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DEATHS: 1883 COLE — 1949 OROZCO — 1735 RIVALZ 1968 FONTANA  1910 HUNT 
BIRTH: 1860 MOSES
^ Died on 07 September 1883: George Cole, English self-taught painter of landscapes, animals, and portraits.
— Born in 1810 in London, he married Elizabeth Vicat in 1831. He began by painting several large canvas advertisements for a traveling circus. He spent some time in the Netherlands studying the Dutch Masters, In 1838 he moved to Portsmouth, where he painted mainly animals. In 1845 His Don Quixote and Sancho Panza with Rosinante in Don Pedro's Hut attracted much attention at The British Institution, which was established as a rival to the Royal Academy. He moved back to London in 1852 or 1853. Inspired by the works of the 17th century Dutch Masters and after a varied early career as a portraitist and animal painter, Cole established himself as a prolific and popular painter of the English pastoral. He became particularly associated with the landscape of Hampshire, Surrey, Cornwall, Wales, Sussex etc. By the 1870’s he had reached the apogee of his artistic career, enjoying great success and prosperity.
— Father of landscapist George Vicat Cole [17 Apr 1833 – 06 Apr 1893], with whose works his are sometimes confused.

Sheep in a Landscape (43x63cm; 562x796pix, 68kb)
Timber Wagon (1875 106x152cm)
Ferreting in Surrey (1860, 49x67cm; 668x1000pix, 147kb)
Near Liss, Hampshire (1868, 86x121cm)
Harvest Field (1866, 52x76cm)
–-S#> A Bay Racehorse Held by a Groom (1844, 51x61cm; 684x800pix, 78kb)
 
+ ZOOM IN + ^ >Died on 07 September 1949: José Clemente Orozco, Mexican Social Realist muralist born on 23 November 1883, considered the most important 20th-century muralist to work in fresco.
— Self-Portrait >>> [click on it to ZOOM IN]
Orozco contributed to the revival of fresco technique, design, and subject matter, and is regarded as one of the foremost mural painters in the western hemisphere. Orozco was born in Zapotlán del Rey, Jalisco State, and educated at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In 1922 he became one of the leaders of the Syndicate of Painters and Sculptors that sought to revive the art of fresco painting, under the patronage of the Mexican government. Orozco's most important early work was a series of frescoes for the National Preparatory School in Mexico City, commemorating the revolutionary uprisings of peasants and workers in Mexico. Between 1927 and 1934 he worked in the United States. There he executed a set of murals entitled The Dispossessed at the New School for Social Research in New York City. In Pomona College, Claremont, California, he painted a fresco on the theme of the Greek hero Prometheus. His mural panels for the Baker Library at Dartmouth College depict the history of America in the Coming of Quetzalcoatl, the Return of Quetzalcoatl, and Modern Industrial Man. In the 1930s he painted his great murals in Mexico City and Guadalajara, and in the 1940s he explored on canvas the unique style, marked by diagonals and neutral color, that he already had conveyed in his murals. In his later years, Orozco's simple, dramatic style became more expressionistic; his subject matter remained the suffering of humanity. Orozco died in Mexico City.
— La pasión de Orozco por el arte se manifestó cuando, a los siete años, se mudó con su familia a Ciudad de México, donde pudo conocer el trabajo de Posadas. Después de estudiar agricultura y arquitectura, se dedicó a pintar. Sus estudios formales los realizó en la Academia de San Carlos, donde se acentuaban las viejas fórmulas europeas, contendidas en el estudio del “Dr. Atl” Gerardo Murillo [1875-1964]. El grupo de estudiantes llamado el Centro Artístico, conducido por Dr. Atl, presionó al gobierno para permitir los murales públicos pero la idea nunca se llevó a cabo. Mientras realizaba trabajos satíricos para Dr. Atl., la vanguardia soportó la guerra civil mexicana, que dejó una huella en él; Orozco tuvo que estar varios años en los Estados Unidos. Volvió en 1920 y disfrutó el auspicio del gobierno de Obregón. La mayoría de los murales famosos de la Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, fueron hechos por él. Cuando el apoyo del gobierno fue retirado en 1927, Orozco volvió a Estados Unidos, donde pintó murales en Pomona, California, Nueva York y Dartmouth. Viajó a Europa en 1932 y volvió a México en 1934. Fue entonces cuando su grandeza se estableció. De ahí en adelante trabajó sobre muchos murales, algunos de los más famosos, son los de la Universidad y del Palacio de gobierno en Guadalajara y El Hospicio Cabañas. Los murales de Orozco se caracterizan por temas más universales, arrolladores y monumentales, comparados a los de sus colegas, cuyos temas son más bien nacionalista o propagandistas.

LINKS
–- Autorretrato (1944, 64x86cm; 1028x1398pix, 128kb) All that it shows is a right hand, a black head with a whited out rectangle over the eyes, and a sketch of a rear end and legs. _ Orozco was perhaps the most severe of the Mexican Muralists. His vision contained no hint of sentimentality, and his caustic drawings leave little to the imagination. Orozco had no sympathy for the weaknesses of the flesh, and he portrayed scenes with an almost clinical detachment. Throughout his life, Orozco painted a series of self-portraits and applied the same critical eye to his own person as a subject. In this allegorical Self-Portrait a mature Orozco depicts himself and gives us a synopsis of his artistic life, the past, the present and the future. The blank canvas is on an easel waiting to be filled, his energetic hand on the left is waiting to paint, and one of the many figure drawings for which he was famous floats below. On the right, the mysterious bust could be one of the many that filled a classical artist’s studio, but Orozco has made it into an anonymous modern head of the machine age, a head whose eyes are bound and covered by the blank canvas. The visions of this modern mannequin will fill the canvas. There is a striking resemblance in the stark geometry of this and the Autorretrato (1946). The artist is once again next to the canvas, his past work on the wall behind him and a new work being created.
Los ricos banquetean mientras que los obreros luchan (1923; 1746x2250pix, 1614kb)
— Gods of the Modern Word _ detail (1920x2560pix, 997kb)
La destrucción del viejo orden (1926; 663x549pix, 139kb)
–- Los Muertos (1931, 111x92cm) _ José Clemente Orozco's commentary on war and death had no specific point of reference. His works on the Mexican Revolution were ambiguous with respect to who was responsible for the desolation. Through an abstract language he constructed a symbolic universe, instilling in the spectator an impression of chaos and the finiteness of existence. Violence did not spring up in a specific country or from a single event, but could happen anywhere. Los muertos, dated 1931, refers us to the chaos caused by the 1929 Depression, emphasized by the grid of buildings which seem to fall like tombs into empty space.
–- Paisaje de Picos (1943, 99x121cm) _ José Clemente Orozco's painting enters into dialogue with its present-day audience as if it had been painted just yesterday. This is because of the symbolic language it employs, which allows it to comment on the conflict of war in an abstract manner which can refer to different moments in time. While the painting was at the time of its creation a statement on the Second World War, it is not a specific statement on ways of waging war in the style of photo-journalism, but rather an appeal to current sentiments through its transparent vocabulary.
Zapata (1930, 178x123cm) _ Emiliano Zapata [08 Aug 1879 – 10 Apr 1919] became a symbol of the Mexican Revolution after his assassination. The charismatic Zapata crusaded to return to Mexico’s peasants the enormous holdings of wealthy landowners. José Clemente Orozco, a leader of the Mexican mural movement during the 1920s and 1930s, presented Zapata as a ghostlike figure who appears in the open door of a peasant hut. He is framed by a patch of bright sky and the intersecting diagonals of outstretched arms and pointed sombreros. Given Zapata’s heroic status, it is curious that Orozco placed him in the background of the composition. The picture is dominated by the frightened, oppressed peasants (for whom he fought) and the ruthless enemy soldiers. Menacing details, including the bullets, the dagger, and especially the knife aimed at Zapata’s eye, allude to the danger of the revolution and Zapata’s own eventual death. The painting’s dark reds, browns, and blacks, applied to the canvas in rough, expressionistic strokes, evoke the Mexican land and the bloodletting of its people. Orozco painted this dramatic canvas during his self-imposed exile in the United States, where he moved to escape riots inspired by anti-Catholic murals he had created in Mexico City. Orozco later claimed that he painted Zapata, which was sold to the actor Vincent Price, to get the money for his trip back to New York after completing a mural commission in California. _ See also
      _ Emiliano Zapata (1931, 135x106cm; 400x312pix, 35kb) and
      _ Zapata (1930 lithograph, 52x40cm; 400x314pix, 58kb) both by Siqueiros.
American Civilization - The Gods of the Modern World: detail, post-Cortes section (1932 fresco)
Prometheus (1930 fresco, central panel, Pomona, semi-circular 610x869cm; 323x560pix, 57kb) more about this
–- Prometeo (1944 oil painting 90x105cm; 1075x1400pix, 136kb) _In the larger-than-life legend of José Clemente Orozco no figure claims a higher place than Prometheus. The artist clearly saw his own creative anguish reflected in the titanic hero-martyr’s struggle to enlighten mankind. MacKinley Helm entitled his memoir of Orozco, "Man of Fire" in reference to several key paintings as well as the artist’s self-association with Prometheus, the Greek hero who incurred the wrath of Olympian Zeus by giving mankind the stolen gift of fire. We catch glimpses of the man of fire in Orozco’s murals at Guadalajara, in the Supreme Court, and at Dartmouth College. But he is most fully realized in Orozco’s fresco at Pomona College (the first of three murals painted in the United States), and a series of related easel paintings dating to the 1930s-1940s.
      The Pomona Prometheus mural represents a critical moment in Orozco’s development. Nearly all scholarly studies cite it as a turning point in his career, fusing all of his previous training and boldly announcing a breakthrough to full artistic maturity. Stealing sparks of inspiration from Cezanne, Michelangelo, El Greco, and his own countryman Felipe Santiago Gutierrez, through Prometheus Orozco reveals himself as a mature artist breaking the bonds of his own training to forge a new visual and mythological language. Art Historian Karen Cordero Reiman has suggested that Orozco’s radical, even distorted foreshortening of the central figure was calculated to suggest the uncomfortable liminality between divinity and humanity. Prometheus pulsates with rebellion. Orozco’s frustration over the philistinism of some early critics and the constant scramble for funds to complete the ambitious project, infused the work with a special urgency, feeding the artist’s identification with his protagonist.
      In spite of early resistance to his vision, the Pomona fresco has since been hailed as one of his greatest achievements. "Throughout his life, [Jackson] Pollock repeatedly referred to Orozco as ‘the real man’ and consistently remarked that Prometheus, Orozco’s mural at Pomona College in California, was ‘the greatest painting in North America." Jose Pijoan, the Pomona professor who had invited Orozco to paint the principal wall of the college’s Frary Hall, exclaimed upon the mural’s unveiling, "The Mexican artist has given us a new interpretation of a classic theme. Those who have seen his work are astonished at his aptitude for understanding old things in a new way. His creative mind realizes immediately the possibilities in an old story. The background of his life is revolutionary Mexico. But now, in the Prometheus fresco, he has shown that what he has to say is universal, not simply Mexican. He is more than a champion of the peon; he is an interpreter of the striving man of the present age and of all ages."
      Orozco’s eventual success in California led to further commissions. Having produced many of his best-known monumental works in the 1930s and 1940s, Orozco nevertheless found himself, once again, in need of money. To raise funds, he dedicated himself to reworking themes and imagery from his most famous murals in smaller format (see for example his powerful Acordadas y Zapatistas). At the time, Orozco scholar Justino Fernandez commented on the new project: "Lately…Orozco has worked on a series of paintings, rich in color and movement…As in his mural paintings, in these smaller-scaled works we may find Orozco’s essence and his life-vision, because in these scenes…the artist is present body and soul."
      In some cases, Orozco took advantage of the new medium and format to make key changes to his compositions. In the Pomona fresco, Orozco crowded his hero into the upper quadrant of the wall, hemmed in by a constricting ogival arch, suggesting the hero’s oppression. Rendered in oils, the present painting suggests an even more radical transgression of authority. Freed from the constraints of the refectory architecture, this Prometheus explodes upward and outward, unfettered, in a purifying conflagration. This at last, is truly Orozco’s vision of Prometheus, unbound.
–- Acordadas y Zapatistas (09 Dec 1941, 61x74cm; 1145x1400pix, 122kb) _ In the early 1940s, Orozco devoted himself to a cycle of paintings based on his recently completed murals at the Gabino Ortiz Public Library in Jiquilpan. Since the time of their unveiling, the murals and the smaller-format paintings based on them have been acclaimed for their power and ferocious beauty. Their subject was the Mexican Revolution and, in particular, the unjust acordadas opposed by the popular hero Emiliano Zapata and his followers.
      As Raquel Tibol explained in a 1992 essay: "In the apse of what had been the chapel, Orozco painted a burlesque Alegoria de la mexicanidad (Allegory of Mexicanness), and on the lateral walls scenes evoking the violence of the years of the Mexican Revolution. The first at the left of the Alegoria represents-in black and white-the repressive actions of several "acordadas," the term utilized to refer to rural guards in the service of the rapacious hacienda owners. The farmers and their families were dragged forcibly from the lands of which they were the legitimate owners, only to become almost slave-like peons. This practice, so common during the regime of Porfirio Diaz, had continued during the administration of Francisco I. Madero, provoking a grave political struggle between the president and the peasant leader Emiliano Zapata. It is the latter's followers (men and women) whom Orozco represented with almost Goya-like force in the moment of being dragged off their property."
      This struggle was a theme to which Orozco returned repeatedly in the 1930s and 1940s (Sotheby's sold another painting from the series in 1992). In 1942, shortly after the execution of the present painting, Justino Fernandez drew particular attention to the new cycle. "Lately, having finished the Jiquilpan murals, Orozco has worked on a series of paintings, rich in color and movement. As in his mural paintings, in these smaller-scaled works we may find Orozco's essence and his life-vision, because in these scenes of the Mexican Revolution the artist is present body and soul."
Table of Universal Brotherhood (1931 fresco; 200x415pix, 39kb)
–- Inditos (grayscale lithograph 30x43cm; 771x1053pix, 92kb)
–- Three Generations (1926 grayscale lithograph, 27x37cm; 735x1019pix, 118kb)
—(060906)
click for 28 Dec 53 TIME cover^ >Born on 07 September 1860:
Anna Mary Robertson “Grandma” Moses
, US Folk painter who died on 13 December 1961.
— Truly a senior artist, Grandma Moses only began a serious painting career at the age of 78 and kept at it until the age of 100. Moses had an extraordinary career, her love of life and her savvy marketing skills were impressive.
      Grandma Moses's first seventy-five years constitute her "early years." She made yarn paintings and dolls.
      Classic scenes of ice skating, harvesting, hunting, and socializing with the neighbors would follow in the tradition of Flemish and Dutch genre painting. Even without formal training, Moses captured the essence of what it meant to be part of the land and a participant in rural activities. One such activity now seeing a revival is quiltmaking.
      Then she made images of happier, simpler times before the Great War, the Depression, and World War II: apple butter making, tapping maple trees, milking cows, shoeing horses -- yet Moses also knew how to cope with city slickers. Attesting her marketing skills are her many awards, products, fabric designs.
      Facing failing vision and arthritis in her hands, Moses switched to painting with her left hand but never let up on the number of pictures produced per year, although her work became broader and more painterly in technique. The legend of Grandma Moses is one of senior citizen wizardry, a marvel of crusty ingenuity and independent living. At the health center where she spent her final days, she once stole her physician's stethoscope, warning him: "You take me back to Eagle Bridge and you'll get back your stethoscope." (Eagle Bridge NY is where Grandma Moses lived since 1907). Presidents, Hollywood figures, art collectors, reporters, all mourned the death of Grandma Moses. Her pictures allow us to recreate her life, her joy of painting, and her wonderful vision of the world.

—      Grandma Moses was the spry, indomitable "genuine US primitive" who became one of the US's most famous painters in her late seventies. The simple realism, nostalgic atmosphere and luminous color with which Grandma Moses portrayed homely farm life and rural countryside won her a wide following. She was able to capture the excitement of winter's first snow, Thanksgiving preparations and the new, young green of oncoming spring. Gay color, action and humor enlivened her portrayals of such simple farm activities as maple sugaring, soap-making, candle-making, haying, berrying and the making of apple butter.
      In person, Grandma Moses charmed wherever she went. A tiny, lively woman with mischievous gray eyes and a quick wit, she could be sharp-tongued with a sycophant and stern with an errant grandchild. Cheerful, even in her last years, she continued to be keenly observant of all that went on around her. Until her 101st and last birthday, 07 September 1961, she rarely failed to do a little painting every day.
      Grandma Moses, whose paintings hang in nine museums in the United States and in Vienna and Paris, painted her first picture when she was 76. She took up painting because arthritis had crippled her hands so that she no longer could embroider. She could not hold a needle, but she could hold a brush, and she had been too busy all her life to bear the thought of being idle.
      Two years later a New York engineer and art collector, Louis J. Caldor, who was driving through Hoosick Falls saw some of her paintings displayed in a drug store. They were priced from $3 to $5, depending on size. He bought them all, drove to the artist's home at Eagle Bridge and bought ten others she had there.
      The next year, 1939, Grandma Moses was represented in an exhibition of “contemporary unknown painters” at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. She did not remain unknown for long. A one-person show of her paintings was held in New York in 1940, and other one-person shows abroad followed. Her paintings were soon reproduced on Christmas cards, tiles and fabrics in the US and abroad. She was the guest of President and Mrs. Harry S. Truman in 1949 at a tea at which the President played the piano for her. NY Governor Rockefeller proclaimed the painter's 100th and 101st birthdays “Grandma Moses Days” throughout the state, declaring in 1961 that "there is no more renowned artist in our entire country today."
       But to say that she was a US painter is less than the full portrait of Grandma Moses; European critics called her work "lovable," "fresh," "charming," "adorable" and "full of naive and childlike joy." A German fan offered his explanation for her wide popularity:
      "There emanates from her paintings a light-hearted optimism; the world she shows us is beautiful and it is good. You feel at home in all these pictures, and you know their meaning. The unrest and the neurotic insecurity of the present day make us inclined to enjoy the simple and affirmative outlook of Grandma Moses."
      As a self-taught "primitive," who in childhood began painting what she called "lambscapes" by squeezing out grape juice or lemon juice to get colors, Grandma Moses has been compared to the great self-taught French painter, “le douanier” Henri Rousseau, as well as to Breughel. Until the comparisons were made, she had never heard of either artist.
      Grandma Moses did all of her painting from remembrance of things past. She liked to sit quietly and think, she once said, and remember and imagine. "Then I'll get an inspiration and start painting; then I'll forget everything, everything except how things used to be and how to paint it so people will know how we used to live." She would sit on an old, battered swivel chair, perching on two large pillows. The Masonite on which she painted would lie flat on an old kitchen table before her. There was no easel. Crowding her in her "studio" were an electric washer and dryer that had overflowed from the kitchen.
      For subject matter, Grandma Moses drew on memories of a long life as farm child, hired girl and farmer's wife. Her first paintings had been sent to the county fair along with samples of her raspberry jam and strawberry preserves. Her jam had won a ribbon, but nobody noticed those first paintings. She would paint for five or six hours, and preferred the first part of the session because, as she said, her hand was fresher and "stiddier." At night, after dinner, she liked to watch television Westerns, not for the drama but because she liked to see horses.
      Grandma Moses spent a lot of her time on what she called her "old-timey" New England landscapes. She painted from the top down: "First the sky, then the mountains, then the hills, then the trees, then the houses, then the cattle and then the people." Her tiny figures, disproportionately small, cast no shadows. They seem sharply arrested in action.
      She learned as a child to observe nature when her father took the children out for walks. He was a Methodist, but never went to church, and he allowed his children to believe what they wanted. Instead of going to church, they went for long walks in the woods.
      Grandma Moses had had a hard life most of her many years, but neither her fame nor her advanced years cut into her formidable production. During her lifetime she painted more than 1000 pictures, twenty-five of them after she had passed her 100th birthday. Her oils have increased in value from those early $3 and $5 works to $8000 or $10'000 for a large picture. Otto Kallier, owner and director of the Galerie St. Etienne in New York and president of Grandma Moses' Properties, Inc., will not discuss her earnings, but they are reliably estimated to have reached nearly $500'000.
      Grandma Moses Story Book, an anthology for children illustrated by forty-seven color reproductions of her paintings, was published in 1961, and 20'000 copies were sold before publication.
      Grandma Moses, the former Anna Mary Robertson was born at Greenwich NY, one of five daughters and five sons of Russell King Robertson and the former Margaret Shannahan. What little formal education she had was obtained in a one-room country school. At the age of 12 she left home to work as a hired girl. She worked in the same capacity until she was 27 years old, when she was married to Thomas Salmon Moses. He was the hired man on the farm where she was doing the housework. The couple took a wedding trip to North Carolina. On the way back, they decided to invest their $600 savings in the rental of a farm near Staunton VA.
      They remained in Virginia for twenty years. Ten children, five of whom died in infancy, were born to them. In addition to caring for the children and running the house, Mrs. Moses made butter and potato chips, which she sold to neighbors. The couple returned to New York State and began farming at Eagle Bridge. Mr. Moses died there in 1927. For several years his widow continued to operate the farm with the help of her son, Forrest. But she had to give up farm chores, and then embroidery, when arthritis attacked her hands.
      She had been embroidering in wool pictures that were reminiscent of Currier and Ives prints of country scenes. Grandma Moses' first paintings were copies from the prints and post cards. Gradually, however, she began to compose original scenes, drawn from her memories of farm life in past generations.
      My Life's History, her autobiography, was published in 1951. In it Grandma Moses expressed her basic philosophy:
      “I look back on my life like a good day's work, it was done and I feel satisfied with it. I was happy and contented, I knew nothing better and made the best out of what life offered. And life is what we make it, always has been, always will be.”
      On the day of her death, President Kennedy said: “The death of Grandma Moses removed a beloved figure from US life. The directness and vividness of her paintings restored a primitive freshness to our perception of the US. Both her work and her life helped our nation renew its pioneer heritage and recall its roots in the countryside and on the frontier. All Americans mourn her loss.”
— Portrait of Grandma Moses on the cover of Time 28 Dec 1953

LINKS
–- Autumn in Eastern Connecticut (2038x2400pix, 502kb)
Fall (1958)
The Shepherd Comes Home, yarn picture.
All Out for Sport (1949)
A Beautiful World (1948)
My Hills of Home [Flash]
Early Sugaring Off (1944, 89x114cm) _ Grandma Moses' colorful and lively Early Sugaring Off, with its sprinkling of glitter to add a sparkle to the snow, is a prime example of US Primitive art. Born Anna Mary Robertson in Washington County, New York. Having never had an art lesson, at age 76 she began painting simple, but realistic scenes of rural life. She had her first one-woman show at age 80 and painted 25 pictures in the year after her 100th birthday. Critics have praised her work for its freshness, innocence, and humanity.
The Old Hoosick Bridge (1947) _ Grandma Moses captured with paint her memories of a long rural life. She first took up a paintbrush in 1937 at the age of 77. Several years later, the US discovered her paintings and immediately fell in love with this elderly artist from Upstate New York. Why? Certainly Grandma Moses’ personal charm had much to do with it. A spunky, earthy woman, she charmed America with her country ways, her homespun aphorisms, and her pride in her canned jams and preserves. Her paintings were true to their creator. They depicted scenes Grandma Moses remembered — some from her childhood, others from her years as a farmwife. Covered bridges, for example, were “land marks in days gone by.” The Old Hoosick Bridge captured one particular structure that, in her words, “is no more.” Perhaps in that sentiment lies the appeal of Grandma Moses’ paintings, for she seems to capture a style of life that people in the US like to believe once was, but sadly “is no more.”
–-S#> Sycamore Farm (25 Jan 1943, 46x61cm; 603x799pix, 95kb) a summer scene painted (from memory or imagination) in winter.
–-S#> Blue Lake (Jan 1961, 42x62cm; 541x799pix, 93kb)
–-S#> Cambridge Valley (1943, 44x60cm; 573x800pix, 88kb)
–-S#> July Harvest Time (30 Jun 1945, 25x35cm; 572x800pix, 110kb)
–-S#> Springtime Landscape (25x31cm; 648x800pix, 96kb)
–-S#> Winter Landscape (25x31cm; 648x800pix, 129kb)
–-S#> The Last Load (18 Sep 1953, 46x61cm; 583x800pix, 86kb)
The Dead Tree (1948, 41x51cm; 479x616pix, 48kb)
 
^ Died on 07 September 1735: Antoine Rivalz (or Rivaltz), French painter born on 16 March 1667. — {Did Rivalz have rivals?}
— En 1726, Antoine Rivalz fonde une véritable école de dessin, indépendante de celle de Paris, qui deviendra en 1750 l'Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture de Toulouse, la seule en province à bénéficier du soutien royal. Jean-François Lassave, Jacques Gamelin, Jean-Baptiste Despax, Pierre Subleyras, artistes toulousains de renom, fréquentent l'Académie et prolongent l'inclination classicisante de leur maître.

LINKS
Autoportrait devant l'esquisse de la chute des anges rebelles (1726, 83x64cm)
Saint Michel combattant les anges rebelles et le dragon de l'apocalypse (170x130cm; 709x641pix, 256kb) _ detail (559x561pix, 292kb) Saint Michel
Jean-Pierre Rivalz (124x99cm; 488x380pix, 15kb) Après avoir suscité de multiples interrogations sur l'identité de l'artiste qui l'a réalisé, ce portrait a finalement été attribué par en 1956 à Antoine, qui l'a vraisemblablement peint sur une ébauche de son père. Jean-Pierre Rivalz, peintre et architecte de la ville de Toulouse, est ici représenté dans cette double fonction, à mi-corps devant une table de travail encombrée de livres et de pinceaux, consultant le traité de Vitruve, et tournant le dos à son tableau figurant l'Annonciation. Antoine, de retour d'Italie, aurait recomposé le trop paisible portrait de son père, réalisé dans sa jeunesse, sur un mode plus tumultueux et passionné: l'habit comporte des plis nombreux, la pile de livres s'écroule, la main froisse avec nervosité des pages où se reflète abondamment la lumière. Dans cette toile, toute droite est bannie, alors que les courbes sont soulignées, donnant une touche baroque à ce portrait, qui a amené à considérer pendant longtemps cette toile comme un autoportrait de Jean-Pierre Rivalz.
La Présidente de Riquet en Diane Chasseresse (123x101cm; 470x380pix, 23kb) _ L'iconographie de cette oeuvre, qui paraît décalée par rapport aux thèmes habituellement traités par Rivalz, se justifie par la personnalité de son commanditaire. Agé de 65 ans, Jean- Matthias de Riquet, l'époux du modèle, semble avoir imposé le caractère mythologique de ce portrait. Le nu héroïque sert de prétexte, à travers le genou et le sein découverts, à un érotisme tout à fait exceptionnel dans le climat social de Toulouse. Par un style vigoureux, Rivalz rompt avec l'élégante mièvrerie des portraits mythologiques qui caractérisaient le siècle précédent, et exclut notamment tout sourire de ce visage.
Enlèvement des Sabines (120x171cm; 483x701pix, 231kb gif) _ After a stay in Rome, Rivalz became the painter of the city of Toulouse. This painting is inspired by the following text:
_ Iam res Romana adeo erat ualida ut cuilibet finitimarum civitatum bello par esset; sed penuria mulierum hominis aetatem duratura magnitudo erat, quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis nec cum finitimis conubia essent. Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit qui societatem conubiumque novo populo peterent: urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex infimo nasci; dein, quas sua virtus ac di iuvent, magnas opes sibi magnumque nomen facere; satis scire, origini Romanae et deos adfuisse et non defuturam virtutem; proinde ne gravarentur homines cum hominibus sanguinem ac genus miscere. Nusquam benigne legatio audita est: adeo simul spernebant, simul tantam in medio crescentem molem sibi ac posteris suis metuebant. Ac plerisque rogitantibus dimissi ecquod feminis quoque asylum aperuissent; id enim demum compar conubium fore. Aegre id Romana pubes passa et haud dubie ad vim spectare res coepit. Cui tempus locumque aptum ut daret Romulus aegritudinem animi dissimulans ludos ex industria parat Neptuno equestri sollemnes; Consualia vocat. Indici deinde finitimis spectaculum iubet; quantoque apparatu tum sciebant aut poterant, concelebrant ut rem claram exspectatamque facerent.
      Multi mortales conuenere, studio etiam videndae novae urbis, maxime proximi quique, Caeninenses, Crustumini, Antemnates; iam Sabinorum omnis multitudo cum liberis ac coniugibus venit. Inuitati hospitaliter per domos cum situm moeniaque et frequentem tectis urbem vidissent, mirantur tam breui rem Romanam crevisse. Vbi spectaculi tempus venit deditaeque eo mentes cum oculis erant, tum ex composito orta vis signoque dato iuventus Romana ad rapiendas virgines discurrit. Magna pars forte in quem quaeque inciderat raptae: quasdam forma excellentes, primoribus patrum destinatas, ex plebe homines quibus datum negotium erat domos deferebant. Vnam longe ante alias specie ac pulchritudine insignem a globo Thalassi cuiusdam raptam ferunt multisque sciscitantibus cuinam eam ferrent, identidem ne quis violaret Thalassio ferri clamitatum; inde nuptialem hanc vocem factam.
      Turbato per metum ludicro maesti parentes virginum profugiunt, incusantes violati hospitii foedus deumque invocantes cuius ad sollemne ludosque per fas ac fidem decepti venissent. Nec raptis aut spes de se melior aut indignatio est minor. Sed ipse Romulus circumibat docebatque patrum id superbia factum qui conubium finitimis negassent; illas tamen in matrimonio, in societate fortunarum omnium civitatisque et quo nihil carius humano generi sit liberum fore; mollirent modo iras et, quibus fors corpora dedisset, darent animos; saepe ex iniuria postmodum gratiam ortam; eoque melioribus usuras viris quod adnisurus pro se quisque sit ut, cum suam vicem functus officio sit, parentium etiam patriaeque expleat desiderium. Accedebant blanditiae virorum, factum purgantium cupiditate atque amore, quae maxime ad muliebre ingenium efficaces preces sunt. TITI LIVI AB VRBE CONDITA LIBER I, IX (English translation at Livy's The History of Rome)

L'Annonciation (70x57cm)
—(060906)

Died on a 07 September:

1968 Lucio Fontana, Italian slasher born (full coverage) on 19 February 1899. —(060904)

1966 Celso Lagar Arroyo, Spanish painter born (main coverage) on 14 February 1891. —(090906)

1910 William Holman Hunt, English painter born (full coverage) on 02 April 1827.


Born on a 07 September:

1892 Michele Calcella, Italian artist who died in 1989. — Relative? of sculptor Andrea Cascella?

1853 Anton Piotrowski, Polish artist who died on 12 September 1924.

^ 1592 Waal Cornelis de Wael (or Waal), Flemish painter, draftsman, and dealer, who died on 21 April 1667. He was the son of painter Jan Baptist de Wael I [1558–1633], from whom he and his brother Lucas de Wael [03 Mar 1591 – 25 Oct 1661] learnt to paint. They both went to Italy in 1610 and by 1613 had settled in Genoa. There Cornelis founded the Cenacolo Fiammingo, where he trained many young painters. Their circle of expatriate Flemings included Anthony van Dyck, who lived with them for a time and painted a double portrait of them (1627). Cornelis may have collaborated with van Dyck; he may also have worked with the Italian landscape painter Giovanni Battista Vicino ( fl c. 1650), as various landscapes by Vicino have figures in them by either de Wael or a painter from his circle. During visits to Rome, Cornelis came into contact with the Schildersbent, the confraternity of northern artists there, and in 1627 he was recorded in the documents of Rome’s Guild of Saint Luke. He moved there from Genoa in 1656, following an outbreak of the plague. Cornelis received commissions from Italian churches but is best known for his military pieces, harbor views and bambocciante or low-life subjects. Jan Baptist de Wael II [25 Jul 1632 – 1669+] was the son or nephew of Cornelis de Wael.


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