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DEATHS: 1916 CHASE — 1935 DEMUTH 1941 DELAUNAY
BIRTHS: 1825 FATTORI — 1801 BONINGTON — 1881 PICASSO
^ Born on 25 October (06 Sep?) 1825: Giovanni Fattori, Italian Realist painter etcher who died on 30 August 1908 (1905?).
— Initially established as a painter of military subjects, he came to be one of the leading Italian plein-air painters of landscape with figures. Towards the end of his life he produced many excellent etchings, mainly of rural subjects.
— Nella fama che da morto lo avvolge e già lo solleva alla gloria, sembra che della vita di lui non si sappia altro che la sua onorata povertà. Ma di quanto nella biografia di questo artista può aiutarci a spiegare l’arte sua e le successive maniere, pochi si occupano. Sono stati, fra gli altri, dimenticati due fatti capitali. Il primo è che Giovanni Fattori non ha mai creduto d’essere un puro paesista, un pittore cioè di vuoti paesaggi, ma sì un pittore di figura il quale adoperava i mille studi e studietti di paese, adesso fortuna dei mercanti e invidia dei raccoglitori, soltanto per comporre gli sfondi convenienti ai suoi quadri di butteri, di bifolchi, di boscaiole, di buoi, di puledri, di soldati, d’accampamenti, di manovre, di battaglie. Il secondo fatto è che Giovanni Fattori fino ai trentacinque o trentasei anni ha dipinto poco e fiacco, e i più dei quadri, quadretti, bozzetti e appunti che oggi si espongono, si lodano, si comprano e si ricomprano, sono tutti dipinti verso i quarant’anni e dopo, dal 1861 o ’65. Il caso è più unico che raro nella storia dell’arte, ma ci aiuta a capire quel che di meditato, riposato e maturo è nelle sue opere migliori, anche nelle più antiche, ingenuamente credute giovanili e primaverili.
— Plinio Nomellini was a student of Fattori.
Maria Stuarda a Crookstone
Soldati francesi del '59
Ritratto della cugina Argia
Carica di cavalleria a Montebello
Ritorno della cavalleria (1028x600pix, 127kb)
Le macchiaiole
Silvestro Lega che dipinge sugli scogli
Diego Martelli a Castiglioncello
In vedetta
Barrocci romani
L'aratura
Ritratto della figliastra
Giornata grigia [in English: Grade~A?]
 
^ Died on 25 October 1916: William Merritt Chase, US painter, printmaker, and teacher born on 01 November 1849. He helped establish the fresh color and bravura technique of much early 20th-century US painting.
— Chase studied at the National Academy of Design in New York City and under Karl von Piloty for six years in Munich. He worked fora time in the grays and browns of the Munich school, but in the 1880s he took up a lighter palette, which was then popular in Paris. An extremely effective teacher, Chase taught many pupils, first at the Art Students League of New York and then at his own school in New York City. He is best known for his portraits and figure studies, his still lifes of dead fish, and his studio interiors, e.g., In the Studio (1883). His mature style is notable for its bold and spontaneous brushwork and other marks of virtuosity.
— Chase received his early training in Indianapolis from the portrait painter Barton S. Hays [1826–1875]. In 1869 he went to New York to study at the National Academy of Design where he exhibited in 1871. That year he joined his family in St. Louis, where John Mulvaney [1844–1906] encouraged him to study in Munich. With the support of several local patrons, enabling him to live abroad for the next six years, Chase entered the Königliche Akademie in Munich in 1872. Among his teachers were Alexander von Wagner [[1838–1919], Karl Theodor von Piloty and Wilhelm von Diez [1839–1907]. Chase also admired the work of Wilhelm Leibl. The school emphasized bravura brushwork, a technique that became integral to Chase’s style, favored a dark palette and encouraged the study of Old Master painters, particularly Diego Velázquez [06 Jun 1599 – 06 Aug 1660] and Frans Hals [1583 – 01 Sep 1666]. Among Chase’s friends in Munich were the US artists Walter Shirlaw [06 Aug 1838 – 26 Dec 1909], J. Frank Currier [21 Nov 1843 – 15 Jan 1909], and Frederick Dielman [1847–1935], as well as Frank Duveneck [09 Oct 1848 – 03 Jan 1919] and John H. Twachtman [04 Aug 1853 – 08 Aug 1902], who accompanied him on a nine-month visit to Venice in 1877.
— Chase's students included George Wesley Bellows [12 Aug 1882 – 08 Jan 1925], Georgia O'Keeffe [15 Nov 1887 – 06 Mar 1986], Rockwell Kent [21 Jun 1882 – 13 Mar 1971], Charles Rettew Sheeler, Dennis Miller Bunker [06 Nov 1861 – 28 Dec 1890], Lydia Field Emmet, Elizabeth Adela Armstrong Forbes [1859-1912], Edmund Greacen, Lilian Westcott Hale, Robert Onderdonk, Lawton Parker, Ethel Paxson, Irving Wiles, David Ericson, Blanche Lazzell, Louis Ritman, Leopold Seyffert, Frederic Grant, Charles Wrenn, Patrick Henry Bruce, Charles Henry Buckius Demuth, Edwin Walter Dickinson, Arthur Burdett Frost [1851-1928], Marsden Hartley, Edward Hopper, Li Tiefu, Walter Pach, Guy Pène du Bois, Morton Livingston Schamberg.

LINKS
Self Portrait (1915, 133x161cm; 824x1000pix, 187kb) in the studio, next to a large canvas (roughly 150x180cm) in progress.
Louis Betts (51x41cm; _ ZOOMable)
–- Harriet Hubbard Ayer (1880, 69x56cm; 864x708pix, 83kb _ .ZOOM to 1727x1416pix, 272kb) the painting of the hair looks somewhat unfinished.
–- A Young Woman (76x64cm; 980x807pix, 38kb _ .ZOOM to 1470x1210pix, 85kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2205x1816pix, 205kb)
–- Near the Beach, Shinnecock (1895, 25x35cm; xpix, kb)
–- A Corner of My Studio (1895; 61x91cm; 824x1240, 87kb _ .ZOOM to 1664x2480pix, 738kb)
–- Well I Should Not Murmur, For God Judges Best (Mrs. David Hester Chase, the Artist's Mother, in 1878) (1890, 31x20cm, 1177x740pix, 62kb )
The Mandolin Player (1879, 41x32cm; 1000x671pix, 232kb) _ This has inspired the pseudonymous Mailly W. Demeritt Pursuit to show the very rare angled double mandolin played by a virtual (but not necessarily virtuous) performer who carries much weight in the music world (and anywhere else she might manage to go), in the picture Do Man Limp Layer (2005; 920x1300pix, 202kb). Pursuit's model seems to be a descendent of Chase's, but having a serious bulimia problem. The angled double mandolin is also featured in the very colorful Dough Man Limb Lawyer (2005; 920x1300pix, 354kb) by the also pseudonymous (probably the very same under a different name) Irala Alleluyev.
The Patrician (1875, 55x46cm; 1088x900pix; 780kb)
237 images at Art Renewal
—(061019)
^ Died on 25 October 1801: Richard Parkes Bonington, English Romantic painter specialized in coastal landscapes, who died on 23 September 1828.
            Bonington was born near Nottingham, England. In about 1817, his family moved to Calais, France. In 1818, Bonington went to Paris, where he met Eugène Delacroix and made watercolor copies of Dutch and Flemish landscapes in the Louvre. In 1821-1822, he studied under Antoine-Jean Gros at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. His first works, mostly sketches of Le Havre and Lillebonne, were exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1822. He also began to work in lithography, illustrating Baron Taylor’s Voyages. In 1824, he won a gold medal at the Paris Salon. He traveled all over France and especially in Normandy, painting coastal landscapes and seaport scenes Coast of Picardy (1824), French River Scene with Fishing Boats (1824), A Boat Beached in a Port at Low Tide (1825); he also went to England and Scotland, occasionally accompanied by his friend Eugène Delacroix, in whose studio he later worked. In 1826, Bonington visited Venice, where he was deeply impressed by Veronese and Canaletto: St. Mark's Column in Venice (1828), The Doge's Palace, Venice (1827), Piazza San Marco, Venice (1827).
From 1824 he experimented increasingly in romantic subjects taken from history and studied armor. His best-known works on historical subjects followed: Francis I and Marguerite of Navarre, Henri III and the English Ambassador (1828), Venice. The Grand Canal (1827).
            Bonington, like John Constable, was one of the English artists whose landscapes were highly regarded in France. He was among the first artists in France to paint watercolors outdoors rather than in studio. His approach to nature as well as his technique stimulated the Barbizon painters and – with Eugene Isabey, Eugene Boudin and Johann Barthold Jongkind as intermediaries – paved the way for Impressionism.
            Bonington died of tuberculosis in London, only 26 years old. His style attracted many imitators in both England and France and he had an influence out of proportion with his brief life.

LINKS
A Fishmarket on the French Coast (1818; 600x933pix _ ZOOM to 1140x1772pix, 347kb _ ZOOM+ to 1400x2176pix)
Small Fishing Rowboat in Rough Sea (1819; 600x808pix _ ZOOM to 1176x1584pix, 309kb _ ZOOM+ to 1400x1886pix)
The Harbour of Le Havre (1822; 600x817pix _ ZOOM to 1192x1624pix, 287kb _ ZOOM+ to 1400x1907pix)
Procession before the Notre-Dame Church in Dives (1822; 600x705pix _ ZOOM to 1168x1372pix, 268kb _ ZOOM+ to 1400x1645pix)
Anne Page and Slender (Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, I.1) (1825, 600x497pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1161pix, 461kb)
—(061019)
^ Died on 25 October 1935: Charles Demuth, US Precisionist painter, born on 09 November 1883.
— Charles Demuth was born and died in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He was born in a Lancaster house on North Lime Street. At age 7, he and his family moved to the King Street home where he spent most of his lifetime. He was the only child of successful business people; they were financially secure so that Demuth never had to work for a living, although he was never wealthy. Demuth's health was frail; from an early age he suffered from lameness and as an adult from severe diabetes. At sixteen, after a long, isolated adolescence, Demuth was sent to a prestigious private prep school, the Franklin and Marshall Academy, from which he was graduated in 1901. He remained at home for two more school years before enrolling at the Drexel Institute of Art, Science, and industry in Philadelphia, then he studied with Thomas Anshutz and William Merritt Chase at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. As a young man Demuth made several trips to Europe to study. There he became part of the avant garde scene. He was attracted by the work of Marcel Duchamp and the Cubists. As he matured he moved gradually away from illustrative art. He executed a series of watercolors of flowers, circuses, and café scenes. Impressed by his abilities Alfred Stieglitz featured his works in his New York Gallery. Later in his career, Demuth began to paint advertisements and billboards into such cityscapes as his "Buildings, Lancaster" (1930), in which bold, commercial lettering is complemented by the severely hard-edged abstraction of buildings. Demuth created most of his art in his home where he worked in a small second floor studio of the rear wing, overlooking the garden. He was homosexual and lived with his partner Robert Locher at home with his parents. In his will he bequeathed his watercolors to Robert Locher, and all his other paintings to Georgia O'Keeffe. Among Demuth's best-known works are his poster portraits such as the tribute to the poet William Carlos Williams, "I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold.". Charles Demuth died of complications from diabetes in 1935, shortly before his fifty-second birthday. He helped channel modern European movements into American art and was a leading exponent of Precisionism. Less known are his pictures of flowers, Bermuda, and the homosexual navy scene.
the "real" Aucassin et NicoletteThe Figure 5 in Gold is deservedly one of the icons of American modernism, but it came almost at the end of Demuth's life and its author has always seemed a little elusive beside the heavier reputations of his contemporaries — Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, Arthur Dove, Charles Sheeler. Of them all, he was the most unabashed esthete. And the wittiest too: it's hard to imagine any of his colleagues painting a factory chimney paired with a round silo and calling it, in reference to star-crossed lovers in a French medieval romance, Aucassin et Nicolette.
      Blessed with a private income from his parents in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, coddled in childhood, lame, diabetic, vain, insecure, and brilliantly talented, Demuth lacked neither admirers nor colleagues. He was well read (and had a small talent as a writer, in the Symbolist vein) and his tastes were formed by Pater, Huysmans, Maeterlinck, and The Yellow Book; he gravitated to Greenwich Village as a Cafe Royal dandy-in-embryo. Free of market worries, he did a lot of work that was private in nature, for the amusement and stimulation of himself and his gay friends, and much of it was unexhibitable — at least until the 1980s.
      Demuth was a rather discreet homosexual, but if he could not place his deepest sexual predilections in the open, he could still make art from them. Seen from our distance, that of a pornocratic culture so drenched in genital imagery that sly hints about forbidden sex hardly compel attention, the skill with which he did this might seem almost quaint. But in the teens and twenties the public atmosphere was of course very different, and Demuth, like other artists in the avant-garde circle that formed around the collectors Loulse and Walter Arensberg — especially Marcel Duchamp, whose recondite sexual allegory The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even Demuth called "the greatest picture of our time" — took a special delight in sowing his work with sexual hints. To create a secret subject matter, to disport oneself with codes, was to enjoy one's distance from (and rise above) "straight" life. The handlebar of a vaudeville trick-rider's bicycle turns into a penis, aimed at his crotch; sailors dance with girls in a cabaret but ogle one another.
      If these scenes of Greenwich Village bohemia were all that Demuth did, he would be remembered as a minor American esthete, somewhere between Aubrey Beardsley and Jules Pascin. But Demuth was an exceptional watercolorist and his still-lifes and figure paintings, with their wiry contours and exquisite sense of color, the tones discreetly manipulated by blotting, are among the best things done in that medium by an American. They quickly rise above the anecdotal and the "amusing."
     About 1920 Demuth began with increasing confidence to explore what would become the major theme of his career: the face of the industrial US. It may seem odd that Demuth, yearning for Paris, should have become obsessed with grain elevators, water towers, and factory chimneys. But as he wrote to Stieglitz in 1927: "America doesn't really care - still, if one is really an artist and at the same time an American, just this not caring, even though it drives one mad, can be artistic material." Precisionism was by no means just a provincial US response to the European avant-garde - the splintering of planes from French Cubism, the machine ethos from Italian Futurism. Sheeler and Demuth were painting a functional US landscape refracted through a deadpan modernist lingo that, in Demuth's case, picked up bits of Robert Delaunay and Lyonel Feininger while anticipating some of the essential subjects of Pop art.
      The machine emblems of this US landscape had fascinated some of the best minds in Europe (Picabia, Duchamp, Le Corbusier), who saw them either as exotic whiffs of the Future or as instruments of irony. Being American, Demuth took the silos and bridges rather more literally. Out of this came his Precisionist masterpiece, My Egypt, 1927. It is a face-on view of a grain elevator in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Demuth's hometown, painted with such careful suppression of gesture that hardly a brushstroke can be seen. Demuth's title whimsically refers to the mania for Egyptology planted in US popular culture in 1922, when Howard Carter discovered Tutankhamen's tomb. The visual weight of those twin pale silo shafts and their pedimental cap does indeed suggest Karnak.
      But Demuth may have had a deeper level of intent. His title connects to the story of Exodus. Egypt was the symbol of the Jews' oppression; it was also the starting point for their collective journey toward the land of Canaan, the forging of themselves as a collective and distinct people. An invalid in later life, Demuth was "exiled" in Lancaster, bedridden in his parents' house, cut off from the intellectual ferment of Paris and the sexual-esthetic comradeship of New York. All these were Canaan; home was Egypt. Yet he was poignantly aware that the industrial US which gave him a rentier's income had also given him a great subject which would define him as a painter. From that tension, his finest work was born.
LINKS
From the Garden of the Chateau (no garden, no chateau, 1921, 51x64cm)
— Aucassin and Nicolette (factory smokestacks, 1921) _ he was the most unabashed esthete. And the wittiest too: it's hard to imagine any of his colleagues painting a factory chimney paired with a round silo and calling it, in reference to star-crossed lovers in a French medieval romance, Aucassin and Nicolette.
— I saw the Figure 5 in Gold (1928) _ "Luckily or not, Charles Demuth painted one picture so famous that practically every American who looks at art knows it. The Figure 5 in Gold, 1928, is a prediction of Pop art, based on an Imagist poem, "The Great Figure," by his friend William Carlos Williams:
Among the rain
and lights
I saw the figure 5
in gold
on a red
firetruck
moving
tense
unheeded
to gong clangs
siren howls
and wheels rumbling
through the dark city.
"Imagist" because each line, a snap unit of meaning, is meant by its isolation to be perfectly clear, a pulse in itself, without narrative - suspended for contemplation, like elements in a painting. Obviously Demuth's rendering has something in common with Hartley's arrays of banners, numbers, and emblems, and in fact Williams later recalled that he had seen and heard the firetruck in question from the window of Marsden Hartley's studio on Fifteenth Street. Here are the streetlights, the red back of the truck and the engine company number 5, that gloss-enamel heroic heraldry of the New York Fire Department, interspersed with lettered apostrophes to Williams: "BILL," "CARLO[S]," and, at the bottom left, "W.C.W." next to his own initials, "C.D."
Trees and Barns: Bermuda (1917)
 
^ Born on 25 October 1881: Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz Picasso, Spanish painter who died on 08 April 1973.
— Pablo Picasso, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, was born in Málaga, Spain. Picasso's father, José Ruiz Blasco (1838-1913), was a professor of drawing, and he bred his son for a career in academic art. Picasso had his first exhibit at age 13 and later quit art school so he could experiment full-time with modern art styles. He went to Paris for the first time in 1900, and in 1901 was given an exhibition at a gallery on Paris' rue Lafitte, a street known for its prestigious art galleries. The precocious 19-year-old Spaniard was at the time a relative unknown outside Barcelona, but he had already produced hundreds of paintings. Winning favorable reviews, he stayed in Paris for the rest of the year and later returned to the city to settle permanently. The work of Picasso, which comprises more than 50'000 paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, and ceramics produced over 80 years, is described in a series of overlapping periods. His first notable period--the "blue period"--began shortly after his first Paris exhibit. In works such as The Old Guitarist (1903), Picasso painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor.
      The blue period was followed by the "rose period," in which he often depicted circus scenes, and then by Picasso's early work in sculpture. In 1907, Picasso painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which, with its fragmented and distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art and Paul Cézanne and is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement, founded by Picasso and the French painter Georges Braque in 1909. In Cubism, which is divided into two phases, analytical and synthetic, Picasso and Braque established the modern principle that artwork need not represent reality to have artistic value. Major Cubist works by Picasso included his costumes and sets for Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes (1917) and The Three Musicians (1921). Picasso and Braque's Cubist experiments also resulted in the invention of several new artistic techniques, including collage.
      After Cubism, Picasso explored classical and Mediterranean themes, and images of violence and anguish increasingly appeared in his work. In 1937, this trend culminated in the masterpiece Guernica, a monumental work that evoked the horror and suffering endured by the Basque town of Guernica when it was destroyed by German war planes during the Spanish Civil War. Picasso remained in Paris during the Nazi occupation but was fervently opposed to fascism and after the war joined the French Communist Party. Picasso's work after World War II is less studied than his earlier creations, but he continued to work feverishly and enjoyed commercial and critical success. He produced fantastical works, experimented with ceramics, and painted variations on the works of other masters in the history of art. Known for his intense gaze and domineering personality, he had a series of intense and overlapping love affairs in his lifetime. He continued to produce art with undiminished force until his death in 1973 at the age of 91.
— Enormous body of work includes painting, sculpture, works on paper, ceramics, and poetry. For nearly 80 of his 91 years he devoted himself to artistic production that contributed significantly to and paralleled the entire development of modern art in the 20th century. Born in Malaga, Spain. His father, a painter, teaches drawing and is curator of local museum. 1891 Family moves to La Coruña. Studies painting and drawing under his father. 1895 Family moves to Barcelona. Becomes student at the School of Fine Arts. 1897 Admitted to Royal Academy of San Fernando, Madrid. Leaves Academy during winter. 1899 Begins to frequent the café, Els Quatre Gats, where he comes in contact with Barcelona intelligentsia. Creates first etching, El Zurdo. 1900 Exhibition at Els Quatre Gats. First trip to Paris. Returns to Madrid. 1901 Goes to Barcelona at end of April and Paris in May. Exhibition at Galeries Vollard. 1902 - 1903 Returns to Barcelona. Back to Paris in October 1902, where he shares a room with writer and poet, Max Jacob. In Barcelona, creates most important works of his “Blue Period”: La vie, La Celestine, The Blind Man’s Meal (1903). 1904 Moves into the Bateau-Lavoir, 13, rue Ravignan, Paris. Meets Fernande Olivier, who becomes his mistress in 1905. Important print: Le repas frugal. 1905 Three etchings exhibited at Galeries Serrurier. Meets Gertrude and Leo Stein. Beginning of the “Rose Period.” Produces 15 etchings and drypoints. Only a few impressions are pulled. Thirteen of them, added to Le repas frugal, will be used to make up Les Saltimbanques in 1913. 1906 Meets Henri Matisse and André Derain. Works on Chevaux au bain, paints Portrait of Gertrude Stein, Two Nudes, Seated Female Nude with Crossed Legs. L’abreuvoir drypoint to be included in Les saltimbanques. Produces first woodcut. 1907 Works on painting Les demoiselles d’Avignon. Keen interest in African sculpture.
All you wanted to know about Picasso and were afraid to ask together with plenty that you probably don't want to bother with. [3589 CATALOGUED ARTWORKS AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION it says, but they are only listed, no pictures!]

LINKS
Still Life with Skull, Leeks, and Pitcher, March 14, 1945
“Bonne Fête” Monsieur Picasso (1961, color lithograph poster 99x63cm)
Tête de femme II (1939)
La Petite Corrida (1957)
Rape of the Sabine Women (1963, 195x131cm) _ Painted when Picasso was eighty-two, this is his last major statement about the horrors of war, and is said to have been inspired by the Cuban missile crisis. In it, Picasso transforms a familiar subject from the art of the past—the story of early Romans who, suffering a shortage of marriageable women, invited the neighboring Sabines to Rome and then carried off all their young women. Against a sunny background of blue sky and green fields, the grotesquely distorted figures are compressed into the foreground space, the horses and soldiers trampling a woman and her child. This powerful image of outrage and despair bears testimony to Picasso’s productivity and energy in the last decade of his life. _ No apparent resemblance to the same subject treated by Poussin _ Pietro da Cortona _ Rivalz _ Rubens _ David.
— //
Self Portrait (1900, charcoal)
Self Portrait: Yo Picasso (1901)
Self Portrait (1907)
La Vie (1903)
La Tragédie (1903)
Woman with a Crow (1904, charcoal, pastel, and watercolor)
Tumblers (Mother and Son) (1905)
Famille de Saltimbanques (1905)
La Toilette (1906)
— Le repas frugal (1904, 46x37cm)
Garçon à la Pipe (1905; 844x678pix, 95kb) _ this painting established an all-time record price of $105 million at Sotheby's 05 May 2004 auction.
On-Line Picasso Project: small images of all works, with comments.

Pablo Picasso

(1881-1973)

 “Everyone wants to understand art. Why don’t we try to understand the song of a bird? Why do we love the night, the flowers, everything around us, without trying to understand them? But in the case of a painting, people think they have to understand. If only they would realize above all that an artist works of necessity, that he himself is only an insignificant part of the world, and that no more importance should be attached to him than to plenty of other things which please us in the world, though we can’t explain them people who try to explain pictures are usually barking up the wrong tree.”
Picasso

The Beginning: Childhood and Youth 1881-1901

 Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born October 25, 1881 to Don José Ruiz Blasco (1838-1939) and Doña Maria Picasso y Lopez (1855-1939). The family at the time resided in Málaga, Spain, where Don José taught drawing at the local school of Fine Arts and Crafts. The first ten years of Pablo’s life passed in Málaga. The family was far from rich, and when 2 other children were born (Lola (Dolorès) in 1884 and  Concepción (Conchita) in 1887) it was often difficult to make both ends meet. When Don José was offered a better-paid job, he accepted it immediately, and the Picassos moved to the provincial capital of La Coruna, where they lived for the next four years. There, in 1892, Pablo joined the school of Fine Arts, but mostly his father taught him. By 1894 Pablo’s works became so perfect for the boy of his age that his father recognized Pablo’s amazing talent, handed him his brush and palette and declared that he would never paint again.
In 1895 Don José got a professorship at “La Lonja”, the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona, and the family settled there. Pablo passed his entrance examination on an advanced course in classical art and still life at the same school. He was the best than senior students in their final exam projects.
“Unlike in music, there are no child prodigies in painting. What people regard as premature genius is the genius of childhood. It gradually disappears as they get older. It is possible for such a child to become a real painter one day, perhaps even a great painter. But he would have to start right from the beginning. So far as I am concerned, I did not have that genius. My first drawings could never have been shown at an exhibition of children’s drawings. I lacked the clumsiness of a child, his naivety. I made academic drawings at the age of seven, the minute precision of which frightened me.” Picasso.

In 1896 Pablo’s first large “academic’ oil painting, “The First Communion”, appeared in an exhibition in Barcelona. His second large oil painting, “Science and Charity” (1897) received honorable mention in the national exhibition of fine art in Madrid and was awarded a gold medal in a competition at Málaga. Pablo’s uncle sent him money for further studying in Madrid, and the youth passed entrance examination for advanced courses at the Royal Academy of San Fernando in Madrid. But already in the winter he abandoned the classes. His everyday visits to the Prado seemed to him much more important. At first he copied the old masters, trying to imitate their style; later they would be the source of ideas for original paintings of his own, and he would re-arrange them again and again in different variations.
Picasso’s time in Madrid, however, came to a sudden end. In summer 1898, caught with scarlet fever, he came back to Barcelona, then, to regain health, he went to the mountain village of Horta de Ebro and spent long time there to return home only in spring 1899.

In Barcelona he frequented Els Quatre Gats (The Four Cats), the café, where artists and intellectuals used to meet. He made friends, among others, with the young painter Casagemas, and the poet Sabartés, who would later be his secretary and lifelong friend. In Quatre Gats Picasso met the vivid representatives of Spanish modernism, such as Rusinol and Nonell; he was very enthusiastic about new directions in art, he said farewell to “classicism” and started his enduring search and experiments. The relations with his parents strained, they could not understand and forgive him the betrayal of “classicism”.

In October 1900 Picasso and Casagemas left for Paris, the most significant artistic center at the time, and opened studio at the Montmartre. Art dealer Pedro Manach offered Picasso his first contract: 150 Francs per month in exchange for pictures. His first Paris picture “Le Moulin de la Galette” (Guggenheim Museum, New York).  In December he departed for Barcelona, Málaga, and Madrid where he became co-editor of Arte Joven. But already in May 1901 he returned to Paris. This restless life with constant travels  continued all his life, though  later he would become more or less settled, but never finally settled.
 

The Blue and Rose periods 1901-1906

In February 1901 Picasso’s friend Casagemas committed suicide: he shot himself in a Parisian café because a girl he loved had refused him. His death was a shock, Picasso returned to it again and again: Death of Casagemas, multicolored, and the same in blue, “Evocation – The Burial of Casagemas”.  In this latter canvas the compositional and stylistic influence of El Greco’s “The Burial of Count Orgaz” could be traced. Picasso started to use almost exclusively blue and green. “I began to paint in blue, when I realized that Casademas had died” Picasso.
Caught with restlessness and loneliness, he constantly moved between Paris and Barcelona, depicting in blue isolation, unhappiness, despair, misery of physical weakness, old age, and poverty. In the allegorical La Vie (1903), all in monochrome blue, again the man has the face of his deceased friend.

In 1904 Picasso finally settled in Paris, at 13, Rue Ravignan (until 1909), called “Bateau-Lavoir”. He met Fernande Olivier, a model, who would be his mistress for the next seven years. He even proposed to her, but she had to refuse because was already married. They paid frequent visits to the Circus Médrano, whose bright pink tent at the foot of the Montmartre shone for miles and was quite close to his studio. There Picasso got ideas for his pictures of circus actors. The pub Le Lapin Agile (The Agile Rabbit) was a meeting place of young artists and authors. In the pub Picasso got acquainted with the poets Guillaume Apollinaire and Max Jacob. The landlord, Frédé, accepted pictures as payment, that made his café attractive for the artists and he acquired a splendid collection of pictures, including, of course, one by Picasso “At the Lapin Agile”, with Picasso as a harlequin and Frédé as a guitar player. The picture “Woman with a Crow” shows Frédé’s daughter.
By 1905 Picasso lightened his palette, relieving it with pink and rose, yellow-ochre and gray. His circus performers, harlequins and acrobats became more graceful, delicate and sensible.
In 1906 the art dealer Ambroise Vollard  bought most of Picasso’s “rose” pictures, thus started his life free of financial worries. Accompanied by Fernande he again traveled to Barcelona, then to Gosol in the north of Catalonia, where he painted “La Toilette”. Deeply impressed by the Iberian sculptures at the Louvre he began to think over and to experiment with geometrical forms.
 
 

Cubism 1907-1917


“Cubism is no different from any other school of painting. The same principles and the same elements are common to all. The fact that for a long time cubism has not been understood and that even today there are people who cannot see anything in it, means nothing. I do not read English, and an English book is a blank to me. This does not mean that the English language does not exist, and why should I blame anyone but myself if I cannot understand what I know nothing about?”
Picasso.

“Negro period”

In 1907 after numerous studies and variations Picasso painted his first cubistic picture - “Les demoiselles d’Avignon”. Impressed with African sculptures at ethnographic museum he tried to combine the angular structures of the “primitive art” and his new ideas about cubism.
“In the Demoiselles d’Avignon I painted a profile nose into a frontal view of a face. I just had to depict in sideways so that I could give it a name, so that I could call it ‘nose’. And so they started talking about Negro art. Have you ever seen a single African sculpture – just one- where a face mask has a profile nose in it?” Picasso.
Picasso’s new experiments were met very differently by friends, some were sincerely disappointed, and even horrified, others were interested. The art dealer Kahnweiler really liked the Demoiselles and took it for sale. Picasso’s new friend,  the artist Georges Braque (1882-1963), was so enthusiastic about Picasso’s new works that the two painters for several years to come were to explore together the possibilities of cubism. In the summer of 1908 they started by going on a holiday in the country together, only to find afterwards that they had painted similar pictures independently of each other.

 “Analytical” cubism.

With Bread and Fruit Dish on a Table (1909) the critics mark the beginning of Picasso’s “analytical” cubism: he gives up central perspective, splits up forms in facet-like stereo-metric shapes. The famous portraits of Fernande Woman with Pears, and of the art dealers Vollard and Kahnweiller are fulfilled in the “analytical” cubist style .
By 1911 Picasso’s relationships with Fernande experienced crisis: he broke with her and started a new liaison, with Eva Gouel (Marcelle Humbert), whom he called “Ma Jolie”.

“Synthetic” or “Collage” cubism.

By 1912 the possibilities of the “analytical” cubism seemed to be exhausted. Picasso and Braque started new experiments: within a year they were composing still lifes of cut-and-pasted scraps of material, with only a few lines added to complete the design. Still-Life with Chair Caning. These collages led to synthetic cubism: paintings with large, schematic patterning, such as “The Guitar”.
“Cubism has remained within the limits and limitations of painting, never pretending to go beyond. Drawing, design and color are understood and practiced in cubism in the spirit and manner that are understood and practiced in other schools. Our subjects might be different, because we have introduced into painting objects and forms that used to be ignored. We look at our surroundings with open eyes, and also open minds. We give each form and color its own significance, as far as can see it; in our subjects, we keep the joy of discovery, the pleasure of the unexpected; our subject itself must be a source of interest. But why tell you what we are doing when everybody can see it if they want to?” Picasso.

The World War I (1914-18) changed the life, the mood, the state of mind, and, of course, the art. His French fellow artists, Braque and Derain, were called up into the army at the beginning of the war. The art dealer, the German Kahnweiler, had to go to Italy, his gallery was confiscated. Picaso’s pictures became somber, more often realistic features appear. Pierrot.
“When I paint a bowl, I want to show you that it is round, of course. But the general rhythm of the picture, its composition framework, may compel me to show the round shape as a square. When you come to think of it, I am probably a painter without style. ‘Style’ is often something that ties the artist down and makes him look at things in one particular way, the same technique, the same formulas, year after year, sometimes for a whole lifetime. You recognize him immediately, but he is always in the same suit, or a suit of the same cut. There are, of course, great painters who have a certain style. However, I always thrash about rather wildly. I am a bit of a tramp. You can see me at this moment, but I have already changed, I am already somewhere else. I can never be tied down, and that is why I have no style.” Picasso.

In 1916 the young poet Jean Cocteau brought the Russian Impressario Diaghilev and the composer Erik Satie to meet Picasso in his studio. They asked him to design the décor for their ballet “Parade”, which was to be performed by the Ballet Russe. The meeting and Picasso’s affirmative answer brought to his life deep changes for years to come. In 1917 he traveled to Rome with Cocteau and spent time with Diaghilev’s ballet company, worked on décor for “Parade”, met Igor Stravinsky and fell in love with the dancer Olga Koklova. He accompanied ballet group to Madrid and Barcelona because of Olga, and persuaded her to stay with him.
 

Between Two Wars 1917-1936

Classicism and Surrealism

In 1918 Olga and Picasso married. Contacts with high society through the ballet and the marriage brought changes in his lifestyle. The young family moved into an apartment, which occupied two floors at 23 Rue La Boétie, acquired servants, then chauffeur, and moved in different social circles, no doubt due to Olga’s influence. The chaotic artists’ get-togethers gradually changed into receptions. Picasso’s image of himself had changed, and this was probably reflected in more conventional language he adopted in his art, the way in which he consciously made use of artistic traditions and was almost never provocative.
After cubism Picasso returned to more traditional patterns, but not exactly the classical ones, this style, a’la classical, was called “classicist style” The Lovers., from time to time he returned to cubism. His collaboration with the Ballet Russe went on: he worked on décor for “Le Tricorne”; drew the dancers; in 1920 began to work on décor for Stravinsky’s ballet Pulcinella. With the birth of his son Paul (Paolo) (1921) he again and again returned to Mother and Child theme. Mother and Child.
To 1921 belongs his cubistic Three Musicians, in which he for the first time used a group of people as a cubist subject: three figures from the Italian Commedia dell’Arte (Pierrot, Harlequin and a monk) playing trio. Though created in his post-cubist period, the picture came to be regarded as the climax of cubism. “Those who set out to explain a picture usually go wrong. A short time ago Gertrude Stein elatedly informed me that at last she understood what my picture ‘Three Musicians’ represented. It was a still life!” Picasso.

In 1923 Picasso composed The Pipes of Pan, which is regarded as the most important painting of his “classicist period”. Other interesting works: The Seated Harlequin. Women Running on the Beach.
“Of all these things – hunger, misery, being misunderstood by the public – fame is by far the worst. This is how God chastises the artist. It is sad. It is true.” Picasso
God had chastised Picasso, by mid-twenties he became so popular that “had to suffer a public that was gradually suppressing his individuality by blindly applauding every single picture he produced.” Added to this, there were marital problems. His wife Olga, the former ballet dancer, for whom the attention and admiration of the public was necessary, vital, and natural,  could not understand his crisis.
Picasso tried to rescue his independence by taking an interest in the unknown, the unfamiliar, he set up a sculptor’s studio near Paris and began to make numerous artistic experiments. Series of assemblages on Guitar theme, using objects such as a shirt, a floor-cloth, nails and string, sculptures. In 1927 Picasso met seventeen-year old Marie-Thérèse Walter. She became his mistress shortly afterwards.
Much of his work after 1927 is fantastic and visionary in character. His Woman with Flower of 1932 is a portrait of Marie-Thérèse, distorted and deformed in the manner of surrealism, which was so fashionable at the time. even Picasso could not really avoid being influenced by this group of Parisian artists, although, conversely, they regarded him as their artistic stepfather.
“I keep doing my best not to lose sight of nature. I want to aim at similarity, a profound similarity which is more real than reality, thus becoming surrealist.” Picasso

Picasso himself admitted that the worst time of his life began in June 1935. Marie-Thérèse was pregnant with his child, and his divorce from Olga had to be postponed again and again: their common wealth had become a subject for the lawyers. During this time of personal crisis Picasso would supplement his arsenal of artistic weapons in the form of a bull, either dying or snorting furiously and threatening both man and animal alike: being Spanish, Picasso had always been fascinated by bull fights, bu the “tauromachia”. October 5th 1935 his second child, daughter Maria de la Concepcion, called Maya, was born.
In 1936 he met Dora Maar, a Yugoslavian photographer. Later, during the war, she became his constant companion. Portrait of Dora.
 

Wartime Experience 1937-1945

“Guernica, the oldest town of the Basque provinces and the center of their cultural traditions, was almost completely destroyed by the rebels in an air attack yesterday afternoon. The bombing of the undefended town far behind the front line took exactly three quarters of an hour. During this time and without interruption a group of German aircraft – Junker and Heinkel bombers as well as Heinkel fighters – dropped bombs weighing up to 500 kilogrammes on the town. At the same time low-flying fighter planes fired machine-guns at the inhabitants who had taken refuge in the fields. The whole of Guernica was in flames in a very short time.”
The Times, 27 April, 1937.

The Spanish government had asked Picasso to fulfill a mural for the Spanish pavilion at the Paris World Exhibition. He planned the topic “painter and studio”, but when he heard about events in Guernica, he changed his original plans. After numerous sketches and studies, Picasso gave his own personal comprehensive view of a historical fact. His gigantic mural Guernica has remained part of the collective consciousness of the twentieth century, because Guernica has been serving as a forceful reminder of it. In 1981, after forty years of exile in New York, the picture found its way back to Spain. This was because Picasso had decreed that it should not become Spanish property until the end of fascism. In October 1937 Picasso painted the Weeping Woman as a kind of postscript to Guernica.

In 1940 when Paris was occupied he held an action: handed out photos of Guernica to German officers. When asked “Did you do this?” he replied, “No, you did”. Whether the world-known military brains could not perceive the symbolism of the picture, or the world fame of Picasso stopped the Nazis, he was not arrested. He went on working. During the wartime he met a young woman painter, Françoise Gillot, who would later become his third official wife.
With his Charnel House of 1945 Picasso concluded the series of pictures, which he started with “Guernica”. The relationship between the two paintings becomes immediately obvious when we consider the rigidly limited color scheme and the triangular composition of the center. But the nightmare has now been overtaken by reality itself. The Charnel House was painted under the impact of reports from the concentration camps which had been discovered and liberated. It was not until now that people realized how many monsters had been born while reason slumbered. It was a time when millions of people had been literally pushed to one side – a turn of phase which Picasso expressed rather vividly in the pile of dead bodies in his Charnel House.

After WWII. The Late Works. 1946-1973.

In 1944 after liberation of Paris he joined the Communist Party, became an active participant of Peace Movement; in 1949 the Paris World Peace Conference adopted a dove created by Picasso as the symbol of the various peace movements; in 1950 and in 1961 (for the second time) he was awarded Lenin Peace Prize. He protested against American invasion in Corea, against Soviet occupation of Hungary. In his public life he always standed on humanistic positions.
After the WWII Françoise gave birth to his two more children born: Claude (1947) and Paloma (1949). Paloma is a Spanish word for “dove”, the girl was named after the peace fighters symbol.
More women come into his life, come and go, like Sylvette David; or stay longer, like Jacqueline Rogue.
Another woman came into his life and settled beside, was she better than the previous ones, or just new? All his life he had to change places of life, women, manner of painting, materials, with which he worked. Some people say that this helps to stay young, maybe…
In summer 1955 Picasso bought “La Californie”, a big villa near Cannes. From his studio he could see his enormous garden, which he filled with his sculptures. The south and the Mediterranean were just right for his mentality, they reminded of Barcelona, of his childhood and youth. He created there: “Studio ‘La Californie’ at Cannes” (1956), Jacqueline in the Studio. (1956). By 1958 however ‘La Californie’ became one more tourist attraction at Cannes. There had been a constantly increasing stream of admirers and of people trying to catch a glimpse, so that it had become necessary to move house. Picasso bought Chateau Vauvenargues, near Aix-en-Provence. Picasso’s move was reflected in his art with an increasing reduction in his range of colors to black, white and green.

Mass media turned Picasso into a celebrity, the public deprived him of privacy and wanted to know his every step, “but his art was given very little attention and was regarded as no more than the hobby of an ageing genius who could do nothing but talk about himself in his pictures.”
Picasso’s late works are an expression of his final refusal to fit into categories. He did everything he wanted in art and there was not a word of criticism.
His adaptation of Las Meninas by Velászquez, his experiments with Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass, did he really try to discover or to create something, or did he just laugh at our stupidity, at our inability to see the obvious?
A number of elements had become part of constant pattern: Picasso’s use of simplified imagery, the way he let the unpainted canvas shine through, his emphatic use of lines, and the sketchiness of the subject. “When I was as old as these children, I could draw like Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to learn to draw like them”, Picasso explained in 1956.
In the last years of his life painting had become an obsession with Picasso, and he would date each picture absolutely precisely, thus creating in his latest works a vast amount of similar paintings, crystallizations of individual moments of timeless happiness, knowing that in the end everything would be in vain.

On 08 April 1973 he died, at last. Picasso was buried in the grounds of his Chateau Vauvenargues.

 “The different styles I have been using in my art must not be seen as an evolution, or as steps towards an unknown ideal of painting. Everything I have ever made was made for the present and with the hope that it will always remain in the present. I have never had time for the idea of searching. Whenever I have wanted to express something, I have done so without thinking of the past or the future. I have never made radically different experiments. Whenever I have wanted to say something, I have said it in such a way as I believed I had to. Different themes inevitably require different methods of expression. This does not imply either evolution or progress, but it is a matter of following the idea one wants to express and the way in which one wants to express it.”  Picasso.

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso was a Spanish painter and sculptor, generally considered the greatest artist of the 20th century. He was unique as an inventor of forms, as an innovator of styles and techniques, as a master of various media, and as one of the most prolific artists in history. He created more than 20'000 works.

Training and Early Work

Born in Málaga on 25 October 1881, Picasso was the son of José Ruiz Blasco, an art teacher, and María Picasso y Lopez. Until 1898 he always used his father's name, Ruiz, and his mother's maiden name, Picasso, to sign his pictures. After about 1901 he dropped Ruiz and used his mother's maiden name to sign his pictures. Picasso's genius manifested itself early: at the age of 10 he made his first paintings, and at 15 he performed brilliantly on the entrance examinations to Barcelona's School of Fine Arts. His large academic canvas Science and Charity (1897), depicting a doctor, a nun, and a child at a sick woman's bedside, won a gold medal.

Blue Period

Between 1900 and 1902, Picasso made three trips to Paris, finally settling there in 1904. He found the city's bohemian street life fascinating, and his pictures of people in dance halls and cafés show how he assimilated the postimpressionism of the French painter Paul Gauguin and the symbolist painters called the Nabis. The themes of the French painters Edgar Degas and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, as well as the style of the latter, exerted the strongest influence. Picasso's Blue Room (1901) reflects the work of both these painters and, at the same time, shows his evolution toward the Blue Period, so called because various shades of blue dominated his work for the next few years. Expressing human misery, the paintings portray blind figures, beggars, alcoholics, and prostitutes, their somewhat elongated bodies reminiscent of works by the Spanish artist El Greco.

Rose Period

Shortly after settling in Paris in a shabby building known as the Bateau-Lavoir (which it resembled), Picasso met Fernande Olivier, the first of many companions to influence the theme, style, and mood of his work. With this happy relationship, Picasso changed his palette to pinks and reds; the years 1904 and 1905 are thus called the Rose Period. Many of his subjects were drawn from the circus, which he visited several times a week; one such painting is Family of Saltimbanques (1905). In the figure of the harlequin, Picasso represented his alter ego, a practice he repeated in later works as well. Dating from his first decade in Paris are friendships with the poet Max Jacob, the writer Guillaume Apollinaire, the art dealers Ambroise Vollard and Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, and the American expatriate writers Gertrude Stein and her brother Leo, who were his first important patrons; Picasso did portraits of them all.

Protocubism

In the summer of 1906, during Picasso's stay in Gosol, Spain, his work entered a new phase, marked by the influence of Greek, Iberian, and African art. His celebrated portrait of Gertrude Stein (1906) reveals a masklike treatment of her face. The key work of this early period, however, is Les demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), so radical in style — its picture surface resembling fractured glass — that it was not even understood by contemporary avant-garde painters and critics. Destroyed were spatial depth and the ideal form of the female nude, which Picasso restructured into harsh, angular planes.

Cubism — Analytic and Synthetic

Inspired by the volumetric treatment of form by the French postimpressionist artist Paul Cezanne, Picasso and the French artist Georges Braque painted landscapes in 1908 in a style later described by a critic as being made of little cubes, thus leading to the term cubism. Some of their paintings are so similar that it is difficult to tell them apart. Working together between 1908 and 1911, they were concerned with breaking down and analyzing form, and together they developed the first phase of cubism, known as analytic cubism. Monochromatic color schemes were favored in their depictions of radically fragmented motifs, whose several sides were shown simultaneously. Picasso's favorite subjects were musical instruments, still-life objects, and his friends; one famous portrait is Daniel Henry Kahnweiler (1910). In 1912, pasting paper and a piece of oilcloth to the canvas and combining these with painted areas, Picasso created his first collage, Still Life with Chair Caning. This technique marked a transition to synthetic cubism. This second phase of cubism is more decorative, and color plays a major role, although shapes remain fragmented and flat. Picasso was to practice synthetic cubism throughout his career, but by no means exclusively. Two works of 1915 demonstrate his simultaneous work in different styles: Pierrot is a synthetic cubist painting, whereas a drawing of his dealer, Vollard, is executed in his Ingresque style, so called because of its draftsmanship, emulating that of the 19th-century French neoclassical artist Jean August Dominique Ingres.

Cubist Sculpture

Picasso created cubist sculptures as well as paintings. The bronze bust Fernande Olivier (also called Head of a Woman, 1909) shows his consummate skill in handling three-dimensional form. He also made constructions — such as Mandolin and Clarinet (1914) — from odds and ends of wood, metal, paper, and nonartistic materials, in which he explored the spatial hypotheses of cubist painting. His Glass of Absinthe (1914), combining a silver sugar strainer with a painted bronze sculpture, anticipates his much later found object creations, such as Baboon and Young (1951), as well as pop art objects of the 1960s.

Realist and Surrealist Works

During World War I (1914-1918), Picasso went to Rome, working as a designer with Sergey Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. He met and married the dancer Olga Koklova. In a realist style, Picasso made several portraits of her around 1917, of their son (for example, Paulo en Pierrot; 1924), and of numerous friends. In the early 1920s he did tranquil, neoclassical pictures of heavy, sculpturesque figures, an example being Three Women at the Spring (1921), and works inspired by mythology, such as The Pipes of Pan (1923). At the same time, Picasso also created strange pictures of small-headed bathers and violent convulsive portraits of women which are often taken to indicate the tension he experienced in his marriage. Although he stated he was not a surrealist, many of his pictures have a surreal and disturbing quality, as in Sleeping Woman in Armchair (1927) and Seated Bather (1930).

Paintings of the Early 1930s

Several cubist paintings of the early 1930s, stressing harmonious, curvilinear lines and expressing an underlying eroticism, reflect Picasso's pleasure with his newest love, Marie Thérèse Walter, who gave birth to their daughter Maïa in 1935. Marie Thérèse, frequently portrayed sleeping, also was the model for the famous Girl Before a Mirror (1932). In 1935 Picasso made the etching Minotauromachy, a major work combining his minotaur and bullfight themes; in it the disemboweled horse, as well as the bull, prefigure the imagery of Guernica, a mural often called the most important single work of the 20th century.

Guernica

Picasso was moved to paint the huge mural Guernica shortly after German planes, acting on orders from Spain's authoritarian leader Francisco Franco, bombarded the Basque town of Guernica on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish civil war. Completed in less than two months, Guernica was hung in the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris International Exposition of 1937. The painting does not portray the event; rather, Picasso expressed his outrage by employing such imagery as the bull, the dying horse, a fallen warrior, a mother and dead child, a woman trapped in a burning building, another rushing into the scene, and a figure leaning from a window and holding out a lamp. Despite the complexity of its symbolism, and the impossibility of definitive interpretation, Guernica makes an overwhelming impact in its portrayal of the horrors of war. Dora Maar, Picasso's next companion to be portrayed, took photographs of Guernica while the work was in progress. [detail]

World War II and After

Picasso's palette grew somber with the onset of World War II (1939-1945), and death is the subject of numerous works, such as Still Life with Steer's Skull (1942, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Germany) and The Charnel House (1945, Museum of Modern Art). He formed a new liaison during the 1940s with the painter Françoise Gilot who bore him two children, Claude and Paloma; they appear in many works that recapitulate his earlier styles. The last of Picasso's companions to be portrayed was Jacqueline Roque, whom he met in 1953 and married in 1961. [Jacqueline in the Studio, 1956]. He then spent much of his time in southern France.

Late Works — Recapitulation

Many of Picasso's later pictures were based on works by great masters of the past — Diego Velazquez, Gustave Courbet, Eugene Delacroix, and Edouard Manet. In addition to painting, Picasso worked in various media, making hundreds of lithographs in the renowned Paris graphics workshop, Atelier Mourlot. Ceramics also engaged his interest, and in 1947, in Vallauris, he produced nearly 2000 pieces. Picasso made important sculptures during this time: Man with Sheep (1944), an over-life-size bronze, emanates peace and hope, and She-Goat (1950), a bronze cast from an assemblage of flowerpots, a wicker basket, and other diverse materials, is humorously charming. In 1964 Picasso completed a welded steel maquette (model) for the 18.3-m sculpture Head of a Woman (unveiled in 1967). In 1968, during a seven-month period, he created an amazing series of 347 engravings, restating earlier themes: the circus, the bullfight, the theater, and lovemaking. Throughout Picasso's lifetime, his work was exhibited on countless occasions. Most unusual, however, was the 1971 exhibition at the Louvre, in Paris, honoring him on his 90th birthday; until then, living artists had not been shown there. In 1980 a major retrospective showing of his work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Picasso died in his villa Notre-Dame-de-Vie near Mougins on 08 April 1973.
 

^
Died on a 25 October:


2006 Emilio Vedova, Italian painter born (main coverage) on 09 August 1919. —(081024)

1992 Richard Poussette-Dart [08 Jun 1916–], US abstract expressionist painter of the New York School. His work explores the mystical nature of the universe.—(091026)

1941 Robert-Victor-Félix Delaunay, French painter born (full coverage) on 12 April 1862. —(051024)

1932 Julia Wernicke [1860–], Argentinian painter and engraver. She studied in Munich under Heinrich von Zügel and under Gotzen in Leipzig and Dresden. — Related? to Rudolf Wernicke [1898-1963]? to Eva W. Wernicke [1872–]?
Los Toritos (1897, 56x66cm; ) —(091024)

^ 1919 Ernest Albert Waterlow [24 May 1850–], British painter of landscapes and animals in oil and watercolor. — {Did people hate being introduced to him, because then they met their Waterlow?} — Son of A. C. Waterlow, lithographer. He was encouraged in his early interest in sketching because his parents thought art was a suitable profession for their rather sickly child. Began his studies in Lausanne under F.L.D. Bocion; returned to England 1867 and entered Carey's School of Art, and in 1872 the R.A. Schools; won the Turner gold medal in 1873. Was influenced at first by G. H. Mason and Fred Walker, later by Corot and the Barbizon painters. Exhibited at the R.W.S. and R.A. 1872–1919; member of the R.W.S. 1894, President 1897–1914; A.R.A. 1890, R.A. 1903. Knighted 1902. Traveled widely in France, Germany and Switzerland, and in England painted mostly in Suffolk, Swansea and Dorset. — LINKS
Galway Gossips (1887, 76x127cm) _ A passing rider is chatting with a farmer, Irish highlands in the background.
–- Easedale Tarn (1914, 15x37cm; 355x900pix, 52kb)
–- On the Sandhill (50x87cm; 510x892pix, 109kb)
–- A Woman With Ducks Ouside a Cottage (32x43cm; 510x675pix, 75kb _ .ZOOM to 765x1012pix, 99kb)
–- Dorsetshire Downs Near Corfe Castle (36x52cm; 345x510pix, 30kb)
–- S*>#Winter Near York (497x900pix, 53kb)
May (480x385pix, 39kb)
Hemingford Mill (271x400pix, 53kb)
On the Dunes (244x425pix, 19kb)
Mountainous Landscape in Winter (94x127cm; 418x310pix, 15kb)
Suffolk Marshes (1902, 122x87cm; 218x310pix, 7kb) _ This wide, sun-filled view of water meadows with the sea beyond is characteristic of much of Ernest Waterlow's work. He concentrated on scenes of unchanged rural life, using quite a broad painting style. In this picture, the bright sun casts blue shadows on the white hide of the cow at the front of the composition, and reveals the meadow flowers among the grass. Waterlow was a successful London artist. He showed this picture in London and Newcastle. —(061022)

1730 Johann Michael Rottmayr, Austrian painter born (main coverage) on 11 December 1656. —(091208)


Born on a 25 October:


1875 Modest Huys, Belgian artist who died in 1932.

^ 1865 Walter Leistikow, German painter, decorative artist, etcher, exhibition organizer, and writer, who died on 24 July 1908. He studied painting briefly in 1883, at the Akademie in Berlin, but he was dismissed after six months as ‘untalented’. From 1883 to 1885 he was trained by the painter Hermann Eschke (1823–1900) and from 1885 to 1887 by the Norwegian painter Hans Fredrik Gude. Gude had a decisive influence on the style of Leistikow’s early works, as is especially clear in Leistikow’s light coastal landscapes with figures. His most significant work from this period, however, is Brickworks near Eckernförde (1887). Leistikow’s dismissal from the Akademie concentrated his attention on issues of artistic policy. When the German government decided not to send works for exhibition in the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889, Leistikow himself organized the dispatch of works to Paris. In 1892, under a pseudonym, he wrote articles on the outraged German reaction to the work of Edvard Munch, sharply attacking the Akademie and its director, Anton von Werner. In the same year, he was one of the founders of the Gruppe der Elf, out of which the Berlin Secession developed in 1898. Leistikow also published a novel, Auf der Schwelle (1896), and remained in close contact with the Berlin literary world.
Seenlandschaft mit Windmühle und Park (50x60cm; 442x510pix, 57kb) —(051024)

^ 1859 Rubens Santoro, Italian painter who died in 1942.
–- S*>#Promenade en lagune, Venise (30x40cm; 628x900pix, 52kb)
–- S*>#The Grand Canal, Venice (37x50cm; 661x900pix, 112kb) _ The beauty of Venice, the floating city, has been an inspiration to artists throughout the centuries, but the commercial draw for painters cannot be ignored either. By the turn of the twentieth century, tourism to Venice had increased vastly owing to improved communications, the growth of a leisured middle class, and the advent of bespoke travel agencies like Thomas Cook, spurring a huge demand for Venice views. Of course this phenomenon had its origins in the eighteenth century, when Grand Tourists patronized the likes of Canaletto and Guardi, but now the demand for views of the city was almost insatiable. Rubens Santoro was one of many artists from all over Europe and beyond, including Friedrich Nerly, Antoinetta Brandeis, and Frans Vervloet, to settle in Venice in order to take advantage of this boom. Instantly recognizable and timeless views such as this one down the Grand Canal towards San Marco and the lagoon proved particularly popular, as they still do today.
–- S*>#Canal Grande e Salute (900x632pix, 104kb)
–- S*>#Fantasia (615x900pix, 90kb)
–- S*>#A Lady (900x589pix, kb)
–- S*>#Canale Marin, Venezia (1220x900pix, 194kb)
–- S*>#Canale della Guerra, Venezia (1214x900pix, 199kb)
–- S*>#S. Maria della Visitazione e S. Maria del Rosario, Venezia (1230x900pix, 185kb)
–- S*>#Citta Araba (1156x900pix, 247kb) not a whole city, but just a couple of houses.
–- S*>#Still Life of Poppies (900x542pix, 74kb)
–- S*>#Promenade en Lagune (628x900pix, 53kb)
–- A Balcony in Venice (19x10cm; 798x442pix, 40kb) on it is handwritten: “Un rien est tout pour l'amitié”.
–- On the Mediterranean Coast (1887, 38x64cm; 468x800pix, 30kb)
–- Along the Canal (50x38cm; 800x588pix, 51kb)
–- Canale San Barnaba, Venezia (50x37cm; 510x374pix, 30kb _ .ZOOM to 765x561pix, 38kb)
–- Orientale (1888, 15x11cm; 525x392pix, 32kb)
–- Campo della Misericordia (49x40cm; 660x516pix, 27kb)
–- San.Giorgio Maggiore, Venezia (49x40cm; 660x520pix, 41kb) —(061023)

^ 1812 Charles Émile “Vacher” de Tournemine, Toulon French painter who died on 22 December 1872. A count, he was a navy officer until 1842, and then began studying painting under Eugène Isabey in Paris. He made various study trips to Italy, Asia, the Orient, and soon became a very popular landscape painter.
— Né fils naturel de Bernard Vacher de Tournemire et Marie-Anne-Victoire Roubaud à Toulon, 9 place d'Armes (actuelle rue Anatole-France). 1825 3 octobre. - Tournemine entre à l'école des mousses et sert sur la goélette L'Amaranthe; il visite la Grèce, la Turquie (Smyrne), l'Égypte (Alexandrie), Chypre, la Syrie et la Tripolitaine. Il continue son service jusqu'en 1827. 1827 27 octobre. - Participe à la bataille de Navarin; il est blessé à l'œil gauche. 1828 31 mai. - Embarque sur le vaisseau La Provence . Incidents en rade d'Alger. La Provence devant Alger (Gravure Lebreton) 1831 1er janvier. - Tournemine cesse son service dans la marine. 18 mars. - Il s'engage au 11° Régiment d'artillerie où son père est colonel. 1840 18 mars. - Tournemine quitte l'armée. Il est acccueilli à Paris chez sa tante Agathe; il entre dans l'atelier d'Eugène Isabey. 1843-1844. - Voyages en Picardie, Normandie, Bretagne nord et Bretagne sud, estuaire de la Loire. Il est dessinateur au ministère de la Guerre; début de sa longue amitié avec le peintre Raffet. 1845 28 février. - Décès de la tante Agathe; elle avait fait de son neveu son légataire universel. 29 novembre. - Mariage de Charles de Tournemine et de Marie- ÉmilieClarisse Chauvin à Paris, 12e arrondissement. 1845 Décembre. - Début de la correspondance entre Tournemine et Thoré, qui forment le projet d'éditer l'Art moderne; ce projet échoue. 1846. - Tournemine commence la publication des Artistes contemporains avec le peintre François-Louis Français. Première participation au Salon. 1847 2 mai. - Naissance d'un fils, Marie-Charles François Maurice, mort en bas âge. 1848 Avril. - Son père se présente sans succès à la députation. 22 avril. - Naissance d'une fille, Marie-Agathe-Édith. Il expose sept toiles de Bretagne au Salon. 1849. - On lui prête un voyage en Italie. 1850 2 décembre. - Naissance d'un fils, Lucien-Léon-Eugène. 1852 7 août. - Tournemine est nommé attaché à la conservation au musée du Luxembourg et reçoit ses premières commandes de l'État. 22 octobre. - Décès de sa mère à La Seyne (Var). 1853 12 mars. - Il vend une partie de sa collection. Mai. - Voyage dans le Midi Juillet. - Voyage en Algérie 25 août. - Naissance d'un fils, Louis-Stéphane-Auguste. 1855. - Exposition universelle. Il expose ses premiers tableaux orientalistes. 1857. - Tournemine abandonne les références à la Bretagne pour ne plus exposer que des œuvres orientalistes. Comptes rendus élogieux du Salon. 1858. - Tournemine expose à Rouen. On lui prête un voyage en Italie. 1859. - Salon important où il expose Café en Asie Mineure et Habitations près d'Ada lia. Critique élogieuse. 1860. - Voyage sur le Danube et jusqu'aux rivages de la mer Noire. Exposition à Bordeaux et Paris (galerie des Italiens). Décès de son ami Auguste Raffet. 1861 28 février. - Décès du baron Bernard de Tournemine, père de l'artiste. Achat par l'État de Café à Adalia. Exposition à Metz. Voyage en Suisse et en Italie du Nord (?). 1863 Juillet-septembre. - Voyage en Asie Mineure (Bosphore et Turquie d'Asie). Achat par l'État de Promenade de femmes turques en Asie. 1864 12 décembre. - Première visite signalée des Goncourt à Tournemine. 1865 20 mai. - Deuxième visite des frères Goncourt à Tournemine, notée dans leur Journal. 1867. - L'Afrique et l'Inde sont les nouveaux thèmes d'inspiration de l'artiste. Publication de Manette Salomon des Goncourt, roman dans lequel les écrivains s'inspirent de lettres envoyées d'Asie Mineure par Tournemine. 1869 Octobre. - Tournemine est invité aux tètes de l'inauguration du canal de Suez. 1871 16 mai. - Il est relevé de ses fonctions de conservateur. Décembre. - Tournemine gagne Toulon. — Biographie
Eléphants d'Afrique (1867, 88x178cm)
Forest Stream (26x21cm; 800x645pix, 250kb)
Flamands Roses (535x693pix, 54kb)
Paysage d'afrique du nord (449x715pix, 29kb)
Café en Asie mineure (428x595pix, 78kb) unfinished
Turquie
Chambra El Kébir
Lac sacré d'Oudeypour (Inde)
Cavalier et son chien en Bretagne
Adalia (281x490pix, 40kb) _ detail (543x656pix, 41kb) —(051024)

^ 1811 Karl (or Carl) Morgenstern, German painter who died on 10 January 1893. — Über fünf Generationen war die Malerfamilie Morgenstern in Frankfurt tätig. 1811 wurde Carl Morgenstern geboren und trat nach seiner Schulausbildung in das Atelier seines Vaters Johann Friedrich Morgenstern ein. Abgesehen von Reisen in die Alpen hielt er sich 1832-1834 in München auf und nahm Unterricht bei den Landschaftsmalern Carl Rottmann und Christian Morgenstern [1805-1867]. 1834 folgte die "obligate" Italienreise, von der er erst 1837 in die Heimatstadt zurückkehrte. Düsseldorf, Holland und Belgien sowie Frankreich, die Schweiz und wiederholt Italien waren weitere Reiseziele. Mit seinen italienischen Landschaften, die häufig die Sehenswürdigkeiten der Toskanan, Capris oder Sizilien ins sonnige südliche Licht tauchen, begründete er seinen Ruf als 'Italianist aus Frankfurt. Gleichermaßen beliebt waren aber auch seine Rhein-, Main- und Niddalandschaften. Zwar gehörte Carl Morgenstern nicht direkt zur Kronberger Malerkolonie, doch sind freundschaftliche Besuche bei den Künstlern in Kronberg belegt.
The Sabine Mountains with Marmella, seen from Subiaco (38x58cm; 414x640pix, 33kb) _ Born into a well-established dynasty of painters in Frankfurt, Morgenstern had the full support of his family and the necessary contacts to enable him to make a three year study trip to Italy (1834-1837). In a 04 December 1834 letter, his father Johann Friedrich Morgenstern [1777-1844] repeatedly encouraged him to read the memoirs of the great landscapist Jakob Philipp Hackert, which were edited and published posthumously by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “In them there are a lot of interesting facts, even on Italian landscape painting. I do hope you keep a diary and we can compare Hackert’s earlier impressions with yours”. Indeed we find a lot of motifs, painted and drawn, in Morgenstern’s Italian works which also caught Goethe’s eye.
     Having spent most of May 1836 sketching in Terracina with his two travel companions, Ernst Willers and Georg Gmelin, the rising summer heat and the feverish air blowing from the nearby Pontine Marshes forced them to return to Rome. By mid-June Willers and Morgenstern, together with the artist Gustav von Haugk, decided to escape the extreme summer temperatures and leave the Eternal City for the cooler Sabine Mountains. High up in the small hill town Civitella, the three companions rented affordable artist’s quarters from a Signore Don Vicenzo, the same lodgings where Wilhelm Schirmer was to stay three years later on his tour with Willers. Perched up on a steep mountain cliff, the town enjoys spectacular views of the surrounding mountain peaks and deep valleys below. The rooms of Don Vicenzo were well-known to the German and French artists painting in Italy. First used by Richter and the Nazarenes, they were later rented by Blechen and Corot.
     Morgenstern and his companions would climb down the steep path leading to the surrounding valleys and the old oak forest, the Serpentara, and sketch from nature. In the present sketch, which Morgenstern has left unfinished, he followed Valenciennes’ theory closely. First he quickly sketched in pencil the rough outline of the panorama; then, with minute brushstrokes he painted the sky, before working on the landscape.—(051024)
 
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