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ART “4” “2”-DAY  20 October v.8.a0
BIRTHS: 1832 ROMAKO — 1620 CUYP  1898 COSSÍO
^ Born on 20 October 1832: Anton Romako, Austrian painter who died on 08 March 1889.
— Anton Romako, who had long lived in Rome painting portraits and scenes of rural life in the Campagna, came home to Vienna, but his technique of exaggerating details met with general perplexity.
— Son of the cotton manufacturer Jozef Lepper and his working-manager Elisabeth Romako, Anton Romako was a student of Carl Heinrich Rahl [13 Aug 1812 – 09 Jul 1865]. Because of the uneasiness that speaks from his paintings he's regarded as a precursor of expressionism; he had an appreciable posthumous influence on expressionist Oscar Kokoschka [01 Mar 1886 – 22 Feb 1980]. On 11 June 1862 he married Sophie Köbel, the attractive daughter of the architect Karl Köbel. Franz Liszt [22 Oct 1811 – 31 Jul 1886] was present at the marriage ceremony, but did not play the music. Romako lived in Rome for nearly twenty years and his work became very popular. After his wife left him in 1875 to join her lover, he returned to Vienna in 1876. Unfortunately he was less than successful there and things got even worse when in 1887 his two youngest daughters sadly committed suicide. Not until fifteen years after Romako's death did the world show interest in his work once more.

–- Kaiserin Elisabeth (1883, 135x85cm; 1357x814pix, 101kb) with a big dog (the one on the left is the dog).
Karl Radnitsky (20x29cm)
The Gleaners (1868, 99x136cm)
Tegetthoff at the Naval Battle of Lissa (1879, 110x82cm) _ This picture is one of the most unusual historical paintings of the 19th century. It deals with the sea battle of Lissa in 1866, where the Austrian Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff conquered the Italians. Romako chose not to present the scene in the conventional manner: the dramatic action is set on the bridge of the Austrian flagship, and the crew is shown rapt with anticipation of the ramming about to take place. The effect is heightened by the flying splinters of a shell exploding left above the wheel, while the whole ship is wrapped in billowing clouds of steam and smoke. Contemporary critics found Romako's concentration on the purely psychological aspect of the participants' reactions unacceptable; and Tegetthoff's very human but deplorably unheroic deportment disturbed them too. But it was precisely Tegetthoff the man, worried about the outcome of his tactics, that Romako was interested in, and only thus could he do justice to the ingenious deed.
A Young Man (115x80cm; 593x450pix, 42kb)
^ Died on 20 October 1801: Louis Gauffier, French painter born in 1762 (1761?). — Winner of the Rome Prize, admitted to the Academy, he made his career in Rome. He was a history, landscape, and portrait painter.
— Born in Poitiers, he moved to Paris, where he became a student of Hugues Taraval and a student at the Académie Royale. In 1784 Gauffier shared the Prix de Rome with Jean-Germain Drouais and Antoine-Denis Chaudet (for sculpture), his own work being Christ and the Woman of Canaan. During his time in Rome (1785–1789) Gauffier worked hard, but his health was poor and the results variable. On his return to Paris he was accepted (agréé) by the Académie as a history painter. Soon after, he returned to Rome in order to escape the worsening situation in Revolutionary Paris, although he continued to send his Neo-classical works to the Salon. In March 1790 he married Pauline Chatillon [–July 1801], a portrait painter whom he and Drouais had taught. He died in Livorno.

–- View of Falls at Vallombrosa (1797, 84x115cm; 868x1197pix, 94kb _ .ZOOM to 1736x2400pix, 627kb; _ .ZOOM+ to 3472x4800pix, 2652kb)
Frederick Augustus of Saxony (1793)
Portrait of Dr. Penrose (1798, 69x53cm; 2000x1537pix; 2368kb) _ Gauffier was one of many French artists who fled Rome in 1793 in order to escape Roman reprisals following the execution of Louis XVI in France. Arriving in Florence, Gauffier the history painter adopted a portrait genre based on the flourishing market for commemorative likenesses of aristocrats set in characteristic landscapes of the region. Thomas Penrose [1769-1851] was neither an artist (as the sketchbook he holds suggests), nor an aristocrat. However, the sitter had diplomatic ambitions and, at the time of this portrait, was serving as secretary to the English envoy to the Duke of Tuscany. With a high degree of finish, Gauffier depicts Penrose above Florence on an upper terrace of the Boboli gardens.
Romulus and Remus (112x142cm). _ The scene is partly inspired by the account of Romulus' life in Plutarch's Lives of Famous Men : "She gave birth to twin brothers of exceptional size and beauty. Amulius was even more alarmed and ordered a servant to drown them. He is said to have been called Faustulus; others say that was the name of he who found them [...] Unknown to everyone, Faustulus, Amulius' shepherd, sheltered and brought up the children."
^ Born on 20 October 1620: Aelbert Cuyp (or Aelbrecht Kiup), Dordrecht painter and draftsman who was buried on 15 November 1691. He was the only child of Jacob Gerritszoon Cuyp [1594-1652], who was the half-brother of Benjamin Gerritszoon Cuyp [bapt. Dec 1612 – 28 Aug 1652 bur.].
— One of the most important landscape painters of 17th-century Netherlands, he combined a wide range of sources and influences, most notably in the application of lighting effects derived from Italianate painting to typical Dutch subjects. Such traditional themes as townscapes, winter scenes, cattle pieces and equestrian portraits were stylistically transformed and given new grandeur. Aelbert was virtually unknown outside his native town, and his influence in the 17th century was negligible. He became popular in the late 18th century, especially in England.

Jacob Mathieusen and his wife (1657, 138x208cm) _ Mathieusen, a senior merchant of the VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), and his wife are dressed in the sober Dutch style. Behind them a slave is holding a parasol, known as a 'pajong'. In Asia this was a symbol of status and power. The Dutch adopted this Asian custom with the same ease as they adopted the ownership of slaves. With his cane, the merchant is pointing to the VOC fleet of ships ready to sail home for Europe. In the background lies the partially walled city of Batavia, the hub of the VOC’s operation in Asia. Three of the VOC ships can be identified with certainty. Their names are inscribed in lower-case letters on their sterns. On the far left is the Salamander. The two ships in the foreground are the Prins Frederik and the Banda. These were among the ships that set sail in convoy for the Low Countries from Batavia on 01 December 1640. Jakob Martensen commanded the fleet on the last leg of the voyage.
River Landscape with Riders (1655, 128x228cm) _ Aelbert Cuyp never visited Italy himself, yet many of his landscapes are bathed in the typical golden light of the Mediterranean. Here too, the artist has depicted warm sunlight reflected on the surface of the river. The location of this River Landscape with Riders has been identified as the hills between Nijmegen and Cleves. In 1652, Cuyp traveled along the Rhine and into Germany. The sketches he made on his journey formed the basis for this painting. From about 1650 Cuyp came under the influence of Italianists such as Jan Both [1618 – 09 Aug 1652 bur.] (see his Italian Landscape, 1650) and Adam Pynacker [15 Feb 1622 – 28 Mar 1673 bur.] (see his Boatmen, 1660). Cuyp combined animal paintings with landscape to create a new genre in which light played a key role. With masterly skill he imbued his landscapes with the powerful contrasting light of the setting sun and the progressive haziness of distant views of nature and architecture. His paintings evoke a sense of depth and the atmosphere of Southern Europe. Rarely did Cuyp forget to populate his landscapes with animals. Here the cows are all looking to one side, as if focusing on something outside the painting. A horsedrawn cart has stopped in front of the farmhouse. The wagoner is passing the time of day with the lady of the house.
The Avenue at Meerdervoort (1651, 70x99cm; 800x1139pix) _ This view was probably commissioned for one of the Meerdervoort family who lived in the Huis te Meerdervoort which is seen on the left.
The Dairy Maid (1655, 106x172cm) _ From the 1650s onward golden sunlight becomes the all-pervading element in Cuyp's paintings. It spreads warmth and beauty over the Dutch countryside, where sturdy animals — most often cows — take the place of human heroes. They stand or rest in complete harmony with nature, breathing the invigorating air of the never-distant sea. Herds of cows in Cuyp's paintings can be seen as allusions to the pride the Dutch took in their celebrated, profitable dairy industry. In literature and emblems of the time the cow was used as a symbol of various abstract ideas (fertility, loyalty, wealth, moderation, and as a symbol of the Netherlands).
The Negro Page (1652, 143x227cm) _ After about 1642 Cuyp came under the influence of painters in Utrecht like Jan Both, who had worked for several years in Italy. His tight descriptive early style, nurtured by Jan van Goyen [13 Jan 1596 – 27 Apr 1656] and Salomon van Ruysdael [1600 – 01 Nov 1670], now suddenly gave way to a broader, more effulgent style in which the landscape is soaked in a golden light. This style reaches its climax during the 1650s when Cuyp created an imaginary landscape based on personal recollections of the North, but transformed by an appreciation of the South, particularly the Italian campagna, derived from other painters. A distant view, bathed in mist and the warm glow of a late afternoon light, proved irresistible to early collectors. River Landscape with Horseman and Peasants, which was painted around 1655, is perhaps the finest example of Cuyp's mature style, but The Negro Page, dating in all probability from a few years earlier, is not far removed in quality. The types of the buildings, the hilly background and the lake are common to both paintings and may be a reflection of Cuyp's journey up the Rhine as far as Nijmegen and Kleve, near the German border, at the beginning of the 1650s.
      Cuyp was economical with his motifs and several of those in The Negro Page recur in other paintings. For example, in Huntsman halted Cuyp deploys similar horses, dogs and groom in a different composition. Dappled horses and negro pages are frequently found in other works by the artist of comparable date. The spaniel in the foreground of the present work is similarly posed in the painting of Orpheus. Some of the motifs are the subject of preparatory drawings either by Cuyp or his studio, such as the spaniel, the greyhound and the vegetation on the left. The figure on the right facing the viewer has been tentatively identified as one of Cornelis van Beveren's sons, perhaps Willem (born 1624) who was appointed Bailiff and Dyke-Reeve of the Lande van Strien in 1648. This identification is based on the fact that his mount's horse brass is in the form of a fleur-de-lys, which suggests a connection with France (a knighthood was conferred on Cornelis van Beveren by the French king, Louis XIII).
      Cuyp spent nearly all of his life in Dordrecht. His marriage in 1650 to Cornelia Boschman, the widow of a wealthy Regent, led to a decline in his artistic output as he devoted more time to a career in public life. His work was particularly appreciated by members of the Regent class in Dordrecht, and Cuyp deliberately cultivated the social mores in the paintings dating from the 1650s. These social distinctions are detectable in dress, the emphasis on equitation, the relationship of the figures to architecture and the prominence of servants.
Peasants with Four Cows by the River Merwede (38x50cm) _ Cuyp also made paintings of the lively activity on the great rivers of the Netherlands, most often the wide Merwede that forks at Dordrecht into the North Maas and Lower Maas. It was Dordrecht's location at this juncture thast made it one of the principal cities of the country until traffic on the Maas was diverted to Rotterdam. Cuyp's river scenes are usually set late in the afternoon and are seen against a luminous, sunny sky that sparkles and glistens on the calm water.
View of Dordrecht (1655, 98x138cm) _ Aelbert Cuyp lived and worked in Dordrecht which, although a small provincial town, had a flourishing local school of painting. Nicolaes Maes, Samuel van Hoogstraten (02 Aug 1627 – 19 October 1678) and Aert de Gelder also worked in the town.
      Cuyp's early landscape style is close both in its grey-green palette and sketchy technique to that of Jan van Goyen but in the early 1640s his style was transformed by his encounter with the landscape style which the Utrecht artist Jan Both had developed during his stay in Italy. Cuyp never visited Italy but he developed an idiosyncratic version of Both's style. He bathed his very Dutch landscapes in a golden Italian sunlight which sparkles on the water and warms the stones of the buildings. Having adopted and refined his version of the Italianate landscape style, Cuyp practised it for many years of a successful career, which he ended as a member of the regent class of Dordrecht and an elder of the Reformed Church, the owner of a fine town house and an extensive country estate.
      Because his style does not develop significantly his paintings are difficult to date but this view of his native town from the River Maas was probably painted in about 1655. The outline of the city is dominated by the profiles of the Groothooftspoort on the left and the squat tower of the Grote Kerk, a familiar landmark in Cuyp's many views of his home town, to the right.
Young Herdsman with Cows (1658) _ In this painting the strong horizontal of the standing cow is echoed in the hazy distance of the rolling country and lends firmness and structure to the whole design. As in Rembrandt's mature phase, which is approximately contemporaneous, this landscape shows classical elements which strengthen the compositional power. Horizontals and verticals are coordinated with the Baroque diagonals, which are still alive and help to create a mighty spaciousness. The atmospheric quality is as important as ever in uniting the whole impression. Light breaks now with greater intensity through the clouds and the clouds themselves gain in substance and volume. The sky forms a gigantic vault above the earth.
Cows in the Water (59x74cm) _ Cuyp was not only a landscape painter, although there is no doubt that his most attractive and significant works belong to this genre. His range covered conversation pieces, seascapes, portraits and group portraits, but he most frequently depicted animals and landscapes with human figures engaged in fishing, hunting or riding. The setting is generally the countryside around his native town of Dordrecht, and his pictures show us the Meuse estuary with its low coastline, boats at their moorings and cattle grazing. The pictures are characterized by an atmosphere of serenity and calm, with glistening water, soft clouds, gentle landscape, cattle whose smooth coats shine in the evening light and human figures engrossed in work, all combining in a peaceful harmony.
Evening Landscape with Horsemen and Shepherds (1658) _ Cuyp also made paintings of the lively activity on the great rivers of the Netherlands, most often the wide Merwede that forks at Dordrecht into the North Maas and Lower Maas. It was Dordrecht's location at this juncture that made it one of the principal cities of the country until traffic on the Maas was diverted to Rotterdam.
    Cuyp's river scenes are usually set late in the afternoon and are seen against a luminous, sunny sky that sparkles and glistens on the calm water. He knew Dutch river life intimately. He traveled up the Rhine, and along the Maas, and the Waal making numerous drawings of huge sailing vessels, small craft, rafts, and also views of the land from the water. He was equally at home working on a large or a small scale, and could fill a canvas with the massive dark hull and rigging of a clumsy passage boat making way to a pier or with the decorative and elegant silhouettes of colorful figures on horseback riding into the evening sky . In grandeur of composition Cuyp often matches Ruisdael and the best of Hobbema's work. As a colorist he seems even superior by the glow and richness of his warm palette both in his land and sea pictures.
The Ferry Boat (1654, 72x90cm) _ Cuyp also made paintings of the lively activity on the great rivers of the Netherlands, most often the wide Merwede that forks at Dordrecht into the North Maas and Lower Maas. It was Dordrecht's location at this juncture thast made it one of the principal cities of the country until traffic on the Maas was diverted to Rotterdam. Cuyp's river scenes are usually set late in the afternoon and are seen against a luminous, sunny sky that sparkles and glistens on the calm water.
The Maas at Dordrecht (1660, 115x170cm) _ Holland’s Maas river flows through France and Belgium, where it is known as the Meuse. In Aelbert Cuyp’s radiant vista over the Maas’ ocean port at Dordrecht, crowds jam the docks, bugles and drums sound fanfares, and cannons fire salutes. Near the end of the Thirty Years’ War, Dordrecht hosted a two-week festival in honor of 30'000 soldiers. On 12 July 1646, a huge fleet of merchant and navy ships set sail to end the happy furlough and return the men home.
      This vast, sunny composition specifically accents one figure: the young man standing in the dinghy beside the large ship. The anchored ships at the left create a wedge-shaped mass that points toward him, as do some rigging lines. His head lies directly before the horizon, and his stark black outfit is silhouetted dramatically against the palest area of the picture, the morning mist over the far shore. Because he wears a sash with Dordrecht’s city colors of red and white, he may be the festival’s master of ceremonies and is probably the patron who commissioned Cuyp to document this historic event.
River Landscape (1658, 123x241cm) _ This large canvas, arguably the greatest of all Cuyp's landscapes, was probably painted in the late 1650s, and represents the culmination of his career as a landscape painter. Following his marriage to a wealthy widow in 1658, Cuyp seems to have abandoned painting. Cuyp's patrons, with those of his father, the portrait painter, Jacob Gerritsz. Cuyp, appear to have been members of the regent families of Dordrecht and this landscape, with its remarkable effects of sunlight and the extraordinary delicacy in the treatment of details, was presumably intended to hang in the house of a member of this group which Cuyp joined by marriage. In a print of 1764, made shortly after the painting arrived in England, it is identified as a view of the River Maas at Dordrecht. In fact, it is an imaginary landscape, with mountains on a scale which cannot be found in The Netherlands. Cuyp may, however, have referred to drawings of actual views he made in his sketchbooks, particularly those made on a visit to Nijmegen and Cleves in 1651-2.
      The painting was purchased in the United Provinces by Captain William Baillie in about 1760. He acted as an agent for John, Earl of Bute, in the formation of the art collection which hung at Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. According to Benjamin West, it was this picture which began the rage for landscapes by Cuyp among British collectors. On 18 May 1818, Joseph Farington wrote in his diary: 'I went to the British Institution and there met Mr. West and I went round the exhibition with him examining all the pictures. While looking at Lord Bute's picture by Cuyp, he said that picture was brought to England by the late Captn. Baillie, and was the first picture by that master known in England. Having been seen pictures by Cuyp were eagerly sought for and many were introduced and sold to advantage'.
River-bank with Cows (1650) Cuyp's earliest dated landscapes of 1639 are astonishingly eclectic, but by 1641 he was painting panoramic views of the Dutch countryside in the monochromatic mode of van Goyen. The young Cuyp, however, favoured a distinct yellow tonality as against van Goyen greyish and brown hues. More important for Cuyp's subsequent development was the impact of Dutch landscapists who brought an Italianate style from Rome back to Holland; Cuyp himself never travelled to the south. Since very few of Cuyp's landscapes are dated, and none is dated after 1645, it is difficult to say precisely when the characteristic golden light, reminiscent of the Campagna the artist never saw, replaces the earlier paler one, and when mountain ranges, herds of cattle, and figures conspicuously set off against a sky begin to play an important role in his compositions. But by 1645 distinct traces of the style of Cornelis Poelenburgh, a member of the first generation of Italianate painters, and Jan Both, the leading artist of the following generation of Italianate landscapists, are evident. Jan Both became Cuyp's principal source of inspiration. The River-bank with Cows shows how rapidly he assimilated Both's motifs and sun-drenched light. From this time onward golden sunlight becomes the all-pervading element in Cuyp's paintings. It spreads warmth and beauty over the Dutch countryside, where sturdy animals — most often cows — take the place of human heroes.
Died on a 20 October:

^ >2005 Jean-Michel Folon, Belgian-born (01 Mar 1934) illustrator, poster designer, and sculptor. His surreal watercolors of lost Everymen and soaring birdmen helped to define the conceptual approach to editorial illustration.
–- La Nuit des Temps (1973, 95x68cm; 791x560pix, 21kb _ .ZOOM to 1187x841pix, 48kb) mostly many small light-grayish-blue circles of various sizes. Does not look like night, but rather like a hazy day. This deplorable effect has been remedied, and then some, by the pseudonymous Rona-Michel Foolonandon in:
      _ Où sont les nuits d'antan? - Ici! (2005; 920x1300pix, 101kb); and, for those whose tastes go in other directions, the ultimate minimalist:
      _ Nuit blanche aka Où sont les neiges d'antan? - Pas ici, car c'est plus blanc que neige (2005; 920x1300pix, 1kb _ ZOOM to 13000x9200pix, 1kb) and:
      _ Nuit noire aka Miners trapped in a coal mine without any light, a blind man's impression (2005; 920x1300pix, 1kb _ ZOOM to 13000x9200pix, 1kb).
Comme un aimant (609x854pix, 54kb)
Desiderio di Pace (146kb)
Libertà (144kb)
Speranza (162kb)
Sicuro (146kb)
Uniti (139kb)
Revolution Bicentenary stamp
Mort d'un arbre (1971; 594x854pix, 50kb)
Ville bleue (1971, 574x842pix, 65kb)
— (Hazy Landscape) (960x1280, 20kb)
Cheminée (1946 drawing; 399x227pix, 20kb) —(071019)

^ 1913 Lucio Rossi, Italian French painter born on 23 January 1846.
A Young Woman Reading (1875, 24x19cm; 386x300pix, 50kb)
A Lady (34x25cm; 739x531pix, 34kb) _ main detail (531x547pix, 42kb) —(051019)

^ 1889 Daniele Ranzoni, Intra (Varese) Italian painter born on 03 December 1843. The son of a shoemaker, Ranzoni began to study painting under Luigi Litta, a local artist in Intra. At the age of 13 he was sent to the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. In 1857 he received a scholarship to study at the Accademia Albertina, Turin, where he became familiar with the work of Antonio Fontanesi. Fontanesi’s rendering of light was of great importance to Ranzoni’s later works. In 1862 Ranzoni returned to Intra, due to ill-health, but the following year he again attended the Brera, where he was taught by Giuseppe Bertini. During this period he met Mosè Bianchi, Filippo Carcano, Pietro Bouvier [1839–1927], Tranquillo Cremona, and Giuseppe Grandi, becoming particularly friendly with the last two. Few of Ranzoni’s works have been identified from this period, but his portrait of Agostino Rossi, called Tuffin (1862), already demonstrates his interest in color and light and his independence from the academic environment. Between 1865 and 1868 Ranzoni remained mainly at Intra, where he and his cousin G. F. Petrioli, a fellow student at the Albertina, frescoed the chapel of Saint John in the church of San Vittore. Upon his return to Milan he re-established contacts with Cremona (whose studio he used) and Grandi; he frequented the circle of Gli Scapigliati, although he maintained a certain detachment from its activities and ideas. Through these contacts Ranzoni, like Cremona, received a number of portrait commissions from members of Milan’s new bourgeoisie: the portrait of Major Filippo Erba (1873) is traditionally said to have been painted in Cremona’s studio.
La principessa Margherita di Savoia (1869, 42x32cm; 763x573pix, 62kb)
I figli del principe Troubetzkoy (1873, 115x140cm)
I tre amici (1878, 105x80cm)
La signora Pisani Dossi (1880, 85x60cm)
Giovinetta con il tricorno (1886, 54x40cm)
Riccardo Borioli (1887, 65x50cm)
La principessa Antonietta —(051019)

^ 1846 Jean-Joseph-Xavier Bidault, French painter born on 10 April 1758. He was apprenticed in Lyon for six years to his brother Jean-Pierre-Xavier Bidauld [1745–1813], a landscape and still-life painter. Subsequently, they left Lyon to travel together in Switzerland and Provence. In 1783 he moved to Paris, where he met Joseph Vernet (from whom he received valuable advice), Joseph-Siffred Duplessis, and Jean-Honoré Fragonard [26 Oct 1780 – 10 Nov 1850]. In 1785 he went to Rome with the assistance of Cardinal de Bernis and his patron, the dealer and perfumer Dulac. He stayed there for five years, traveling through Tuscany, Umbria, and Campania, and painting such works as Roman Landscape (1788). Bidauld was closely involved with the circle of French Neo-classical painters in Rome in the 1780s. He was friendly with Louis Gauffier, Nicolas-Antoine Taunay, and especially with Guillaume Lethière, who became his brother-in-law and with whom he occasionally collaborated. On his return to Paris in 1790 he traveled extensively in France, visiting Brittany, the Dauphiné, and in particular Montmorency, where he stayed in the Mont-Louis house that had been the home of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. — Édouard Bertin and Anton Sminck Pitloo were students of Bidault.
View of the Isle of Sora (1793, 113x144cm)
Paysage avec chute d’eau (600x426pix, 63kb)
Villa Sommaria (1816; 430x398pix, 35kb) —(051019)

1845 Antonis Oberman, Dutch artist born in 1781.
Rev. Thomson
^ 1840 Rev. John Thomson, of Duddingston, [< portrait], Scottish painter born on 01 September 1778. Destined for the Church, he attended Glasgow University in 1791–1792, transferring from 1793 to 1797 to Edinburgh. In 1797 he took drawing lessons from Alexander Nasmyth. He was ordained in 1800 and succeeded his father the same year as minister of Dailly. Thanks to Walter Scott, a close friend and important influence on his work, he was transferred to Duddingston in 1805. Influenced by the landscape backgrounds of Salvator Rosa, Poussin, Claude Lorrain, Turner and Henry Raeburn, he developed a broad Romantic style. His preferred subjects were landscapes and deserted Scottish castles; for example Fast Castle from Below, St Abb’s Head in the Distance, and Newark Castle (1829) and Urquhart Castle and Loch Ness. The essential characteristics of the Scottish climate were conveyed with vigorous brushstrokes: driving storms, raging seas, cloudless summer skies, the cold effects of swirling mists and mountain-sides. Turner visited Thomson at Duddingston in 1818 and they collaborated in preparing illustrations to be engraved for Scott’s Provincial Antiquities and Picturesque Scenery of Scotland (1826). Like Turner and Scott he ‘felt’ the power of historical association in his painting but claimed he preferred the ‘lowering stillness’ of a storm to the ‘actual hurlyburly’. On the south side of Duddingston's church, used the upper level of a two-story octagonal tower as his studio. He named the tower Edinburgh, so as not to be disturbed by callers, who were informed by the staff that the parson was not available as he had gone to Edinburgh. The tower, now known as Thomson's tower, had been erected by the Duddingston Curling Society which used the lower level to store their curling stones. In 1803 that Society was the first to codify the rules of curling, a sport that has been popular in Scotland since the 16th century. [current rules]

^ 1662 Claude Deruet (or Dervet, Drevet, des Ruets), French painter born in 1588. As a young man he went to Italy, where he painted a small fresco in the Villa Borghese, Rome. He seems to have learned little from his Italian sojourn, however, and almost all the influences on his style are traceable to his native Lorraine. He was the favorite court painter of Duke Henry II of Lorraine and also of Louis XIII of France, whose drawing master he became. A touching record of this latter relationship survives in the drawing by Louis XIII of Deruet in the Musée Historique Lorrain at Nancy. None of Deruet's important decorations for the Lorraine court survive, and his frescoes for the Carmelite church were destroyed with the building during the Revolution of 1789. Deruet had the distinction of being the master of Claude Lorrain for the year 1626-1627. The contract of Claude's apprenticeship survives, but it was only on the completion of that year that Deruet began the Carmelite frescoes. Claude almost certainly left immediately, as he is recorded in Rome a few months later. The only important commissioned pictures from Deruet's hand to survive are the four vast canvasses of Elements at Orléans, commissioned by Cardinal Richelieu, and the Rape of Sabines (Alte Pinakothek, Munich) offered to La Ferté in 1651 by the municipality of Nancy. — LINKS
Fire (<1642, 194x258cm) _ detail ( 800x1008pix, 159kb) _ The painting is part of a series representing the Four Elements (Air, Earth, Fire, Water). They were painted for the cardinal's château at Richelieu near Orléans some time before 1642 (in which year the cardinal died). The emphasis of the four canvasses is entirely decorative. The Element of Fire is particularly dramatic, and depicts one of the elaborate firework displays popular at the time. The Elements conform very closely to the aesthetic spirit of the last years of the reign of Louis XIII who died in 1643.

Born on a 20 October:

^ 1939 Patrick Hughes, English surrealist painter many of whose pictures are on intersecting planes in three dimensions. — LINKS
Brick Door (1964 print, 86x47cm) minimalist monochrome red almost uniform pattern of bricks with a faint suggestion of a paneled door. _ This has been doubled by the pseudonymous and maximalist Hatrick Pews, who, introducing brilliant colors and minutely detailed shapes and textures, has transformed it into two related series (you can click instantly from one series to the other at the same level), each consisting of 10 stunning symmetrical abstractions, which, on any level, do not enlarge the previous one, but add to its edges and center maintaining a fixed size of the image through level 6. For levels 7, 8, and 9, whose size is required to appreciate the fine details but exceeds most computer screens, there is an alternate image reduced to 932x1318pix:
      _ Trick Floor, level 0 (2006; 932x1318pix, 295kb _ level 1, 932x1318pix, 344kb _ level 2, 932x1318pix, 395kb _ level 3, 932x1318pix, 527kb _ level 4, 932x1318pix, 601kb _ level 5, 932x1318pix, 524kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 485kb _ level 7, 1318x1864pix, 1026kb _ level 8, 1864x2636pix, 2089kb _ level 9, 2636x3728pix, 5448kb ||| _ level 7, 932x1318pix, 575kb _ level 8, 932x1318pix, 648kb _ level 9, 932x1318pix, 689kb) and
      _ Floor Trick, level 0 (2006; 932x1318pix, 295kb _ level 1, 932x1318pix, 344kb _ level 2, 932x1318pix, 395kb _ level 3, 932x1318pix, 527kb _ level 4, 932x1318pix, 601kb _ level 5, 932x1318pix, 524kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 485kb _ level 7, 1318x1864pix, 1026kb _ level 8, 1864x2636pix, 2089kb _ level 9, 2636x3728pix, 5448kb ||| _ level 7, 932x1318pix, 575kb _ level 8, 932x1318pix, 648kb _ level 9, 932x1318pix, 689kb)
–- Perfect Present (1983, 45x61cm; 574x900pix, 31kb) _ wrapped in brown paper, a rigid rainbow strip of which a small part shows at one end where the paper is unwrapped, the background is off-white with a few lines suggesting floorboards and a wall's baseboard. _ Hughes' hues' limited range (6 for the rainbow, plus brown) has been funtastically expanded by Pews, and the simple picture metamorphosed into the spectacular twin maximalist abstractions:
      _ Past Imperfect (2007; 550x778pix, 96kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 168kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 297kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 637kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 1326kb) and
      _ Future Perfect (2007; 550x778pix, 966kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 168kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 297kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 637kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 1326kb).
–- Poster Design (771x623pix, 50kb) for the 1981 theater production of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat _ 4 rigid curved rainbow strips folded over a wire clothes hanger with no visible means of support, against a flat black background which covers about half the area. _ By another of Hatrick's hat tricks, this picture has been gloriously transformed into maximalist abstractions:
      _ Post the Sine (2007; 550x778pix, 206kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 404kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 788kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1447kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4327kb) and
      _ Poor Stirred Sign (2007; 550x778pix, 206kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 404kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 788kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1447kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 4327kb). —(071016)

1898 Francisco “Pancho” Cossío Gutiérrez, Spanish painter who died (full coverage) on 16 January 1970. —(081019)

^ 1880 Georg Tappert, German painter who died in 1957. — Related? to Christel Tappert? — After early years in the artists' colony of Worpswede, Tappert became one of the co-founders of the "New Secession" which was formulated in Berlin in 1910 and served as a platform for such artists as Max Pechstein, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, and Emil Nolde. Tappert focused on motifs of the modern metropolis with its coffee houses, bars and music halls and documented the eroticism and exoticism of the urban population.
–- Sleeping Girl (1920, 31x41cm; 407x894pix, 33kb) rough colored sketch of Hannah Tappert.
Frau Mit Affen (1913, 60x67cm; 480x532pix, 47kb) —(061019)

^ 1848 Hugh Bolton Jones, US painter, specialized in landscapes, who died in 1927. Born in Baltimore, Jones was a student at the Maryland Institute College of Art from 1865 to 1876. Despite five years of travel abroad from 1876 to 1881 to the village of Pont-Aven in Brittany popular among modern artists, such as Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh, and then to North Africa, Jones continued to depict the wooded Maryland countryside in his painting after his eventual settling in New York in 1881. In Brittany and in Spain, he did sketching tours, and paintings resulting from his trip were shown in Baltimore in 1878. He later studied under Frederic Edwin Church, renowned Hudson River School painter, in Jamaica. Jones' soft brushwork technique and light-colored palette reflect his travels abroad.— LINKS
Woodland Scene (55x91cm)
Road to the Farm
On the Green River (1900)
River Landscape
A Country Path (51x90cm; 362x640pix, 38kb)
Spring (76x61cm)
Summer Day on the Pond (63x76cm)
Wooded Island Outing, Chicago Columbian Expo (1893, 51x72cm) —(051019)

1847 Frits Johan Fredrik Thaulow, Dutch painter who died (main coverage)on 05 November 1906. —(081104)

^ 1828 Caroline Therese Friedrich, Dresden German painter who died on 29 July 1914. — {It is not true that she took up painting only after the failure of her business attempt “Dresdener gebratenes reiches Huhn” (Dresden Fried Rich Chicken)}
–- Still Life with Globe and Books on a Desk (25x30cm; 743x900pix, 108kb) —(061019)

^ 1640 Pieter Corneliszoon van Slingelandt (or Slingeland; Slingelant; Slingerland; Slingherlandt), Leiden Dutch painter who died on 07 November 1691. He may have studied under Gerrit Dou in Leiden before joining the Leiden Guild of Saint Luke on 22 November 1661. Slingeland served as an officer in the guild in 1684 and 1690 and was elected dean in 1691. — LINKS
An Old Lady Hands a Chicken Through a Window to a Young Lady (1673, 35×28cm; 600x469pix, 68kb _ ZOOM to 1605x1256pix, 219kb)
–- Woman with Cittern (1677, 23x19cm; 1133x924pix, 97kb) _ Not to be confused with The cistern (1900) by Cézanne. The cittern is a plucked stringed musical instrument that was popular in the 16th–18th century. It had a shallow, pear-shaped body with an asymmetrical neck that was thicker underthe treble strings. Derived from the citole, a similar 14th- and 15th-century instrument with gut strings, the cittern had four unison courses of wire strings. Diapasons, additional courses to reinforce the basses of chords, were also common. The strings were hitched to the instrument end and passed over a violin-type, or pressure, bridge. Tuning of the principal strings was B–G–D–E (Italian) or A–G–D–E (French) in the octave below middle C. A cittern is held by the lady in The Love Letter (1670, 44x38cm) by Vermeer [1632-1675] and in his self-portrait included in The Procuress (1656, 143x130cm) he holds a cittern. Gabriel Metsu [1629-1667] painted Cittern Player. Leo Stevenson too painted a Cittern Player “in the manner of Gerard Terborch”. Now there are electric citterns.
Saint Mary Magdalen Penitent (1657, 29x22cm)
Saint Jerome Praying in a Cave (1656, 29x22cm)
Johannes Meerman [1624-1675], Burgmeister of Leyden, and his Family (1668, 53x44cm) —(061019)

^ 1632 Sir Christopher Wren, England, architect, astronomer, mathematician, who died on 25 February 1723. — Ce grand mathématicien et architecte fut d'abord professeur à l'Université d'Oxford. Il se spécialise dans l'architecture religieuse. Son nom reste attaché à la reconstruction de cinquante églises détruite par le grand incendie de 1666, notamment la célèbre Cathédrale Saint Paul. — LINKS
Wren's first design for St.Paul's Cathedral.

^ 1631 Joost (or Jan) van Geel, Dutch artist who died on 31 December 1698.
–- A Dutch Interior (33x29cm; 1118x947pix, 85kb) more precisely: Woman seated at a table in a Dutch interior. —(061019)

^ 1606 Peeter Franchoys, Mechelen, Flanders artist who died on 11 August 1654. After initial training by his father, Lucas Franchoys I [23 Jan 1574 – 16 Sep 1643], he studied in Antwerp under Gerard Seghers [17 Mar 1591 – 18 Mar 1651]. He visited Paris, and, in 1635, returned to Mechelen where he established himself as a painter of portraits and religious subjects. Only a few portraits have survived, for example Man Holding a Wine-glass (1639). Stylistically they are related to the portraits by his brother Lucas Franchoys II [28 Jun 1616 – 03 Apr 1681]. Like him, Pieter represented his sitters with a sense of calculated informality. In this respect he was influenced by Anthony van Dyck [22 Mar 1599 – 09 Dec 1641].
Rubis sur l'ongle (1639)
Two Musicians (1630; 488x392pix, 20kb) —(051019)

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