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ART “4” “2”-DAY  27 October v.9.a0
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DEATH: 1620 SCARSELLA — BURIAL: 1765 MICHAU
BIRTHS: 1859 NOURSE — 1877 KUHN — 1631 ROOS — 1923 LICHTENSTEIN
^ Born on 27 October 1859: Elizabeth Nourse, US painter, active in France, who died in 1938.— {une nou-nourse?}
— Elizabeth Nourse and her twin sister, Adelaide, were born in Mount Healthy, Ohio, a suburb of Cincinnati. In 1874, Elizabeth began art studies at the McMicken School of Design, which later became the Art Academy of the Cincinnati Art Museum. During her seven years at the school, she studied drawing, watercolor, oil painting, woodcarving, painting on china, and sculptor.
      Although Nourse did not study under Frank Duveneck, a student of the Munich School and Cincinnati's most famous teacher, she became aware of Duveneck's influence and began to incorporate his rich painterly technique into her work. After the marriage of her twin sister and the death of her parents in 1882, Nourse went to New York and studied under William Sartain. She returned to Cincinnati and by 1883 was supporting herself and her sister by selling her artwork. She became especially noted for her intimate scenes of rural women engaged in domestic work.
      Nourse was offered a position as a drawing instructor for Cincinnati School of Design in 1887 but decided to study in Paris instead. She went with her older sister Louise and studied for three months under Gustave Boulanger [25 Apr 1824 – Oct 1888] and Jules-Joseph Lefèbvre [14 Mar 1836 – 24 Feb 1911] at the Académie Julian and received advice from Jean Jacques Henner [05 Mar 1829 – 23 Jul 1905] and Carolus-Duran [04 Jul 1837 – 1917]. Her painting La Mère (1888), was accepted to the Paris Salon in the same year. Elizabeth Nourse became well established at the Salon as a painter of peasant woman and children She also painted genre, portraits, Arabs, markets, canals, and flowers. She has been described as a forerunner of Social Realism.
      After establishing herself in France, Nourse returned only once to the United States in 1893, to visit with her family and see the World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago. During her life she visited (often in the company of her sister Louise) Russia, Italy, Austria, Holland, Spain, and North Africa where she was known to paint the exotic sites and inhabitants of the land she visited. She usually spent her summers either in Brittany, Normandy, or Saint-Léger-en-Yvelines, near Paris. Nourse called North Africa “the land of sunshine and flowers and lovely Arabs.”
      Her style was bold and strong and demonstrated a rather painterly quality that she was praised for both during and after her life. Nourse employed bold confident brush strokes and a strong sense of color and light that was derived from her training in Cincinnati, where Munich trained Duveneck had introduced “a taste for both picturesque subject matter and rapid painterly style.” She often set her subjects against a rich contrasting background to further highlight the central theme.
      She maintained an active exhibition schedule wining numerous awards and sending paintings to major exhibitions in France and abroad. She retired in 1924 and lived with and supported her older sister Louise throughout her life, dying only one year after her.

LINKS
Mary and Child (1891, 61x46cm; 1000x778pix, 154kb)
The Mother (1888; 101kb)
Breton Interior (135kb)
Meditation (1902; 258kb)
Moorish Prince (1897) aka Head of an Algerian _ Nourse called North Africa “the land of sunshine and flowers and lovely Arabs” when she visited there during the winter of 1897-1998. Attracted by the brightly-colored costumes of the natives, Nourse spent a productive three months in Tunisia and neighboring Algeria. Head of an Algerian, a painting also known as Moorish Prince, was probably created during a side trip from Tunis to the Algerian city of Biskra. The painting depicts a traditionally-costumed and confidently-posed young African, who rests one hand firmly on his hip and holds a cigarette in the other. He wears a white turban around his dark head and several layers of colorful clothing wrapped loosely around his body. Blue, green, and yellow fabrics add color accents to his otherwise monochromatic robe, and a vivid red waistband contributes an especially bright note to his exotic attire. Orientalist subjects were very popular in France during the second half of the nineteenth century, as France celebrated its imperialistic claims to the resources of its North African colonies. Nourse's North African subjects were greatly appreciated in France, where she exhibited them at both the Salon and the Societé des Orientalistes.
Fisher Girl of Picardy (1889, 119x82cm; 416x277pix, 31kb)
Two Dutch Children (62x48cm; 416x327pix, 28kb)
Girl Sewing (500x372pix, 17kb)
Une Heure de Loisir (500x354pix, 25kb)
The Weaver (28x36cm; 401x500pix, 47kb)
8 Owls on a Branch (1927, 25x61cm; 209x500pix, 27kb)
A la Messe en Bretagne (318x400pix, 110kb)
Discussion (400x421pix, 30kb)
Lilas (1891, 97x75cm; 416x320pix, 42kb)
Le Goûter (450x303pix, 20kb)
View of the Luxembourg Gardens, Paris (41x32cm; 480x382pix)
 
^ Died on 27 October 1620: Ippolito Scarsella (or Scarcella) “Scarsellino”, Ferrara Italian painter born in 1551. — {scarcerato?}
— After an early apprenticeship under his father, Sigismondo Scarsella [1530–1614], an architect and painter, Ippolito went to Venice, where from about 1570 he got trained in Paolo Veronese’s workshop for four years. This influenced the style of his earliest works, for example The Virgin and Child with the Infant Baptist, which also reveals a marked interest in Parmigianino, and a number of small altarpieces, such as The Holy Family and Virgin and Child. In these works the inspiration from Veronese is united with a richness of color reminiscent of Titian, although there are also echoes of earlier Ferrarese painters such as Sebastiano Filippi and Giuseppe Mazzuoli. Other early works include Scarsellino’s mythological paintings of Diana and Endymion, Venus Bathing and Venus and Adonis (<1592), which prepared the way for Annibale Carracci’s deeper understanding of the 16th-century Venetian tradition.
      Scarsellino drew on the same sources in his ceiling paintings, in oil on canvas, for the Palazzo dei Diamantini in Ferrara (1593), where he worked with Gaspare Venturini [1570–1617] and Ludovico Carracci. In the Apollo from these decorative works and in a contemporary Pietà there is a link with the pathos of Ludovico Carracci, whose art, of all the Carracci, is closest in feeling to that of Scarsellino. Their fundamental similarity of approach is further revealed in such works as The Road to Emmaus, in which the landscape in the background is clearly inspired by Carracci, The Flight into Egypt and The Holy Family (both since destroyed). In all these paintings the starkly simple figures reflect the Counter-Reformation dictates of Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti and echo the contemporary work of Bartolomeo Cesi [16 Aug 1556 – 11 Jul 1629]. In other works of the same period, however, Scarsellino turned towards the painting of Federico Barocci, who directly inspired Christ and the Virgin Appearing to Saint Francis, in which the spirited use of warm colors reflects a continuing influence from Venetian art.
— Lodovico Lana was a student of Scarsellino.

LINKS
Landscape with Abraham and Isaac (58x75cm; 592x760pix, 77kb)
Christ and the Adulteress (29x38cm; 459x600pix, 82kb)
Pietà (41x32cm; 512x404pix, 48kb)
Augustus and the Sybil (81x99cm; 512x630pix, 72kb) _ Le Sénat romain ayant proposé de diviniser Auguste, ce dernier interroge alors la sibylle de Tibur pour savoir si l'univers donnera naissance à plus grand que lui. Selon une légende chrétienne, celle-ci prédit la venue d'un enfant qui serait plus grand que tous les dieux romains. Les cieux s'ouvrirent alors. A la vue de ce prodige, Auguste aurait refusé la divinisation. Son sceptre est posé à terre.
Saint Demetrius (162x95cm; 460x262pix, 29kb)
Adorazione per i Magi (1600, 124x112cm; 481x412pix, 196kb) _ In questo dipinto Scarsellino varia la tradizionale presentazione del soggetto: la Sacra Famiglia viene mostrata davanti ad una composizione architettonica invece che all'interno della stalla. Allo sfarzo esotico dei Re Magi e del loro seguito si contrappone la semplicità della Sacra Famiglia. In alto, tra gli angeli musicanti, si vede la stella cometa. Questa tela rivela influssi della pittura veneziana del Cinquecento e delle novità pittoriche provenienti da Bologna, in particolare del lavoro di Annibale e Ludovico Carracci. _ Small image of a variant Adorazione per i Magi (412x250pix, 15kb)
The Virgin Venerated by Saints (1609, 49x74cm; 337x500pix, 54kb)
Allegorical Figures of Fidelity, Abundance, Fame, and Vanity, With a Banquet Beyond (35x147cm; 216x1000pix, 120kb) _ The format suggests that this was most likely part of a decorative scheme hung high with other paintings in a room as a frieze. While it is possible to identify certain figures in the present composition, such as the figure of Fame holding a trumpet, or Vanity holding peacock feathers, the exact meaning of the allegory remains unknown. _ Compare
      _ Fidelity, Abundance, Fame, and Vanity, With Gluttony Beyond (2005; 920x1300pix, 263kb) in a more normal format, by the pseudonymous adaptator Domenicors Scarcely-El-Gecko (who was a basketball player until he grew too tall for that).
–- Christ Entrusting the Keys of Heaven to Saint Peter (59x45cm; 900x666pix, 71kb)
La Vergine Accoglie Santo Stefano d'Ungheria in Paradiso (1048x880pix, 174kb)
–- Madonna in Gloria con San Domenico, San Francesco, e San Giorgio (66x35cm; 900x475pix, 97kb)
–- The Conversion of Saint Paul (59x45cm; 538x750pix, 46kb) _ The picture is not faithful to the Bible account which tells of Saint Paul being dazzled by a light brighter than the sun; and then blind for the next three days until his vision is miraculously restaured in Damascus. The pseudonymous and weighty “Hippo” Scarcely (a close relative of Domenicors) has corrected this by providing the two pictures:
      _ What Saint Paul Saw on the Road to Damascus (2005; 920x1300pix, 1kb _ ZOOM to 13000x9200pix, 1kb) and:
      _ What Saint Paul Saw for the Next Three Days (2005; 920x1300pix, 1kb _ ZOOM to 13000x9200pix, 1kb). However Scarcely-El-Gecko thought those pictures (especially the first) excessively minimalist and insisted on creating his own versions:
      _ What Saint Paul Saw on the Road to Damascus (2005; 1300x920pix, 34kb) and:
      _ What Saint Paul Saw for the Next Three Minutes (the afterimage) (2005; 1300x920pix, 38kb), while he could not argue about the next three days other than, as usual, objecting to the excessively squat format adopted by “Hippo”.
—(081026)
^ Born on 27 October 1877 (1880?): Walter Francis “Walt” Kuhn, US painter who died insane on 13 July 1949.
— Born in New York City, after studying in many European countries, he helped organize the famous Armory Show (International Exhibition of Modern Art, New York City, 1913). He is noted chiefly for his vigorous studies of circus performers, chorus girls, and trapeze athletes. His Blue Clown (1931) is the most popular example of his work. He also did a number of brilliant still lifes, as well as designs for musical revues. Kuhn contributed substantially to the introduction of the techniques and theories of modern art to the American public and to many American artists.
— Walt Kuhn was born in Brooklyn, New York, the only one of eight brothers to survive childhood. At his baptism, he was named William, but this was changed to Walter Francis. The artist himself later shortened his name to Walt. He was proud of his mother's Spanish blood, and from her he acquired a life-long love for the theater and the circus. As a child he was encouraged to draw, and drew constantly throughout his school days. After one year at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, he went into business as the proprietor of a bicycle shop. This was 1897 when cycling was in its heyday, and during the summers, Kuhn barnstormed as a professional bicycle racer at county fairs. He also learned to tap dance, a skill he would practice all his life.
      In 1899, Kuhn began a leisurely trip West, eventually finding a job drawing cartoons for a San Francisco newspaper. Several years later, realizing the need for more training, Kuhn left for Europe to study in Paris and Munich. It was here that he heard a phrase that remained with him always and was frequently quoted to young artists. After a summer's work produced only one painting and the opinion that he had plenty of time, his teacher said, "For you it is a quarter to twelve."
      Back in New York he continued to make a living as a cartoonist for newspapers and magazines while beginning a serious course of self-training, making 3000 studies of the nude. Biographer Frank Getlein writes, "He was convinced then and remained convinced that nothing came easy to him."
      In 1909 Kuhn met and married a Washington DC woman, Vera Spier, the daughter of a jeweler and herself a designer of jewelry. Their daughter and only child, Brenda, was born several years later. Despite the fact that first Vera and then Brenda managed the business of Kuhn's career as an artist, he kept his wife and child in a private world separate from the artists and collectors he saw frequently as professionals and friends. Though Kuhn was by nature a loner, he became very involved in artists' activities. Together with artist Arthur B. Davies, Walt Kuhn was a principal organizer of the historic Armory Show of 1913, an event that forever changed the course of US art.
      When Kuhn suffered acutely from a stomach ulcer in 1925, he thought he might not survive. Not so much concerned with the thought of death as with the lack of enduring achievement in art, Kuhn set a time limit of two years in which he would "find himself in art." Utilizing his first loves, the circus and the theater, he "began the feverish outpouring of show girls, circus subjects and theatrical folk that were to become synonymous with his name." Bennard B. Perlman describes these works:
      "Boldly outlined, brusquely modeled, intensely expressive, and frozen in limelight against dark backgrounds, Kuhn's portraits are unforgettable, disturbing paintings. Most present a frontal gaze that is at once hypnotic and that were considered startling in their day. Just as Rembrandt and van Gogh allow the viewer to pierce the facades of their sitters' faces to look deeper into their beings, so Kuhn accomplishes the same thing, but in an almost eerie fashion."
      Kuhn said he was forty years old before he painted a really worthwhile picture. In fact, he was over fifty when his long, frustrating search for a resolution to the problems confronting him as a painter was finally reached with completion of White Clown, a painting that was both his masterwork and an intensely personal symbol. He rarely exhibited the work after its debut at The Museum of Modern Art in New York, and would not allow it to be purchased during his lifetime.
      In the next two decades of productive maturity Kuhn continued to paint show people, still lifes and landscapes. Though he wrote to a friend, "I have more or less arrived at the point where I can make my brushes carry out my instructions," he continued to be highly self-critical. Fridolph Johnson wrote in a 1967 article in American Artist, “He ruthlessly destroyed more paintings than he preserved, and he never signed one until he was completely satisfied with it.”
      In his last years Kuhn began to suffer increasing mental turmoil, finally becoming irrational and stormy. Concerned friends convinced his family to commit him to Bellevue Hospital in New York in late fall of 1948 and he died in a White Plains hospital the following summer.

LINKS
–- Portrait (of a woman, 1922, 61x41cm; 754x496pix, 29kb; .ZOOM to 2263x1490pix, 344kb)
–- Caucas (1918, 166x190cm; 623x725pix, 56kb _ .ZOOM to 1245x1449pix, 169kb) three women in a room.
–- S*>#Stumps (x800pix, 70kb)
–- S*>#Tricolor Cockade (x800pix, 65kb)
–- S*>#Chico in Silk Hat (800xpix, 46kb)
Clown with Drum (1943)
The White Clown (1929, 102x77cm; 800x587pix, 45kb _ ZOOM to 1363x1000pix, 95kb) _ Being absolutely opposed to any kind of discrimination based on color, waistline, skin ornamentation, and such, the pseudonymous Valentín Audaz y Valiente has complemented this painting by his own much more colorful
      _ The Two Sumo Wrestlers Turned Rainbow Clowns (2005; 920x1300pix, 615kb) which he has also turned into the palindromic abstractions
      _ Worn Row (2005; 920x1300pix, 444kb) and
      _ Warn Raw (2005; 920x1300pix, 445kb).
Apples in Wooden Boat (1938, 63x76cm) _ This is one of a series of impressive still-life paintings on a similar theme. If Kuhn could, he got someone else to set up the arrangement. His daughter Brenda reports a whole series of small paintings of apples, executed at the rate of one a day during a summer in Maine, which were set up by the process of Brenda's removing the rotten ones each morning and replacing them with fresh.” Describing his study of apples, Kuhn wrote in a letter to his publicity agent, “I have tried 'Greenings,' 'MacIntosh,' 'Delicious,' and many other types, but finally decided that the 'Winesap,' was the very apple which Eve offered Adam, and which every school boy polished for his teacher. That was good enough for me. Whether this effort has been successful or not, I promise you I shall never look another bowl of red apples in the face.”
The Guide (1931, 61x51cm) _
Green Pom-Pom (1944, 76x64cm) _ Though he was an accomplished landscape and still-life painter, Walt Kuhn's mature career as an artist is almost exclusively identified with his haunting portraits of circus and vaudeville performers, like Green Pom-Pom. Kuhn was completely at home in the world of show business. His mother had introduced him to theater as a child and he went on to discover the delights of vaudeville, burlesque, and the circus on his own. In fact, from 1922 to 1926, wary that becoming financially dependent on the sale of his work would make him vulnerable to undue influence from dealers and critics, Kuhn earned a successful living designing and directing touring stage revues.
      The performers depicted in Kuhn's paintings were not merely models but individuals he knew professionally. Yet Kuhn's paintings are not true portraits in the traditional sense. He was less concerned with the individual personalities of his sitters than with presenting them as timeless metaphors of the human condition. Beneath the mask of theatrical make-up and the tawdry glitter of the costumes, each figure asserts a somber human dignity. Kuhn's entertainers are the heirs of Watteau's Gilles from the commedia dell'arte, descended through the dancers and cabaret performers of Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Indeed, a contemporary critic observed that one "gradually realizes ... the unbroken chain of French figure painting" had found its "last representative in Walt Kuhn, an American." Green Pom-Pom is the last in a series of three-quarter length portraits of show girls that the artist began in 1938. Distinct from Kuhn's other images of show girls, these figures are dressed in close-fitting, military-style costumes. Each of the women probably helped select her own costume from the large rack Kuhn kept at his studio-costumes which he designed and his wife made. According to Kuhn, he often encouraged models to choose their own attire as a way of helping him preserve the "freshness of his seeing," just as he insisted on continuing to work directly in front of a model because he needed "the challenge of the physical fact in front of him."
      The young entertainer in Green Pom-Pom confronts the viewer with the startling frankness typical of Kuhn's figures. Her heavily mascaraed and shadowed eyes gaze at us from an expressionless face, with a deliberate dispassion that seems at once candid and unimaginably remote. Her sullen sensuality imbues the picture with the inescapable disquiet of broken dreams. Stylistically, the painting possesses the quiet authority and spare grandeur that characterize Kuhn's best work after 1940. The figure has an insistent monumentality. The brassy, dissonant color that still attracted the artist in earlier paintings has been abandoned in favor of the subtle richness of a limited palette. The pallid flesh tones and cream-colored vest direct the viewer's attention to the powerful drama of the figure's head, further accentuated by the exaggerated epaulets that project from the girl's shoulders and form the base of a compositional triangle culminating with the green pom-pom.
      Kuhn considered the classic concern for the sculptural reality of the human form to be the dominant theme of his mature work. His observation about another of the paintings in this series applies equally to Green Pom-Pom, 'A lump of weighted form, the one, the universal substance of art. Trying to get it makes art history. The Greeks had it, lost it; Rubens caught it, then it slipped through Van Dyck's fingers. Cézanne chopped it up to see how it is made; his followers fooled with the pieces. Here it is whole again."
–- Solo Performance (1930, 76x46cm; 800x591pix, 75kb) a woman standing, looking sad, holding a feather fan.
–- Three Apples (1933, 21x26cm; 900x1118pix, 91kb _ .ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1800x2237pix, 248kb)
—(061025)
^ Buried on 28 October 1765: Théobald Michau (or Micho), Flemish painter born in 1676 — {Mi-chaud? Tiède donc?}
— In 1686 he was a student of Lucas Achtschellinck [1626–1699] in Brussels, where he became a master in 1698. From 1710 he was an independent master in the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp. Most of his paintings are small-scale cabinet pictures, some on copper. They depict landscapes, river views, scenes of winter, markets, and villages, peopled with tiny figures strolling or working, sometimes celebrating or drinking, often dressed in blue or red and accompanied by a few animals. Typical examples include Landscape with a Group of Farmers, Landscape and Landscape with Figures. Michau’s anecdotal scenes continue the 17th-century tradition of genre paintings by Jan Breughel the elder, David Teniers the younger, and Pieter Bout. His use of color is indebted to Breughel but lacks the same strength, and the stocky figures seem inspired by Teniers. In comparison with these masters, however, Michau seems a mere 18th-century imitator who did not manage to contribute many original variations. Yet he was successful in his day; engravings of several of his works were made by Jacques-Philippe Lebas and his students, and Jacques d’Arthois asked him to paint the figures in some landscapes. Charles, 4th Duke of Lorraine [–1780], then Governor of the southern Netherlands, bought ten of his works.

LINKS
Village Market (540x800pix, 157kb) by a a river, with a theater show.
The Stop at the Country Inn (142kb)
Peasants at the Market (189kb)
The Market (144kb)
Winter Landscape (159kb)
The Road to the Market (142kb)
 
^ Born on 27 October 1631: Johann Heinrich Roos, (or Roose), German painter who died on 03 October 1685, from injuries sustained when his house caught fire.
— His pastoral idylls introduced a Baroque style of landscape and animal painting into Germany. He was the first in a family of painters and etchers, five of whose generations painted animals, landscapes, and portraits from the 17th to the 19th century, working in Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Austria. They included his brother Theodor Roos [Sep 1638 – 07 Jun 1687]; his sons Philipp Peter Roos [30 Aug 1657 – 17 Jan 1706], Johann Melchior Roos [27 Dec 1663 – 1731]; Philipp Peter's son Cajetan Roos; and Cajetan's son Joseph Roos [09 Oct 1726 – 25 Aug 1805].
     Johann Heinrich Roos was the most important German animal painter of the 17th century; his realistic views of cattle, goats and sheep in the gentle sunshine of southern landscapes were much copied in Germany and Holland until the early 19th century. His family left their home in the Palatinate about 1637, fleeing the Thirty Years War, and moved to Amsterdam about 1640. There, Roos was trained (1647–1651) in history painting by Guilliam Dujardin [1597 – >1647], in landscape by Cornelis de Bie, and in portraiture by Barent Graat. However, the younger Italian-inspired landscape painters Nicolaes Berchem and Karel Dujardin were to prove more influential on Roos’s development of the pastoral idyll. He left Amsterdam in 1651–1652; in 1653 he was working in Mainz, and from 1654 to 1659 he was employed at the court of Landgrave Ernest of Hesse in Rheinfels, where he painted a portrait of A Prince (1654), religious scenes (1655; since destroyed) for the castle chapel and the first pastoral idylls. After 1659 Roos painted further portraits in the Palatinate and Mainz, before becoming court painter in 1664 to Charles Ludwig, Elector of the Palatinate, in Heidelberg. Because of unsatisfactory working conditions there he moved to Frankfurt am Main in 1667, where he soon established himself.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1682, 83x60cm; 599x429pix, 36kb _ ZOOM to 2825x2024pix, 350kb)
Self-Portrait (1682 engraving; 474x320pix, 85kb)
Roman Landscape with Cattle and Shepherds (1676, 61x75cm; 800x1000pix, 541kb _ ZOOM to 1810x2262pix, 2771kb)
Gypsy Encampment in Ancient Ruins (1675, 52x59cm; 600x699pix, 46kb _ ZOOM to 2176x2536pix, 240kb)
Roman Arch (1652 drawing, 26x19cm; 1000x732pix)
–- The Resting Bull (engraving 19x16cm; 1054x872pix, 179kb) with equally resting goat, sheep, and lamb.
Landscape (62x75cm; 484x591pix, 53kb) with man, cows, sheep, and goat.
—(061026)
^ >Born on 27 (28?) October 1923: Roy Lichtenstein, New York City painter who died on 29 September 1997. He was a founder and foremost practitioner of Pop art, which countered the techniques and concepts of Abstract Expressionism with images and techniques taken from popular culture.
      As a teenager Lichtenstein studied briefly under the painter Reginald Marsh. After serving in the military during World War II, he attended Ohio State University, teaching there from 1946 to 1951 and receiving a masters degree in 1949. He also taught at New York State University College, Oswego (1957–1960), and at Douglass College of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (1960–1963).
      At the start of his artistic career, Lichtenstein painted themes from the US West in a variety of modern art styles; in 1957 he even dabbled in Abstract Expressionism, against which he later reacted. His interest in the comic-strip cartoon as an art theme probably began with a painting of Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck he made in 1960 for his children. Although he was initially dissatisfied with his technique and uncomfortable with direct appropriation, he took great pleasure in presenting well-known comic-strip figures in a fine art format. He increased the size of his canvases and began to manipulate to his own ends the graphic and linguistic conventions of comic strips dealing with such genres as romance, war, and science fiction. In the style of comic strips, he used words to express sound effects. He developed a detached, mass-produced effect by outlining areas of primary color with thick black lines and by using a technique that simulated benday screening (a dot pattern used by engravers).
      Lichtenstein's first one-man show, held in New York City in 1962, was a great commercial success, and his innovative work found an international audience. In 1966 he became the first US artist to exhibit at London's Tate Gallery. Lichtenstein continued in this vein for much of his career, and his artworks are readily identifiable by their comic-strip characteristics. Nevertheless he extended these techniques into clever and thought-provoking meditations on art and popular culture. After the 1960s, Lichtenstein's works began to include stilllifes and landscapes, and they were a dramatic departure from his earlier style in their use of brushstrokes as well as in their subject matter.

LINKS
–- Imperfect Painting (460x591pix, 26kb _ .ZOOM to 1072x1379pix, 89kb) a geometrical abstraction so accurately titled that the pseudonymous Rex Sanmarino felt challenged to do what Lichtenstein was not able, or not willing to do: turn it into the splendid
      _ Plusperfect Picture aka Live Devil (2006; screen filling, 207kb _ ZOOM to 1868x2636pix, 1994kb)
–- Imperfect Painting (570x470pix, 25kb _ .ZOOM to 1140x940pix, 66kb) different geometrical abstraction, same truth in titling, resulting in a transformation by Sanmarino into not just one picture, but two related series (you can click from any of the pictures to any other of the same series, and instantly from one series to the other at the same level), each consisting of 10 brilliant symmetrical abstractions with a screen filling background to look at while downloading (the picture on any level does not enlarge the previous one, but adds to its edges and center) (for levels 8 and 9, whose size is required to appreciate the fine details but exceeds most computer screens, there is an alternate image reduced to 1120x1584pix):
      _ Imp Effect Panting, level 0 (2006; 1120x1584pix, 370kb _ level 1, 1120x1584pix, 522kb _ level 2, 1120x1584pix, 528kb _ level 3, 1120x1584pix, 682kb _ level 4, 1120x1584pix, 782kb _ level 5, 1120x1584pix, 1038kb _ level 6 to 1120x1584pix, 1114kb _ level 7, 1120x1584pix, 904kb _ level 8, 1584x2240pix, 1778kb _ level 9, 2240x3168pix, 5082kb ||| _ level 8, 1120x1584pix, 854kb _ level 9, 1120x1584pix, 968kb) and
      _ Panting Effect Imp, level 0 (2006; 1120x1584pix, 370kb _ level 1, 1120x1584pix, 522kb _ level 2, 1120x1584pix, 528kb _ level 3, 1120x1584pix, 682kb _ level 4, 1120x1584pix, 782kb _ level 5, 1120x1584pix, 1038kb _ level 6 to 1120x1584pix, 1114kb _ level 7, 1120x1584pix, 904kb _ level 8, 1584x2240pix, 1778kb _ level 9, 2240x3168pix, 5082kb ||| _ level 8, 1120x1584pix, 854kb _ level 9, 1120x1584pix, 968kb)
The Red Horseman (1974; 1056x1427pix, 978kb)
Painting with Statue of Liberty (1983, 272x424cm; 638x1000pix, 117kb)
Coastal Village (1987; 580x845pix, 282kb)
—(091026)


Died on a 27 October:


^ >1944 Léo Marie Gausson, Lagny-sur-Marne French painter, sculptor, designer, and government official, born on 14 February 1860, only child of non-artists Louis Victor Gausson [14 Nov 1818 – 07 Mar 1874] and his second wife (married 23 Apr 1850) Adèle Laurence Montesiste [Mar 1821 – 03 Nov 1896]. He was trained first as a sculptor and engraver, not taking up painting until 1883. While working at the shop of the wood-engraver Eugène Froment [1844–1900] he met Émile-Gustave Péduzzi (Cavallo-Péduzzi; 1851–1917) and Maximilien Luce. By 1886 all three were experimenting with the stippled brushwork and divided color they had seen in the works of Seurat, Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro, and Lucien Pissarro. That year Gausson made his début at the Salon as a sculptor, with the plaster medallion Profile of a Young Girl. He first showed his paintings at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in 1887 and exhibited there annually thereafter.
— After studying engraving in Paris with Theophile Chauvel, Léo Gausson entered the print shop of Eugène Froment in the mid-1870s. There he befriended Maximilien Luce and Cavallo-Peduzzi. After losing their jobs to a new printing process in 1883, the three young artists seriously began painting and shared studios in Paris and Lagny. Gauson’s painting career was limited to the years 1886 to 1900. With Luce and Cavallo-Peduzzi, he experimented with the color theories and the divisionist techniques of Seurat, exhibiting annually with the Indépendants starting in 1887. Gausson worked in a Neo-Impressionist manner only briefly, and from 1890 to the end of the century, his canvases reveal the influence of the Nabis and the Symbolists. Gausson traveled extensively throughout France, cultivating friendships with other painters and exhibiting in the progressive salons of Le Brac de Boutteville, Rose & Croix, and Les Vingt, as well as with the Indépendants. After 1896, however, he virtually abandoned all painting and exhibition activities. Instead, he published an anthology of verse, illustrated the poetry of his friend Adolphe Retté, designed posters and executed a number of engravings after the paintings of Jean François Millet. From 1901 to 1908 Gausson spent most of his time in Africa. He served as a colonial administrator and journeyed across the continent. Gausson then returned to Paris, where he was employed in canvas showingminor government posts, and eventually retired to Lagny.
Self-Portrait (318x256pix, 44kb)
–- Route traversant le village de Thorigny, près de Lagny (1888, 38x46cm; 951x1163pix, 158kb _ .ZOOM to 2856x3490pix, 992kb and admire the canvas showing between the dabs of paint all over the picture, as shown in this tiny sample >) Another tiny section of this canvas has inspired the pseudonymous Nounou Zangossons to create the highly magnified and thereby magnificent
     _ Canvas Savant aka Tant Va Sa Banque (2005; 920x1300pix, 229kb)
–- S*>#Sous-bois (1888, 32x27cm; 799x648pix, 146kb)
>–- S*>#Le pont des arts (1891, 33x46cm; 440x622pix, 130kb)
+ ZOOM IN +>–- S*>#Meules (33x46cm; 510x725pix, 74kb)
>–- S*>#La Ferme (33x46cm; _ S*#>ZOOM to 1476x2132pix, 300kb) not to be confused with Ferme~la! [>>>]. — (051026)

^ 1921 Henry Woods, British artist born on 22 April 1846. — {Perhaps he ought to have made his beautiful paintings lighter and more understandable, and then, when stopping by Woods on a snowy evening, the Frost might not prompt people to say: “The Woods are lovely, dark, and deep, but I have promises to keep, and miles to go before Islip.”}
>–- S*>#Fruit Sellers from the Islands, Venice (1903, 56x48cm; 900x657pix, 105kb)
Venetian Christening Party (570x400pix, 49kb)
>–- S*>#Interior of Saint-Peter-Martyr, Murano, Venice (1915, 60x50cm; 510x420pix, 31kb)
Portia (1888; 381x253pix, 31kb) — (051025)

^ 1921 Carl Kronberger, Austrian painter born on 07 March 1841 in Freistadt, Austria. Kronberger received his formal training from Dyke, Anschutz, and Hiltensperger at the Academy of Munich. There he perfected his ability to paint the human figure and began to specialize in portrait and genre painting. He was noted, during his lifetime, for finely detailed miniature portrait paintings often featuring the head of a Tyrolean gentleman. However, he also painted a number of ‘true’ genre paintings. These tiny masterpieces allowed the artist to display his talent. Among his exhibited works are: Law Proceedings (1873), Last Will (1875), At the Baptismal Feast (1876), Aunt is Coming (1876)' Theft Discovered too Late (1880), and I Dropped It (key in the snow, before the locked door).
A Man in a Tavern (23x18cm)
A Woman With a Prayer Book (19x14cm)
Tyrolean Peasant (13x7cm; 576x414pix, 100kb)
Old Lady with a Spanish Comb (1885, 18x14cm; 576x460pix, 136kb)
A Rustic Elderly Man (17x12cm; 550x389pix, 22kb).
// The following is by Alfred Kronberger [1933-2002] Austrian painter probably related to Carl Kronberger (and not to be confused with the Austrian painter Alfred Kornberger [1909-1944]):
–- Ties (1980; 90x90cm; 1045x1045pix, 52kb) _ The pseudonymous Allfried Crownpastor has transformed this into a amazing series of eight interrelated abstract pictures which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from any one of them, for example the asymmetrical:
      _ Wins (2009; 464x656pix, 82kb _ ZOOM I to 656x928pix, 198kb _ ZOOM J to 928x1312pix, 416kb _ ZOOM K to 1312x1856pix, 899kb _ ZOOM L to 1856x2624pix, 1182kb _ ZOOM M to 2624x3712pix, 1317kb) or the symmetrical
      _ Losses (2009; 454x656pix, 86kb _ ZOOM I to 656x928pix, 162kb _ ZOOM J to 928x1312pix, 504kb _ ZOOM K to 1312x1856pix, 922kb _ ZOOM L to 1856x2624pix, 1216kb _ ZOOM M to 2624x3712pix, 1354kb) — (090307)

1823 Johann Josef Karl Heinrich (or Henrici), German artist born on 15 January 1737.

^ 1599 Gillis Congnet (or Coignet, Aegidius Quinetus), Flemish painter and scientist born in 1538 in Antwerp. The son of a goldsmith of the same name, he was trained as a painter by Lambert Wenselyns (fl 1553) and possibly also by Antoon van Palermo [1503 or 1513–1589), an Antwerp art dealer in whose house he lived. In 1561 Congnet became a free master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke. Shortly afterwards he went to Italy, first to Naples and Sicily and then to Terni, where he made frescoes with a painter named Stello. In 1568 he was registered as a member of the Accademia in Florence. He must have returned to Antwerp in 1570, for between that year and 1585 his name appears in the register of the city’s Guild of Saint Luke, of which he became Dean in 1585. A year later, on the arrival of Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, he moved to Amsterdam, where he was granted citizenship in 1589. Later he moved to Hamburg, where he died. — LINKS
>–- S*>#The Wedding at Cana (1591, 129x257cm; _ S*#>ZOOM to 1041x2103pix, 277kb)
Pierson La Hues (1581, 170x133cm; 1095x804pix, 122kb) _ Hues of brown make up this portrait of Pierson La Hues, drummer and page of the Old Archers' Guild.
Landscape with Saint John the Evangelist at Patmos (1598, 133x192cm; 575x824pix, 211kb) _ done in collaboration with Tobias Verhaecht.
>–- S*>#The Judgement of Paris (1585, 99x135cm; 510x694pix, 73kb) _ This is a collaborative work between Jacob Grimmer [1525 – <May 1590], who painted the landscape (the principal part of the picture), and Gillis Coignet the Elder, who painted the staffage. It was painted when Coignet was the head of the Guild in Antwerp, but before his departure for Amsterdam in 1586. Coignet collaborated with other landscape painters, notably Cornelis Molenaer whom, according to Van Mander, he sometimes employed for the purpose. He seems to have collaborated with Grimmer less often, but did with him a picture of the same subject and similar composition as the present work, also painted on panel; in the it the three women are seated, but the figure of Paris, is similar. Coignet, a cheerful and agreeable man, suffered the nickname “Gillis met de vlek” on account of a mark on his cheek, as hairy as a mouse, supposedly because his mother had been frightened by one. His Italian experience in the 1560s left a clear mark on his work.
Mars and Venus (1598, 113x182cm; 297x500pix, 22kb) not planets. — (051025)


Born on a 27 October:


^ 1880 Maurice Sys (or Sijs), Belgian artist who died in 1972. — {6?}
>–- S*>#A Windmill in a Summer Landscape (60x71cm; 604x720pix, 108kb)
>–- S*>#Moored Volendam Boats at Dusk (61x81cm; 379x510pix, 26kb) — (051025)

1744 Mary Moser (Mrs. Hugh Lloyd), London painter who died on 02 May 1819, daughter of George Michael Moser [1706-1783]. She painted in oil and watercolor and was one of the founder-members of the British Royal Academy. She probably received her early training from her father. In 1758 and 1759 one of her drawings won an award from the Society of Arts, and from 1760 to 1768 she exhibited at the Society of Artists. She exhibited at the Royal Academy in most years from 1769 to 1802. As a woman, she was not expected to take part in the running of the Academy but took an active role in its proceedings, attending the General Assemblies and voting in elections.


Happened on a 27 October:
2001 The Louvre Museum reopens after being shut for eight days by a strike by workers protesting that new museum workers are not being hired to make it possible to apply to them France's work week shortened from 39 to 35 hours.

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* Having investigated La Ferme and Ferme-la!, Nounou Zangossons has also been inspired to provide pictorial clues after making these photographs [click on them >>>] and asking: “Are they related? How?”

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updated Tuesday 27-Oct-2009 1:59 UT
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