the military decorations on his uniform. The solemnity of the portrayal is heightened by a relentless verticality found not only in the subject's form but also in the row of buttons, the sword, the tassels, and the medal hanging on his chest.
Born on 08 September 1706: chevalier
Antoine de Favray, French painter, active and famous in
Malta, who died on 26 February 1798.
— In 1738 he was a private student of Jean-François de Troy II, who was then director of the Académie de France in Rome. In 1739 de Favray became an official student at the Académie. Among his student works is a copy of Raphael’s Fire in the Borgo, which was exhibited in Paris in 1741. In 1744 he left Rome for Malta, remaining there for much of the rest of his career and devoting himself primarily to portraiture and genre painting. His ambition as a history painter, however, was fulfilled to a certain extent as a result of the patronage of two Grand Masters of the Order of the Knights of Malta, Manoel Pinto da Fonseca and Emmanuel de Rohan. De Favray's first dated picture painted in Malta is a Portrait of a Maltese Lady (1745). Portraits and island scenes showing the inhabitants in local costume assured him a certain fame in France; he reserved a less exotic portrait style for his official Maltese clientele.
[Maltese stamp for the 200th anniversary of de Favray's death >]
— The artistic activity of Antoine de Favray for the Order was substantial. After the 03 January 1699 death of Mattia Preti no painter of talent was linked to the Order of Malta until de Favray arrived on the island in 1744 to decorate various churches. He was received into the Order on 12 July 1751 as «servente d'arme» by the Grand Master Pinto de Fonseca, of whom he did the splendid portrait in «cappa magna» now in the sacristy of St. John's Co-Cathedral in Malta. An excellent portraitist, de Favray painted an authentic gallery of Grand Masters and eminent personages of the Order, views of Maltese life and the famous «View of the Interior of St. John's Cathedral» now in the St. Petersburg Hermitage. Appointed Knight Commander of Valcanville in Normandy by Grand Master Emmanuel de Rohan for his artistic merits, de Favray never left the Knights' island again. Except for an extended sojourn in Constantinople from 1762 to 1771. In fact he remained in Malta, after Napoleon's occupation in 1798, and eventually died there.
— Portrait of de Favray in the regalia of a Knight of Malta.
— Grandmaster Philippe Viliers de L'Isle Adam _ L'Isle Adam was the first Grandmaster of Malta with the Order taking formal possession of Malta in 1530
— Grand Master Jean Parisot de La Valette _ Grandmaster La Valette was the founder of Malta's capital city Valletta and his tomb lies in the crypt of St John's Co-Cathedral
— Grand Master Pinto (529x391pix, 21kb)
— Grand Master De Rohan (600x430, 30kb)
— Maltese Woman Visiting her Friend (528x402pix, 20kb)
Died on 08 September 1627: fray Juan
Sánchez y Cotán, Spanish painter baptized
on 25 June 1560.
— Sánchez Cotán was born in the town of Orgaz near Toledo on June 25, 1560. He was a friend and perhaps student of Blas de Prado. Stylistically, he falls within the school of El Escorial, with Venetian influence. For approximately twenty years he pursued a successful career in Toledo as a painter, patronized by the city’s aristocracy, painting religious scenes, portraits and still lifes, the latter having a severe naturalism unlike the prevailing artistic style, and having its roots not in contemporary artistic trends but in the Renaissance intellectual currents awakening to a more secular, this-worldly, scientific view of Nature. These paintings found a receptive audience among the educated intellectuals of Toledo society. In 1603 Cotán abandoned his artistic career and moved to Grenada, where he became a lay brother of the Carthusian Order
Sanchez Cotán studied in Toledo and there he established the prototype of the Spanish still-life composed mainly from vegetables. He was a still-life painter in Toledo until 1603, when he decided to become a monk, and in the following year he entered the Carthusian monastery at Granada as a laybrother. The religious works he painted after this date are unexceptional, but as a still-life painter he ranks with the great names of European painting. Characteristically he depicts a few simple fruits or vegetables, arranged on a ledge or shelf with an almost geometric clarity and standing out against a dark background (Quince, Cabbage, Melon, Cucumber, 1602). Each form is scrutinized with such intensity that the pictures take on a mystical quality, conveying a feeling of wonder and humility in front of the humblest items in God's creation. Sánchez Cotán's austere style had considerable influence on Spanish painting, notably on Zurbarán [bap. 07 Nov 1598 – 27 Aug 1664].
— Formado en Toledo, se convirtió en uno de los mejores representantes de la escuela toledana, aunque sus comienzos son pocos conocidos. Tal vez se formara con el pintor Blas de Prado, que cultivaba una pintura derivada de Rafael, pero dentro ya de esquemas manieristas, y que se dio a conocer como pintor de frutas y flores. Su pintura recibe también la influencia de los manieristas italianos que trabajaron en El Escorial, como Luca Cambiaso y Pellegrino Tibaldi, a los que tuvo la posibilidad de estudiar sobre el terreno. Junto a ello la influencia de espańoles como Navarrete y Sánchez Coello.
— Wikipedia bio
— Still Life with Quince, Cabbage, Melon, and Gourd (1602, 65x81cm; 1653x2024pix, 345kb)
— Still Life with Game, Vegetables and Fruit (1602, 68x89cm; 2359x3051pix, 1297kb) This shows the inside of a cupboard. On the shelf are a group of birds consisting of two serins, two goldfinches and two sparrows on a cane, as well as three carrots, two radishes, and a large white thistle that closes the composition. Hanging from the upper sill are three lemons, seven apples, a goldfinch, a sparrow and two red partridges. The composition is outstanding for its sobriety, intimacy and intensity. Those characteristics are emphasized by the lateral light that produces large shadows, creating a perfect and fully realistic illusion characteristic of still lifes painted by Cotán, which became the prototypes of Spanish still lifes.
Still-life (1600; 584x840pix, 100kb)
a different Still-life (1600, 69x85cm; 720x867pix, 105kb) _ Everyday objects: a melon, cut open to reveal its pale pink flesh, a knobbly cucumber, a yellow apple that is past its best, a cabbage with thick leaves. Parallel to the picture plane, a smooth frame delineates tbe opening for a window. From the direction of the spectator, light falls upon the parapet, on which the slice of melon and the cucumber are placed so that they jut over slightly and thereby they seem to be almost within reach — a trompe l'oeil effect that was particularly popular in Netherlandish painting in the 17th century. The head of cabbage and the apple, suspended on threads that presumably have been attached to the upper frame, are dangling over the gaping darkness. Even if the objects are arranged so that they seem close enough to touch, they are nevertheless distanced. For all the naturalism with which they are depicted, the isolation of each object, heightened further by the black background, makes each of them seem extremely artificial and lends them a monumental, almost sculptural gravity. The center of the picture is empty and the arrangement seems coincidental; the dimension of the painted picture is denied. The disturbing evocation of the painted picture is the main theme.
Quince, Cabbage, Melon, Cucumber (1602; 69x85cm)
>Died on 10 September 1954: André
Derain, French Fauvist
painter and sculptor born on 10 June 1880.
André Derain was a leader in several avant-garde art movements of the early 20th century. Born in Chatou, near Paris, he abandoned his early engineering studies to pursue an artistic career. In 1905, he became a member of the fauvist ("wild beast") group, along with Maurice de Vlaminck and Henri Matisse. The group was so named because of the savage nature of the bold and unrealistic color used by the artists (see Fauvism). Most of Derain's works of this period were landscapes and cityscapes, such as London Bridge (1906). They show the typical fauvist characteristics of raw color (often squeezed onto the canvas directly from the tube), choppy brushstrokes, frenzied composition, and lack of concern for perspective or the realities of a scene.
After 1908, Derain began to experiment with other styles. The influence of Paul Cézanne led him to prefer quieter colors and more controlled compositions. His great Bathers (1908) represented an attempt to combine the innovations of previous painters, such as Claude Monet and Cézanne, in a single all-encompassing synthesis. In 1910, Derain produced highly geometric, cubist-influenced works such as The Old Bridge at Cagnes. His late work, after 1912, showed the influence of many styles-including classical French art and African sculpture, and tended to become increasingly traditional and derivative, characterized by muted color and fussily elaborated technique. Derain also designed woodcut book illustrations and, in 1919, he designed set decorations for Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes.
–- Self-Portrait (1914, 116x89cm; main detail 869x1130pix, 78kb — .ZOOM to full picture 2000x1497pix, 260kb) _ Derain's dissatisfaction with the aesthetics of contemporary art once provoked the artist to exclaim that he did not want to be "of his time" but, rather, "of all time." Thus, while his paintings are always modern, the influence of the Old Masters is equally apparent. The darkness and severity of the present work, while recalling links to the contemporary work of Picasso, also reflect Derain's interest in Spanish painting of the Renaissance.
— Self portrait (1920)
Portrait of a Young Girl in Black (1914)
–- London: Saint Paul's Cathedral seen from the Thames(1907, 100x82cm; 929x799pix, 99kb — .ZOOM to 2000x1603pix, 330kb) _ After the great financial success of Claude Monet's views of the Thames River, André Derain's dealer, Ambroise Vollard, convinced him to paint London, too. During two trips to England in 1905 and 1906, Derain made thirty views of the city. This one features Sir Christopher Wren's famous 17th-century cathedral. In Fauvist manner, Derain has distilled and expressed his emotions about the subject using intensified colors and a simplified design.
–- The Bagpiper at Camiers (1911, 188x150cm; main detail 1192x926pix, 116kb — .ZOOM to full picture 2000x1596pix, 279kb) _ Although Derain had helped found Fauvism and had been an early adherent of Cubism, he increasingly fell away from both aesthetics, feeling their obsession with technique had supplanted the content of their work. Derain, instead, began to turn toward the Old Masters, even as he kept pace with the spirit of his own time. Thus, while The Bagpiper at Camiers owes much to Cézanne in color, brushwork and composition, a great debt to the Old Masters is also evident, especially the arcadian scenes peopled with shepherds and musicians by Titian, and Derain's countryman, Claude Lorrain. The Bagpiper at Camiers became one of Derain's best known pre-war pictures and its lyrical and romantic feeling established him as an artist in the "grand tradition" of large formats and timeless subjects.
–- Animals (27x20 woodcut in book L'Enchanteur Pourrissant; 929x799pix, 99kb)
–- Head of a Young Model (1926)
— Cadaquès aka Paysage Cubiste (1910)
— Paysage à Cassis (550x426pix, 25kb _ ZOOM to 1070x829pix; 1247kb)
— Le Pont, Londres (1906) It is Charing Cross Bridge.
— Charing Cross from SW (1906)
— Cubist Grove (1912)
— Harlequin and Pierrot (1924)
— Matisse (1910)
— Trees on the Banks of the Seine (1912)
— Woman in blue (1910)
— The Two Sisters (1913; 105kb)
— Bal des soldats à Suresnes (1903)
— Pool of London (1906, 163kb)
— Madame Pierre Lévy et Claire (1949; 623x485pix, 123kb)
— Annie (1949; 587x479pix, 114kb)
Died on a 08 September:
1962 Ohel Emmanuel Katz “Mané-Katz”, French painter born (full coverage) on 05 June 1894. —(050907)
|Joshua fit the battle of Géricault, Géricault, Géricault,
Joshua fit the battle of Géricault
and paintings came tumbalin' down.
You may talk about your Charles and Sam King,
you may talk about your Manny Solon,
there's none like old Joshua Shaw
at the battle of Géricault.
Up to paintings of Géricault
he marched with brush in hand,
“Go blow them ram-horns” Joshua cried,
“ 'cause the battle is in my hand.”
Then the lamb ram sheep-horn begin to blow,
trumpets begin to sound,
Joshua commanded the children to shout
and paintings came tumbalin' down.
Joshua fit the battle of Géricault, Géricault, Géricault,
Joshua fit the battle of Géricault
and paintings came tumbalin' down.
Unveiled on 08 September 1504: DAVID,
The 4.34-meter marble statue of David is unveiled in Florence.
The high point of the early style of Michelangelo Buonarroti [06 Mar 1475 – 18 Feb 1564] is the gigantic marble David, which he produced between 1501 and 1504, after returning to Florence. The Old Testament hero is depicted by Michelangelo as a lithe nude youth, muscular and alert, looking off into the distance as if sizing up the enemy Goliath, whom he has not yet encountered. The fiery intensity of David's facial expression is termed terribilitŕ, a feature characteristic of many of Michelangelo's figures and of his own personality. David, Michelangelo's most famous sculpture, became the symbol of Florence and originally was placed in the Piazza della Signoria in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, the Florentine town hall. With this statue Michelangelo proved to his contemporaries that he not only surpassed all modern artists, but also the Greeks and Romans, by infusing formal beauty with powerful expressiveness and meaning.
In 1501 Michelangelo was commissioned to create the David by the Arte della Lana (Guild of Wool Merchant), who were responsible for the upkeep and the decoration of the Cathedral in Florence. For this purpose, he was given a block of marble which Agostino di Duccio had already attempted to fashion forty years previously, perhaps with the same subject in mind. Michelangelo breaks away from the traditional way of representing David. He does not present us with the winner, the giant's head at his feet and the powerful sword in his hand, but portrays the youth in the phase immediately preceding the battle: perhaps he has caught him just in the moment when he has heard that his people are hesitating, and he sees Goliath jeering and mocking them.
The artist places him in the most perfect " contraposto", as in the most beautiful Greek representations of heroes. The right-hand side of the statue is smooth and composed while the left-side, from the outstretched foot all the way up to the disheveled hair is openly active and dynamic. The muscles and the tendons are developed only to the point where they can still be interpreted as the perfect instrument for a strong will, and not to the point of becoming individual self-governing forms.
Once the statue was completed, a committee of the highest ranking citizens and artists decided that it must be placed in the main square of the town, in front of the Palazzo Vecchio, the Town Hall. It was the first time since antiquity that a large statue of a nude was to be exhibited in a public place. This was only allowed thanks to the action of two forces, which by a fortunate chance complemented each other: the force of an artist able to create, for a political community, the symbol of its highest political ideals, and, on the other hand, that of a community, which understood the power of this symbol. "Strength" and "Wrath" were the two most important virtues, characteristic of the ancient patron of the city Hercules. Both these qualities, passionate strength and wrath, were embodied in the statue of David.
Every aspect of this sculpture is stupendous the concept, the execution, the godlike anatomy of David's body, the anxiety in his eyes, his casual stance disguising his fear, the head's impressive mass of curls. It sums up the perfect ideal of both mankind and the divine spirituality of the all-powerful creator. There is not a single imperfection in the entire majestic work.
La scultura, eseguita da Michelangelo nel 1504, fu collocata in Piazza della Signoria, davanti all'ingresso principale del Palazzo, quale simbolo e garanzia delle libertŕ repubblicane. Quando fu mostrato al pubblico il David aveva dorati "la cigna, il broncone e la ghirlanda", costituita da una corona di alloro in filo di ottone con foglie in rame dorato, fissata alla folta capigliatura dell'eroe. Nel 1873 la statua fu trasferita per motivi di conservazione alla Galleria dell'Accademia e in seguito, davanti a Palazzo Vecchio, fu sostituita da una copia novecentesca.