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ART “4” “2”-DAY  31 October v.9.90
^ Born on 31 October 1929: Luis Feito López, Spanish painter, active also in France and the US.
— He studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in his native Madrid (1950–1954) and held his first one-man exhibition in 1952, at the Galería Buchholz in Madrid, showing both figurative and abstract paintings. His later work, however, was entirely abstract. In 1953 he went to Paris on a French Government grant, making it his home in 1957 after exhibiting there with great success in 1955 but still visiting Madrid frequently. Along with other Spanish practitioners of Art informel, he helped found El Paso in 1957, taking part in all the group’s activities until its dissolution in 1960. The most characteristic feature of Feito’s early work, for example Painting No. 460A (1963, 115x89cm), was his dramatic division of the chromatic field into two sections, one of them sometimes nearly monochromatic, with a pronounced contrast between smooth and encrusted surfaces. In later paintings, for example Painting 608 (1968, 180x260cm), he continued to use this format of two conjoined canvases but created a rhythmic movement from one half to the other through the deliberate echoing of the colored shapes. Feito left Paris for Montreal in 1981 and in 1983 moved to New York, where he continued to live and work even after renewing his contacts in Spain in 1988. In his later paintings he adopted a purer, flatter technique and demonstrated a tendency towards elegant geometric forms.
— Luis Feito nació en Madrid. En 1950 ingresa en la Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, obteniendo el título de profesor de dibujo en 1954. En 1956 se instala en París con una beca del gobierno francés, desde donde mantiene vivos sus contactos con el mundo artístico español. En 1957 es miembro fundador del grupo "El Paso" [nada que ver con El Paso, Texas], junto a Antonio Saura, Manuel Rivera, Rafael Canogar, Manuel Millares y otros [pero no millares de otros]. En 1981 abandona París y traslada su residencia a Montreal hasta 1983. Desde este año vive y trabaja en Nueva York.
      Su trayectoria artística, cohesionada y bien definida, se inicia con un breve período figurativo que termina cuando, a través de una experiencia cubista, se adentra en la abstracción hacia 1953. En París sufre la influencia del automatismo y de la pintura matérica y trabaja con pasta de óleo y arena, en negro, ocres y blanco, que concentra en núcleos. Desde 1962 introduce el rojo como contrapunto, y a partir del año siguiente, se aprecia una creciente simplificación formal y material, con motivos, predominantemente circulares. En los 70 se impone la plenitud en el color y, desde 1975, se insinúa una geomaterización que se hace evidente a finales de la década, depuradora etapa de cuadros blancos. A partir de entonces los elementos antes rechazados retornan gradualmente, invadiendo con violencia gestual la base de bandas geométricas.

–- Composición (1955, 108x75cm; 608x549pix, 21kb _ ZOOM to 1210x1098pix, 64kb) the excess of flat off-white background has been cropped off the images and replaced by a screen-wide pattern derived from the picture by the pseudonymous Louis Faitard-Loupé. _ This and others of Feito's pictures, which consist mostly of an almost blank whitish or blackish background with a few smears and blotches, have provoked Faitard-Loupé to create the much more interesting combinations
      _ Contraposition aka Con Trapo (2005; 920x1300pix, 321kb) for those who like blackish and
      _ A Rut Nip 981+978+931 (2005; 920x1300pix, 329kb) for those who prefer whitish.
–- #376 (457x599pix, 20kb _ .ZOOM to 1065x1398pix, 69kb) dark red background with black smears.
–- Pintura No. 918 (600x600pix, 16kb _ .ZOOM to 1200x1200, 49kb) a wrinkled yellow moon on a pink sky, featureless except for a small detail at the bottom edge: two red balloons (of slightly different hues) kissing before a distant dark mountain. _ Faitard-Loupé has metamorphosed this simple picture into a splendid series of complex abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Pain Tu Auras (2007; 550x778pix, 86kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 159kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 300kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 694kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 1346kb) and
      _ Pin To Rat (2007; 550x778pix, 86kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 159kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 300kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 694kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 1346kb).
–- Pintura 189 (1955, 75x108cm; 579x875pix, 47kb _ .ZOOM to 868x1313pix, 104kb)
–- Pintura No. 879 (1955, 75x108cm; 900x892pix, 30kb)
–- Pintura 139 (1955, 75x108cm; 500x641pix, 17kb)
Opera 816 (1970, 114x147cm; 459x597pix, 95kb)
Fin de Siglo: F (1996, 24x24cm)
— {¿Despeinado?} (58x52cm)
Composición negro, blanco y rojo (275x352pix, 69kb gif)
^ Died on 31 October 1517: fra Bartolommeo (Fattorino “Baccio della Porta”), Florentine painter born on 28 March 1472
—     Bartolommeo di Pagola del Fartorino, also known as Baccio della Porta because his family home was at the Porta di San Pier Gartolino, was born in 1472 in Soffignano near Florence. At the age of 12 he was sent to the workshop of Cosimo Rosselli [08 Aug 1578 – 18 Jan 1650], where he studied art. He also took lessons from Ghirlandaio [1449 – 11 Jan 1494]. In 1490 he founded his own workshop, together with Mariotto Albertinelli [13 Oct 1474 – 05 Nov 1515]. Bartolommeo became a follower of the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola [21 Sep 1452 – 23 May 1498] and entered the Dominican order in the late nineties. He was influenced by the works of Leonardo da Vinci [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519] and Flemish masters, studied works of Perugino [1450 – Mar 1523] and Bellini [1400-1470]. The combined effect of these influences resulted after 1512 in works which stand out in the art of the Florentine High Renaissance. Among his best works is The Entombment (1515).
— He changed his name to Fra Bartolommeo when he became a Dominican friar in 1500.
      Born in Florence and trained there by the painter Cosimo Roselli, he was influenced by the grimly fanatic Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola to give up art and enter the order. Four years later Bartolommeo began to paint again, producing the Vision of Saint Bernard (1504-1507).
      After a trip to Venice in 1508, where he was strongly influenced by Giovanni Bellini's mastery of color, he became one of the chief exponents of color composition in the Florentine school. From this period date such grave, monumental altarpieces as the Eternal Father with Mary Magdalene and Saint Catherine of Siena (1509) and the Marriage of St. Catherine (two paintings: 1511, and 1512), many done in collaboration with his friend Mariotto Albertinelli. Bartolommeo's later works, such as the Madonna della Misericordia (1515), reflect the majestic High Renaissance style of Michelangelo and Raphael, which he had encountered on a trip to Rome in 1514.
— He served as an apprentice in the workshop of Cosimo Rosselli and then formed a workshop with the painter Mariotto Albertinelli. His early works, such as the Annunciation (1497), were influencedby the balanced compositions of the Umbrian painter Perugino and by the sfumato of Leonardo da Vinci. Saddened by the death of the Florentine Dominican religious reformer Girolamo Savonarola, Bartolomeo joined the Dominican order in 1500 and gave up painting. He began painting again in 1504, and his Vision of Saint Bernard (completed 1507) shows him achieving the transition from the subtle grace of late Quattrocento painting to the monumentality of the High Renaissance style.
      In 1508 Bartolomeo visited Venice, where he assimilated the Venetian painters' use of richer colour harmonies. Back in Florence soon afterward, he painted a number of calm and simple religious pictures in which monumental figures are grouped in balanced compositions and portrayed with a dense and somewhat shadowy atmospheric treatment. Among such works are his God the Father with Saints Catherine of Siena and Mary Magdalene (1509) and the Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine (1512).
      Bartolomeo visited Rome in 1514, where he saw Raphael's mature work and Michelangelo's frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. In response Bartolomeo's art took on a greater power of dramatic expression, as in the Madonna della Misericordia (1515) and the Pietà (1515). Despite Bartolomeo's assimilation of the progressive currents of his time, his art is restrained, conservative, and somewhat severe, and he painted religious subjects almost exclusively.

The Holy Family with the Infant Saint John in a Landscape
The Marriage of Saint Catherine of Siena (1511, 257x228cm) _ The painting was made for the Convent of San Marco in Florence. The saints depicted are on the left Catherine, Peter, Lawrence, Stephen, on the right Francis, Dominic, Bartholomew and two Martyrs.
Christ with the Four EvangelistsDeposition (1515, 152x195cm)
The Annunciation (front), Circumcision and Nativity (back) (1500, 20x9cm) _ Stylistic elements make datable the diptych at the end of fifteenth century, probably among the works carried out by Baccio before he became a Dominican friar in July 1500. The pictures were conceived as doors of a little tabernacle commissioned by Piero del Pugliese: it had to enclose a lost marble Madonna by Donatello. The panels are in fact painted on both sides, representing on the front The Annunciation in monochrome and on the back Circumcision and Nativity.
Girolamo Savonarola (1498, 47x31cm) _ Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498), born in Ferrara, was for some time prior of the Convent of San Marco. Inspired by an aversion for worldly things, and the highest religious ideals, with his example and his obscurely threatening and prophetic sermons he condemned first the corrupt way of life of Florence then the church hierarchy in Rome. Ignoring numerous reprimands and contemptuous of danger, he was condemned to death: together with his fellow friars, Domenico da Pescia and Silvestro Maruffi, he was hanged and burnt in Piazza Signoria on 23 May 1498. The portrait of Savonarola was painted by Fra Bartolomeo while he was alive {It would be more interesting to know whether Fra Bartolommeo painted anything while dead, and whether the Church recognized that as a miracle}.
The Vision of Saint Bernard (1504) _ Compare Filippino Lippi The Apparition of the Virgin to Saint Bernard and Pietro Perugino The Vision of Saint Bernard.
God the Father in Glory with St. Mary Magdalene and St. Catherine of Siena (1509)
The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine of Siena, with Eight Saints (1511)
The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine (1512)
The Entombment (1515)
The Annunciation, with Saints Margaret, Mary Magdalen, Paul, John the Baptist, Jerome and Francis (1515)
Savior of the World (1516)
The Adoration of the Christ Child
^ Born on 31 October 1740: Philipp Jakob Louthebourg fils, Alsatian painter, illustrator and stage designer, active in France and England, who died “Philip James” Louthebourg in London on 11 March 1812.
— His father, Philipp Jakob Louthebourg [1698–1768], was an engraver and miniature painter to the court of Darmstadt. In 1755 he took his family from Strasbourg to Paris, where (now) “Philippe Jacques” Louthebourg became a student of Carle Vanloo; he also attended Jean-Georges Wille’s engraving academy in the Quai des Augustins and Francesco Casanova’s studio. Wille directed Loutherbourg’s attention to 17th-century Dutch landscape artists, such as Philips Wouwerman and Nicolaes Berchem, and in 1763 Denis Diderot noticed the inspiration of the latter in Loutherbourg’s first Salon exhibit, a Landscape with Figures. In this and other works, focus is on the foreground figures, which are framed by natural formations that occasionally fall away to reveal distant horizons. This informal style found favor with the French public; Loutherbourg’s vivid, fresh color and ability to catch specific light and weather conditions made the pastoral subjects of François Boucher and his school seem contrived and fey. Rather more romanticized were Loutherbourg’s shipwreck scenes (e.g. A Shipwreck, 1767), inspired by Claude-Joseph Vernet, and pictures of banditti recalling Salvator Rosa. Loutherbourg became the most prolific painter to exhibit at the Salon between 1762 and 1771. In 1766 he was elected to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and appointed Peintre du Roi.
     In 1771 the actor David Garrick persuaded Louthebourg to settle in London as scenic director at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 1773-1783, at the huge salary of £500 a year. He was a highly successful and influential designer for the theater and was elected to the Royal Academy in 1781, primarily as a Romantic landscape painter. He exhibited there in most years from 1772 to his death in 1812. In 1805 published The Romantic and Picturesque Scenery of England and Wales.
— Peter Francis Bourgeois and Caspar Wolf were students of Loutherbourg.

Belle-Isle Windemere in a Storm (1785, 130x196cm; 419x635pix) _ The English Lake-District appealed to the 18th century taste for the rugged and dramatic in nature. In this painting De Loutherbourg combines the wildness of the setting with that of the weather, and - as so often in paintings of storms - includes the human drama of a boat being driven against rocks. The painting was one of a pair, the other showing the same lake in a calm. Both include the house of Belle-Isle (where the paintings first hung) in the background.
Belle-Isle Windemere in a Calm (1786, 132x204cm; 416x635pix) _ Loutherbourg revolutionized set design in British theatre by lighting sections of scenery from the back through transparent gauzes. The same method seems to have appealed to him in landscape painting – in the foreground of this scene are dark colored masses of rocks, while the light seems to shine through the clouds behind. Loutherbourg had visited the Lake District with Gainsborough a couple of years before this painting was made and was influenced by the area’s jagged beauty.
An Avalanche in the Alps (1803; 132kb)
A Fishing Boat Brought Ashore Near Conway Castle (1800, 70x107cm; 452x700pix) _ Philippe de Loutherbourg was one of many artists who interpreted the scenery around Conway in the late-18th and early 19th centuries. In this version, the castle looms high on a hill to the left, silhouetted against the sky. Dominating the estuary of the River Conway in North Wales, it has here been portrayed as a romantic ruin. A small cart stands on a sloping path to the left, depicted as running down to the rocky shoreline. Here eight men struggle to drag their heavy boat ashore from a foaming sea, with a rakish cutter running inshore beyond. The combination of sea and land creates a coastscape picture and uses the shoreline to explore the danger of the situation and the exertion needed by the men to haul their boat to safety. The dramatic use of light invites the viewer to read other meanings into the scene. It has been suggested that the group of figures may represent smugglers and the painting equally underscores the potential dangers of the sea and storm. The implication that on one's own shore there is the threat of treachery invites an allegorical interpretation since, although only the sea separated England from Revolutionary France, this could also stand as a symbol for the tide of that revolution. The dark outline of the cutter on the right - a fast vessel of pursuit, message-carrying or escape - hints at this darker meaning. De Loutherbourg painted several views of Conway Castle, including one that relates compositionally to this and which was reproduced as an aquatint in his 'Romantic and Picturesque Scenery of England and Wales' (1805).
Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 8 August 1588 (1796, 215x278cm) _ A theatrical interpretation of the Battle of Gravelines, an historical episode that had taken place over 200 years earlier. The artist's painterly response depicts the dramatic nature of the event, together with a vivid use of light and color to enhance the intensity of the image and the sense of violent struggle. The narrative shows the morning after the English fireship attack on the Armada in Calais Roads, which found the Spaniards in a north-westerly gale off Dunkirk. A shift in the wind direction prevented many of their ships from being wrecked on the surrounding shoals. Saved from this disaster, they fought all day with the English and Dutch until they turned northwards, defeated, on their retreat around Scotland. In the left foreground, a boat-load of English sailors are fighting their way into the beak of a Spanish ship which is silhouetted against the flame and smoke. The Duke of Medina Sidonia's flagship, flying the Papal standard at the main above a religious banner and the Spanish ensign on her stern, is immediately beyond to the right. The central Spanish ship beyond the Medina Sidonia flies the flag of Leon and Castile at the main and the ragged saltire cross of Burgundy on a striped ground as an ensign. Immediately in front of it is a much smaller English galleon, while further Spanish ships lie to the left. In the foreground center and to the left, several more small boats contain men fighting at close quarters, some in full armour with swords and some preparing to fight with only oars. In the small dismasted Spanish pinnace which is being overwhelmed in the immediate foreground, a monk stands with his arms spread wide, perhaps in desperate benediction over his comrades. The English fleet is attacking from the right, with the Ark Royal  half into the canvas in the right foreground. The royal arms of Elizabeth I are visible on the foresail with the Royal Standard and St. George's flag flying from the main- and foremasts respectively. Ark Royal, was the flagship of the English fleet during the Spanish Armada campaign of 1588, under the Lord Admiral, Charles Howard (Lord Howard of Effingham). It is worth noting that in 1779 he designed a staging of the Armada battle as a spectacular scene in Sheridan's comedy The Critic, or a Tragedy Rehearsed at Drury Lane. While this painting was done much later it is the only image which may suggest the general style of this scene.
The Battle of the First of June, 1794 (1795, 267x374cm) _ Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June (its original title) is an interpretation of the first major fleet battle of the French Revolutionary War, 1793-1801. The French admiral, Rear-Admiral Louis-Thomas Villaret-Joyeuse, had sailed from Brest to intercept a valuable grain fleet from America, vitally needed in famine-stricken France. The English commander-in-chief, Lord Howe, sailed with the Channel Fleet to intercept the convoy, which neither side in fact encountered and which reached Brest in safety. Instead the two battle fleets made contact on 28 May 1794, some 365 nautical miles (673 km) off Ushant, Brittany.
     In the opening engagement Howe disabled the three-decker Révolutionnaire, 110 guns. On 29 May 1794 he cut the French line to leeward and for the next two days the fleets maneuvered in fog and out of contact until Howe brought the French to full action and defeat on 01 June 1794 approximately 225 nautical miles (416 km) further west. Six French ships of the line were taken and one sunk.
      Using man's heroic struggle against the sea itself to enhance the conflict of the opposing fleets, the artist's response is in the Romantic tradition, depicting both the dramatic and human nature of the event. There are several main themes, the duel between the opposing flagships Queen Charlotte (Howe) and the Montagne (Villaret-Joyeuse); the sinking of the Vengeur du Peuple, 74 guns, and the attempts to rescue her crew, with French sailors in the right foreground clinging either to one of her spars, or top-hamper lost overboard by other ships. Alongside this to the right is an English boat with a lieutenant standing in it and the English crew helping the Frenchmen aboard. In the left foreground sailors cling to another floating spar. Beyond this and in the left center foreground two more English boats rescue drowning Frenchmen, with a fourth in the extreme left of the picture. In the left background is the sinking Vengeur, port-broadside view, and beyond her above the smoke the topsails of other ships.
      The struggle between the two flagships locked in battle dominates the center of the composition, with the French Montagne, 120 guns, on the right and the Queen Charlotte, 100 guns, flying the Union flag of Howe on the left, both in port-bow view. The effect of the British fire can be seen in the confusion aboard the French ship with bodies falling from her gun ports. The Queen Charlotte has lost her fore-topmast which resulted in her dropping astern of the Montagne, which thus escaped capture. This loss in fact occurred while Howe's ship was well astern of the Montagne, which she never managed to engage in the position shown by de Loutherbourg. This reportedly led to disapproval of the picture by Lord Howe and more so by his Master of the Fleet, James Bowen, one of the heroes of the day. The latter considered it a slur on the Queen Charlotte on the grounds that the French flagship would not have escaped, had he managed to get alongside her in the way shown. In the extreme right of the picture is an English ship, in port-bow view, which is believed to be the Brunswick.
      The human concerns in the painting fill the foreground, with the theme of compassion to the defeated enemy. A swirling sea plucks at the French sailors who cling to the floating wreckage, while from small boats the strong arms of determined-looking British seamen pull their enemies to safety with hand and oar and boat-hook.
      The painting was commissioned for £500, for engraving, by the publishers V. and R. Green and Christian von Mechel, as a pair to a similarly sized and priced military work of 1794, representing The Siege of Valenciennes (May to July 1793) by the Duke of York. In both paintings de Loutherbourg had help with the figures from James Gillray, who had accompanied the Duke of York's army in Flanders. Both pictures were publicly exhibited at the Historic Gallery, Pall Mall, from 02 March 1795, to raise subscriptions for James Fittler's prints. That of the 'Glorious First' was published in January 1799 and that of Valenciennes in 1801. Both pictures were sold to Mr. T. Vernon of Liverpool in 1799 and were exhibited on tour (including in Edinburgh in 1800). They were subsequently separated, the Valenciennes ending up in Lord Hesketh's collection at Easton Neston while the Prince of Wales bought de Loutherbourg's for the Royal Collection in the early 1800s.
      Following the prince's accession as George IV [12 Aug 1762 – 26 Jun 1830] on 29 January 1820, it was the need for a new pendant for it, in St. James's Palace, which in 1822-1823 led to the only royal commission of Turner [23 Apr 1775 – 19 Dec 1851], to paint his similar-sized The Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805 (1824, 259x366cm) {different from Turner's Battle of Cape Trafalgar, as Seen from the Mizzen Starboard Shrouds of the Victory (1808, 171x239cm; 616x857pix)}. This controversial work was delivered in 1824. While de Loutherbourg's picture is no more literally accurate than Turner's it does not appear to have aroused the criticism leveled at the latter and which, in 1829, led to the King ordering the removal of both works from St. James's. The reason is fairly clear: whatever the documentary or other failings of de Loutherbourg's painting, it is, at least in comparison to the Turner, an unequivocally heroic image cast in a conventionally patriotic mould. De Loutherbourg took considerable care with the detail (as indeed did Turner, a youthful admirer of his, in its pendant).
      The French ships are also shown flying the early Revolutionary naval ensign which places the French tricolor in the upper quadrant of the former Bourbon white naval ensign. This pattern was only in use from 1790 to May 1794, when it was replaced by the standard modern tricolor. Villaret-Joyeuse's ships had sailed without the new pattern and the 'Glorious First' was the only major action in which the French fleet flew its three-quarter-white predecessor. 'Queen Charlotte' is shown flying the Union flag at the main commensurate with Howe's position as Admiral of the Fleet, commanding-in-chief.
^ Born on 31 October 1885: Marie Laurencin, Paris painter, stage designer, and illustrator, etcher, and lithographer, who died on 08 June 1956.
— After studying porcelain painting at the Sèvres factory (1901) and drawing in Paris under the French flower painter Madelaine Lemaire [1845–1928], in 1903–1904 she studied at the Académie Humbert in Paris, where she met Georges Braque and Francis Picabia.
      In 1907 Laurencin first exhibited paintings at the Salon des Indépendants, met Picasso at Clovis Sagot’s gallery and through Picasso was introduced to the poet Guillaume Apollinaire. Laurencin and Apollinaire were soon on intimate terms, their relationship lasting until 1912.
— She was born and died in Paris. She studied at the Académie Humbert, where Braque was a fellow student. She met Picasso, André Salmon, and Apollinaire; she was influenced by Picasso and Matisse, and began to paint pictures mainly of sloe-eyed girls in a decorative, arabesque-like style. She painted Apollinaire, Picasso and their Friends (1909). Though never a true Cubist, she was included at Apollinaire's request in the first group manifestation of Cubism at the Salon des Indépendants 1911. She spent 1914-1920 in Spain and Germany, then returned to Paris. She illustrated a number of books with etchings, lithographs, or watercolors; she also designed sets and costumes for the ballet and the theater, including Diaghilev's Les Biches in 1924, and dresses and textiles for the couturier Poiret, etc.

Portraits (Marie Laurencin, Cecilia de Madrazo and the Dog Coco) (1915, 33x46cm; 376x512pix, 14kb)
Three Creole Women (54x66cm; 437x519pix, 37kb _ ZOOM to 1294x1538pix, 228kb, completely superfluous because of lack of details) pale, flat colors, imprecisely applied.
Bacchante (1911; 575x718pix, 165kb)
Artemis (1908)
The Fan (1919, 31x30cm; 512x506pix, 26kb)
Three Girls and Two Dogs (344x425pix, 17kb)
Deux femmes en concert (1935, 50x65cm; 383x500pix, 40kb)
4 images on one page: Mother and Child (1928; 400x325pix, 30kb) \ Women in the Woods (1913; 400x422pix, 47kb) \ Three Women (330x400pix, 29kb) \ Girls at Play (1913; 347x616pix, 46kb)

Died on a 31 October:

>2007 Modest Cuixart [02 Nov 1925–], pintor, dibujante, grabador y escenógrafo catalán. En 1944 ingresó en la Facultad de Medicina, pero la abandonó en 1946 para dedicarse por completo a la pintura. En 1948 participó en la fundación de la revista Dau al Set y en el grupo del mismo nombre, siendo la primera y más importante manifestación del Surrealismo español de posguerra que enlazaba los movimientos renovadores posteriores a la guerra con las vanguardias del primer tercio de siglo, junto con Arnau Puig, Joan Brossa, Tharrats y Tapies. Dueño de una estética apabullante, este pintor barcelonés fue uno de los más importantes artistas españoles del siglo pasado.
      Su trayectoria se mide en más de 50 años entre los pinceles e innovación artística. Fue uno de los exponentes de la revista Dau al Set, junto a Joan Brossa, Joan Pon, Antoni Tàpies, Arnau Puig y Joan-Josep Tharrats, quienes devolvieron al país el interés por las vanguardias pictóricas que la Guerra Civil había mutilado. La crítica encuadra el estilo pictórico de Cuixart como fruto de dos influencias: el dadaísmo y el surrealismo, con piezas que trabajan el valor plástico de los signos y su materialidad cromática. Aunque no se puede olvidar su acercamiento al pop art en la década del 60, con piezas trabajadas en collages. Artista versátil, Cuixart tuvo parte de su formación en París y Lyon, donde residió por algún tiempo y pudo empaparse de las vanguardias del siglo XX. Entre las menciones que recibió a lo largo de su vida se cuentan la “Creu de Sant Jordi”, la “Clau d’Or de la Ciutat” de Barcelona, Primer Premio Internacional de Pintura de la V Bienal de Sao Paulo, el Premio de Pintura Abstracta de Lausanne y la “Encomienda de la orden de Isabel la Católica”.
      Fundó junto a Brossa, Ponç, Tàpies y Tharrats el primer grupo de vanguardia de la posguerra española, el mítico DAU AL SET. En 1959 le fue concedido el Primer Premio de Pintura en la Bienal de Sao Paolo. También ha sido distinguido con la Creu de Sant Jordi, la Medalla de Isabel la Católica y la Medalla de Oro de la Ciudad de Barcelona. Su pintura ha evolucionado del expresionismo a lo abstracto y al estilo informal, y siempre ha ido probando nuevas técnicas y procedimientos, por ese motivo se le ha considerado como un artista que representa en sí mismo del arte español de la segunda mitad del siglo XX.Cuixart ha expuesto individual y colectivamente en numerosas galerías y MUSEOS, entre ellos: Guggenheim Museum de Nueva York , Museo Nacional de Arte de México y Museo Español de Arte Contemporáneo.
Arbol (1986, 21x15cm; 1910x1329pix rough image and 605x1106pix signature in 3648x2736pix blank background, 2214kb) —(091031)

1945 Ignacio Zuloaga y Zabaleta, Basque painter born (full coverage) on 26 July 1890 —(051018)

1918 Egon Schiele, Austrian painter born (full coverage) on 12 June 1890 —(051018)

^1897 Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, born on 22 January 1820, Legnano Italian writer on art and, with Giovanni Morelli [25 Feb 1816 – 28 Feb 1891], founder of modern Italian art-historical studies. A student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice, Cavalcaselle from early youth studied the art treasures of Italy. In Germany (1846–1847), he met another art enthusiast, the Englishman Joseph Arthur Crowe, and they studied together in Berlin. On his return to Venice, Cavalcaselle took an active part in the Revolution of 1848 against Austrian rule. He was arrested by Austrian gendarmes and narrowly escaped being shot. He then joined the forces of Giuseppe Garibaldi and was taken prisoner by the French in 1849. He arrived in miserable plight in Paris, where by good fortune he again met Crowe, and with Crowe's help he went to London, where he lived from 1850 to 1857. The two friends worked on a history of early Flemish painters in 1857. In 1864 Crowe and Cavalcaselle published their great work, A New History of Italian Painting, which was followed by the History of Painting in North Italy (1871). Their other joint works were Titian (1877) and Raphael (1882–1885). Cavalcaselle's sketchbooks and notes, preserved in the Marciana Library in Venice, are evidence of his method and range of knowledge.
      Cavalcaselle was for some time secretary to Giovanni Morelli and was his traveling companion when Morelli compiled the inventory of the works of art in the Marches of Ancona for the Italian government. Toward the end of his life, Cavalcaselle was inspector of fine arts in the Ministry of Education in Rome.

1884 Maria Konstantinovna Bashkirtseva “Marie Bashkirtseff” [24 Nov 1858–], dies of tuberculosis. She was a Russian painter trained and active in France, She is best known for her letters, her feminist articles, and, above all, her 16-volume diary, published posthumously,.
Self-Portrait with palette (1880; 600x466pix, 119kb) —(081029)

Born on a 31 October:

>1950 Jozef Stolorz, Polish painter. — his web site slow, small images.
The Kings (589x700pix, 69kb)
In the Olives Garden (516x700pix, 47kb)
The Song of an Endless Land (568x700pix, 55kb)
The Book of Labyrinths Cover (928x700pix, 85kb)
The Book of Labyrinths Chapter 72 (605x700pix, 55kb)
The Book of Labyrinths: a January's hankering (595x700pix, 39kb)
The Book of Labyrinths: Attempts of Interpretation (554x700pix, 61kb—(091030)

1924 Enrico Baj, Italian painter who died (main coverage) on 15 June 2003. —(090614)

^ 1874 Hans Josef Weber~Tyrol, Austrian painter who died in 1957.
Schloss Freudsberg (1923, 28x35cm; 343x440pix, 26kb) strangely mostly a monochrome yellow.
Herbstlandschaft (Schlern) (23x32cm; 281x400pix, 27kb) — (051030)

1831 Paul-Marie-Joseph Durand-Ruel, French art dealer who died on 05 February 1922. Durand-Ruel began his career in his father's art gallery, which he inherited in 1865. At the outset he concentrated on buying the work of Barbizon artists, particularly Camille Corot [16 Jul 1796 – 22 Feb 1875], Charles-François Daubigny [15 Feb 1817 – 19 Feb 1878], and Jules Dupré [05 Apr 1811 – 06 Oct 1889], and for many years he was the only dealer to do so. In 1848 he bought every painting by Théodore Rousseau [15 Apr 1812– 22 Dec 1867] that he could locate; he was unable to sell a single one of them for the next 20 years. He also advanced money to Jean-François Millet [04 Oct 1814 – 20 Jan 1875], providing his sole support for many years. In the early 1870s Durand-Ruel met Claude Monet [14 Nov 1840 – 05 Dec 1926] and Camille Pissarro [10 Jul 1830 – 13 Nov 1903]. Though they and the other Impressionists had been denounced by the art establishment and shunned by the buying public, Durand-Ruel courageously bought their work and that of Pierre-Auguste Renoir [25 Feb 1841 – 03 Dec 1919], Mary Cassatt [22 May 1844 – 14 Jun 1926], Edgar Degas [19 Jul 1834 – 27 Sep 1917], Alfred Sisley [30 Oct 1839 – 29 Jan 1899], Édouard Manet [23 Jan 1832 – 30 Apr 1883], and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes [14 Dec 1824 – 24 Oct 1898] as well. In 1886 Durand-Ruel went to New York City to exhibit the works of his painters at the National Academy of Design. The show was so well received that he established a branch of Durand-Ruel in New York City the following year. As a result of his persistence and foresight, he gained a reputation as the principal agent for the success of the Impressionist painters.

1817 Friedrich Johannes Voltz, German painter who died (main coverage) on 25 June 1886.

^ 1763 Jean-Antoine Laurent, French painter who died on 11 February 1832. A student of Jean-François Durand [1731 – >1778] in Nancy and later of the miniature painter J.-B. Augustin in Paris (1785–1786), he began his career as a porcelain and miniature painter. In the latter capacity he exhibited in the Salon between 1791 and 1800, after which he gave up miniatures in favor of small genre paintings, which he exhibited regularly until 1831. In 1806 he received a Prix d’Encouragement and in 1808 a first-class medal. In 1804, when he showed Woman Playing the Lute, he was hailed by Vivant Denon as a painter of ‘very delicate and very distinguished talent’ and as worthy of comparison with Gerrit Dou, Willem van Mieris, and Gerard ter Borch II. Laurent was highly regarded by the Empress Josephine, who bought six paintings from him between 1804 and 1812. In her home at Malmaison there was a small full-length portrait of The Empress Josephine (1806), by Laurent, which owed much to his training as a miniaturist. — LINKS
Portrait of a Young Woman (1795, ivory pendant; octagonal, 6x7cm) [dressed as a man, looks like a young man, with a dog]

1732 Jean Bardin, French painter who died (main coverage) on 06 October 1809.

1632 (infant baptism) Jan Vermeer van Delft, Dutch painter who died (full coverage) on 15 December 1675 —(051018)

Finger by Michelangelo^ Unveiled on 31 October 1541: Michelangelo's The Last Judgment fresco.
painted by Michelangelo painted it on the west wall of the Sistine Chapel from 1534 to 1541
—      Miguel Ángel concluye su obra El Juicio Final, en la Capilla Sixtina.
—      The work was a scandal because of the nude figures and their poses. Prudes demanded that the fresco be destroyed. Pope Paul IV, Paul's III successor, instructed the painter Daniel da Volterra to dress the figures, where possible, or at least clothe the most offensive parts of their bodies. Michelangelo impassively watched the mutilation of his work, commenting “Tell His Holiness that this is a small matter, which can easily be rectified. Let His Holiness attend to the reform of the world: reforming a painting is easily done.” You can see here the copy of the original fresco, before it was "dressed".
1. Christ and the Virgin. Michelangelo's Christ scandalized the contemporaries because he is very young and handsome, bears no beard, and is not seated as described in the Bible.
2. In the group on Christ's left the central figure is St. John the Baptist. Behind him a group of women – saints, virgins and martyrs.
3. In the group on the Christ's right is St. Peter, he is offering two huge keys to Christ, emblems of the power to bind and to release men from sin that had been delegated to the Popes.
4. Below Christ on the left is the figure of St. Lawrence, holding his gridiron.
5. Below Christ on the right is the figure of St. Bartholomew, with the skin that was stripped from him when he was martyred. The skin is a self-portrait of the artist.
6. Left-hand lunette: angels lifting up the cross.
7. Right-hand lunette: angels, lifting up “the column of the flagellation”.
8. Right part of the fresco below the group of saints: The resurrection of the body. The damned are being sucked down into hell.

      Michelangelo is certainly the most representative artist of the XVI century: a sculptor, painter, architect, and poet. He lived to a great age, and enjoyed great fame in his lifetime. Titian, and Venetian painting generally, was very much influenced by his vision, and he is responsible in large measure for the development of Mannerism.
            Michelangelo di Ludovico di Lionardo di Buonarroti Simoni was born in 1475; at Caprese, in Casentino. His family Buonarroti Simoni, are mentioned in the Florentine chronicles as early as the XII century. In 1488, at the age of 13, he entered the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio. Thus he came under the influence of Masaccio, because his teacher, Ghirlandaio, not only took from Masaccio ideas for sacred scenes, but actually imitated certain of his designs. After less than a year he moved to the academy set up by Lorenzo the Magnificent. From 1489 till 1492 he lived in the Palazzo Medici in Via Larga, where he could study “antique and good statues” and could meet the sophisticated humanists and writers of the Medici circle.
            Lorenzo the Magnificent died in 1492, and in 1494 the Medici were expelled from Florence. After the brief rule of the priest Savonarola, whose ascetic religion and republican ideas both influenced the young man deeply, Michelangelo left Florence and went first to Venice and then to Bologna, where he could absorb their art and culture. In 1496, he eventually came to Rome and stayed there until 1501.
            In 1499 he completed Pieta for Vatican. Christian emotion never has been more perfectly united with classical form. Returning, famous, to Florence in 1501, Michelangelo was commissioned by the new republican government to carve a colossal David, symbol of resistance and independence.
            In 1504, the Signoria of Florence commissioned Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio, the seat of government of Florence. Leonardo worked on the Battle of Anghiari and Michelangelo on the the Battle of Cascina. Florence was immediately divided into two camps passionately supporting one or the other. Michelangelo's work did not come further than the cartoon for the picture, which also was destroyed in the civil conflict of 1512.
            In 1505 Michelangelo was summoned by the new Pope Julius II, to Rome and entrusted with the design of the pope’s tomb. The original grandiose project was never carried out. Although only 3 of the 40 life-size or larger figures were executed – Moses, Rebellious Slave (unfinished), Dying Slave – the commission dominated most of the artist's life. Victory and Crouching Boy were also carved for one of the projects of the tomb. The constantly aborted work on the tomb, ended only in 1547, 40 years and 5 revised contracts later. The final version of it is in San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome.
            In 1508 Julius transferred the artist to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Michelangelo accepted the commission, but right from the start he considered Pope Julius’ plans altogether too simple. It was something unheard of for a patron, to allow his own plans to be completely changed by an artist. In this case, moreover, the change of plan meant that the work would have an entirely different meaning from the original one.
            Since he was not very familiar with the technique of fresco, he needed the help of several Florentine painters, as well as the advice. But his ambition to produce a work that would be absolutely exceptional made it impossible for him to work with others, and in the end he did the whole thing himself. This was something quite unprecedented. Not only was the work so vast in scale, but no artist hitherto had ever undertaken a whole cycle of frescoes without an efficient group of helpers. Michelangelo helped to create his own legend, complaining of the enormous difficulties of the enterprise. In his sonnet On the Painting of the Sistine Chapel, he describes all the discomforts involved in painting a ceiling, how he hates the place, and despairs of being a painter at all.
            After the death of Julius II in 1513, the two Medici popes, Leo X (1513-21) and Clement VII (1523-34) preferred to keep Michelangelo well away from Rome and from tomb of Julius II, so that he could work on the Medici church of San Lorenzo in Florence. This work was aborted too, although Michelangelo was able to fulfill some of his architectural and sculptural projects in the Laurentian Library and the New Sacristy, or Medici Chapel, of San Lorenzo. The Medici Chapel fell not far short of being completed: two of the Medici tombs intended for the Chapel were installed Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici and Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici, and for the 3rd Michelangelo had carved his last great Madonna (unfinished) when he left Florence for ever in 1534.
            It was during this period, while he was planning the tombs in the New Sacristy, that the sack of Rome occurred (1527), and when Florence was besieged shortly after, he helped in fortifying the city, which finally came back into Medici hands in 1530. While the siege was still on, he managed to get away for a while to look after his own property. He incurred the displeasure of Alessandro de Medici, who was murdered by Lorenzino in 1537. This event he commemorated in his bust of Brutus.
            In September 1534 Michelangelo settled down finally in Rome, and he was to stay there for the rest of his life, despite flattering invitations from Cosimo I Medici at Florence. The new Pope, a Farnese who took the name of Paul III, confirmed the commission that Clement VII had already given him for a large fresco of The Last Judgment over the altar of the Sistine Chapel. Far from being an extension of the ceiling, this was entirely a novel statement. Between 2 projects about 20 years had passed, full of political events and personal sorrows. The mood of The Last Judgment is somber; the vengeful naked Christ is not a figure of consolation, and even the Saved struggle painfully towards Salvation. The work was officially unveiled on 31 October 1541.
            Michelangelo's last paintings were frescos of the Cappella Paolina just beside the Sistine Chapel, completed in 1550, when he was 75 years old, The Conversion of Paul and The Crucifixion of St. Peter.
            Michelangelo's crowning achievement, however, was architectural. In 1537-1539 he received commission to reshape Campidoglio, the top of Rome's Capitoline Hill, into a squire. Although not completed until long after his death, the project was carried out essentially as he had designed it. In 1546 Michelangelo was appointed architect to Saint-Peter's. The cathedral was constructed according to Donato Bramante’s plan, but Michelangelo became ultimately responsible for its dome and the altar end of the building on the exterior.
            He continued in his last years to write poetry, he carved the two extraordinary, haunting and pathetic late Pietas, one of them The Rondanini Pieta in Milan, on which he was working 6 days before his death. He died on 18 February 1564 at the age of 89 and was buried in Florence according to his wishes.
            Michelangelo's prestige stands very high nowadays, as it did in his own age. He went out of favor for a time, especially in the 17th century, on account of a general preference for the works of Raphael, Correggio and Titian; but with the early Romantics in England, and the return to the Gothic, he made an impressive return. In the 20th century the unfinished, unresolved creations of the great master evoked especially great interest, maybe because in the 20th century “the aesthetic focus becomes not simply the created art object, but the inextricable relationship of the artist's personality and his work.”
Finger by Michelangelo 1512Inaugurated on 31 October 1512: Michelangelo's Sixtine Chapel ceiling.
La fresque du plafond la chapelle Sixtine est inaugurée.
Michelangelo had painted the ceiling from 1508 to 1512. L'œuvre maîtresse de Michel-Ange est saluée par tous les contemporains. Vasari écrit : "Chacun eût l'impression d'un univers en mouvement et demeura muet d'admiration". Derrière l'admiration légitime des Italiens de goût se profile l'indignation du petit clergé allemand vis à vis d'une entreprise très coûteuse et fort peu évangélique. La bombe de Luther explosera cinq ans plus tard, jour pour jour. La fresque du Jugement Dernier sur le mur ouest, aussi par Michel-Ange sera inaugurée le 31 octobre 1541.
     Michelangelo Buonarroti was born on March 6, 1475. He died on February 18, 1564. Michelangelo painted on the west wall of the Sistine Chapel from 1534 to 1541 the Last Judgment scene. Other parts of the Sistine chapel were painted by other artists.
;      When Michelangelo was invited to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the lower walls of it were already decorated with scenes from the lives of Moses and Christ,  executed by the Florentine and Umbrian artists Botticelli (The Temptation of Christ (1481-1482), Scenes from the Life of Moses (1481-1482), The Punishment of Korah (1481-1482)), Cosimo Rosselli, Piero di Cosimo, Domenico Ghirlandaio The Calling of St. Peter, Signorelli, Pinturicchio and Pietro Perugino The Delivery of the Keys (1482). Above these frescoes, which occupied straightforward rectangular fields, Michelangelo created his masterpiece.
        The twelve existing windows along the lateral walls of the chapel he integrated by means of twelve lunettes capped by twelve spandrels. In them he depicted ancestors of Christ:
Azor and Sadok; Josias, Jechonias and Salathiel; Ezekias, Manasses and Amon; Asa, Josaphat and Joram; Jesse, David and Solomon; Naasson; Aminadab; Salmon, Booz and Obed; Roboam and Abia; Ozias, Joatham and Achaz; Zorobabel; Abiud and Eliakim; Achim and Eliud; Jacob and Joseph; Eleazar and Matthan.
     Between these he placed the large seated figures of the Prophets and Sibyls: The Prophet Zechariah,The Sibyl of Delphi, The Prophet Isiah, The Cumaean Sibyl, The Prophet Daniel, The Libyan Sibyl,The Prophet Jonah, The Persian Sibyl, The Prophet Jeremiah, The Erythraean Sibyl, The Prophet Ezekiel, The Prophet Joel.
        The four corner frescoes, pendentives, are: David and Goliath; Judith and Holofernes; The Punishment of Haman; The Brazen Serpent.
        The entire central section of the ceiling he crossed by painted arches, dividing the ceiling into nine pictorial fields. The arches are supported at either end by painted columns. Between the arches Michelangelo skillfully grouped the nine central fields thus created into three triptychs: The Creation of the World, The Creation and Fall of Man, and The Story of Noah.
        The Creation of the World consists of three frescoes: The Separation of Light and Darkness, The Creation of the Sun and Moon, The Separation of Land and Water.
        The Creation and Fall of Man includes the following frescoes: The Creation of Adam, The Creation of Eve, The Fall and The Expulsion from Paradise.
        The Story of Noah consists of frescoes:  The Sacrifice of Noah, The Flood, The Drunkenness of Noah.
        He thereby organized the fields into a rhythmical sequence in which a large picture is flanked by two smaller ones, a device which dramatically emphasizes the four main scenes: The Creation of Sun and Moon, The Creation of Adam, The Fall and the Expulsion from Paradise, and The Flood.
        At the meeting of the cornices are twenty Ignudi, true living statues of young naked men, the spiritual brothers or lovers of the artist.
        The extraordinary thing about Michelangelo's design is that it is elaborated and articulated as a single unit. The groups are so framed in a system of cornices that they give the effect of enormous plaques and cameos. Yet not a single one of them is meant to stand by its own; each one is perfectly integrated into the unity of the whole.

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