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ART “4” “2”~DAY  28 October v.9.90
DEATHS: 1925 JOY — 1987 MASSON — 1577 TOSINI 1856 KRAFFT 
BIRTHS: 1603 DE VOS —1909 BACON 
^ Died on 28 October 1925: George William Joy, Irish painter born on 07 July 1844, brother of the sculptor Albert Bruce Joy [1842–1924]. — {His artwork is always a Joy to look at.}
— George W. Joy studied in London at the South Kensington School of Art and later at the Royal Academy Schools under John Everett Millais, Frederic Leighton and G. F. Watts. From 1868 his education continued in Paris under Charles-François Jalabert [1819–1901] and Léon Bonnat. Joy’s mature work is largely concerned with the depiction of the human form in narrative and allegorical subjects from historical, Classical, literary and religious sources. His light-hearted but elaborate works on the theme of childhood, such as Thirty Years before Trafalgar: Young Nelson and his Grandmother (1883), gained a wide popularity. Among his outstanding paintings is the Death of General Gordon, Khartoum, 26 January 1885, which represents Joy’s patriotic attempt to ‘awaken the conscience of the nation’; it was one of the few Royal Academy exhibits on the subject. Bayswater Omnibus (1895), a modern-life painting, displays his powers of observation at their keenest. Joy’s output consisted principally of oil paintings, and a detailed account of his methods is included in his autobiography. He exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1872 and 1914, and his work was well received at the Salon in Paris.

–- Christ and the Little Child(1898; 864x1280pix, 95kb)
–- Flora MacDonald's Farewell to Bonnie Prince Charlie (700x528pix, 34kb) _ On 19 September 1746, Prince Charles left Scotland after his failed attempt to take back Scotland for the Stewarts during the reign of Hanovarian George II. Flora MacDonald helped in his escape by dressing him as her maid, Betty Burke, and bringing him thus disguised to Skye, from whence he departed to France {dressed again in the proper attire of a Scottish man, at least in this picture}.
Truth (48kb) (naked of course)
^ Born on 28 October 1603: Simon de Vos, Antwerp Flemish painter who died on 15 October 1676.
— In 1615 he became a student of the unrelated Cornelis de Vos [1584 – 09 May 1651]; Jan Cossiers may have been a fellow-apprentice. By 1620 Cornelis de Vos was already a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke. For the next eight years he may either have worked in Rubens’s studio or have traveled abroad. The latter is more likely in view of the similarities between de Vos’s oeuvre and that of Johann Liss, who was in Rome and Venice at that time. This hypothesis is supported by the italianizing characteristics evident in de Vos’s early work. The Portrait of Three Men (1626) has been attributed to de Vos and the sitters identified as Jan Cossiers, Simon de Vos, and possibly Johan Geerlof; if this is correct, de Vos would have painted it in Aix-en-Provence. (De Vos and Cossiers may already have met in Rome between 1624 and 1626.) The iconography of the picture seems consonant with the genre works of the Bentveughels (members of the Schildersbent, a confraternity of northern artists working in Rome).
— Jan van Kessel II [bapt. 05 Apr 1626 – 18 Oct 1679] was a student of Simon de Vos.

–- Abigael devant David(1640; 885x1063pix, 82kb — .ZOOM to 1328x1595pix, 181kb)
David et Abigael (1655)
The Raising of Lazarus (109x160cm)
^ >Died on 28 October 1987: André Masson, French Surrealist painter, sculptor, draftsman, printmaker, illustrator, stage designer, and writer, born on 04 January 1896.
— His work played an important role in the development of both Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism, although his independence, iconoclasm and abrupt stylistic transitions make him difficult to classify. Masson was admitted to the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts et l’Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Brussels at the age of 11. Through his teacher Constant Montald, he met the Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren [1855–1916], who persuaded Masson’s parents to send him to Paris for further training. S. W. Hayter was one of his teachers. Masson joined the French infantry in 1915 and fought in the battles of the Somme; he was gravely wounded, and his wartime experiences engendered in him a profound philosophy about human destiny and stimulated his search for a personal imagery of generation, eclosion and metamorphosis. One of his best known paintings is Labyrinth.
— Masson spent most of his youth in Brussels, where he worked as pattern-drawer in an embroidery studio and studied part-time at the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Then moved to Paris and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts 1912-14. Served in the French Army 1914-1919, and was gravely wounded. Lived 1919-1922 in the South of France, then returned to Paris where he met Gris, Derain, and later Mir-13 and Breton. First one-man exhibition at the Galerie Simon, Paris, 1923. Paintings of forests, card players and still life, followed by experiments with automatic drawing. Participated from 1924-1929 in the Surrealist movement. Made further works exploring chance effects, including sand paintings, as well as paintings of metamorphoses of animal and human forms, themes of germination, combats and massacres, with emphasis on violence and eroticism. Lived 1934-1936 in Spain; paintings of bullfights, Spanish myths, etc. Took refuge 1941-1945 in the US, where he lived at New Preston, Connecticut, and made works inspired by the elemental forces of nature. Returned to France in 1945 and settled in 1947 at Aix-en-Provence. Painted landscape themes such as mountains and waterfalls for several years, followed by some almost completely abstract pictures. His works also include sets and costumes for the theatre, book illustrations and a number of small sculptures; has written various books including Mythologie d'André Masson (1971).

–- The Sun from Verve (color lithograph poster 35x25cm; xpix, kb)
–- The Moon from Verve (color lithograph poster 35x25cm; xpix, kb)
–- Don Giovanni fourth of a portfolio of eight Metropolitan Opera Fine Arts Posters (color lithograph 91x61cm; xpix, kb)
Ulysse chez Circée (1972)
Les Terres rouges et la Montagne Sainte-Victoire (1948, 96x77cm)
Les Filles de cuisine (1961, 50x61cm)
Petite Bacchanale (600x895pix, 159kb)
Still Life With Pitchers (1918, 568x689pix, 177kb) {no baseball}
L'Aile (1925, 570x393pix, 145kb)
^ >Born on 28 October 1909: Francis Bacon, Dublin-born English Expressionist painter, specialized in portraits. who died on 28 April 1992.
— Self-taught, he expressed the satirical, horrifying, and hallucinatory in such works as Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944). One of the most individual, powerful and disturbing artists of the period following World War II, he took the human figure as his subject at a time when art was dominated by abstract styles, and he was also one of the first to depict overtly homosexual themes. Though largely self-taught, he was widely read and of great independence of mind. His subject-matter and procedures of painting are too personal to be imitated with any real success by other artists, but in Britain and further afield he remains a towering example to those dedicated to the depiction of the human figure.
— At the age of 16, Bacon moved from Dublin to London and later lived for about two years in Berlin and Paris. Although Bacon never attended art school, he began to draw and work in watercolor about 1926–27. Pablo Picasso’s work decisively influenced his painting until the mid-1940s. Upon his return to London in 1929, he established himself as a furniture designer and interior designer. He began to use oils in the fall of that year and exhibited a few paintings as well as furniture and rugs in his studio. His work was included in a group exhibition in London at the Mayor Gallery in 1933. In 1934, Bacon organized his own first solo show at Sunderland House, London, which he called Transition Gallery for the occasion. He participated in a group show at Thomas Agnew and Sons, London, in 1937.
      Bacon painted relatively little after his solo show and in the 1930s and early 1940s destroyed many of his works. He began to paint intensively again in 1944. His first major solo show took place at the Hanover Gallery, London, in 1949. From the mid-1940s to the 1950s, Bacon’s work reflected the influence of Surrealism. In the 1950s, Bacon drew on such sources as
      _ Portrait of Pope Innocent X (1650; 141x119cm; 1153x950pix, 139kb) by Velázquez,
      _ The Painter on the Road to Tarascon (1888, 48x44cm; 558x505pix, 96kb) by van Gogh, and photographs by Eadweard Muybridge [1830-1904]. His first solo exhibition outside England was held in 1953 at Durlacher Brothers, New York. In 1950–1951 and 1952, visited South Africa. He visited Italy in 1954 when his work was featured in the British Pavilion at the Venice Biennale. His first retrospective was held at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, in 1955. Bacon died in Madrid.

his site
Self-Portrait (1971, 35x30cm; 1010x852pix, 195kb)
Study for Portrait VI (1953, 152x117cm; 2000x1533pix; 2411kb)
–- Study for A Pope VI (1961, 153x117cm; 675x520pix, 40kb _ .ZOOM to 1181x912pix, 61kb) _ 2'805'600 at Sotheby's on 05 February 2004 _ Beginning in 1949, Francis Bacon’s obsession with arguably his most renowned and iconic subject, the Pope, lasted almost two decades. In much the same way as the profound fascination of Andy Warhol [06 Aug 1928 – 22 Feb 1987] with the legend of Marilyn Monroe [01 Jun 1926 – 05 Aug, 1962] spanned a 20 year love affair, so Bacon continuously returned to his famously harrowing depiction of the most senior and powerful figure in the church. The history of art is peppered with examples of the subject of the enthroned Pope. From Raphael [06 Apr 1483 – 06 Apr 1520] to Titian [1488 – 27 Aug 1576], many others had attempted his portrait, but it was the 1650 Pope Innocent X  [06 May 1574 – 07 Jan 1655] by Velázquez [bap. 06 Jun 1599 – 07 Aug 1660] which greatly influenced Bacon. “Haunted and obsessed by the image, … by its perfection”, Bacon adopted Velázquez’s Pope into his cast of isolated and tortured figures who all appeared to be living at the edge of existence.
      Working from reproductions, Bacon famously turned down the opportunity to go to see his beloved Velázquez during a trip to Rome in 1954 because he was worried about his reaction to the real painting. Obsessed by the magnificent color and grand portrayal of the many reproductions that he saw, Bacon did not want to make a representation of this image, rather he wanted to get beneath the surface, to get behind the façade of the representation and depict the feeling which lies at the heart of existence. Bacon’s paintings gained their historical momentum not only from the time honored composition and the painterly richness of the realization, but from the opportunity to defy and scandalize tradition, and to reverse the expectation of religious obedience by vexing and victimizing this paternal serenity. Many of the older masters had worked in the tradition of great religious painting, but by 1949 the artistic faith in religion had been replaced by the harsh realities of two bloody wars in the first half of the Twentieth Century. Immediate Post-War art either sought to remove itself completely from painted reality in its reverse form, abstraction, or sought to depict the extreme forms of human existence.
      In 1650 the Pope was just about the most powerful man in the world and everything in Velazquez’s portrait points to it: the throne, the robes, the ring, the state paper held in the left hand and the note of perfectly balanced and incorruptible authority which is set by the relaxed way in which the Pope’s arms rest lightly on the throne. Everything is sumptuously re-created. Bacon could have chosen many different subjects for this kind of portrayal but in choosing the Pope he seemed to be purposefully alighting on one of the grandest examples of humanity and one who showed very little public emotion. Beginning with the relatively ambiguously titled painting, Head IV of 1949, Bacon executed roughly twenty-five completed variations on the theme of the Pope. During this time, Bacon took this image, stripped it of all pretension to perfection and luxury and turned the cool, calculated Pope of Velazquez’s portraits into a fragile specimen of human life. One of raw emotion, just like any of his other subjects.
      The six Studies for a Pope, made in April-May 1961 represent the last consecutive treatment of the theme, although Bacon was to complete further, separate studies from Velazquez’s Portraits of Pope Innocent X later in the decade. Study for a Pope VI, the last of the series, shows the Pope engulfed by his throne. Massive in proportion, this formerly luxurious and ornamental seat of power, has now become a simplistically utilitarian object whose construction is made up merely of flat plains. Cast against a jet-black background and slumped deep into his chair, he is not seen here as an all powerful spiritual leader, but as a shrunken, rather impotent and lonely figure. Wilting in a gesture of complete regression, Bacon here appears to be exploring the private anguish of a very public figure, who despite the outward trappings of power, seems powerless to control events.
      Across the breadth of the six studies, one can trace the movement of the figure, much like a series of film-stills. Relatively calm, yet seemingly agitated, the pope fidgets through the series, before raising his arms in panel five in a moment of surprise or joy. The irreverence has turned to a moment of excitement, before the Pope settles back into his own introspection in the sixth panel, the present work. The viewer somehow feels like they are watching a caged animal in a zoo, not the most powerful figure in the religious world. In each canvas the background and clothes are sketched out with a quick fluidity as the canvas seeps up the pigment in readiness for the main event, the face. Set against the imperious scarlet, green and black background, the main expressive tool in Bacon’s armory is a densely textured face, it is a picture of brooding and pent-up emotion. Sweeping the fully loaded brush in a series of brilliant, swift gestures, Bacon carves out the three quarter profile of a head, blurred as if in movement. With its accentuated curves, somehow a combination of menace and calm seems to animate his face.
Version No. 1 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe (1963, 197x147cm; 749x550pix, 49kb) _ The pseudonymous F. Rancid Salami has combined this, the following, and two other Bacon pictures, and metamorphosed them into a splendid series of abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Lying With Figures (2007; 550x778pix, 105kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 195kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 368kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 825kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 1559kb and
      _ Hypothermic Syrinx (2007; 550x778pix, 105kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 195kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 368kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 825kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2659x3760pix, 1559kb).
Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe (1968, 197x147cm; 876x660pix, 81kb) _ This was painted at No. 7 Reese Mews, Bacon’s home and studio for the last thirty years of his life, during what is considered to be his most fertile and canonical years of 1968 to1971. Photographs of his working space show a small room (13 x 26 feet) with the walls covered in paint (he used them as a palette for mixing colors, and jokingly referred to these as his only abstract paintings). The floor is hidden under a flood of papers, boxes, books and photographs, while every raised surface is crammed with paint pots and old brushes. After Bacon’s death, when the Dublin City Gallery catalogued and recorded the contents for removal (to be reconstituted in Ireland), they listed 570 books, 1300 leaves torn from magazines or catalogues and 1500 photographs. Like a magpie’s nest, Bacon had gathered round himself the images and sources that he assimilated and worked into his paintings (including the present work), picking and choosing from this horde of visual trophies. As a whole, his studio could be a metaphor for the constant visual bombardment of modern life. But the works that emerged are anything but cluttered: they bristle with an intensity that is both focused and stark.
     The most fertile of these sources was his collection of photographs. In an interview with David Sylvester, Bacon commented that “99 percent of the time I find that photographs are very much more interesting than either abstract or figurative painting. I’ve always been haunted by them.” (David Sylvester, Interviews with Francis Bacon, 1975) Sometimes the images were taken from magazines, medical journals or the chronophotography of Eadweard Muybridge, but often these were images of close friends and drinking companions, expressly commissioned. Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe is partly based on a photograph of Henrietta Moraes, a key member of Bacon’s coterie and a fellow regular at Soho’s Colony Club, where the owner Muriel Belcher gave Bacon free drinks and a £10 allowance since he brought in so much business. Moraes was the erstwhile wife of the Indian poet Dom Moraes, and claimed to have attended the Colony Club simply so that Bacon would paint her, which ultimately he did at least a dozen times. Moraes was also painted by Lucien Freud in the course of a year-long affair during the fifties. But unlike Freud, who spent hours analyzing and scrutinizing his models in his studio with forensic precision, Bacon preferred to paint in absentia, relying predominantly on the combination of photographic material and memory to inform his image production. Furthermore, he saw what he did as injurious, a violent paroxysm on the human figure that he did not want to practice before his subject. Painting in absentia freed the artist from the imperatives of empirical observation and allowed him to liberally reinvent the image in the sequestered isolation of his studio.
     Typically, Bacon did not limit himself to just one source and it is hard not to place Henry Fuseli’s Nightmare among the antecedents of Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe. The thrown back arm, so eloquent of physical abandon, is a clear visual link between the paintings, as is the long flowing hair. The riotous body is not so much deformed as manifesting on its surface an inner turmoil, as she writhes in the grips of a very modern nightmare: a drug trip. Bacon claimed that the syringe had a purely visual purpose with no sinister connotations, as he also claimed about the Nazi armband in Crucifixion (1965), but in both these cases the allusive power of the objects is so loaded that it is disingenuous to deny their impact. Besides, the hypodermic syringe was to prove eerily prophetic, in that Henrietta Moraes became a heroin addict about a decade after the painting of this work. The swirling brushstrokes and rearranged features, as well as showing the influence of de Kooning, give a sense of captured movement over time, of film frames overlaid or a flipbook assembled into a single instant, like a writhing ghost within the flesh. Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe is one of Bacon’s few forays into that great proving ground of Western art: the reclining female nude. It brilliantly illustrates his almost sculptural approach to painting, his ability to mould the fleshy paint like clay, to be shaped and arranged on the armature of the human skeleton. The result, almost discomfortingly intimate and poignant, is a brilliant reminder of the vulnerability of the human condition.
     Several other features of Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe are typical Bacon leitmotifs. The thin and schematic axonometric lines that enclose the reclining nude – as they do the subjects of many other works – frame the composition, enclosing her in an artificial and constructed environment. The nude becomes a specimen in a vivarium, an object enclosed and framed by its surroundings. Much of Bacon’s art is about indication, about framing; about noticing and capturing something essential. In many of the later works red and white arrows appear, pointing at some particularly meaningful area of the composition, just as here the hypodermic needle was inserted into the composition of this painting specifically to achieve – Christological connotations apart – what Bacon described as “a nailing of the flesh onto the bed”. Like a butterfly in a display case, the extended arm is fixed in place and indicated by the needle. “It’s less stupid than putting a nail through the arm” he explained.(Quoted in David Sylvester, The Human Body, Exh. Cat. London, Hayward Gallery, 1998, p. 31.)
     The screen that curves around behind her, like sideways Venetian blinds, is derived from a Cinerama screen, which, according to the blurb on a fragment of a magazine advertisement found in Bacon’s studio, “looks like an unbroken flat surface to the audience but it’s actually made up of hundreds of overlapping vertical strips”. These strips, in various forms, appear as curtains in numerous works, enclosing and framing the subject as if on a stage set, or else as visual interference with the image itself, distorting further the subject’s features, as though caught in the disintegrating rush of a blast furnace (for example the Munchian Study after Velázquez’s Portrait of Pope Innocent X, 1953 ). In the foreground, the lines that bisect the canvas at a curve create the shape of an eye, while the female nude lies on an iris-shaped bed at the center. “I want to make the interior so much there that the form will speak more eloquently”, Bacon explained (Cited in John Russell, Francis Bacon, London, 1971, p. 75.). This carefully constructed spatial arrangement, and sensitivity for creating striking settings, betrays his short lived but successful first career as an interior designer.
     Overall, Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe embodies and exemplifies every reason why Bacon was Britain's greatest post-war painter. The psychological and physical forces conveyed by his unique handling of paint and by his expressionistic treatment of the human figure place him clearly in what his first dealer, Helen Lessore, has called The Great Tradition. David Sylvester, the doyen of Bacon scholars, personally requested that Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe be included in the last Bacon show he curated, Francis Bacon: the Human Body. The show brought together a small and highly select collection of only twenty-three works, the highlights of a whole career. For David Sylvester, it crowned nearly fifty years of writing, analyzing and proselytizing Bacon’s achievements. Also included was the earlier Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe of 1963, which has a less complex composition and lacks the detailed and characteristic Baconian setting. The central figure is also not as vigorously rendered as in Version No. 2, and David Sylvester described the difference. In “Version No. 2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe (1968), Bacon performed the same operation in a much more abstracted form, so that he came closer to de Kooning there than in any other of his works.”(David Sylvester, Looking Back at Francis Bacon, 2000, p.108) Sylvester is placing Version No. 2 at the peak of a defining tendency within Bacon’s style: his abstract expressionist inspired gesture, the abstract handling of flesh and the human form as well as the energy apparent in his vigorous brushwork.
     It is not difficult to understand the importance that Sylvester ascribed to this work, especially in the context of a show dedicated to the human figure. The reclining nude figure of Henrietta Moraes treads a knife’s edge between contorted enervation and decomposition, barely containing both states at once. The animated brushstrokes are all that separate her flayed limbs from the crucified side of beef in Painting 1946, or the dissected fish of Chaim Soutine. Bacon manages to combine the pathos of an ecce homo with the harsh reality of a memento mori: ecstasy and overdose, pleasure and pain, sleep and death: they are nothing but opposite sides of the same coin, a gamble taken with each shot, each fix. Life can only be truly defined by its opposite, death, just as light is defined by dark; and Henrietta’s body walks the penumbra between the two. Bacon has achieved in this painting a level of pure mastery and a visual poetry that is both shocking and beautiful, brutally honest and yet profoundly empathic, making Version No.2 of Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe a masterpiece with few equals in the whole of his long and stellar career.
Untitled (1944; 754x600pix, 67kb) _ A previously unrecorded and unpublished variany of the right-hand panel of the triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion, 1944, 1944, this was first shown at the Hayward Gallery, London, in the Francis Bacon: The Human Body exhibition, 5 Febuary 1998. It is the same size as the Tate panels, and contains the same basic elements of a gaping-mouthed, serpentlike figure pearched on a stiltlike arm/leg, which rests on a patch of coarse grass. In the Tate version, a second supporting limb, seen in shadow, is bled off to the right, whereas here it stands free, though still in shadow. Unlike the Tate version, however, the monster sucks greedly at a bunch of flowers (roses?), which seem to be proffered by an unseen hand. There are also minor differences in the framing lines in the background - the deep orange color of which is modified by broader areas of lighter yellow-orange in the foreground on either side of the creatures limbs - from thoes that occur at the Tate picture. Bacon has, in effect, simplified the final composition to achieve a more dramatic impact.
— Triptych (May - June, 1973): left panel (948x700pix, 98kb) center panel (943x700pix, 88kb) right panel (939x700pix, 102kb) _ Based on the 1970 suicide of George Dyer, Bacon's lover since 1962. Bacon shows sequential views of a single figure, like stills from a film. He has reversed the conventional left-right progression and has, again as in a film, abandoned a fixed viewpoint. We look through one doorway in the left panel and through another in the center and right panels. Read from right to left, the images depict the facts of Dyer's death, as the nude figure vomits into the bathroom sink, crosses the room, and then dies on the toilet. The sinuous, agonized curves of Dyer's arm and shoulder at right are continued by the curve of the sink's drainpipe. The pitiful, almost fetally positioned figure at left has a closed composure in opposition to the distended agony of the adjacent panels. The white carrows in the foreground of the side panels were added to counter the sensational character of the subject matter by inserting a mote of clinical objectivity. One day the veil falls and we are left stranded with the body, at the body's mercy... reduced to our fear, like in Triptych 1973. And if someone was presiding invisibly over that little horror scene, it was no apparatchik, or executioner, it was a God, or an anti-God, a Demiurge, a Creator, the one who had trapped us for ever by that 'accident' of the body he cobbled together in his workshop and of which, for a while, we are forced to become the soul.
Figure Study II aka The Magdalene (1946; 677x600pix, 68kb) This belongs to series of variations on the theme first announced in the Three Studies for... which created a sensation when it was first exhibited in April 1945. Although given a religious connotation, Bacon has said that he was inspired by the vengeful Erinyes, or Furies, who pursued Orestes in Aeschylus's tragedy The Oresteia. Nevertheless, the allusion to Christ's Crucifixion has persisted in so far that Figure Study I (1946) was known as Study for a human Figure at the Base of the Cross, and its pendant, Figure Study II, was called "The Magdalene". Bacon categorically rejected these allusions. The open mouth of the woman, if less raw than the hideous, half-animal, bared teeth of two of the snarling creatures in Three Studies, conveys in subtler style the mood of anguished tragedy set, incongruously, in an anonymous palm-fronded foyer to a private hell. Figure Study II is larger than Figure Study I, and although less thickly impasted, it has the same strident orange background and indeterminate space. The woman's gaping mouth is a distant echo of the shrieking mother in the foreground of Poussin's Massacre of the innocents, which had so impressed Bacon when he first saw it at the Musee Conde, Chantilly, in 1927. Bacon said: "I've had a desire to do forms, as when I originally did three forms at the base of the Crucifixion. They were influenced by the Picasso things which were done at the end of the twenties. And I think there's a whole area there suggested by Picasso, which in a way has been unexplored, of organic form that relates to the human image but is a complete distortion of it." The detailed rendering of the herringbone tweed coat draped over the back of the kneeling figure heightens the sense of mystery, and this incongruous juxtaposition of carefully defined but seemingly unrelated objects is a device that had often been used by the surrealists. David Mellor also draws attention to Bacon's appropriation of the pose of the classically-draped sculpted mourner, so common in late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century funerary sculpture, but transformed by twentieth-century dress.
Painting (1946, 123x105cm; 983x650pix, 169kb) _ Figure Study II led to this butcher's shop image, in its palette and in its use of an open umbrella as a dominant image. The painting's progress took it through several mutations. At first it had a landscape setting, initially in an image of a chimpanzee in long grass, next to an image of a large bird of prey alighting on a field. "Suddenly the lines that I'd drawn suggested something totally different, and out of this suggestion arose this picture.' The scene is an old fashioned butcher's shop with ceramic festoons on the walls and, looming up in the background, a carcass which (like the Rembrandt carcass Slaughtered Ox in the Louvre) is also a headless Crucifixion. In front of this, under an umbrella, is a figure which seems to be that of a politician addressing a battery of microphones; on either side of the foreground is a side of meat attached to a tubular structure evocative of gymnastic apparatus and closely resembling Bacon's furniture designs of 1930. The insistence on symmetry, the imitation of superior powers and the atmosphere of enactment of a ritual combine to give the work the look of an altarpiece with an overwhelming grandeur of presence. That echo is one of many that overlap here, from past to recent art history; there is a long line of European painting stretching back to Rembrandt and Velazquez and Titian; there is the English eccentric-fantastic tradition, the tradition of Baudelaire evoked with his phrase about 'that indefinable breath of the sinister, the violent and the ruthless which characterizes almost every product of the land of spleen'; there is surrealism. And there's an affinity to aspects of the new American painting in the freedom of the handling of the paint. The combination of that freedom in Painting, 1946, with frontal figuration of a domineering presence could even have influenced a major phenomenon in US painting of the 1950's. For Painting (1946) was acquired in 1948 by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and may well have, according to close students of de Kooning an avowed admirer of Bacon, helped to shape the sharp-toothed image of Woman I. Painting (1946), that excellent resolution of the permanent opposition in Bacon's work between formality and chance, has one thing wrong with it. Manipulation of paint became an inexhaustible gamble for Bacon, involving all sorts of exploration of accident and chance, and often this included the use of additives such as dust, sand, cotton wool, candle wax, sprayed auto-mobile paint, Letterset, and, above all, the pastel used freely in this piece and many others. Unfortunately, in 1946 Bacon did not yet know what he later learned by chance, that when pastel is used along with oil paint it adheres better to the surface if the artist works on the reverse side of a primed canvas. Because he didn't know this when he made Painting (1946), it is now too fragile to be moved.
     Dialogue: Interviewer: "The image of sides of meat is obviously one that means a great deal to you." — Bacon: "Well, it does. But, of course, one has got to remember as a painter that there is this great beauty in the color of meat." — Interviewer: "Indeed, of course, Rembrandt used a carcass of beef hanging up almost as a stand-in for the Crucifixion, intentionally or not." — Bacon: "I never think of that. And I never think of it as a carcass of beef even. The odd thing is that I don't think that carcass of meat is one of Rembrandt's great pictures, because I don't think it's very much like meat. It looks to me like a lump of wax hanging there. I don't think it's a great painting of meat. I don't know what the great paintings of meat are".
Isabel Rawsthorne standing in a street in Soho (1967; 580x422pix, 94kb)
Three Studies of Isabel Rawsthorne (1967; 600x756pix, 188kb)
Study After Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X (1953, 153x118cm; 200kb)
Head VI (1949, 93x76cm; 662x549pix, 75kb) _ supposed to be a screaming Pope. Screaming, OK. But dressed in purple instead of white?
A dog (442x530pix, 62kb) _ Unfinished. Attribution disputed, but, whoever the artist, it is not Denis Wirth-Miller, who later painted
      _ A cornfield (1958; 592x700pix, 62kb) on the reverse side.
264 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
^ Died on 28 October 1577: Michele Tosini di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, Italian painter born on 08 May 1503.
— He studied under Lorenzo di Credi and Antonio del Ceraiolo (fl 1520–1538) before entering the workshop of Ridolfo Ghirlandaio [04 Feb 1483 – 06 Jan 1561] to whom he became an assistant . By 1525 Tosini was frequently collaborating with Ghirlandaio, and their closeness is reflected in Tosini’s adopted name. Tosini began painting in the early 16th-century Florentine style of Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto (e.g. the Virgin of the Sacred Girdle, c. 1525; Florence, S Marco). His acceptance of Mannerism was slow, but by the 1540s the influence of Francesco Salviati and Agnolo Bronzino was observable in his work. After 1556 Tosini worked for Giorgio Vasari in the fresco decoration of the Salone dei Cinquecento in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. Through Vasari’s example, Tosini adopted a vocabulary derived from the work of Michelangelo and painted some of his best-known works in this manner (e.g. Night, 1560; and Leda,1560). He painted several important commissions late in his career: the fresco decoration of three city gates of Florence (1560s), the altar in the chapel at the Villa Caserotta (1561), near San Casciano Val di Pesa, and the paintings on the sides and back of the tabernacle of the high altar of S Maria della Quercia (1570), Viterbo. Tosini headed a large workshop that made numerous altarpieces and paintings. Among his students were Stoldo Lorenzi, Girolamo Macchietti, Bernardino Poccetti.

Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John the Baptist _ In front of a hilly landscape, the Virgin holds the Christ Child while young Saint John the Baptist looks on in adoration. The painting may be attributed to Tosini. An eclectic painter, Tosini combined elements of Andrea del Sarto [1486-1531] with others of Michelangelo [1475-1564], to create his own Mannerism, as seen here in the unnatural green hue of the Virgin´s skin, and the vacant eyes of the Christ Child which lend a slightly disconcerting air to the picture. The composition and tonality, including the shape of the Virgin´s dress, her wavy center-parted hair, shaded eyes, and chubby, curly- haired children appear throughout the body of his work. The Virgin´s head may be compared especially with his Saint Barbara, Night, Leda, Lucrezia Romana, and, above all, his Madonna of the Holy Family. Details such as the folds of the dress, the treatment of the hands, and pink and white skin are matched in his Mary Magdalen. For further comparisons see the Madonnas attributed to Tosini. Tosini was the head of an important Florentine workshop. Tosini´s early career was linked to that of Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio [1483-1561], the teacher from whom he took his nickname. Tosini´s later works closely resemble those of Giorgio Vasari [1511-1574] who represented primarily religious subjects. The Madonna and Child with the Young Saint John the Baptist was at various times misattributed to Andrea del Sarto, and to his student Pontormo. When this painting was restored in June 1990 it was found that all of the pigments examined would have been available in the 16th century. Lead tin yellow (Sn), a minor component of the yellow-green leaves in the background. became unavailable as an artist´s pigment after 1750.
— a different Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist (1550)
Charity (1570) _ Charity, the greatest of the theological virtues (the others are Faith and Hope), is here represented as a woman with three children. From the 16th century onwards, Charity was commonly depicted as a woman suckling her young. This picture derives from the larger Charity (1558, 156x122cm; 824x648pix, 105kb) of Francesco Salviati [1510-1563] and was previously catalogued as by a follower of Salviati.

Died on a 28 October:

^ 1893 Eduard Schleich II (d.J.), German painter born on 15 February 1853. Als Akademieschüler der Münchner Malerschule schuf er in der Tradition seines Vaters, Eduard Schleich I (d.Ä.) [12 Oct 1812 – 08 Jan 1874], hauptsächlich stimmungsvolle Landschaftsbilder der Umgebung von München.
Feldarbeit mit Ochsenkarren (13x22cm; 293x500pix, 32kb)
An Angler by Moonlight (235x600pix, 41kb) —(051027)

1829 Johann Peter Krafft, Austrian painter born (full coverage) on 15 September 1780 —(060914)

^ 1531 fra Lorenzo, Bernardino Parenzano (or Parentino), Italian monk and prophet born in 1437 in Parenzo (now Pazin), Istria, who may also have been an artist, long confused with another artist of the same names, born in the same place, but about 1450, and who died in Vicenza about 1500. Since this second artist's exact dates are unknown, and it is not possible to know to which of the two some works should be attributed, they are treated together here.
     The second fra Lorenzo, Bernardino Parenzano (or Parentino) was probably educated in his native Parenzo, where he studied antique inscriptions. From Parenzo he probably moved to the political and cultural capital of the region, Capodistria. Here, during what appears to have been a prolonged stay, he was able to study other inscriptions and to indulge his passion for antiquity. During this early period he may have been in contact with Giorgio Schiavone, possibly at Zara, as well as with other Dalmatian artists from the group around Francesco Squarcione, for example Marinello da Spalato of the second half of the 15th century. The style of Bernardo Parenzano is highly unusual. He was active in Mantua and Padua, and his work reveals the influence of Mantegna together with some elements drawn from Ferrarese painting. It is characterized by a care for detail, perhaps exaggerated, and by miniaturistic tendencies in a Northern European manner that find expression in a erystalline and metallic lincarity. The angular, skeletal landscape, bathed in a leaden light and ruthlessly cleared so that it looks devastated, creates a sense of anguish in its snapshot-like fixity, as if the events were taking place in a human terrarium from which all the air had been evacuated.
Temptations of Saint Anthony (1494, 46x58cm; 829x1057, 179kb) _ Parenzano painted three panels illustrating the life of Saint Anthony Abbot [251-356], the founder of monasticism, as recounted in the fourth century in Saint Athanasius's popular book.
     The first (not shown here) illustrates how Anthony, after the death of his parents and at the age of between eighteen and twenty, "sold... all the other goods and chattels he possessed and distributed the large sum of money he obtained to the poor."
     The second panel (not shown here) is devoted to the temptations of the saint.
     Finally, in the third piece of the predella (shown in the reproduction to which the link points), the great and terrible power of Evil is revealed with the worst characteristics of the human race, in all its innate repulsiveness and horrifying folly. Exorcisers appear on the rock, in the form of skulls, and Satan is transformed into malign shapes and ferocious beasts, however, a ray of light descends toward Anthony and a voice declares: "I was here, Anthony, but I wished to see your struggle, and since you have withstood and have not been defeated, I shall always succor you". This is the moral of the cycle. We do not know whether it is complete or whether other elements are missing, such as the leave-taking of his sister, the erotic visions, or the meeting with Paul.
     The Temptations of Saint Anthony, a theme that has fascinated artists from Bosch to Grünewald, Schongauer, and Flaubert, is cited as the work of Mantegna in the fideicommissary list of 1819, while it was recorded, along with the other two parts, in an inventory of the palace in Piazza Navona drawn up on the death of Camillo Pamphilj in 1666. Because of their style the three pictures by Parenzano can be dated to the same period as the Paduan frescoes in Santa Giustinia, painted around 1494 (the painter lived in the monastery, 1492-1496). It is interesting to think that these Temptations set amidst arid ground, surrounded by chimeras and monsters, may have been painted in the same year as the discovery of the New World.

The Magi Traveling (48x54cm; 438x500pix, 79kb) _ It is not known which of the two Fra Lorenzos painted this.

Born on a 28 October:

^ 1854 Lowell Birge Harrison, US painter who died in 1929. — Related? to T. Alexander Harrison [1853-1930]? Wallace Harrison [1895-1981]? — Birge Harrison, born in Philadelphia, was induced by John Singer Sargent to abandon his father's business and travel to Paris where for six years he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. Harrison admired the work of the French impressionists but expressed reservations about their use of intense colors. He became more responsive to the quieter, evocative style of the Barbizon school, with its more romantic concept of nature, and became known for his poetic depictions of winter landscape. When the Art Students League established a landscape school at Woodstock, New York, he was installed as its first director. In 1909 he published a book on landscape painting that became the standard text on the subject. But by the time of his death, in 1929, his technique and ideals, now passé, were derided by fellow artists and critics as sentimental "moonlight and mist."
Winter Twilight (1910, 76x102cm)
Winter Afternoon (56x81cm; 432x640pix, 16kb)
Winter - Moon Rise (48x61cm; 480x611pix, 28kb)
Winter Sunset (1890, 39x59cm; 345x528pix, 49kb)
November (1881, 52x98cm)
Opalescent Sea (61x76cm; 480x626pix, 44kb)
Snow Bound, Woodstock, NY (18 X 30 inches)
The Water Carrier (24x20cm; 480x380pix, 48kb) monochrome brown.
Madison Avenue at Twilight (1929, 19x12cm; 550x296pix, 46kb) —(051027)

^ 1846 Louis-Auguste-Albert Dubois-Pillet, French Neo-Impressionist painter and army officer who died on 18 August 1890. He pursued a military career at the Ecole Impériale Militaire at Saint-Cyr, from which he graduated in 1867. He fought in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) and was held prisoner in Westphalia by the Germans; upon release he joined the Versailles army and participated in the suppression of the Commune. Following various assignments in the provinces, in late 1879 he was appointed to the Légion de la Garde Républicaine in Paris.
–- Vue de Paris (1889, 21x17cm; 1524x1210pix, 292kb) pointillist.
–- Coquette (1884, 64x43cm; 900x594pix, 61kb _ .ZOOM to 1350x891pix, 113kb)
–- S*>#Nature Morte Dans un Vase Peint (1889, 21x17cm; 900x643pix, 97kb) flowers in the vase, a book next to it open to two full-page lithographed portraits. —(090817)

^ 1836 Homer Dodge Martin, US Barbizon School painter who died on 12 February 1897. Born and raised in Albany, Martin was encouraged to pursue an artistic career by Albany sculptor, Erastus Dow Palmer [1817-1904]. During the early 1860s, Martin spent his summers in the Catskills, Adirondacks or White Mountains and composed expansive lake and mountain views in his New York City studio each winter.
Martin's early luminist style, emulating the styles of Thomas Cole [01 Feb 1801 – 11 Feb 1848] and other Hudson River School artists, as seen in Storm King on the Hudson, is evidence of his admiration for the work of John Frederick Kensett. Influenced by two European trips, Martin began to paint more spontaneously using a palette knife, more subtle colors, and a looser touch, like the French Barbizon artists. Martin's work links the Hudson River School painters to the US followers of the French Barbizon School and later Impressionism. — LINKS
Newport Neck (1893, 74x116cm)
View on the Seine: Harp of the Winds (1895, 73x104cm)
The Iron Mine, Port Henry, New York (1862, 77x127cm)
View of Lake George from Long Island (83kb)
A Wilderness Pool (165kb)
Storm King on the Hudson (315x549pix, 38kb)
    _ compare Storm King on the Hudson (1866, 82x152cm) and A?*#>Storm King on the Hudson (76x127cm) both by Samuel Colman [04 Mar 1832 – 27 Mar 1920]
    _ and A View of Storm King on the Hudson by Francis Augustus Silva [1835 – 31 Mar 1886].

^ >1823 William Simpson, British painter who died on 17 August 1899. — Relative? of John Simpson [1782-1847]? — After working in an architect's office he was apprenticed to a Glasgow firm of lithographers. In 1851 he moved to London and worked for Day & Son. He was sent to the Baltic by Colnaghi to record the naval battles at the beginning of the Crimean War and in 1854 he was sent to Crimea itself. He also toured Circassia with the Duke of Newcastle. In 1859 he was sent to India where he spent three years and even penetrated Tibet. On his return to London he was employed by The Illustrated London News. He traveled extensively in this capacity and, in 1875, returned to India with the Prince of Wales [09 Nov 1841 – 06 May 1910] (who became king Edward VII on 22 Jan 1901).
–- The Isle of Chunars, Lake of Cashmere (1865, 34x49cm; 1065x1575pix, 130kb)
–- Rajasthan. Fort of Jaigarh and the Palace of Amber Above Maota Lake, Circa 1860 (1883, 36x51cm; 1083x1570pix, 156kb) inscribed “Ambair. The Ancient Capital of Jeypoor”
–- S*>#Udaipur. The City Palace, Lake Pichola and the Jag Niwas (1862, 36x51cm; 618x900pix, 105kb) inscribed “Oodeypore. Rajpootana” _ Udaipur is about 225 km south-west of Ajmere in Rajputana. The City Palace is situated on a ridge overlooking Lake Pichola and Jag Niwas, originally the summer palace of the maharajas and situated on the small island seen in the distance.
–- S*>#In the Crimea (1856, 25x42cm; 526x900pix, 74kb)
The 'Diamond' Battery at the Siege of Sebastopol, 15 December 1854 (1855, 32x38cm) _ A scene during the bombardment of Sebastopol, behind the battery where members of the frigate HMS Diamond are positioned. Diamond was sent to the Black Sea at the outbreak of the Crimean War in 1854. The Diamond battery formed part of the Naval Brigade of 1020 officers and men when Lord Raglan asked the Navy for assistance during the land operations. Initially the sailors contributed a non-combatant role but as more soldiers were either killed or wounded, they were replaced by the sailors.
     The painting shows part of the Diamond battery positioned behind their trench. The tall officer standing beyond it with his right hand on his hip is Captain William Peel VC, the Commander of the 'Diamond'. Commander Burnet, wearing a beard, stands in front of him looking through the embrasure and holding a telescope in his right hand. The ship's guns are from 'Diamond' and the gun in the foreground is a Lancaster 68- pounder. It was a smooth-bore weapon firing round shot and around the gun are various objects necessary for it to function. Other members of the battery can be seen at their posts and in the foreground, several are in positions of repose facing the viewer. Captain William Peel was the third son of Robert Peel, the Prime Minister, who took command of HMS Diamond in October 1852. On 18 October 1854 Peel was at the siege of Sebastopol and his was the first act of bravery that would lead to awarding of VCs for him and his ADC Edward St. John Daniel in the first list of citations. He won his medal through acts of bravery on several occasions, the first by taking up a live shell, with the fuse still burning from among several powder cases and throwing it over the parapet.
     The Crimean War was the first in which correspondents were allowed to report first-hand from the battlefield and they sent their eyewitness accounts to London journals. Before photography replaced them, the number of illustrated magazines and newspapers meant that the importance of the war artist grew and William Simpson was one of the best known, together with the journalist William Howard Russell of The Times. He produced battlefield sketches and drawings in a series of notebooks and these were redrawn and revised by engravers, with enhancements of their dramatic imagery to emphasize British heroism amid collective defeat in far-off locations. On Simpson's return, Colnaghi and Sons also reproduced the results of his sketches in two volumes, The Seat of War in the East. From 1866 Simpson worked for The Illustrated London News, providing sketches and illustrations to accompany the text. _ Compare Sebastopol (755x645pix, 304kb) lithograph by Charles W. Glover.
–- The Fall of Sebastopol (1857; 376x715pix, 25kb) _ .detail 1 (874x958pix, 58kb) _ .detail 2 (876x958pix, 72kb) _ The fall of Sebastopol to the allied forces on 08 September 1855 was a crucial step towards the end of military action in the Crimea, which finally ceased in March 1856. After three days of bombardment the Malakoff tower was stormed and captured by the French, and within a few hours the Russians began to retreat. The Russians can be seen here pulling back from the south side of Sebastopol to the north across a floating bridge. They set the powder magazines on fire as they did so, preventing the allies from entering the city for four days.
–- The Tower of Babel, or Birs Nimrud Restored (35x53cm; 596x900pix, 87kb _ .ZOOM to 894x1350pix, 100kb)
–- The Fort of Chitor, India (25x35cm; 543x765pix, 45kb) _ Simpson arrived in India in 1859 and spent three years there traveling extensively. He later returned to India with the Prince of Wales in 1875. This view is taken at Chitor in Rajputana, approximately 100 km north-east of Udaipur. Simpson was at Udaipur from 20 to 23 February 1861 and was at Chitor by 26 February 1861. The Tower of Victory is visible on the horizon. Simpson was impressed by the sight of the desert city, and wrote in his autobiography: “The walls and gates still remain. Within are towers, temples, and palaces, with here and there a village or two that has grown up among the silent streets”.
–- S*>#The Interior of a Chaityagriha at Ajanta, India (1265x900pix, 243kb)
–- S#*>The Bisheswar or Golden Temple of Shiva, Benares, India (1275x900pix, 247kb) —(091027)

^ 1813 Johann Georg Meyer (von Bremen), German painter who died on 04 December 1886.
The Letter (1873, 65x49cm)

^ 1790 Bartholomeus-Johannes van Hove, The Hague Dutch painter who died (main coverage) on 08 November 1880. —(051107)

^ 1735 Simon Julien, French painter and engraver who died on 30 June 1798, or on 23 or 24 February 1800. — Relative? of Pierre Julien [1732-1804]? — He was the most ambitious member of the Julien family of artists, which included his brother Laurent Julien [27 Jun 1740 – 09 Oct 1820]. Simon Julien studied under Michel-François Dandré-Bardon in Marseille and later under Carle Vanloo in Paris. In 1760 he won the prestigious Prix de Rome with a very accomplished painting, The Sacrifice of Manoah, Father of Samson, a subject treated earlier by Eustache Le Sueur (1650) and Charles Le Brun. The clarity of color in this work recalls that of Le Sueur. After three years of study (1763–1766) at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés in Paris, Simon went to Rome, where he remained until 1771. There he was influenced by the style of Charles-Joseph Natoire, Director of the Académie de France, whose preference for attenuated gestures is apparent in Simon’s Rose Defended. At the age of 48 he exhibited The Triumph of Aurelian, his morceau d’agrément for the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, at the Salon of 1783, where it received generally favorable criticism. In their assessment critics noted the harmony, freshness and firmness of line in the painting, although the work was eclipsed at the Salon by that of the younger Jacques-Louis David, who was received (reçu) as a full Academician that year with Andromache Mourning Hector (1783). At the Salons of 1785 and 1787 Simon exhibited several paintings and drawings depicting historical and mythological subjects, none of which received special notice. Simon attempted to become an Academician in 1789 with the presentation of Tithonus and Aurora, a drawing for which he had exhibited at the Salon of 1783. However, he was not elected as a full member of the Académie. Both the subject — Aurora abandoning her immortal, but aged, lover — and the style of the painting must have seemed dated in the light of the more severe Neo-classicism that was then gaining favor in France. Tithonus and Aurora was exhibited posthumously at the Salon of 1800, together with several of Simon’s drawings. As well as being a painter, he is known to have produced several engravings, depicting Moses on Mount Sinai, The Holy Family and Diana and Zephyr. Simon Julien is often confused with his contemporary Jean-Antoine Julien, known as Julien de Parme [23 Apr 1736 – 28 Jul 1799].
Tithonus and Aurora (277x198cm; 745x498pix, 185 kb gif) _ Study for his Academy admission piece in 1783. Exhibited at the 1800 Salon. Falsely attributed to Joseph-Marie Vien in 1837. Tithonus and Aurora when the goddess leaves her husband's arms to begin her flower-strewn race across the sky. In Greek mythology, Tithonus was carried off by Aurora and was granted immortality by Zeus. However, he had forgotten to ask for eternal youth and soon became so decrepit that he was kept in a basket, like a baby. Aurora finally transformed him into a grasshopper. —(051027)

^ 1619 Guilliam Gabron (or: Willem Gabron), Belgian painter who died on 02 August 1678. — {Gabron, NOT Cabrón}
Sir Thomas More [07 Feb 1477 – 06 Jul 1535] (91x56cm; 900x640pix, 649kb) after the Sir Thomas More (1527, 74x59cm; 1150x888pix, 133kb) of Hans Holbein the younger [1498-1543] —(051026)
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