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DEATH: 1902 FAED — 1906 CÉZANNE
BIRTHS: 1791 PETTER — 1925 RAUSCHENBERG 1882 WYETH 1879 SMITH 1796 MICHALLON
^ Born on 22 October 1791: Franz Xaver Petter, Austrian painter specialized in Still Life. He died on 11 May 1866.
— The tradition of painting detailed, carefully observed arrangements of flowers began in seventeenth century Holland, but remained popular and continues to be practiced in our own time. The still life is an ideal subject matter for the artist to display both his or her talent in describing different textures, as well as an individual sense of order and harmony. In nineteenth century Vienna, the still life was a standard subject at the Academy of Arts and was a favored subject with the Imperial Court, which collected examples by the Dutch masters and by local Viennese painters. Among these artists, Franz Petter distinguished himself as a disciplined and sensitive creator of still life subjects. Petter painted large opulent still lifes for Viennese homes which provided him with a regular income; but it was his small-scale studies of flowers and fruit that established his lasting reputation for their meticulous craftsmanship, compositional clarity, and sense of simplicity and intimacy.

An Arrangement of Flowers with a Bird's Nest
An Arrangement of Flowers with Fruit
 
Faed self-portrait^ >Died on 22 October 1902: John Faed, Scottish painter born on 31 August 1819. He did miniatures, portraits, and religious and historical painting.

LINKS
Self-portrait (1850; oval, 7x5cm) >>>
Postumus and Imogen (2677x1852pix, 565kb) a scene from Cymbeline of Shakespeare [bap. 26 Apr 1564 – 23 Apr 1616].
–- Bonnie Kilmeny (27x37cm; 900x1229pix, 120kb) The heroine of the poem Kilmeny by James Hogg [bap. 09 Dec 1770 – 21 Nov 1835] is surrounded by “many a blooming fere, Saying, 'Bonnie Kilmeny, ye're welcome here!”  They look like six other young women, one of whom is crowning her with flowers.
The Convalescent (92x122cm)
Washington Taking the Salute at Trenton (1899; 450x329pix, 19kb) _ monochrome print (1189x881pix, 443kb) _ Faed never came to the US. But Andrew Carnegie [25 Nov 1835 – 11 Aug 1919], who owned a castle as a summer home for his family in Scotland, commissioned him to do this painting of a familiar US subject.
Shakespeare and His Contemporaries (1851, 132x173cm) _ This painting is also known as Shakespeare and His Friends at the Mermaid Tavern. Sir Walter Raleigh [1554 – 29 Oct 1618] created the Friday Street Club, a gathering of men of letters who met at the Mermaid Tavern; the club was named for the tavern's address, Friday Street. The owner of the Mermaid, William Johnson, was a business associate of Shakespeare, but we do not know if Shakespeare actually attended the meetings. In the painting, a kind of Tudor hall of fame, Faed puts Shakespeare in the center of the group, which includes Sir Francis Bacon [22 Jan 1561 – 09 Apr 1626], John Donne [1572 – 31 Mar 1631], Ben Jonson [11 Jun 1572 – 06 Aug 1637], and Sir Walter Raleigh.
Tam O'Shanter and the Witches (print)
–- The Cotter's Saturday Night (20x27cm; 765x1029pix, 68kb)
  If Heav'n a draught of heavenly pleasure spare
One cordial in this melancholy vale,
'Tis when a grateful, loving, modest pair,
In other arms breathe out the tender tale
Beneath the milk white thorn that scents the ev'ning gale.
      This is one of a series of paintings by Faed inspired by the poem The Cotter's Saturday Night (1786) of Robert Burns. It tells the story of a young man's adventures one evening when visiting his beloved. The subject of the poem was charged with personal associations and observed from direct experience, for Burns's father was himself a cotter, a landless peasant employed on a farm and provided with a cottage attached to the farm buildings. The verses of the poem are divided into sections of patriotic and religious commentary, written in English, and descriptions of the cotter's home and his daughter Jenny and her young man, written in Scots. The painting takes its subject from the poem's verse IX, in which the young couple exchange words of love.

–- “Their Eldest Hope, Their Jenny, Woman-Grown” (1853, 48x57cm; 765x915pix, 52kb) from The Cotter's Saturday Night. _ In 1853 John Faed designed a series of engravings to illustrate Robert Burns's poem `The Cotter's Saturday Night', which narrative describes the family life and household of a typical cotter (a landless peasant, employed on a farm and provided with a cottage attached to the farm buildings). The poem, published in 1786, comes from Burns's early career as a writer and is informed by the hardships that he had endured as a child - his own father was a cotter in Ayrshire - and as a young man when trying to earn his living as a labourer and ploughman on the farm that he and his brother took on at Mossgiel in Mauchline. Faed's series of plates on the theme The Cotter's Saturday Night were published by the Scottish Association for the Encouragement of Art (The Scottish Art-Union), and were engraved by a team of Edinburgh printmakers including Francis Croll, John Horsburgh, and John Le Conté. Two of the plates were exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy in 1853. The commercial and critical success of this project led to John Faed's being commissioned to design plates to illustrate two further poems by Burns - Tam O'Shanter and The Soldier's Return, issued by the Scottish Art-Union in 1855 and 1857 respectively.
     In 1854 - the year after the appearance of the two Cotter's Saturday Night engravings - John Faed exhibited the present subject, entitled `Their eldest hope, their Jenny, woman-grown', at the Royal Scottish Academy. The oil broadly corresponds to one of the engraved subjects, although whether it was worked up by the artist from sketches previously made to instruct the engraver (in this instance John Le Conté), or embarked upon independently and in an attempt to capitalise on the success that he had attached to the series of engravings, is not clear. The differences between the print and the painting, for example are in the angle at which the walls of the interior and the beams of the ceiling are seen, and the inclusion of piles of vegetables and a lobster as a still life element at the lower right, suggest a certain distance between the two.
     The verses of Robert Burns's poem The Cotter's Saturday Night are divided into sections written in English - essentially the patriotic and religious commentaries - and Scots. Verses VII and VIII describe the visit of a young man to the cotter's home and the interest he arouses:
  But hark! a rap comes gently to the door;
Jenny, wha kens the meaning o' the same,
Tells how a neebor lad came o'er the muir,
To do some errands, and convoy her hame.
The wily Mother sees the conscious flame
Sparkle in Jenny's e'e, and flush her cheek,
With heart-struck, anxious care enquires his name,
While Jenny hafflins is afraid to speak;
Weel-pleas'd the Mother hears, it's nae wild, worthless Rake.

With kindly welcome, Jenny brings him ben;
A strappan youth, he takes the Mother's eye;
Blythe Jenny sees the visit's no ill-taen;
The Father cracks of horses, pleughs and kye.
The youngster's artless heart o'erflows wi' joy,
But blate and laithfu', scarce can weel behave;
The Mother, wi' a woman's wiles, can spy
What makes the youth sae bashfu' and sae grave;
Weel-pleas'd to think her bairn's respected like the lave.
      The painting owes something to the long Netherlandish tradition of interior painting and careful observation of domestic furnishings so as to give indication of social position. Even more familiar to Faed and his generation would have been the paintings of Wilkie (or their engraved reproductions). In its conscientiousness of record-making and its poignant depiction of a social predicament this painting of Faed is a tribute to works by David Wilkie such as Duncan Gray, which was itself an illustration to a poem by Burns.
     This painting met with great enthusiasm when shown at the 1854 Royal Scottish Academy. The only objection to the picture made by the critic of The Art Journal (1854, p.112) was that “the living groups ... are not of the cottar class, but of a higher social grade.” Otherwise, the painting was described as “perhaps the most carefully finished picture in the Exhibition ... the figures are faultless in drawing, very agreeably grouped, and beautifully coloured.” Commenting on the artist's success in identifying the key elements of Burns's narrative, and the way in which he had transposed these into a subject for painting, the reviewer went on: “The orthodox canon for the completion of such a work has been strictly adopted by the artist, in his having introduced a handsome female (Jenny) as a prominent feature in the composition. The grace of attitude, the sweetness of expression, the rendering of the accessory, the ‘braw new gown’ which she displays, the lustre and the purity of colour, and the delicate and elaborate finish of the whole; - these things never were excelled, except perhaps in the highest charactered works of the Flemish school.”
–- Woman Knitting (40x30cm; 525x388pix, 26kb)
–- Dreaming (37x47cm; 424x543pix, 29kb)
—(081013)
^ >Born on 22 October 1925: Milton “Robert” Rauschenberg [–12 May 2008], US painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer, and performance artist.
— While too much of an individualist ever to be fully a part of any movement, he acted as an important bridge between Abstract Expressionism and Pop art and can be credited as one of the major influences in the return to favor of representational art in the USA. As iconoclastic in his invention of new techniques as in his wide-ranging iconography of modern life, he suggested new possibilities that continued to be exploited by younger artists throughout the latter decades of the 20th century.
— Original name Milton Rauschenberg. US painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement. Studied at Kansas City Art Institute, Academie Julien (Paris), Black Mountain College (North Carolina), and Art Students League (New York); lives in New York
— Born in 1925 at Port Arthur, Texas. In 1942 he studied pharmacy briefly at the University of Texas, following which he served in the US Marines. From 1947 to 1948 he studied various subjects at the Kansas City Art Institute, including art history, sculpture and music. During this time he did window displays, executed film sets and designed photographic studios. In 1948 he attended the Académie Julian, Paris, met Susan Weil, who was later to become his wife, and returned to the US to study under Josef Albers [1888-1976] at the Black Mountain College, North Carolina. There he met the choreographer Merce Cunningham and the composer John Cage in 1949 and collaborated closely with both of them. In the same year he moved to New York and studied at the Art Students' League until 1952. He did window displays for Bonwit Teller and Tiffany, had his first one-man exhibitions in 1951 and returned to Black Mountain College in 1952. He travelled in Italy, France and Spain and had exhibition in 1953 at Florence and Rome. He moved into a studio in New York in the same year and started to paint his red pictures, replacing the all-white and all-black paintings. He erased a drawing by Willem de Kooning. Between 1954 and 1965 he intensified his work for the Merce Cunningham Dance Company. In 1955 he moved into a studio in the same neighborhood as Jasper Johns.
      In 1958 he had his first exhibition at the Leo Castelli gallery and began his drawings to illustrate Dante's "Inferno". In 1959 he was represented at the documenta "2", Kassel, and at the Paris and São Paulo Biennales. In 1960 he met Marcel Duchamp [1887-1968] . In 1962 he first used the technique of silkscreen on canvas, mixed with painting, collage and affixed objects. He also did his first litographic work, for which he was awarded the Grand Prix at Ljubljana. In 1963 he was given his first retrospective exhibition in Europe at the Galerie Sonnabend, Paris, also shown at the Jewish Museum, New York. He produced his first dance performance Pelican. In 1964 he had a retrospective at the Whitechapel Gallery, London, and won the Grand Prix at the Venice Biennale. He went on world tour with Cage and Cunningham's Dance Company. In 1967 he made his Revolvers - with revolving plexiglass discs. That year (the same year as Martin Luther King) he was made honorary doctor of Grinnel College, Iowa.
      In 1968 he was invited by NASA to witness the lift-off of Apollo 11 at Kennedy Space Center and to use this theme in his work. He set up the foundation Change Inc. for destitute artists in 1970, and a house with art studios in Florida in 1971. In 1974 he collaborated with the writer Alain Robbe-Grillet. He also visited Israel and India. In 1975 he received the Honorary Degree of Fine Arts from the University of South Florida, Tampa, and, together with James Rosenquist, became involved in appealing for a re-examination of taxation for non-profitmaking art institutions. A large retrospective of his work was shown in several American cities from 1976-78. In 1980 he had retrospectives at Berlin, Düsseldorf, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Munich and London. In 1981 his photographs were shown at the Centre Pompidou, Paris, and he published the book Rauschenberg Photographs. He lives in New York City and on Captiva Island, Florida. In 1989 his work went on world tour, including an exhibition in Moscow.
— Robert Rauschenberg was born Milton Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, Texas. He began to study pharmacology at the University of Texas at Austin before being drafted into the United States navy, where he served as a neuropsychiatric technician in the navy hospital corps in San Diego. In 1947, he enrolled at the Kansas City Art Institute and traveled to Paris to study at the Académie Julian the following year.
      In the fall of 1948, he returned to the United States to study under Josef Albers at Black Mountain College, near Asheville, North Carolina, which he continued to attend intermittently through 1952. While taking classes at the Art Students League, New York, from 1949 to 1951, Rauschenberg was offered his first solo exhibition at the Betty Parsons Gallery. Some of the works from this period included blueprints, monochromatic white paintings, and black paintings. From the fall of 1952 to the spring of 1953, he traveled to Europe and North Africa with Cy Twombly, whom he had met at the Art Students League. During his travels, Rauschenberg worked on a series of small collages, hanging assemblages, and small boxes filled with found elements, which he exhibited in Rome and Florence.
      Upon his return to New York in 1953, Rauschenberg completed his series of black paintings, using newspaper as the ground, and began work on sculptures created from wood, stones, and other materials found on the streets; paintings made with tissue paper, dirt, or gold leaf; and more conceptually oriented works such as Automobile Tire Print (1953) and Erased de Kooning Drawing (1953). By the end of 1953, he had begun his Red Painting series on canvases that incorporated newspapers, fabric, and found objects and evolved in 1954 into the Combines, a term Rauschenberg coined for his well-known works that integrated aspects of painting and sculpture and would often include such objects as a stuffed eagle or goat, street signs, or a quilt and pillow. In late 1953, he met Jasper Johns, with whom he is considered the most influential of artists who reacted against Abstract Expressionism. The two artists had neighboring studios, regularly exchanging ideas and discussing their work, until 1961.
      Rauschenberg began to silkscreen paintings in 1962. He had his first career retrospective, organized by the Jewish Museum, New York, in 1963 and was awarded the Grand Prize for Painting at the 1964 Venice Biennale. He spent much of the remainder of the 1960s dedicated to more collaborative projects including printmaking, Performance, choreography, set design, and art-and-technology works. In 1966, he cofounded Experiments in Art and Technology, an organization that sought to promote collaborations between artists and engineers.
      In 1970, Rauschenberg established a permanent residence and studio in Captiva, Florida, where he still lives. Rauschenberg continued to travel widely, embarking on a number of collaborations with artisans and workshops abroad, which culminated in the Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange (ROCI) project from 1985 to 1991.

LINKS
Harbor (1964, 213x152cm; 823x581pix, 95kb)
Estate (1963, 244x178cm; 816x585pix, 94kb)
–- Storyline I (1968 color lithograph 52x42cm; 1083x925pix, 125kb)
book cover –- Untitled (1964 color lithograph 41x29cm; 1048x810pix, 112kb) _ Under the picture (mostly blotches of various colors) there are nine lines of words such as
outer space buried deep in earth cave
white whale never lost in south sea sky ocean

It is page 115 of the “poetry”{?} book 1 Cent Life (1964) by Walasse Ting [1929~], issued in an edition of 2100 copies, with images including over 60 original lithographs by Pierre Alechinsky [19 Oct 1927~] , Karel Appel, Enrico Baj, Alan Davie, Jim Dine, Oyvind Fahlstrom, Sam Francis, Robert Indiana, Alfred Jensen, Asger Jorn, Allan Kaprow, Alfred Leslie, Roy Lichtenstein [1923-1997] (GirlSpray Can), Joan Mitchell, Kiki O.K., Claes Oldenburg, Mel Ramos, Robert Rauschenberg, Reinhoud, Jean-Paul Riopelle, James Rosenquist, Antonio Saura, Kimber Smith, K.R.H. Sonderberg, Bram Van Velde, Andy Warhol [06 Aug 1928 – 22 Feb 1987], Tom Wesselmann, and one by Walasse Ting.
–- Red Painting (1200x517pix, 69kb) _ Compare side-by-side with red untitled by Joseph Lacasse [06 Aug 1894 – 26 Oct 1975]:
      _ .Lacasse Red + Rauschenberg Red (1200x1295, 157kb)
15+14 images at Ciudad de la Pintura
—(071020)
^ >Died on 22 October 1906: Paul Cézanne, French painter born on 19 January 1839.
— Malgré l'opposition de son père qui aimerait le voir lui succéder à la tête de la banque qu'il a fondée, Cézanne se consacrera à la peinture. Il fut un certain temps attiré vers la lumière des Impressionnistes, mais il s'en détachera . Paul Cézanne, celui dont on a dit " Il y a des sérénités passionnées " ce qui illustre bien son art. Il réconcilie les tendances antagonistes du romantisme et du classicisme et se révèle donc comme l’un des peintres qui a le plus influencé l’art contemporain.
— Cézanne was born and died in Aix-en-Provence. He was groomed from an early age to assume his father's position at the family bank. Rejecting both a financial career and the legal studies he pursued at university, however, he left the south of France in 1861 to join his longtime friend Émile Zola in Paris and to launch his artistic training. He failed the entrance examination for the École des Beaux-Arts, but he frequented classes at the Académie Suisse and came to know artists in the impressionist circle such as Camille Pissarro and Claude Monet. Cézanne's early paintings, worked in a dark and foreboding style and dominated by sexually charged images of death and violence, received hostile critical reaction. He contributed in 1863 to the Salon des Refusés and, in 1874, to the first impressionist exhibition, where he sold
      _ La Maison du Pendu. Under the guidance of Pissarro, his early work gave way to an impressionist phase, but he quickly developed his signature style based on a blend of intense observation and architectonic compositional relationships that proved highly influential for twentieth-century formalist art. Cézanne divided his time between Paris and Provence but settled permanently in Aix in 1899. A large exhibition organized by Vollard in 1895 and a posthumous retrospective in 1907 brought belated recognition.
—      Paul Cézanne was born into a family of Italian origin in Cesana Forinese. His father had established a felt hat business in Aix-en-Provence and later became a banker. In 1859 he bought a country house on the outskirts of Aix, the Jas de Bouffan, which was to be frequently represented in Cézanne’s paintings.
     Between 1852 and 1859 Paul Cézanne studied at the Collège Bourbon and it was there that he formed a friendship with Émile Zola, with whom he shared an interest in literature. In 1856 Cézanne began to attend the evening drawing courses of Joseph-Marc Gibert at the Aix Museum. From 1859 to 1861 he studied law at Aix, entered his father’s bank. By April 1861 his father had finally yielded to Cézanne’s desire to make a career in art and allowed him to go to Paris to study at the Académie Suisse. In Paris Cézanne frequented the Louvre, met Pissarro and Guillaumin and, later on, Monet, Sisley, Bazille and Renoir. In September of the same year he was refused admission to the École des Beaux-Arts and went back to Aix, to the great relief of his father, who offered him a position in his bank. But in November 1862 Paul Cézanne went back to Paris and took up painting again.
       During his so called “dark” or “romantic” period (1862-1870) Paul Cézanne often visited Paris; he met with Édouard Manet and the future Impressionists, and tried to be accepted at the Salon. The Franco-Prussian War drove him to L’Estaque near Marseilles. Paul Cézanne’s “Impressionist” period (1873-1879) is connected with his staying at Pontoise and Auvers-sur-Oise in 1872, 1873, 1874, 1877 and 1881; he worked with Pissarro and exhibited with the Impressionists in 1874 and in 1877. The canvases produced at L’Estaque (1880-1883) and at Gardanne (1885-1888) are usually referred to Paul Cézanne’s “constructive” period. In 1886 after his father’s death, Cézanne married Hortense Fiquet, with whom he had a secret liaison since 1870. She is said to have looked after the finished canvases, which Cézanne never took care to keep and abandoned as soon as he completed the painting. The same year Cézanne quarelled with Zola over the 1886 novel L’Oeuvre, [résumé] in which Claude Lantier, the central figure, an unsuccessful and unbalanced painter, was identified with Cézanne.
      In 1887, after a long break, Cézanne participated in the exhibition of “Les XX” at Brussels. Towards the beginning of Paul Cézanne’s “synthetic” period (1890-1906) the younger generations of artists started to take an interest in him. His first one-man show was held in the Vollard Gallery in 1895. During these years the artist seldom visited Paris — his longest stays there took place in 1895, 1899 and 1904 — and produced many versions of canvases depicting Mount Sainte-Victoire, smokers, card-players and bathers, and painted still lifes and portraits. By 1901 Cézanne had become recognized. He often met with young artists who admired his work – Denis, Bonnard and Vuillard. In 1901 Denis painted Hommage à Cézanne. The future Fauvist Charles Camoin sought his advice, and in 1904 he was visited by Émile Bernard, an artist of the Pont-Aven school, with whom Cézanne corresponded extensively, expounding his views on art.
     In 1904 his paintings were shown for the first time at the Autumn Salon in Paris; and a year after his death, in 1907, a retrospective exhibition of his works was held there.

^ — Paul Cézanne, often called the father of modern art, strove to develop an ideal synthesis of naturalistic representation, personal expression, and abstract pictorial order.
     Among the artists of his time, Cézanne perhaps has had the most profound effect on the art of the 20th century. He was the greatest single influence on both the French artist Henri Matisse, who admired his color, and the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, who developed Cézanne's planar compositional structure into the cubist style. During the greater part of his own lifetime, however, Cézanne was largely ignored, and he worked in isolation. He mistrusted critics, had few friends, and, until 1895, exhibited only occasionally. He was alienated even from his family, who found his behavior peculiar and failed to appreciate his revolutionary art.
     Early Life and Work
     Cézanne was born in the southern French town of Aix-en-Provence, the son of a wealthy banker. His boyhood companion was Émile Zola, who later gained fame as a novelist and man of letters. As did Zola, Cézanne developed artistic interests at an early age, much to the dismay of his father. In 1862, after a number of bitter family disputes, the aspiring artist was given a small allowance and sent to study art in Paris, where Zola had already gone. From the start he was drawn to the more radical elements of the Parisian art world. He especially admired the romantic painter Eugène Delacroix and, among the younger masters, Gustave Courbet and the notorious Édouard Manet, who exhibited realist paintings that were shocking in both style and subject matter to most of their contemporaries.
     Influence of the Impressionists
     Many of Cézanne's early works were painted in dark tones applied with heavy, fluid pigment, suggesting the moody, romantic expressionism of previous generations. Just as Zola pursued his interest in the realist novel, however, Cézanne also gradually developed a commitment to the representation of contemporary life, painting the world he observed without concern for thematic idealization or stylistic affectation. The most significant influence on the work of his early maturity proved to be Camille Pissarro, an older but as yet unrecognized painter who lived with his large family in a rural area outside Paris. Pissarro not only provided the moral encouragement that the insecure Cézanne required, but he also introduced him to the new impressionist technique for rendering outdoor light. Along with the painters Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, and a few others, Pissarro had developed a painting style that involved working outdoors (en plein air) rapidly and on a reduced scale, employing small touches of pure color, generally without the use of preparatory sketches or linear outlines. In such a manner Pissarro and the others hoped to capture the most transient natural effects as well as their own passing emotional states as the artists stood before nature. Under Pissarro's tutelage, and within a very short time during 1872-1873, Cézanne shifted from dark tones to bright hues and began to concentrate on scenes of farmland and rural villages.
     Return to Aix
     Although he seemed less technically accomplished than the other impressionists, Cézanne was accepted by the group and exhibited with them in 1874 and 1877. In general the impressionists did not have much commercial success, and Cézanne's works received the harshest critical commentary. He drifted away from many of his Parisian contacts during the late 1870s and '80s and spent much of his time in his native Aix. After 1882, he did not work closely again with Pissarro. In 1886, Cézanne became embittered over what he took to be thinly disguised references to his own failures in one of Zola's novels. As a result he broke off relations with his oldest supporter. In the same year, he inherited his father's wealth and finally, at the age of 47, became financially independent, but socially he remained quite isolated.
     Cézanne's Use of Color
     This isolation and Cézanne's concentration and singleness of purpose may account for the remarkable development he sustained during the 1880s and '90s. In this period he continued to paint studies from nature in brilliant impressionist colors, but he gradually simplified his application of the paint to the point where he seemed able to define volumetric forms with juxtaposed strokes of pure color. Critics eventually argued that Cézanne had discovered a means of rendering both nature's light and nature's form with a single application of color. He seemed to be reintroducing a formal structure that the impressionists had abandoned, without sacrificing the sense of brilliant illumination they had achieved. Cézanne himself spoke of “modulating” with color rather than “modeling” with dark and light. By this he meant that he would replace an artificial convention of representation (modeling) with a more expressive system (modulating) that was closer still to nature, or, as the artist himself said, “parallel to nature.” For Cézanne, the answer to all the technical problems of impressionism lay in a use of color both more orderly and more expressive than that of his fellow impressionists.
     Cézanne's goal was, in his own mind, never fully attained. He left most of his works unfinished and destroyed many others. He complained of his failure at rendering the human figure, and indeed the great figural works of his last years—such as
      _ Les Grandes Baigneuses (1906)—reveal curious distortions that seem to have been dictated by the rigor of the system of color modulation he imposed on his own representations. The succeeding generation of painters, however, eventually came to be receptive to nearly all of Cézanne's idiosyncrasies. Cézanne's heirs felt that the naturalistic painting of impressionism had become formularized, and a new and original style, however difficult it might be, was needed to return a sense of sincerity and commitment to modern art.
     Significance of Cézanne's Work
     For many years Cézanne was known only to his old impressionist colleagues and to a few younger radical postimpressionist artists, including the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh and the French painter Paul Gauguin. In 1895, however, Ambroise Vollard, an ambitious Paris art dealer, arranged a show of Cézanne's works and over the next few years promoted them successfully. By 1904, Cézanne was featured in a major official exhibition, and by the time of his death he had attained the status of a legendary figure. During his last years many younger artists traveled to Aix to observe him at work and to receive any words of wisdom he might offer. Both his style and his theory remained mysterious and cryptic; he seemed to some a naive primitive, while to others he was a sophisticated master of technical procedure. The intensity of his color, coupled with the apparent rigor of his compositional organization, signaled to most that, despite the artist's own frequent despair, he had synthesized the basic expressive and representational elements of painting in a highly original manner.
Pour Moi, Cézanne, fictional autobiography (in English) by Earl Mayan.

^ LINKS
Self-Portrait (1885)
Self-Portrait. (1876)
Self-Portrait. (1881)
Self-Portrait (1882)
Self-Portrait (1880)
Self-Portrait (1880)
Self-Portrait (graphite, 1882)
Self-Portrait (1876)
Self-portrait (1881)
Self-Portrait (1885)
Self Portrait
Self-Portrait in a Casquette (1872)
Self-Portrait with a Casquette (1875)
Self-Portrait with Palette (1887)
Self-Portrait with Palette (1884)
Self-Portrait on a Rose Background (1877)
Self-Portrait with Rose Background (1875)
Self-Portrait with Soft Hat (1894)
–- Les Quatre Saisons(1861)
Hortense Fiquet dans un fauteuil rouge (1878; 1400x1065pix)
La lecture de Paul Alexis chez Zola (1870; 1400x1530pix)
L'après-midi à Naples. Le punch au rhum (1877; 1400x1732pix)
L'éternel féminin (1877; 1400x1744pix)
Route tournante en Provence (1868; 1400x1090pix)
Paysage de rocher (1871; 1400x1714pix)
La neige à l'Estaque (1871; 1400x1804pix)
La mer à L'Estaque (1876; 1400x1955pix)
Louis-Auguste Cézanne, père de l'artiste, lisant L'Évènement (1866, 198x119cm) _ Portrait of the Artist's Father _ Louis-Auguste Cézanne será uno de los primeros modelos empleados por el maestro a la hora de realizar retratos, al igual que el tío Dominique. El padre del pintor era un hombre hecho a sí mismo, que había prosperado gracias a su fructífero negocio de sombreros lo que le permitió crear un pequeño banco. Sin embargo, la aristocracia de Aix le veía como un nuevo rico por lo que su integración social fue bastante difícil. Cézanne presenta a su padre leyendo el periódico "L´Evénement", diario en el que su buen amigo Zola había publicado algunos artículos criticando la actitud del Salón y defendiendo a la nueva pintura, especialmente a Manet. El modelo aparece sentado en un sillón de flores — el mismo en el que se sentará después Achille Emperaire — en una posición oblicua respecto a la butaca, butaca que también aparece girada en relación con la pared del fondo. Sobre dicha pared podemos contemplar el lienzo Nature morte: sucrier, poires, et tasse bleue que Cézanne había pintado algunos meses antes. La actitud del modelo ha sido captada a la perfección, reflejando de manera correcta la concentración de monsieur Louis-Auguste a la hora de realizar su lectura. La figura goza de singular fuerza y sensibilidad en sintonía con el estilo de Daumier. Las pinceladas son tremendamente rápidas y empastadas, aplicando el color tanto con pincel como con espátula. Renuncia a los detalles, a excepción de la cabecera del periódico cuyas matizadas letras contrastan con la emborronada contraportada. Las tonalidades oscuras abundan en el conjunto, contrastando con el sillón y el papel del diario, las únicas notas claras en el lienzo.
_ One of the most important works of his early years is the portrait of his formidable father. It is one of Cézanne's “palette-knife pictures”, painted in short sessions between 1865 and 1866. Their realistic content and solid style reveal 's admiration for Gustave Courbet. Here we see a craggy, unyielding man of business, a solid mass of manhood, bodily succint from the top of his black beret to the tips of his heavy shoes. The uncompromising verticals of the massive chair are echoed by the door, and the edges of the small still life by on the wall just behind: everything corresponds to the absolute verticals of the edges of the canvas itself, further accentuating the air of certainty about the portrait. Thick hands hold a newspaper--though Paul Cézanne has replaced his father's conservative newspaper with the liberal L'Evénement, which published articles by his childhood friend, Emile Zola. His father devours the paper, sitting tensely upright in the elongated armchair. Yet it is a curiously tender portrait too. Paul seems to see his father as somehow unfulfilled: for all his size he does not fully occupy the chair, and neither does he see the still life on the wall behind him, which we recognize as being one of his son's. We do not see his eyes-- only the ironical mouth and his great frame, partly hidden behind the paper. Paul Cézanne was in his twenties when he painted The Artist's Father. Wonderful though it is, with its blacks and greys and umbers, it does not fully indicate the profundity of his developing genius. Yet even in this early work, Cézanne's grasp of form and solid pictorial structures which came to dominate his mature style are already essential components. His overriding concern with form and structure set him apart from the Impressionists from the start, and he was to maintain this solitary position, carving out his unique pictorial language.
Achille Emperaire peintre (1868, 200x122cm; 1185x707pix, 157kb) _ Né en 1829 à Aix-en-Provence, nain et bossu, peintre de nus, de paysages; dessins (sanguines et fusain). Il tenta d'imposer son propre style fait de matières épaisses, rejetant ainsi l'influence de Cézanne dont il fut pourtant l'ami. Mort en 1898. Achille Emperaire y Cézanne se concocieron en la escuela primaria de la rue des Epinaux en Aix-en-Provence. Posteriormente coincidieron en la Académie Suisse — donde contactaron con Monet, Pissarro y Renoir — y expusieron juntos en la tienda del "père" Tanguy
      _ Tanguy portrait (1888) by van Gogh] , en compañía de van Gogh. También presentaron juntos diversos cuadros al Salón oficial, sufriendo los dos diversos rechazos. Entre ambos surgió una intensa amistad que se continuó en el tiempo. Gracias a esa amistad tenemos este espléndido retrato. Achille era paralítico y también se dedicó a la pintura, compartiendo con Cézanne la ausencia de éxito y el deseo de explorar nuevos caminos artísticos. El modelo aparece sentado en un sillón blanco con un estampado de flores — el mismo empleado en el retrato Louis-Auguste Cézanne, père de l'artiste, lisant L'Évènement — de frente al espectador, girando su cabeza hacia la derecha. Sus delgadas piernas se apoyan en una caja y las manos deformes se dejan caer sobre los brazos del sillón. Sin embargo, no estamos ante un retrato caricaturesco, antes lo contrario, ya que gracias a la pose y la inteligencia de la mirada la figura de Achille se dignifica, captando la personalidad del pintor, relacionándose con los retratos de bufones (ej.
      _ Don Sebastián de Morra, 1645) pintados por Velázquez. Incluso para aumentar la dignidad del modelo se coloca en la parte superior el nombre y su profesión en letras de molde, recordando el retrato de Napoléon sur le trone impérial pintado por Ingres en 1806. Las tonalidades oscuras dominan el conjunto, creando acentuados contrastes con el tapizado del sillón o la carnación del modelo. El óleo ha sido aplicado con intensidad, empleando la espátula y el pincel, dotando así de mayor fuerza a la imagen. Este retrato será muy admirado por los simbolistas, utilizándolo el propio Gauguin como modelo. También servirá de ejemplo a Matisse. Cézanne presentó este trabajo al Salón de París de 1870, junto con una figura femenina desnuda que no se ha conservado. Ambas obras fueron rechazadas, aludiendo a ellas en una caricatura publicada en el satírico Album Stock.
      _ Achille Emperaire (1868, croquis 48x32cm)
Maison Maria with a View of Château Noir (65x81cm) _ Paul 's art challenged both the Romantic and neoclassical styles of painting popular during the 19th century as well as the newer, more radical style embodied by Impressionism. Termed a Post-Impressionist, Cézanne's later works, such as Maison Maria with a View of Château Noir, reveal the divided nature of his painting: the work's brushstrokes and muted, broken colors betoken Impressionism. But the work also diverges from the movement's emphasis on objectivity and surface. Maison Maria exhibits the compositional characteristics -- for instance, the imbalance of the house and the painting's depiction of deep space -- that are unique to Cézanne. Known as misanthropic and somewhat reclusive, he moved with his wife and son to Provence in 1870. In 1874, he relocated temporarily to Paris, where the Impressionist movement was taking hold. exhibited at the first Impressionist show during this year and again at the third, in 1877. Of all the paintings, which were almost universally denounced by critics and the public, Cézanne's received the soundest lashing. A split with the Impressionists led back to Provence, where he developed the mature style which would become his signature, and which Maison Maria embodies.
L'enlèvement (1867, 90x116cm; 1400x1830pix, 514kb) _ The Abduction _ Abduction, rape, and murder: these are themes that tormented . An early work full of dark miseries, it is impressive largely for its turgid force, held barely under his control. These figure paintings are the most difficult to enter into: they are sinister, with passion in turmoil just beneath the surface. 's late studies of the human body are most rewarding, his figures often depicted as bathers merging with the landscape in a sunlit lightness. This became a favorite theme for and he made a whole series of pictures on the subject. This mature work is dictated by an objectivity that is profoundly moving for all its seeming emotional detachment.
— The special attraction of still life to Cézanne was the ability, to some extent, to control the structure. He brooded over his apples, jugs, tables, and curtains, arranging them with infinite variety.
      _ Still Life with Apples and Peaches (1905) glows with a romantic energy, as hugely present at Mont Sainte-Victoire. Here too is a mountain, and here too sanctity and victory: the fruits lie on the table with an active power that is not just seen but experienced. The jug bulges, not with any contents, but with its own weight of being. The curtain swags gloriously, while the great waterfall of the napkin absorbs and radiates light onto the table on which all this life is earthed.
Nature morte, crâne et chandelier (1867; 1018x1331pix; 540kb)
Still Life with Skull (1907)
Still Life with Bread and Eggs (1865)
Still Life (1890)
Still Life (1887)
Still Life (1900)
Still Life
Still Life (1894)
Still Life: Apples, Bottle and Chairback (1906)
Still life with a Curtain (1895)
Still Life with a Skull (1907)
Still Life with Apples (1894)
Still Life with Apples
Still Life with Apples (1890)
Still-Life with Apples (1890)
Still Life with Apples (1898)
Still Life with Apples, a Bottle, and a Milk Pot (1906)
Still Life with Apples, a Bottle, and a Milk Pot
Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses
Still Life with Apples and a Pot of Primroses (1890)
Still Life with Apples and Oranges (1907)
Still Life with Apples and Pears (1887)
Still Life with Basket of Apples
Still Life with Carafe, Sugar Bowl, Bottle, Pomegranates, and Watermelon (1906)
Still Life with Commode (1887)
Still Life with Compotier (1882)
Still Life with Curtain and Flowered Pitcher (1899)
Still Life with Drapery (1899)
Still Life with Flower Curtain and Fruit
Still Life with Flower Holder (1905)
Still Life with Flowers and Fruit (1890)
Still Life with Fruit (1882)
Still Life with Fruit, Pitcher and Fruit-Vase (1894)
Still Life with Green Melon (1906)
Still Life with Jar, Cup, and Apples (1877)
Still Life with Kettle (1869)
Still Life with Onions (1907)
Still Life with Onions and Bottle (1907)
Still Life with Peaches and Pears (1890)
Still Life with Peppermint Bottle (1894)
Still Life with Peppermint Bottle (1894)
Still Life with Plaster Cupid (1895)
Still Life with Plate of Cherries (1887)
Still Life with Soup Tureen (1877)
Still Life with Water Jug (1893)
Still Life with Water Jug (1893)
_ Still Life with Watermelon and Pomegranates (1906)
— From 1872, under Pissarro's influence, painted the rich Impressionist effects of light on different surfaces and even exhibited at the first Impressionist show. But he maintained his concern for solidity and structure throughout, and abandoned Impressionism in 1877. In Le Château Noir, does not respond to the flickering light as an Impressionist might; he draws that flicker from deep within the substance of every structure in the painting. Each form has a true solidity, an absolute of internal power that is never diminished for the sake of another part of the composition.
Le Meurtre (1869; 1038x1294pix, 495kb) _ Cézanne is best known for his monumental landscape paintings. The Murder is one of his early paintings, an unusually dramatic piece which conveys the brutality of the act. The murderer is lifting his hand ready to give the final strike while his collaborator is using all the force of her heavy and rounded body to keep the victim down. The body of the victim has almost disappeared, only its outline head and arms are distinct under the ferocious force of the two murderers. The murderers have no faces, but the victim's is contorted with pain. is not concerned with the identities of the murderers; they could be anybody. presents the act as one of anonymous violence; their crime is given no explanation. The threatening sky, the suggestion of a riverbank where the body will be thrown, and the desolate surrounding space all contribute to the menacing nature of the scene.
La Maison du Pendu
Bathers (1875)
Bathers (1900)
Bathers (1891)
The Bathers (1905)
Bathers (1892)
The Bathers
Bathers at Rest (1876)
Les Grandes Baigneuses
Big Bathers (1905)
Five Bathers (1887)
Five Bathers (1877)
The Large Bathers (1898)
Large Bathers (1906)
Large Bathers (1906)
Large Bathers (1905)
The Large Bathers (1905)
Large Bathers (detail) (1906)
Large Bathers (1906)
Three Bathers (1877)
Le Vieux Jardinier (1906; 530x424pix)
The Bay from L'Estaque (1886)
L'Estaque, (1885) _ View of L'Estaque (31x48cm) _ Cézanne has often been described as the supreme master of watercolor painting. Although his works often look unfinished, this View of L'Estaque does not have the empty, insubstantial feel of many of his other pictures. In a letter to the painter Camille Pissarro (1831-1903) of 02 July 1876, Cézanne remarked that 'the silhouettes you see here are not only black and white, but also blue, red, brown and violet'. He was fascinated by observations of this kind and evidently tried to capture the same effect in this painting by using all the colors he mentions. The pale blue above the roofs is not sky but the Mediterranean. This is easier to see in an oil version of the same view made in 1885 (previous link). The rooftops in that painting are depicted in the very same way.
Landscape Mont Sainte-Victoire (1866)
Landscape at Aix (Mont Sainte-Victoire) (1905)
Le Mont Sainte-Victoire vu de Les Lauves (1904; 832x1029pix, 228kb)
Landscape near Aix, the Plain of the Arc River (1895)
Pine Tree near Aix (1895)
Blue Landscape (1906)
Landscape in Provence (1875)
Landscape near Paris (1876)
Landscape with Poplars
Etude: Paysage a Auvers (1873)
La Maison du Pendu (1873)
Jas de Buffan, The Pool (1876)
Houses Along a Road (1881)
A Turn in the Road at La Roche-Guyon (1885)
Gardanne (Barnes) (1886)
Gardanne (Brooklyn) (1886)
Mont Sainte-Victoire (Barnes) (1895)
Mont Sainte-Victoire (Courtauld) (1887)
Mont Sainte-Victoire (Metropolitan) (1887)
The Bay from L'Estaque (1886)
Mountains in Provence (1890)
Road at Chantilly (1888)
House and Farm at Jas de Bouffan (1890)
House and Trees (1894)
Well: Millstone and Cistern Under Trees (1892)
The House with Cracked Walls (1894)
The Great Pine (1896)
Maison Maria with a View of Chateau Noir (1895)
Bibemus Quarry (1895)
Foliage (1899)
Lake Annecy (1896)
Bibemus: The Red Rock (1897)
Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from the Bibemus Quarry (1897) _ detail
Mont Sainte-Victoire (Hermitage) (1898)
Bibemus Quarry (Barnes) (1898)
Quarry and Mont Sainte-Victoire (1899)
Woods with Millstone (1899)
Turning Road at Montgeroult (1899)
Cistern in the Park at Chateau Noir (190)
Mont Sainte-Victoire (190)
Corner of Quarry (1904)
Chateau Noir (Washington)
Houses on the Hill (River Bank) (1906)
Morning in Provence (1906)
Bend in Road (1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from Les Lauves (watercolor) (1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire 1902 (1902)
Mont Sainte-Victoire 1904 (1904)
Chateau Noir (Bern) (1905)
Mont Sainte-Victoire (watercolor) (1906)
Bend in Forest Road (1906)
The Garden Terrace at Les Lauves (1906)
Riverbanks (1905)
Mont Sainte-Victoire and Chateau Noir (1906)
Chateau Noir (MoMA) (1906)
Chateau Noir (Louvre) (1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from Les Lauves (1905)
Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen from Les Lauves (1906)
Le Cabanon de Jourdan (oil)
Le Cabanon de Jourdan (watercolor)
The Garden at Les Lauves
—(081013)

Died on a 22 October:


2005 Armand Pierre Fernandez “Arman” [22 Oct 2005–], French painter born (main coverage) on 17 November 1928. —(091021)

>1995 Aurelio Biosca Torres [19 Mar 1908–], Spanish painter and gallery owner. —(091021)

^ 1941 Louis Casimir Ladislas “Marcoussis” (originally Markus), Polish French Cubist painter and printmaker born on 10 November 1878 (14 Nov 1883?). — Born in Warsaw, came to Paris in 1903, changed name from Markus to Marcoussis, naturalized French. Died in Cusset (Dept. Allier) — The second son in a cultivated family of Jewish origin that had converted to Catholicism, he began studying law in Warsaw but left to enrol in the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków. When he refused to follow decorative arts and design, potentially useful in the family’s carpet manufacturing business, his father cut off his allowance, reinstating it only after he won honours in drawing and decided to continue his studies in Paris. In 1903 he enrolled under Jules Lefebvre at the Académie Julian in Paris, where he became friendly with Roger de La Fresnaye and the French painter Robert Lotiron [1886–1966]. A casual student, he spent most of his time visiting the Louvre, salon exhibitions, galleries and cafés until 1905, when the subvention from home ended. The first work he exhibited in Paris was an Impressionist landscape at the Salon d’Automne in 1905. Now obliged to support himself, he took advantage of his facility as a draftsman and submitted illustrations to Parisian magazines of humor and fashion: Vie parisienne, Le Journal and Assiette au beurre. He continued to paint and by 1907 had moved into the orbit of Fauvism. A chance encounter with Guillaume Apollinaire and Georges Braque at the Cirque Médrano in 1910, by which time he was living in bourgeois comfort with Marcelle Humbert as a highly successful illustrator, changed the course of Marcoussis’s life. Presented to Picasso, Marcoussis was startled by Cubism; Picasso in turn was taken with Marcelle, whom he renamed Eva and swept off to Avignon, Ceret and Sorgues. Freed of the pressures of maintaining a middle-class apartment, Marcoussis began to associate with Apollinaire and other younger poets and to experiment with the new painting. At the urging of Apollinaire he changed his surname to that of a small village in the district of Essonne. Although he exhibited in the Section d’Or (1912, the year in which he etched Apollinaire’s portrait), his own brand of Cubism was closer to that of the Montmartre artists Picasso and Braque than to that of the Puteaux Group. Like the former he favored still-life and subjects that made reference to music, but his approach to form remained readable, his Cubist treatment more moderate. He gave up illustration only in 1913, the year in which he married the Polish painter Alicia Halicka; among his last caricatures is one lampooning Cubism. A typical example of his pre-war work is The Cellist (1914) — LINKS
–- La Table (1930, color etching, 25x18cm; 1367x977pix, 487kb)
Concert (1928; 935x750pix, 67kb)
Two Poets (636x800pix, 50kb)
Intérieur à la contrebasse (50x61cm) —(061020)

1902 Francesco Vinea, Italian painter born (main coverage) on 10 August 1845. —(081013)

^ 1900 Anders Monsen Askevold, Norwegian painter, specialized in fjordscapes, born on 25 December 1834. Anders Askevold from Sunnfjord (1834-1900) gained greater popularity than most of his contemporaries. He took his art education under Hans Gude in Dusseldorf, and as an independent painter quickly built up renown as a landscape and animal painter. He combined the two genre for a striking artwork, where landscape and livestock united in a National Romantic expression or a pastoral ideal. It can perhaps be emphasised that Askevold became a victim of his own popularity. Demand was great, and he would gladly paint a variety of the most highly prized motifs, this resulted in his production loosing some of its freshness and taking on an air of routine. Askevold traveled frequently, and his contact with the international milieu also opened his eyes to the new French outdoor painting. In Askevold’s later paintings we see a freer brush stroke, less detail and a fresher color. The pictorial aspect adopted a greater importance in his work, but in this case did not stretch to a new kind of painting. He remained faithful to the National Romantic motif throughout his life.
Scene in a Norwegian Fjord with Boats and People (1908; 522x828pix, 75kb)
–- A Fjord in Norway (1895, 36x54cm; 582x900pix, 77kb)
Village on a Fjord (1893, 56x90cm)
Norwegian Fjord with Snow Capped Mountains (1891, 56x90cm)
–- S*>#Fjordlandskap (584x900pix, 88kb)
Fjordlandskab (1890; 464x723pix, 25kb)
Budskap ved en elvebredd (1886; 400x286pix, 16kb) _ This painting depicts an everyday situation, cattle by a river, but it is also an ideal. As with so many of Askevold’s paintings, this is a picture of an idealized situation. This was how his public in both Bergen and in Central-Europe wished to see the farming life in Western Norway. For them it was both exotic and real, and they were decorative paintings that hung well in those fine drawing-rooms. The population that scratched a living between The North Sea and the Hardanger plateau, had certainly an entirely different view of their own situation. Yet National Romantics, like Dahl and Askevold, could paint pictures that implied a hard day in the weather bitten West of Norway, where storms and shipwrecks were a part of everyday life, but as real, everyday depictions such motifs were not a part of the painter’s repertoire. They were seen as allegories accentuating the power of God’s nature and the frailty of man. —(061020)

^ 1872 George Heming Mason, English painter born on 11 Mar 1818. He lived in Rome from 1845. When his father’s Staffordshire pottery firm failed in 1848, his allowance terminated and he turned seriously to painting. In the early 1850s he met Giovanni Costa [15 Oct 1826 – 31 Jan 1903] and Frederic Leighton [03 Dec 1830 – 25 Jan 1896]; Costa moulded Mason’s style, and Leighton provided life-long financial support. He was also influenced by the work of the French artists that he saw at the Paris Exposition Universelle (1855), particularly Ernest Hébert, Jules Breton and Alexandre-Gabriel Decamps. The best of Mason’s early works, such as Ploughing in the Campagna (1857), record picturesque scenes with an unpretentious sunlit naturalism. — portrait of Mason (1863, 60x50cm; 225x190pix, 6kb) by Valentine Cameron Prinsep [14 Feb 1838 – 11 Nov 1904] — LINKS
Italian Landscape (1858, 40x78cm; 256x512pix, 19kb)
Wind on the Wold (1863, 29x54cm; 270x512pix, 22kb) _ Wolds are hilly or rolling regions in various parts of England.
The Cast Shoe (1865, 31x51cm; 310x512pix, 22kb) of a horse.
The Harvest Moon (1872, 86x231cm; 187x512pix, 14kb) _ As the harvest moon rises the group of field workers finish their labor, the men shouldering their scythes and the women carrying the last bundles of corn. Harvest was the busiest and hardest time of the year for farm workers, and they would often continue to gather crops into the night. Mason acknowledges this by showing the rising moon, but depicts a scene of rural labour in a very romanticised way. Fluid brushwork and rich coloring emphasise the sheer beauty of the pastoral scene, while suppressing the sense of back-breaking work that was the reality of harvest time.
Landscape - Derbyshire (46x94cm; 248x512pix, 14kb) _ Romantic Derbyshire landscape scene, depicting two children in a meadow at sunset. The children appear to have a basket of laundry with them, articles of which are scattered on the grass to the right. A shallow path on the left leads off towards the houses and trees in the background, hazy hills in the far distance beyond. In the background to right, a group of goats lie in the grass.
(Women on the beach, awaiting the return of the fishermen?) (467x687pix, 164kb) titled, seemingly in error “The Village Wedding, Wetley Abbey” (1868) by the referring web page.

^ 1763 Frans van Mieris II, Leiden Dutch painter and writer born on 24 December 1689 — nephew of Jan van Mieris [1660-1690], son and student of Willem van Mieris [03 Jun 1662 – 27 Jan 1747], grandson of Frans van Mieris the Elder [16 Apr 1635 – 12 Mar 1681] — The oeuvre of Frans van Mieris II comprises portraits, several small history paintings, and many genre scenes (e.g. The Grocer’s Shop Seen through an Arched Window, 1715), which stylistically and thematically are similar to his father’s work. His most important picture, The Three Generations (1742), shows himself standing alongside his father, Willem, and holding in one hand a portrait of his famous grandfather, Frans, while pointing with the other to Houbraken’s De groote schouburgh, which lies open at an engraved portrait of the latter. In this way he demonstrated, with obvious pride, that he was from a distinguished family of painters, who for three generations had occupied a central position among Leiden artists. In addition to being a painter, he was well known for his historical and numismatic writings.
–- S*>#Self-Portrait in his Studio (1747, 29x25cm; 900x767pix, 130kb) He is showing his palette and a finished painting of Venus and Cupid. —(051021)


Born on a 22 October:


Slania at work, 1997 ^ 1921 Czeslaw Slania, Polish engraver active in Sweden, who died in Stockholm on 17 March 2005. He was born in southern Poland to a poor mining family. He showed artistic skills as a teenager, drawing fake banknotes to sell at craft fairs. The invasion by Nazi Germany in 1939 forced him to quit his high school studies in Krakow, and he joined the underground, for which he helped forge documents.
     After the war he studied engraving at the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow, then was employed by the Polish state printing office, where his first work was a portion of the stamp issued for the Polish Peace Congress in August 1950. By 1956 he had worked on almost 50 Polish stamps. Not all his work reflected the Socialist Realist style favored by Communism. Slania often made on his works tiny marks that could be seen only with a powerful magnifying glass. On a stamp showing a library shelf, for example, he cut the names of friends into the spines of the books.
Self-Portrait     In 1956, he went on a cruise; when the ship made a stop in Stockolm, he obtained political asylum. There was not much demand for engravers there, but in 1959 the chief royal engraver suddenly fell ill; Slania filled in and completed an assignment very quickly, so he was hired full time. Slania engraved stamps for 32 countries or postal jurisdictions, including the US, UK, France, Germany, China, and the US, for which he made in 1993 a stamp that commemorated Grace Kelly and another of Dean Acheson. He engraved banknotes for 10 countries. He also engraved portraits of prominent persons, and at least one of himself [image >]. He would sell a stamplike label showing Marilyn Monroe for as much as $50.
     In 2000 Slania made his thousandth stamp, which shows the center of the ceiling painting Great Deeds of Swedish Kings by David Klöcker von Ehrenstrahl [23 Sep 1629 – 23 Oct 1698]. The 61x81mm stamp is the largest steel-engraved postal stamp ever issued (see a 5/2 size image; 535x704pix, 104kb). With Poland rid of Communism, Slania made visits there, where he engraved his 1001st stamp. He remained active into his 80's; his last stamp was emitted in February 2005 by the United Nations for its 60th anniversary.
     Modern printing methods are displacing engraving. Few countries still engrave stamps or currency. An engraver uses a tool called a graver or burin to cut a mirror image in a steel plate, with deep cuts for heavy inking and shallow cuts for shading. The plate, its cuts full of ink, is pressed onto the paper being printed, leaving a slightly raised image that can be felt with a fingertip. For stamps, the engraver's work area is about six square centimeters.
Stamps:Slania's 1000th (Sweden, 2000) — Slania's 1000th Souvenir Sheet (Sweden, 2000) — Philatelic Exhibition Souvenir Sheet (Poland, 1999) — Melbourne Olympics (Poland, 1956) — Niels Bohr (Greenland) — Niels Bohr (Denmark) _ Bohr [07 Oct 1885 – 18 Nov 1962] received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. — Queen and Map (Greenland) — Boat on a River (Sweden, 1979) — "Only One Earth" (Sweden, 1972) — Swimmer/Diver (Sweden, 1972) — Film History (Sweden, 1981) — Derek Walcott, Nobel Prize (Sweden, 1992) _ Walcott [23 Jan 1930~] received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1992. — Coil Strip of 4 Designs (Sweden, 1982) — Pope John Paul II (Vatican City, 2000) Karol Wojtyla [18 May 1920 – 2005] became Pope John Paul II on 22 October 1978. — Philatelic Exhibition, Hafnia (Denmark, 1987) — Grace Kelly (US and Monaco joint issue, 1993) — Prince Rainier (Monaco) — Princess Grace Souvenir Sheet (Monaco, 1982) Grace Kelly [12 Nov 1929 – 14 Sep 1982] married Prince Rainier III of Monaco [31 May 1923 – 2005] on 19 April 1956. — Prince Rainier Souvenir Sheet (Monaco, 1974)

1882 Newell Convers Wyeth, US painter who died (full coverage) on 19 October 1945 —(050918)

1879 Matthew Smith, US painter who died (full coverage) on 29 September 1959 —(081013)

^ 1871 Carlo Fornara, Italian artist who died in 1968. Carlo Fornara nasce a Prestinone, nella Val Vigezzo, nota per i numerosi pittori che si guadagnavano da vivere dipingendo oratori e chiese. La sua formazione è affidata alla Scuola di Santa Maria Maggiore e, in particolare, alla guida del maestro Enrico Cavalli, artista di talento trasferitosi in giovane età a Lione, che ne determina la vita e la crescita artistica. Cavalli aveva contribuito a trasformare la Scuola da centro finalizzato alla commercializzazione dell'arte ritrattistica e decorativa in un vero atelier, nonché ad avvicinare gli artisti italiani alla cultura francese. A Lione Fornara matura una visione molto particolare della natura morta, visione cui tornerà in una seconda fase della sua produzione dedicandosi al solo mondo interiore e utilizzando il paesaggio come riscontro alle premesse apprese a Santa Maria. Nella primavera del 1891 espone "La bottega del calderaio" e "Ricordanze" alla I Triennale di Brera, che segna l'esordio ufficiale del divisionismo in Italia. Al ritorno da Lione Fornara pone al centro della propria sperimentazione la luce: tutte le ricerche coloristiche e formali del biennio 1895-1897 convergono nel sorprendente “En plein air”, sicuramente fra gli esiti più importanti della pittura italiana di fine Ottocento. Il titolo “En plein air” è un voluto richiamo ad una delle questioni centrali del dibattito verista quale si poneva oltralpe sin dagli anni Trenta; vale a dire se, per essere "veritiero" l'artista dovesse dipingere a contatto diretto con la natura, o se meglio avrebbe aderito all'essenza del reale lavorando in atelier, di memoria, con schizzi o studi. "En plein air" viene rifiutato alla Triennale di Brera nel 1897, ma l'opera gli permette di entrare nel cenacolo di Alberto Grubicy e di essere scelto come collaboratore di Segantini per il grande dipinto engadinese dell'Esposizione di Parigi del 1900. "En plein air" segna l'adesione di Fornara al divisionismo e lo proietta definitivamente nel panorama dell'arte contemporanea, permettendogli di essere presente, nei successivi venticinque anni, a tutte le Mostre nazionali ed internazionali. L'adesione al divisionismo termina nel corso degli Anni Venti e Fornara si orienta verso uno stile legato al dato reale, alla poetica del vero: riprende a dipingere in un linguaggio di matrice cromatica, in cui la materia è di derivazione impressionista, rallenta volutamente viaggi e spostamenti, si chiude in un periodo di riflessione e ripensamento. Alla decisione, mai ridiscussa, di non esporre più a rassegne ufficiali, si accosta un'intensa attività epistolare e di scambio con i numerosi autori che gli dedicano monografie.
Il presagio (1901, 126x162cm; 354x456pix, 49kb)
Vita Nuova (1901, 145x189cm; 380x456pix, kb)
Tristezza invernale _ Il Trittico nasce agli inizi del Novecento. È appena morto Segantini. Dell'amico improvvisamente scomparso, l'opera appare una commemorazione. Carico di implicazioni panteiste, o più semplicemente simboliste, vuole infatti essere un tributo al ben noto "Trittico della vita", nel quale Segantini concentrò tutti gli sforzi del tramontato progetto del "Panorama" che motivò la collaborazione di Fornara. Del pari, anche Giovanni Giacometti, il giovane engadinese che insieme a Fornara doveva fungere da aiutante di Segantini per il "Panorama" dipinse il suo "Bergeller Panorama". Il tema è l'eterna rinascita della natura e dunque la tela centrale è quella più imponente: con l'allegoria della giovane donna che si risveglia dal torpore nei verdi raggianti della natura in festa e nel suo rinnovarsi simboleggiato dalla mucca con il vitellino. Nei quadri laterali, sono le condizioni atmosferiche a trasmettere l'intenzione simbolica. In "Il presagio" è autunno sopra la valle Maggia e un cielo da temporale, grigio e minaccioso, lascia intravedere raggi di sole, che comunque non rischiarano la vecchia contadina seduta, piegata sotto il peso del gerlone, nella quale è riconoscibile la madre dell'artista. "Tristezza invernale", per testimonianza degli eredi Tridenti Pozzo - confermata per altro da un attento esame del dipinto - fino alla seconda guerra mondiale, proponeva sulla sinistra un'allegoria della morte. Evidentemente Fornara intese stemperare la letterarietà dell'opera e smembrò il Trittico in data non appurata, facendo sì che ogni singola tela vivesse di vita propria. Nel caso di "Tristezza invernale" dovette pensare che i grigi d'argento e di piombo del notturno d'Engadina, in cui neppure le baite sono illuminate, bene significassero l'idea dell'agonia della natura e della morte di tutte le cose. E non si sbagliava, perché delle tre opere, questa è la parte più evocativa e "segantiniana": l'assenza di figura e il paesaggio protagonista, sublime e ostile, in quel momento evocatore di lutto, conferiscono al dipinto una forza panteistica mai più raggiunta da Fornara. È di particolare interesse come questo "Trittico della montagna" sia ispirato ai tre luoghi più cari a Fornara: la Val Vigezzo per l'eterno risorgere della natura, La Valle Maggia per un autunno presagio apparente di morte, l'Engadina per un inverno metafisico. Del Trittico Fornara eseguì tre pastelli "di presentazione" che hanno avuto funzione di studi e che risultano lievemente modificati nella trasposizione ad olio.
Ricordanze
La bottega del calderaio —(051021)

^ 1861 Charles Amable Lenoir, French painter who died in 1940. He was a student of William Bouguereau. He studied at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris and won the Grand Prix de Rome in 1886. — Relative? of Maurice Lenoir [1872-1931}?
Méditation (1899, 141x89cm; _ ZOOMable)
La jeune fille à la rose (1000x611pix, 133kb) _ In case you wonder which is the best side of the young beauty, the pseudonymous Sélérat Désagrable Leblanc has made a side-by-side comparison:
      _ Essor Rose (2005; 920x1300pix, 124kb), which, for those who prefer something a bit more abstract and colorful, he has transformed into the cubist-pointilliste:
      _ Essor Rosse (2005; 920x1300pix, 661kb) and the textured-fluorescent:
      _ Essor 0se (2005; 920x1300pix, 453kb)
The Cherry Picker (1900)
La mandoline (116x73cm)
Paysage près de ma maison de Fouras
La fillette aux cerises (45x37cm)
The Seamstress
A Nymph in the Forest (139x91cm)
–- S*>#The Spinner by the Sea (116x73cm; 800x496pix, 62kb)
Wedding Portrait of a Lady (173x122cm; 480x324pix, 17kb)
La jeune bergère (51x 34 Inches; 401x270pix, 17kb) — (051021)

1854 Walter Herbert Withers, English-born Australian painter who died (main coverage) on 13 October 1914. —(051021)

^ 1850 Heinrich Johann von Zügel, German artist who died on 30 January 1941.
Schafe im Erlenhain (1875; 600x970pix, 288kb)

^ >1816 Frederick William Hulme, British painter who died on 14 November 1884. — Father of Frederick Edward Hulme [30 Mar 1841 – 11 Apr 1909].
–- Barden Tower on the Wharfe, Yorkshire (1871, 76x127cm; 925x1575pix, 153kb)
–- Shepherd Resting With his Flock (1871, 51x77cm; 975x1575pix, 131kb)
–- S*>#Landing the Catch at Sunset (18x31cm; 493x900pix, 80kb)
–- S*>#A Shepherd and his Flock (1873, 60x51cm; 900x736pix, 159kb)—(081018)

1796 Achille Etna Michallon, French painter who died (full coverage) on 24 September 1822 —(061020)

^ 1788 Bertrand-Georges de Bayle, French artist who died on 26 May 1851.
–- Still Life of Flowers (736x510pix, 41kb) —(061020)

^ 1628 Jan (or Johannes) Vermeer (van der Meer) van Haarlem II the Elder, Dutch painter who was buried on 25 August 1691. — Without bringing in that famous but unrelated painter from Delft, there is plenty of confusion to be had from the Haarlem Vermeers, since there were as many as five generations of them with the forename Jan. A Jan Vermeer (fl 1598–1612), whose occupation is not known, married Janneken Woutersdochter Knyff, the sister of the painter Jacob Wouterszoon Knyff. Their son, known as Jan Vermeer I [1601 – Feb 1670], was an art dealer, distiller and tobacco merchant; he is also said to have been a landscape painter, but this activity is not well documented. Two of Jan I’s sons became landscape painters, today's birthday boy Jan Vermeer II and his lesser-known brother, Isaak Vermeer [bapt. 19 Sept 1635 – >1665]. The artistic tradition continued with the two sons and students of Jan II, Jan Vermeer III [29 Nov 1656 – 28 May 1705] and his brother Barent Vermeer [bapt. 20 March 1659 – 1696±6], a still-life painter. Yet another minor painter of the same name, usually referred to as Jan Vermeer IV (fl 1694), is presumed to have been a descendant of the same family. ‘van Haarlem’ is traditionally added to the surname to distinguish the family members from Jan THE Jan Vermeer (van der Meer) van Delft [31 Oct 1632 – 15 Dec 1675 bur.].
— For ten years from 1638, Jan Vermeer II was a student of Jacob Willemszoon de Wet [1610–1672], to whose Rembrandtesque manner he was evidently impermeable. He entered the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke in 1654, the year of his marriage, and remained in Haarlem for the rest of his life. His early influences were fellow Haarlem landscape painters, especially Jacob van Ruisdael, and he continued to paint heavily wooded landscapes recalling the work of such followers of Ruisdael as Adriaen Verboom [1628–1670] and Jan van Kessel [bapt. 22 Sep 1641 – 24 Dec 1680 bur.] throughout his career. His late work, possibly influenced by Philips Koninck, is more panoramic: it includes such landscapes as Dunes near Haarlem and extensive views inland from the coastal dunes, which exploit the natural advantage of a high viewpoint. These paintings are predominantly yellow and dark green in tone, with strong shadows.
 
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Thoughts for the day: “A work of art which did not begin in emotion is not art.” — Paul Cézanne — {Isn't greed an emotion?}
“The awareness of our own strength makes us humble.” — Paul Cézanne
“The awareness of our own humility makes us strong.”
“Humility is the greatest of my many virtues.”
“We live in a rainbow of chaos.”
— Paul Cézanne
“When I judge my art, I take my painting and put it next to a God-made object like a tree or flower. If it clashes, it is not art.” — Paul Cézanne — {It clashes, Paul, it clashes...}
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updated Wednesday 21-Oct-2009 22:47 UT
previous updates:
v.8.90 Sunday 19-Oct-2008 2:02 UT
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v.5.90 Thursday 10-Nov-2005 19:07 UT
Sunday 18-Jul-2004 4:07 UT

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RÉSUMÉ DE L'OEUVRE d'Émile Zola [02 Apr 1840 – 29 Sep 1902]
     Tout commence par un soir de pluie. C'est en rentrant chez lui que Claude Lantier, rencontre une inconnue devant sa porte: elle se nomme Christine. Il lui offre alors l'hospitalité non sans réticence. Là elle découvre l'atelier du peintre rempli de tableaux. Le lendemain, elle remercie Claude et elle ne vient le revoir que deux mois plus tard. Entre eux un lien se crée alors et les balades sur les bords de la Seine se multiplient. Elle devient même le modèle de Claude pour une toile qu'il veut présenter au Salon.
      Son tableau est rejeté puis exposé au Salon des Refusés. Claude doit subir les railleries d'un public moqueur et ignare. Il subit le contre coup dans son atelier et pleure devant Christine qui lui apporte réconfort et amour.
      Un nouveau couple s'est formé et a décidé de changer d'horizon: Bennecourt remplace Paris. Claude a laissé sa vie artistique de côté pour se consacrer à sa famille qui s'est agrandie avec la naissance de son fils Jacques-Louis. Toutefois la passion artistique renaît peu à peu chez le peintre et, finit par pousser la famille Lantier à revenir dans la capitale.
      Claude se sent plein de confiance pour son art et produit chaque année des toiles qu'il présente au Salon. Malheureusement c'est à chaque fois des refus qui accueillent les tableaux et, qui petit à petit installent le doute chez Claude. Cependant ce dernier reste hanter par le désir de réaliser un chef-d'œuvre. Pour cela il loue un hangar où il installe une toile aux dimensions démesurées. Il s'abandonne complètement à son œuvre, mais celle-ci n'avance pas. De plus sa vie de famille s'écroule: l'enfant tombe malade et les liens qui unissent les deux amants se déchirent doucement. Toutefois Christine accepte de poser à nouveau pour aider Claude.
      Sa vie continue à se dégrader : il perd son enfant, oblige sa femme à poser et rejette ses amis. Ne pouvant pas achever son œuvre, Claude finit par se suicider: il se pend près de son tableau inachevé.
      Le roman s'achève sur l'enterrement de Claude où ses amis sont réunis.
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     Dans l'ébauche de son roman, Zola écrit: “Avec Claude Lantier, je veux peindre la lutte de l'artiste contre la nature, l'effort de la création dans l'oeuvre d'art, effort de sang et de larmes pour donner sa chair, faire de la vie : toujours en bataille avec le vrai et toujours vaincu, la lutte contre l'ange. En un mot, j'y raconterai ma vie entière de production, ce perpétuel accouchement si douloureux; mais je grandirai le sujet par le drame, par Claude qui ne se contente jamais, qui s'exaspère de ne pouvoir accoucher son génie et qui se tue à la fin devant son oeuvre irréalisée.”
     Dans une lettre à Céard, il confesse : "c'est un roman où mes souvenirs et mon coeur ont débordé."
      L'Oeuvre est le quatorzième volume de la série Les Rougon-Macquart:
La Fortune des Rougon (1871), La Curée (1872), Le Ventre de Paris (1873), La Conquête de Plassans (1874), La Faute de l'abbé Mouret (1875), Son Excellence Eugène Rougon (1876), L'Assommoir (1877), Une Page d'amour (1878), Nana (1880), Pot-Bouille (1882), Au Bonheur des Dames (1883), La Joie de vivre (1884), Germinal (1885), L'Oeuvre (1886), La Terre (1887), Le Rêve (1888), La Bête humaine (1890), L'Argent (1891), La Débâcle (1892), Le Docteur Pascal (1893).

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La publication de L'Oeuvre a terni une amitié de 40 ans entre Zola et Cézanne, qui, à sa lecture, s'est reconnu à travers le personnage de Claude et n'a pas apprécié d'être décrit comme un génie avorté, un peintre impuissant.

Comme Cézanne, Claude a passé son enfance en Provence à Plassans où il était lié d'amitié avec Sandoz (Zola)
Comme Cézanne et Zola, Claude connaît des années difficiles à Paris au début de sa carrière.
Les premières toiles de Cézanne ont été refusées au salon. Il a été reçu au salon officiel en 1882 comme élève de Guillemet

Jugements de Zola sur l'oeuvre de Cézanne

1877 : "les toiles si fortes de ce peintre peuvent faire sourire les bourgeois, elles n'en indiquent pas moins les éléments d'un très grand peintre. Le jour où Paul Cézanne se possédera tout entier, il produira des oeuvres tout à fait supérieures".
1880 : "M.Cézanne, un tempérament de grand peintre qui se débat encore dans ses recherches de facture."
1896 : ..."les parties géniales d'un grand peintre avorté".

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