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ART “4” “2”-DAY  16 October v.9.90
^Died on 16 October 1553: Lucas Cranach I (Müller, Moller), German painter born in 1472.
— He was the foremost member of a family of painters, draftsmen and printmakers active in Saxony during the 16th century. Lucas Cranach I adopted his surname from his birthplace, Kronach, a town of Upper Franconia in the diocese of Bamberg. His father and teacher was a painter by the name of Hans Moller or Maler [1448–1492]. None of his work is known to survive, but his large house in Kronach on the Marktplatz suggests that he was successful. The name Maler has led to some uncertainty as to whether it was simply a reference to Hans’s profession, but contemporary references to ‘pictor Lucas Moller’ or ‘maler Moller’ confirm that it had become the family surname. The still repeated belief that the name was Sonder or Sunder apparently results from a confusion with another family in Kronach, which was related to Lucas the elder through marriage.
      Hans Cranach [1513 – 09 Oct 1537] and Lucas Cranach II [04 Oct 1515 – 25 Jan 1586] were sons of Lucas Cranach I.
     No works are known which Lucas Cranach the elder made before his arrival in Vienna in 1501 or 1502, when he was already about 30 years old. His earliest surviving painting is presumably a small panel of The Crucifixion (<1502, 58x45cm) from the Schottenstift in Vienna. This picture reveals the expressive and vigorous handling of the brush that marks his painting technique during this intense two- or three-year period of activity. The rendering of the figures, especially the bloody, crucified bodies, and the composition with its rugged landscape are likewise calculated for an emotional impact. How the artist came by this manner of painting may in part be explained by the coloristically strong and brutal scenes of the Passion by the Polish painter Jan Polack [–1519], such as The Crucifixion (1492), which Cranach could have seen in the Franciscan church in Munich en route to Vienna. Otherwise his early stylistic sources are as hard to specify as those for the emerging Danube School, of which Cranach was a principal founder.
— He takes his name from the small town of Kronach in South Germany, where he was born, and very little is known of his life before about 1500 or 1501, when he settled in Vienna and started working in the humanist circles associated with the newly founded university. His stay in Vienna was brief (he left in 1504), but in this period there he painted some of his finest and most original works. They include portraits, notably those of Johannes Cuspinian, a lecturer at the university, and his wife Anna, and several religious works in which he shows a remarkable feeling for the beauty of landscape characteristic of the Danube school. The finest example of this manner is perhaps the Rest on the Flight into Egypt, which shows the Holy Family resting in the glade of a German pine forest. It was painted in 1504, just before Cranach went to Wittenberg as court painter to Frederick III (the Wise), Elector of Saxony.
— Lucas Cranach the Elder was a German Renaissance painter and graphic artist who excelled in portraits and in female nudes. Cranach, whose original name may have been Lucas Müller, was born in Kranach, Franconia, from which town he took his surname. It is believed that Cranach (Kranach) studied painting with his father. From about 1501 to 1504 he lived in Vienna, and his earliest known works date from this period. They include a portrait of a humanist, Doctor Reuss and a Crucifixion (1503). His work at this time, lyrical and spirited with landscape setting, was influenced by that of Albrecht Dürer.
      In 1505 Cranach became court painter to the electors of Saxony at Wittenberg, a position he held until 1550. He was a prominent citizen in Wittenberg, received a title, and became mayor in 1537. In 1508 he visited the Netherlands, where he painted portraits of such royalty as Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and the young prince who succeeded him as Charles V. For his electoral patrons he painted biblical and mythological scenes with decorative sensual nudes that were new to German painting. These works include many versions of Adam and Eve, The Judgment of Paris (1529), and Venus and Amor (1531).
      Cranach was a friend of Martin Luther, and his art expresses much of the spirit and feeling of the German Reformation. Cranach propagandized for the Protestant cause in many portraits, woodcuts, and engravings. His portraits of Protestant leaders, including many versions of Luther and Duke Henry of Saxony (1514), are sober and meticulously drawn. Cranach ran a large workshop and worked with great speed, producing hundreds of works. He died in Weimar, on October 15, 1553. Cranach's sons were both artists, but the only one to achieve distinction was Lucas Cranach the Younger, who was his father's student and often his assistant.
— Born Lucas Müller. Leading painter of Saxony, and regarded by some as one of the most important and influential artists in 16th-century German art. His vast output of paintings and woodcuts includes altarpieces, court portraits and portraits of Protestant Reformers, and many pictures of women (paintings of elongated female nudes or fashionably dressed ladies with titles from the Bible or mythology). Taught by his father, painter Hans Müller, with whom he worked from 1495 to 1498. Known to have been in Coburg in 1501, but the earliest of his existing works date from about 1502, when he was already 30 and living in Vienna. There he dropped the surname Müller, naming himself Cranach after his hometown (now spelled Kronach). Made important contributions to the painting and illustrations of the Danube school, (the art of the Austrian Danubian region around Vienna). Also came in contact with the Humanists' teaching at the university and did portraits of scholars Johannes Stephan Reuss (1503) and Johannes Cuspinian (1503). Received appointment as court painter to the elector Frederick the Wise of Saxony; he was already a famous artist, given two and a half times the salary paid to his predecessor. In spring 1505 he arrived in Wittenberg, a university town on the Elbe River and seat of the electors. Stayed for 45 years, until 1550, as court painter. Became a prominent citizen, serving on the town council in 1519-20 and as burgermeister three times from 1537 to 1544. Through Cranach, who received important commissions from three successive electors and attracted many young artists to town, Wittenberg became an art center. The Protestant Reformation began in 1517. Cranach was on friendly terms with Martin Luther, who had taught at the University of Wittenberg since 1508. Cranach painted portraits of Luther, his wife, Katherina von Bora, and his parents. These and other portraits help form today's image of Luther.

Self-Portrait (1550; 600x448pix _ ZOOM to 1379x1030pix, 402kb)
–- Virgin and Child with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and Angels (1535, 120x73cm)
Paradise (1530)
Judith Dining with Holofernes (1531; 765x558pix, 66kb)
Judith Victorious (1530; 610x453pix, 52kb) very similar to:
Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1530, 87x56cm; 1/3 size 1142x750pix, 137kb — or see it half-size 1752x1148pix, 502kb) _ The robe of Judith is in the fashion of the 1530s, known from other portraits of Cranach. _ See the story and links to its representation by many artists besides Cranach, at Art “4” Oct 10
Dead Duck (1530; 600x253pix _ ZOOM to 1400x591pix) _ Really a duck... not a failed politician.
— a different Dead Duck (1530; 600x294pix _ ZOOM to 1400x687pix) _ long download perhaps, but then you get to examine the texture of the canvas and all its various stains and tears.
Dead Pheasant (1530; 600x353pix _ ZOOM to 1400x824pix) _ A pleasant pheasant may be alive rather than dead, but it is much more difficult to make it stay still while you paint it.
A Pair of Dead Partridges (1530; 600x359pix _ ZOOM to 1400x837pix)
Three Dead Partridges (1530; 600x429pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1000pix) _ The title is Zwei tote Rebhühner, but there are 6 legs and one can plainly see the tail of the third partridge, the rest of which is hidden behind the first two.
View of Wittenberg (1537; 600x1254pix, 368kb _ ZOOM to 763x1595pix; 558kb)
Stag Hunt of the Elector Frederick the Wise (1529, 80x114cm; 424x600pix, 61kb) _ The duty of a court painter a position Cranach occupied until he died in the service of the elector of Saxony was to provide the court with paintings in the widest sense of the word. These were not only portraits of the princely family but also records of festive occasions. The presentation of a vast slaughter at which countless stags were chased into the water to enable the court party to kill them more easily with their crossbows records an event of thirty years earlier. Frederick the Wise and the Elector John the Steadfast as well as Emperor Maximilian I seen in the foreground accompanied by keepers had taken part in this hunt.
74 images at Wikimedia
^Born on 16 October 1877: Frank Cadogan Cowper, English painter who died on 17 November 1958. — {He avoided painting cows, or having anything to do with them, it seems, thus never becoming known as a cow person, Cowper son though he was.}
— Frank Cadogan Cowper, the last of the Pre-Raphaelites, was born at Wicken in Northamptonshire, the son of an author [who did not give him his own first name, otherwise the boy might have been called “cowper son, or cow person”]. He entered Saint John's Wood Art School in 1896 and enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools in 1897. He was greatly influenced during this time by exhibitions of the work of Ford Madox Brown (1896), Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1898) and John Everett Millais (1898). Cowper's work was first accepted at the Academy in 1899, and his first notable success was An Aristocrat Answering the Summons to Execution, Paris, 1793, exhibited in 1901. In 1902, after completing his training, Cowper visited Italy before working for six months in the studio of E.A. Abbey, R.A., a painter of historical subjects.
      In common with the earlier Pre-Raphaelite painters, minute detail and rich colors predominated in Cowper's work, and his output in early years appears to have been small (he only exhibited one or two pictures each year at the Academy until 1913). Following the example of the Pre-Raphaelite, William Holman Hunt, Cowper took immense trouble researching his subjects, travelling to Assisi before painting St Francis of Assisi and the Heavenly Melody, and having a grave dug for his depiction of Hamlet - the churchyard scene, exhibited in 1902.
      Cowper usually chose historical, literary or religious subjects for his pictures in which it was thought that 'he showed a good deal of invention'. as in St Agnes in Prison receiving from Heaven the 'Shining White Garment'
      Cowper was elected A.R.A in 1907; and was made a R.A. in 1934. In 1910, Cowper was commissioned to paint a mural for the House of Commons depicting a Tudor scene, and in 1912 completed further decorative panels there. In the 1920s he began painting numerous portraits of women, with softer effects and a 'cloying sweetness'. His major patron was Evelyn Waugh.
      During the Second World War Cowper moved to Jersey, but later returned to England, and settled in Gloucestershire in 1944. He continued to exhibit until 1957. He died in Cirencester the following year, aged eighty-one.

Saint Agnes in Prison Receiving from Heaven the Shining White Garment (1905, 74x45cm) Venerated as a patoness of purity, St Agnes suffered martyrdom about 303 AD under the Emperor Diocletian. Having vowed to live a life of chastity, she refused the suit of a Roman youth, who had her stripped and imprisoned. In prison she was visited by an angel who brought her a robe, white as snow, to cover her nakedness, and when condemned to be burnt as a witch, she was again saved by heavenly intervention. Eventually she was despatched by the sword. The picture was one of Cowper's most impressive works. It dates from the end of the early period when he was attempting to revive the original Pre-Raphaelite style, and in fact seems to borrow from specific paintings. Rossetti's Annunciation of 1850 find echoes in the subject, the relationship of the figures, the pose of the Saint and the motif of flames on the angel's feet. The realistic treatment of the straw recalls Millais' Return of the Dove to the Ark and there is perhaps even a hint of Madox Brown's Take Your Son, Sir in the arrangement of the 'shining white garment'.
     Cadogan Cowper was a portraitist, but he also painted historical pictures. This scene from the life of St Agnes was based on William Caxton’s Golden Legend which tells how, at the age of thirteen, Agnes rejected marriage as she had dedicated her life to God. She refused to renounce this vow of chastity, and was stripped of her garments and taken to a brothel. She prayed for Divine intervention, and her cell was filled by a miraculous light. Her hair grew long, and a white robe appeared before her. Cowper shows the moment when this robe was delivered.
La Belle Dame Sans Merci (1926, 102x97cm) _ This painting is based on the poem La Belle Dame Sans Merci by John Keats [1795 – 23 Feb 1821].
–- The Four Queens Find Lancelot Sleeping (1954, 103x91cm) _ This painting is one of Cowper's last subject pictures. When exhibited in 1954, four years before his death, the art critic of The Times wrote: 'Mr F Cadogan Cowper, who must be the last Academician to have achieved the supreme distinction of having a rail put round his pictures to keep crowds at bay, shows another belated Pre-Raphaelite work'. It is indeed an astonishing case of Pre-Raphaelite survival. In subject, mood and technique it might belong to the 1900s. Only the features of the four Queens, who look like 1950s film stars, give a clue to its real date. The subject occurs in the Morte D'Arthur, Book 6, ch.3. Morgan Le Fay, 'Queen of the Land of Gore', the Queen of Northgalis, the Queen of Eastland and the Queen of the 'Out Isles', discover Lancelot asleep beneath an apple tree. Each wants him for her paramour, so Morgan Le Fay lays him under enchantment and has him carried to her castle where is asked to choose one of them. Faithful to Guinevere, he refuses, and eventually makes his escape. The theme had previously been treated by David Jones in a watercolor of 1941 — much more 'modern' in style than Cowper's later version. The motif of an armed knight lying full-length in the foreground also occurs in Cowper's La Belle Dame Sans Merci. His RA exhibits include two other Arthurian themes, The Damozel of the Lake and The Legend of Sir Percival (1953).
Lucretia Borgia Reigns in the Vatican in the Absence of Pope Alexander VI (1914, 221x154cm) _ Cowper was a portrait painter, but often painted historical scenes that centred on women. Here he re-creates an obscure incident from the history of the Popes. In 1501 there had been a notorious scandal, when the illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VI, Lucrezia Borgia, took his place at a meeting. The room in the Vatican in which this happened still exists, and Cowper went there to copy it. It is one of the rooms decorated by the Italian Renaissance artist Pinturrichio. Cowper copied the faces of the Cardinals from their original portraits. He invented this suggestive moment, in which two noblemen part Lucrezia's dress so that a Francisan friar can kiss her shoe.
Erasmus and Thomas More visit the children of Henry VII at Greenwich, 1499 (1910; 400x405pix, 170kb) _ Erasmus of Rotterdam, the most famous scholar of his day, was visiting England in 1499. While staying at Greenwich with Lord Mountjoy, he met his brilliant young friend Thomas More, who was then in high favor with Henry VII’s Minister, Cardinal Morton. More took Erasmus to a great house, where there were some “friends who would be delighted to see him”. The house turned out to be the Royal Palace of Greenwich and the friends the royal children, one being the future Henry VIII, who promptly demanded that the great scholar should “write them a poem”, which he did.”
The Golden Bowl (1955, 110x74cm)
Fraunces, Beatrice, James and Synfye (1919, 86x102cm) Young children of James Christie Esq.
Vanity (1919, 127x91cm)
Vanity (1907, 54x37cm)
Molly, Duchess Of Nona (1905, 33x23cm) from Little Novel Of Italy by Maurice Howlett.
Venetian Ladies Listening to a Serenade
The Damsel of the Lake, Called Nimue the Enchantress (1924; 673x550pix, 52kb)
^ Died on 16 October 1890: Auguste Toulmouche, French painter born on 21 September 1829. —+ ZOOM IN + {His surname is NOT Tulémouche; and it has not been proven conclusively that it originated as a contraction of “tout le mouche” nor that initially it was Mouche-Ducoche de Toul and that the image shown here [>>>]  is of a precocious self-portrait.}
— He was a student of Marc Charles Gabriel Gleyre [1806-1874]. He specialized in “costume painting”, as did his students, including Jules Émile Saintin [1829-1894], Joaquin Pallares y Allustante, and Charles Joseph Frederick Soulacroix [1825–]. They depicted beautiful women in interiors, in a sentimental and romantic way. The subject matter of a picture was the primary consideration, and its success depended on the expressiveness of the characters, a quality directly derived from history painting.
— Les parents d'Auguste Toulmouche étaient Émile Toulmouche et Rose Sophie Mercier, et il avait un oncle sculpteur. A partir de 1841, Auguste Toulmouche reçu les premiers éléments du dessin dans l'atelier du sculpteur nantais René Amédée Ménard. Puis, Toulmouche complèta son apprentissage en prenant quelques leçons de peinture auprès de Biron, peintre de portraits et de scènes religieuses inscrit comme professeur particulier de dessin et de peinture à Nantes à partir de 1844. En 1846, Auguste Toulmouche alla à Paris pour suivre l'enseignement de Gleyre. Gleyre avait la particularité de n'être ni professeur de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, ni membre de l'Académie. Il laissait les talents personnels se développer, donnant à ses étudiants toute liberté pour le choix des sujets. Cependant, cet enseignement très libéral ne rejettait pas certains principes de l'enseignement académique comme la bonne maîtrise du dessin avant d'aborder la peinture ou l'élaboration très soignée du tableau.
     Jeune fille (1852) fut acheté par Napoléon III, Le premier pas (1853) par l'impératrice Eugénie, et Après déjeuner par la princesse Mathilde. Toulmouche avait du succès avec ses petits tableaux de genre réalisé de style néo-grec. La leçon de lecture (1855), fit l'objet d'une bonne critique de Théophile Gautier.

–- S*>#Preparing for the Ball (54x31cm; 799x459pix, 49kb)
–- S*>#La Fiancée Hésitante (1866, 65x54cm; 799x664pix, 85kb)
–- Young Woman in an Interior (1881, 65x46cm; 797x566pix, 50kb)
–- S*>#A Bedtime prayer (800xpix, 63kb)
–- S*>#La Leçon (800xpix, 65kb)
Consolation (1867, 65x55cm)
Mouche-Ducoche de ToulThe Love Letter
Vanity (1889, 73x48cm; _ ZOOMable)
The New Arrival (1861, 57x45cm; _ ZOOMable) a newborn
A Young Woman in a Rose Garden (1886, 49x32cm)
An Elegant Beauty (1883, 65x50cm)
An Exotic Beauty in an Interior (1883, 51x39cm)
The Love Letter (1883, 64x44cm)
The Letter (1879, 63x39cm)
The Admiring Glance (1868, 59x45cm)

Died on a 16 October:

1957 Qi Baishi [01 Jan 1864–], Chinese painter. — (091016)

^ 1925 Christian Krohg, Oslo Norwegian painter, draftsman, and writer, born on 13 August 1852. While studying law at the University of Christiania [1869–1873], Krohg attended both Johan Fredrik Eckersberg’s private art school [1869–1870] and then the drawing class of Julius Middelthun at the Royal School of Drawing (1870–1871). Having taken his degree in law, he went to the Kunstschule in Karlsruhe, where he studied under Hans Gude and then Karl Gussow (1843–1907). In 1875 he followed Gussow to the Akademie at Berlin. He remained there until 1878, becoming a close friend of Max Klinger, a fellow student, and also getting to know the Danish philosopher and writer Georg Brandes (1842–1927), who introduced him to contemporary French writers such as Emile Zola and did much to sharpen his awareness of social and political problems. The experience of Berlin, where Krohg lived in great poverty, complemented Brandes’s arguments and gave a somewhat bitter and critical turn to Krohg’s interest in the realistic recording of the city. Krohg also embarked on his career as a portraitist at this time. While his portrait of Lucy Eyeberg (1876) reveals an acute realist interest in costume, especially its varying textures, the portrait of Georg Brandes (1879) shows Krohg also capable of responding to a forceful and fascinating personality with a penetrating study of character. — Christian Krohg's son and student Per Larsson Krohg [18 June 1889 – 03 March 1965] became a painter and illustrator. — The students of Christian Krohg included also August Eiebakke, Ludvig Karsten, Edvard Munch. — LINKS
Selvportrett i kurvstol (1917; 441x369pix, 31kb)
Selvportrett med staffeli (1912; 483x395pix, 91kb)
Das Haar wird geflochten (1882, 55x49cm; 600x511pix, 68kb _ ZOOM to 2376x2024pix, 485kb)
The Sick Girl (1881; 107kb)
Fixing The Sail (99x88cm)
Ung Kvinne Pa En Benk
Sovende mor med barn (1883; 480x629pix, 50kb) — (051015)

1745 Jacques Autreau, French painter, poet, and playwright, born on 30 October 1657. — {He may be rated somewhere between Aupas and Augalleau, but not much is known about these two.}
Bodin, médecin du Roi, en compagnie de Dufresny et Crébillon à la maison d'Auteuil (1716; 406x512pix, 134kb).

1653 Jan Wildens, Antwerp Flemish painter and draftsman, active also in Italy, born in 1586. — {There is no known Wildens Wild Dens or Wild Dance}— He was an important and proficient landscape painter who worked in Antwerp painting backgrounds for such masters as Peter Paul Rubens, Frans Snyder, Hendrik van Balen, Abraham Janssen, Cornelis de Vos I, and Paul de Vos I. He also made some paintings alone. — Jan Boeckhorst was an assistant of Wildens. — LINKS
Winter Landscape with a Hunter (1624, 194x292cm; 750x1098pix, 157kb _ ZOOM to 1358x2048pix, 307kb) holding a dead rabbit and accompanied by dogs.
–- Wooded Landscape With Travelers (65x94cm; 823x1200pix, 177kb)
Landscape with Shepherds (1631, 135x201cm; 750x1133pix, 156kb)
–- Hounds Bringing Down a Bear (208x344cm; 542x900pix, 99kb) _ an example of a picture of which Wildens painted the background landscape. The main subject of the painting, the hounds and the bear, are by Frans Snijders.

1649 Isaak van Ostade, Dutch painter born (full coverage) on 02 June 1621. —(050915)

^ 1618 Ambrosius Francken I (b Herentals, c. 1544; d Antwerp, 16 Oct 1618). Flemish painter and draftsman, born in 1544. In 1569 he was in the service of the Bishop of Tournai, then in 1570 he is recorded at Fontainebleau, where he may have had the chance to study the works of Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio. By 1573–1574 Ambrosius I was back in Antwerp, and at about that time he became a master in the Guild of Saint Luke; he was appointed an associate deacon of the guild in 1581 and a deacon in 1582. Between 1594 and 1605 he employed four apprentices. Such large altarpieces as The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes (1598), The Martyrdom of Saint Jacob (1608) and The Last Supper are stiffly composed of rather muscular figures based on Classical prototypes. The artist’s debt to Marten de Vos can be seen in the opulently draped robes and other details. These huge altarpieces influenced ecclesiastical taste, and Ambrosius I’s many surviving works attest to his popularity in his own day; he had a considerable impact on his contemporaries. — He taught Hieronymus Francken II.
—     The Francken family of Flemish painters was active in the 16th and 17th centuries, mainly in Antwerp. The individual contributions of the many artists in the family are often difficult to assess, but the two most distinguished members were Frans I [1542-1616] and his son Frans II [1581-1642]. The father mainly painted religious and historical compositions. His early works were frequently life-size; the late ones were small, usually done on copper, and crowded with exotic figures and accessories.
— The fact that the same Christian names occurred in three generations of painters who used identical signatures has caused a great deal of confusion in attributing their various works. It is still not possible to distinguish between all members of the family reliably, as signed and dated works are not available for some of the family members. Several of them were also active in France. Nicholas Francken [1515 – 12 March 1596) moved to Antwerp with his family in the early 1560s; he taught three of his sons to paint, Hieronymus Francken I [1540 – 01 May 1610], Frans Francken I [1542 – 02 Oct 1616] and Ambrosius Francken I [1544 – 16 Oct 1618], who were also apprenticed to Frans Floris in Antwerp about 1560.
     In the next generation, all the sons of Frans Francken I were artists: Thomas Francken [28 Feb 1574 – 1625], of whom only one altarpiece (1618) is now known; Hieronymus Francken II [12 Sep 1578 – 17 Mar 1623]; Frans Francken II [bapt. 06 May 1581 – 06 May 1642], the best-known and most talented member of the family; and Ambrosius Francken II [1590 – 08 Aug 1632 bur.], who painted landscapes and peasant scenes.
     The sons of Frans Francken II followed in their father’s footsteps, but were weaker artists: Frans Francken III [1607 – 04 Sep 1667 bur.], the best of the youngest generation; Hieronymus Francken III [bapt. 01 Aug 1611 – >1661], who specialized in religious subjects; and Ambrosius Francken III [1614-1662]. There is a portrait of The Francken Family (1580) by Herman van der Mast.
Crucifixion (17x15cm)

Born on a 16 October:

1939 Breyten Breytenbach, South African painter and writer, naturalized French. —(091016)

1935 Carl Andre, US minimalist sculptor. —(091016)

^ 1874 Otto Müller, German artist who died on 24 September 1930.
Badende Frauen (Sommer) (1922; 570x698pix, 248kb)

^ 1874 Pierre-Eugène Montézin, French Impressionist painter who died in July 1946. As a young man he entered the studio of decorative arts and there he learnt quickly to draw decorative murals. His teacher however encouraged the young Montezin to study the theories of Impressionism and he was later to abandon his work as a collage artist and concentrate on painting landscapes applying the ideals of the pleinairists. The strongest influence on Montezin was Claude Monet, and after the First World War he spent a year in the countryside around Dreux and Moret following in the footsteps of Alfred Sisley. He remained loyal to the Impressionistic principles throughout his career, never following the emerging movements of Cubism, Surrealism or Abstract Art. Like Cézanne, he also died whilst painting in the open air.
–- A l'ombre: animaux au bord de l'Avre (73x76cm; 639x800pix, 90kb) the animals are cattle.
–- S*>#Au Bord de la Rivière, Près du Moulin (800x800pix, 164kb)
–- S*>#Le Pique-Nique (800xpix, 107kb)
–- S*>#L'Automne — Le Printemps (2 paintings in 1 image; each 800xpix, together 94kb)
–- S*>#L'Écluse (x800pix, 101kb)
–- S*>#Promenade en Forêt (800xpix, 119kb) _ It is not a forest, but a row of trees on each side of a path.
–- S*>#Bord de Canal à Saint-Mammes (800x800pix, 139kb)
–- S*>#Coquelicots et Marguerites Devant la Fenêtre (799xpix, 104kb)
–- S*>#Nogent le 14 Juillet (x799pix, 76kb)
–- S*>#La Promenade au Soleil (x799pix, 80kb)
–- S*>#Le Moulin de Monthule (800xpix, 103kb)
–- S*>#Ferme au Bord de l'Eau (x800pix, 90kb) —(071014)

^ 1760 Ludwig Hess, Zürich Swiss painter and engraver who died on 13 April 1800. The son of a butcher, he learnt his father’s trade, and as a livestock-dealer made several journeys across the Alps, where he determined to be a painter. About 1778 he became Johann Heinrich Wüest’s student, and he later grew friendly with the poet Salomon Gessner, who encouraged him. He undertook numerous study trips into the Glarus, Grisons and Ticino Alps. In summer 1792 he went via the Bernese Oberland to Chamonix, and in autumn 1794 he visited Rome. In his plein-air work Hess developed a technique of dry gouache applied to dark-dyed paper, and his landscape painting opened up many previously unexplored alpine areas. From 1798 onwards he began producing some 80 different engravings after his own pictures. In 1799 he took part in the first local exhibition of the Zürcher Künstlergesellschaft. Together with Caspar Wolf, Hess was the leading pre-Romantic pioneer of realistic alpine painting in Switzerland. Unlike Wolf, his landscapes, such as The Falls of the Rhône in the Valais (1798), were imbued with a melancholy atmosphere rather than drama.
–- Landscape With Travelers Resting (1796, 42x73cm; 525x741pix, 33kb)
Bei Poschiavo (1786, 23x31cm; 1445x1954pix, 645kb) monochrome sketch. —(061015)
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