ART 4 2-DAY 24 October v.9.a0
Born on 24 October 1607: Jan Lievens
Lievenszoon van Oude, Dutch painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who
died on 08 (04?) June 1674.
— His work has often suffered by comparison with that of Rembrandt, with whom he was closely associated from 1625 to 1631. Yet Lievens’s early work is equal to that of Rembrandt, although in later years he turned more towards a somewhat facile rendering of the international Baroque style favored by his noble patrons, thus never fully realizing his early promise. Nonetheless, he became a renowned portrait painter and draughtsman, and his drawings include some of the finest examples of 17th-century Dutch portraiture in the medium.
Lievens was a painter of portraits and religious, allegorical and genre subjects. He was a friend and contemporary of Rembrandt [15 Jul 1606 – 04 Oct 1669] and a student of Pieter Lastman [1583-1683] in Amsterdam. Then he shared a studio with Rembrandt in Leiden in the later 1620s: many works of this period show one influencing the other. Lievens went to England, probably in 1632 after Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam, but he was in Antwerp by 1635, where he was influenced by the courtly style of Van Dyck [22 Mar 1599 – 09 Dec 1641]. He returned to Holland in 1639 and became a successful painter of portraits and allegories. Raising of Lazarus (1631) is a good example of his works.
— Jürgen Ovens [1623 – 09 Dec 1678] was a student of Lievens.
Constantijn Huygens (1627, 99x84cm) _ Constantijn Huygens was secretary to stadholder Frederick Henry prince of Orange [29 Jan 1584 – 14 Mar 1647] and as such had a great deal of influence. Around his neck hangs a seal for using with sealing wax. In this painting he is also wearing clothes that were fashionable in the 1620s: a black doublet, velvet britches with a long black coat over the top, a hanging pleated ruff and a broad-rimmed felt hat. Lievens had placed Huygens against a dark background. The only color in the painting comes from the red chair. Huygens extensively described his relationship with Lievens. According to Huygens's autobiography, Lievens was nineteen years old when he met Huygens. The artist was instantly captivated by the latter's face and wanted nothing more than to paint his portrait. In the winter of 1626, the young painter went to stay with Huygens in The Hague to begin work on the portrait. However, he got no further than the hands and clothes. In the spring Lievens returned to finish the painting. Huygens was very pleased with his portrait. 'I have naturally wide-open, large and bulging eyes. Their distinctive shape is usually a symptom of weak eyesight...', is how Huygens described is own eyes. Aided by this description, the portrait was identified in 1936 as the portrait of Huygens by Jan Lievens. Lievens painted Huygens's portrait in two phases. During the first phase he painted the body, only later filling in the face. The young artist had trouble with Huygens's face. From X-rays of the painting we can see that the face was at first turned towards the viewer. Lievens changed the painting later on. Huygens is now looking to the side. Because Huygens's body and face were not painted at the same time, the scale is not entirely accurate. The head is too small and the hands are somewhat long. Lievens's contact with Huygens did not do him any harm. His friend and colleague Rembrandt also benefited from this connection. In their early years, Lievens and Rembrandt were both students of Pieter Lastman and worked closely together for a time. Through Huygens, Rembrandt was commissioned by Frederick Henry to paint a series of Passion scenes. He also painted the portrait of Frederick Henry's predecessor as stadholder, his older brother Maurice prince of Orange [13 Nov 1567 – 23 Apr 1625]. _ There is also a portrait of Constantijn Huygens (1672) by Netscher [1639 – 15 Jan 1684].
Rembrandt van Rijn (1630, 57x45cm) _ This young man, fixing us with his attentive gaze, is almost certainly Rembrandt, depicted at an early age, but recognizable by his rusty curls. The young artist is dressed in fantasy costume dress, wearing a cap and gorget. He has a light scarf around his neck. Lievens applied Rembrandt's style, using dark color and a highly distinctive chiaroscuro. Lievens scratched the subject's curls into the paint, just as Rembrandt had in a Self-portrait at an Early Age (1628, 23x19cm).
Samson and Delilah (1630, 131x111cm) _ Samson lies sleeping, meek as a lamb, in the lap of his mistress Delilah. She is wide awake, gesturing to a man in the background. Delilah wants him to cut off Samson's long hair. The man is still hesitating. The light falls on Samson's defenseless shoulder and Delilah's evil-intentioned face. The figures have been painted in half-length. There is an oil sketch probably made in preparation for this painting; in the sketch the figures are full-length. Rembrandt also painted Samson a number of times in this period. Rembrandt and Lievens worked closely together for a time. Their painting styles were therefore similar. Several Rembrandtesque details can be found in this painting. The woman's lemon-yellow dress for instance is painted in impasto: the under layer has been applied very thickly. Rembrandt also often used the same 'thick' painting technique. A few curls have been scratched into Samson's hair; the under layer is visible here. Rembrandt also regularly did this, using this technique for the first time in his 1628 Self Portrait.
Vanitas Still Life (1625, 91x120cm) _ A pile of old books and a lute lie untidily on a stone slab. In the background are two globes. In the foreground a small still life picturing a jug, a glass and a loaf of bread has been painted within the still life. For a long time it was unclear who had painted this picture. It was attributed to 'Rembrandt's circle'. After a comparison with paintings by Jan Lievens, the still life was finally attributed to the latter. The thick, tattered books are almost identical to other books painted by Lievens. The books were clearly painted by Lievens. On the left, at the bottom of the pile is a book with a compressed spine. This book can be seen in paintings of the evangelist Mark in the Städtische Kunstsammlungen in Bamberg, Germany. The small still life in the foreground was added at a later date when the paint was already dry. This was probably by someone other than Jan Lievens. This still life is painted more finely than the rest of the picture. Judging by the style it is believed to have been painted by Jan Jansz. den Uyl. 'Uyl' is the old spelling of the Dutch word for 'owl'. In the reflection on the pewter jug a small owl can just be seen: perhaps this is the concealed signature of the artist Den Uyl. This painting is similar to another still life by Lievens. In the other painting, apart from the books and musical instruments, there is also a skull, a candle and an hourglass. These are clear references to Vanitas, the transience of earthly existence. Although these articles are not featured in this painting, this is probably also a Vanitas still life. If so, the books and musical instruments refer to the fleeting nature of music and earthly knowledge. X-ray photographs have revealed that Lievens had first painted something else on this panel. A head of a woman can be discerned, dressed in the fashion of the 1620s. This may have been an unsuccessful portrait. In any case, Lievens turned the panel through 90° and started again. The colors in the still life indicate that the painting must have been made after 1620. It was then that it became fashionable to paint in one color - monochrome.
A Girl (1633, 62x 48cm; 849x662pix, 53kb) _ A characteristic early painting of the artist from his Leiden period. It is certainly not a portrait, probably it is a fragment of a larger composition, perhaps Mary from an Annunciation.
Petrus Egidius de Morrion (1637, oval 84x59cm; 850x595, 68kb) _ The painting was made in Antwerp and it clearly shows the influence of Flemish painters.
Died on 24 October 1926: Charles Marion
Russell, US painter and sculptor specialized in the
US West, born on 19 March 1864.
— In 1880 he left his upper-class home in Saint-Louis for Montana Territory. He worked briefly on a sheep ranch, spent two years as a hunter’s and trapper’s assistant and then became a cowboy. During his considerable spare daytime hours he painted, sketched and modeled small animal figures in clay (e.g. Antelope, 1915). Although he painted a few exceptional oils and watercolors prior to 1900, the vast majority of his best work was done in the last two decades of his life. Typically the subject-matter centers around cowboy life (e.g. Wagon Boss, 1909) and the Plains Indians, for whom he had great respect. The luminous Piegans (1918), with its depiction of the Plains Indians, is a reminder of the vastness of the US West. Russell’s sense of humor and empathy for his subject-matter radiates from his paintings as pleasingly as do the clear colors of the high country. His bronze sculptures (e.g. Buffalo Hunt, 1905) depict the same dramatic and tension-packed themes as his paintings.
— Near the turn of the century, the Indian Wars were ending and the transition to reservation life was in progress throughout the Plains region. As the West of Russell's youth yielded to encroaching civilization, his artistic vision evolved away from stern realism toward a more poetic and romantic style. The image of a single mounted warrior was a format Russell employed frequently and it clearly manifested his nostalgic sentiments. Throughout his artistic career, he did paintings depicting a single mounted Indian, from every tribe with which he came in contact. Russell's thorough knowledge of Amerindian culture led him to execute more than thirty individual paintings of Amerindians from some fifteen distinct tribes. These included the Arapaho, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Blood, Cheyenne, Cree, Crow, Flathead, Kutenai, Nez Percé, Pawnee, Piegan, and Sioux.
A comparison of Russell's single figure studies, before and after the turn of the century, reveals a steady increase in his technical expertise. By 1905, his handling of human and equine form had reached its peak, mostly because of his exposure to the New York art world in late 1903-1904. The simple horse and rider compositions over the next ten years reveal Russell's flourishing sophistication as a draftsman and colorist. These new skills would also be apparent in the carefully worked, multi-figured paintings of the next decade.
While critics may not have taken Russell's art too seriously at one time, they found the artist fascinating. He received attention from New York's professional illustrators who, charmed by his frank manner and droll humor, welcomed him into their ranks. Russell stoutly insisted upon his right to be himself. He dressed as he pleased — in cowboy boots and Stetson, with a woven sash to hold up his pants and he believed, keep his stomach small. His talk which was guarded and laconic when around strangers, flowed among friends, who regarded him as a master storyteller and delighted in his dry wit just as readers of his illustrated letters still do.
1887-1899 were formative years for Russell and his most experimental period in subject matter; he borrowed Remington subjects, compositions and figures as he worked out his own approach and defined his own turf. The Indian fighting army was Remington's, but Russell claimed the open range cowboy, the old-time Plains Indian and western wildlife. They were his West.
He elaborated setting in his paintings. Montana was home to him and he cherished the landmarks that identified specific locales — the Judith Basin, the Great Falls area, Glacier Park. One critic for The St. Louis Star said "Mr. Russell paints the landscape with as much fidelity as he does his figures…he gives a graphic description of the country which creates the rugged, boisterous, fun loving, life-loving, jolly men of the plains…" Those who champion Russell continue to refer to his authenticity rather than his artistry. Russell offered the "speaking details dear to any lover of western life."
He worked hard to satisfy the demand for authenticity but recognized, as he wrote a friend about his Indian paintings, that he had "always studied the wild man from his picture side."
Russell disclaimed any interest in "teckneque", mocked highfalutin artsy talk, and doubted that there was anymore to Impressionism than a desire to hide "bum drawin." But his own painting in the 1920's exhibits a bolder use of color and a painterly looseness that indicates an evolution (similar to Remington's evolution) away from the linear and the literal toward an appreciation of light and the way we feel what we see.
The core of his work is a sustained elegy in which time stands still. His images of the "onley real American", proud Indian men and women riding across the land they owned, of cowboys in their careless youth free never to grow old, and wild animals, buttes and rivers, and the rolling plains, will be there for generations to come. Through his art Russell speaks to us in the present voice, and what he says constitutes his claim to greatness.
— According to family lore, Charlie Russell displayed an aptitude for art from a young age, reportedly drawing pictures and modeling in wax when he was a small child. At 16 years old, Russell's parents sent him to Montana under the care of a sheepherder. The independent young man struck out on his own soon after, finding work as a cowboy in the booming Montana ranching industry. During long, often tedious days watching over cattle on the open range, Russell sketched the scenes around him. In the winter, when many cowboys were unemployed, Russell lived in various frontier towns and painted pictures to pay for his food and lodging.
Friends said that Russell also began carrying modeling clay with him during this time, making small sculptures during his spare moments. Russell likely would have continued as an itinerant cowboy and amateur artist for the rest of his life had he not met a young woman named Mary Cooper. In 1896, the couple married, and Russell's new wife began to guide him toward a serious career in art. Russell found there was a growing market, especially among wealthy East Coast residents, for images of the disappearing US frontier.
By 1920, he was making frequent trips to New York to paint western pictures for an increasing number of supportive patrons. Russell rarely painted or sculpted from models or from life, relying on memory to recreate scenes from the life he had experienced. He had no real art training and little interest in the formal aesthetics of art.
Though critics often ignored or derided his work, the public loved it. Initially, Russell's paintings and sculptures documented his early life as a cowboy, but later in his career, he also began to depict scenes from the lives of American Indians and historical figures. Many of his later paintings express Russell's melancholy attachment to the unspoiled West and his dislike of the "progress" that had plowed under the Great Plains and fenced in the open range. Russell spent his final years in Great Falls, Montana, where he continued to paint until his death.
Like Frederic Remington, Charles M. Russell was born to moderate wealth. Born in Saint-Louis, Missouri, Charley Russell[ spent his early boyhood in the Oak Hill suburb, in a half-century-old estate strongly reminiscent of a colonial Virginia plantation. The Russell family operated the most extensive coal mines in the region. Later, Russell's father became the president of the Parker-Russell Mining and Manufacturing Company, which built a large plant to convert fire clay into tile and brick, gas works, and rolling mills. It was the largest company of its kind in the US. Charley's family tried hard to educate him and resisted his urge to go west, but he did not like school and had heard too many tales from men who had been clear up to Fort Benton, and his longing was not to be resisted. Through all his years of drifting, Russell never lost his air of being to the manner born, no matter how disreputable his outward appearance might be.
Russell first came to Montana in early March 1880 with a dream of becoming a real cowboy. He was so captivated with the West he chose to stay and fulfill his childhood fantasy. During those first years in Montana, Russell received great encouragement from Jake Hoover, a mountain man who befriended him and took him under his wing. Hoover often shared his cabin with the young Charlie, sometimes providing food and shelter for months at a time. This friendship allowed Russell to experience the ways of the frontier life he would later portray so vividly in his paintings.
In 1882 Charlie landed a job as a wrangler on a cattle drive. He wrangled for eleven years, and while he was not known for being a good roper or rider, Russell established a local reputation as the affable (some said bone lazy) cowboy who loved to draw and knew how to tell a great story. As a self-taught artist, his sketches were crude but reflected an observant eye, a feel for animal and human anatomy, a sense of humor and a flair for portraying action all hallmarks of Russell's mature art.
Throughout his years on the range, he witnessed the changing of the West. He saw the bitter winter of 1886-1887 end the cattleman's dominion on the northern plains. The days of free grass and unfenced range were ending and, for Russell, the cowboy life was over by 1893.
Prior to Russell's marriage to Nancy Cooper, in 1896, only a few of his works had been reproduced nationally. Although he was unsure of his ability to earn a living with his art, Nancy Russell recognized her husband's talent and promise, and provided the business sense and drive that eventually made her unambitious husband one of America's most popular artists.
Success did not come easily for the Russells. Montana offered few opportunities for art sales, which eventually led them to New York where contact was established with other artists interested in Western themes. At the very time Frederic Remington was getting out of illustration to concentrate on painting, Russell secured illustrating assignments and began to gain exposure through exhibitions and press coverage.
His emergence in the big time art world came in 1911 with a one man show at a New York gallery, followed three years later by an exhibition in London. Charles Russell felt deeply the passing of the West, the most evident theme of his art. This sense of loss touched him with an emotional immediacy. He was haunted by youthful fantasies, memories of what once was and by the evidence of change that surrounded him as an everyday reality. His work reflected the public demand for authenticity, but also the soul of a romantic.
— More biographical information:
Great Falls (MT) Chamber of Commerce / Charles M. Russell, Legacy / Frye Art Museum
Self-Portrait on horseback (1906; 429x301pix, 38kb)
— The Signal Fire (1897, 81x111cm; 671x1051pix, 451kb _ ZOOM to 1006x1576pix, 1218kb _ ZOOM+ to 1617x2533pix)
— The Death Song of Lone Wolf (1901, 58x90cm; 724x1086pix, 542kb _ ZOOM to 1086x1629pix, 1282kb _ ZOOM+ to 1629x2514pix)
— Spearing a Buffalo (47x77cm; ; 650x1086pix, 513kb_ ZOOM to 975x1629pix, 1248kb _ ZOOM+ to 1565x2616pix)
— Buffalo Hunt (1897, 47x72cm; 693x1086pix, 496kb _ ZOOM to 1040x1629pix, 1111kb _ ZOOM+ to 1617x2533pix)
— Antelope (1894, 51x84cm; ; 648x1086pix, 446kb _ ZOOM to 972x1029pix, 1056kb _ ZOOM+ to 1563x2620pix)
— Indian Rider (56x46cm)
— The Challenge (56x81cm)
Return of the Horse Thieves (1900; 106kb)
Red Man on the Plains (1901; 538x1000pix, 112kb)
— Illustrations from Indian Old Man Stories (1920):_ [Amerindian up in tree attacks eagle's nest] (800x559pix, 101kb) _ [Riverscape with Heron] (800x537pix, 113kb) _ [Return of the Squaw] (800x559pix, 94kb)
— A Quiet Day in Utica (1907, 61x92cm; 441x673pix; 216kb gif)
— Man Killer (1911; 423x306pix, 17kb)
— War Council on the Plains (314x450pix, 24kb)
Born on 24 October 1868: Charles Edwin Conder,
English painter, active in Australia and France, who died on 09 February
— He was sent to Australia in 1884 to learn surveying under his uncle W. J. Conder. After about two years in survey camps, he attended evening classes at the Royal Art Society, Sydney; in 1887 he worked as a lithographic draughtsman for The Illustrated Sydney News. Tom Roberts, then in Sydney on a visit from Melbourne, was among the open-air landscape painters that he knew at this time. He taught Conder some of the principles of Impressionism, such as truth to the momentary effect of light and to colour values, and the rejection of the academic ideal of high finish. The most important painting of Conder’s Sydney years, The Departure of the ‘SS Orient’ from Circular Quay, 1888 (1888), already showed a distinct personal style, combining humour with nostalgia and selective observation with decorative finesse of handling and design. In December 1888 Conder joined Roberts and Arthur Streeton in Melbourne. During the following summers they painted together at the outer suburbs of Mentone, Box Hill and Eaglemont. Conder lived in a room in Melbourne fitted out in the Aesthetic style and used his studio as a form of self-expression. His friends in Melbourne included the English novelist Mrs Mannington Caffyn, who included a written portrait of Conder in her Australian novel A Yellow Aster (1894). In 1889 Conder joined Roberts, Streeton, Frederick McCubbin and others at the Buxton Galleries, Melbourne, in a show of small cedar panels, predominantly cigar-box lids, known as the ‘9 by 5 Impression Exhibition’ after the size of the panels.
Le Moulin Rouge
The Artist and the Editor (1906)
L'Alcade dans l'Embarras
A Pastoral Fantasy
A Dream in Araby
A Spanish courtyard
L'entrée en scène
The Green Room
— Swanage Bay (1901, 46x61cm) _ Although born in London, Conder grew up and first went to art school in Australia. He moved to Paris in 1890. While living there in the 1890s he often stayed in Normandy, where he painted.
Born on 24 October 1820: Eugène~Samuel~Auguste Fromentin
(Dupeux?), French Romantic
writer and painter specialized in Orientalism.
He died on 27 August 1876.
— The wide skies and sweeping plains of his native Charente region left him with a love of natural beauty for which he later found affinities in Algeria and the Netherlands. From his youth he showed academic intelligence, literary talent and artistic aptitude. In 1839 he was sent to Paris to study law, but he became increasingly interested in drawing. Although his father, a skilled amateur artist who had studied with Jean-Victor Bertin, never became reconciled to his son’s desire to pursue painting as a career, Fromentin was sent to study with the Neo-classical landscape painter Jean-Charles-Joseph Rémond [1795–1875]; however, he preferred the more naturalistic Nicolas-Louis Cabat. Fromentin developed slowly as an artist and began to show real promise as a landscape draftsman only in the early to mid-1840s. He published his first important piece of criticism on the Salon of 1845.
–- Arabes (1871; main detail 877x1157pix, 80kb — ZOOM to full picture 1500x2024pix, 210kb)
–- Orientaux (68x76cm; main detail 871x1170pix, 100kb — ZOOM to full picture 1616x2000pix, 318kb)
–- La Chasse au Faucon en Algérie> aka The Quarry (1862, 162x118cm; 876x737pix, 62kb — ZOOM to 2799x1965pix; 484kb)
— Voleurs de Nuit aka Sahara Algerien (1865, 132x204cm)
— Voleurs de Nuit (1868, 132x204cm)
— Abreuvage des Chevaux (1873, 40x31cm)
— Chevaux s'Abreuvant dans une Rivière (1872, 41x31cm)
— Étang dans une Oasis - Sahara (1866, 112x143cm; 687x1000pix, 353kb)
— Cavaliers Arabes (36x45cm)
— Arabes en Chasse (41x26cm)
— Centaures et centauresses s'exerçant au tir de l'arc (201x137cm)
— Dans le Nil (27x38cm)
— Deux Arabes sur une Terrace (27x20cm)
— Campement Arabe dans les Montagnes de l'Atlas (1872, 33x41cm)
— Le Simoun (55x65cm)
Dans le Désert (1868; 490x800pix, 97kb)
Buried on 24 October 1667: Gabriel
Metsu (or Metzu), Dutch painter born in January 1629.