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ART “4” “2”-DAY  15 October v.9.90
DEATHS: 1690 VAN DER MEULEN — 1690 VALDÉS — 1829 DAWE — 1609 HEINTZ — 1811 DANCE
^ >Died on 15 October 1690: Adam Frans van der Meulen, Flemish Baroque painter, draftsman, and tapestry designer, active also in France, baptized as an infant on 11 January 1632. He was the brother-in-law of Adriaen Frans Boudewyns.
— Van der Meulen was trained by the court painter Pieter Snayers of Brussels. His first work as an independent artist was done in Brussels. He painted genre and history pieces. Fifteen years later he moved to Paris where he entered the service of King Louis XIV [05 Sep 1638 – 01 Sep 1715]. Van der Meulen immortalized Louis's military successes. He went on campaigns and sketched in the field, later elaborating his studies in the studio to make paintings or cartoons for tapestries to be produced in the Manufacture Royale des Gobelins. Van der Meulen was successful at court. He was appointed to a high position in the Royal Academy, the most powerful bastion of the arts.
— He was the eldest son of the seven children of Pieter van der Meulen and his second wife Marie van Steen Wegen. He went to study under Pieter Snayers, court painter in Brussels, on 18 May 1646, and in 1651 he became a master in the Brussels painters’ guild. Probably soon after he married Catherina Huseweel. During the first 15 years of his career, the so-called Brussels period, he painted small-scale genre and history scenes with political and military events in the Baroque style of Sebastiaen Vrancx, Pieter Snayers, and Jan Breughel the elder. Typical examples are A Cavalry Battle (1653.), a Ceremonial Entry into Brussels (1659), A General on Campaign (1660) and a Hunting Scene (1662). His only religious subject, The Crucifixion, also dates from these years. He moved to Paris in 1664, became an assistant to Le Brun and was made one of Louis XIV court painters, specializing in military scenes. He accompanied the king on his campaigns, and his paintings and designs for Gobelins tapestries are accurate historical documents of the battles which they represent. He also made much less grandiose pictures of such subjects as hunting parties and landscapes.
–- FRANCOIS VANDER MEVLEN NATIF DE BRVXELLES, PEINTRE ORDINAIRE DE L'HISTOIRE DV ROY TRES-CHRETIEN (1687, 52x39cm; 1211x904pix, 160kb _ .ZOOM to 2430x1814pix, 1143kb) engraved by Pieter L. van Schuppen after a painting by Nicolas de Largillière [10 Oct 1656 – 20 Mar 1746].

Le Passage du Rhin par l'Armée Française à Lobith, le 12 juin 1672 (1672, 103x159cm) _ The Rhine near Lobith in Gelderland, in the east of the Netherlands. Under cover of cannon fire, the French soldiers are descending the river banks. Some of them are wading across. On the opposite bank, they are met by the Dutch cavalry. These soldiers too have begun to cross the river on horseback. The round tower of the Lobith toll house in the background has been hit by French fire. There is a man on a dappled gray wearing a red and blue brocaded uniform. Around his middle he is wearing a white sash. This is the King of France himself: Louis XIV. With his right hand he directs his troops across the river. He is surrounded by officers. It was 12 June 1672 when French troops crossed the Rhine. They followed directions from a local farmer who knew exactly where the river could be forded. The defenses of this crucial spot left a lot to be desired. General De Montbas of the Dutch cavalry had left for Arnhem with his men two days earlier. On the eve of the French invasion, the Dutch troops were hastily sent to Lobith. With artillery cover, the French managed to cross the river. The French invasion took place in 1672, the Disaster Year, when Münster, Cologne and England all declared war on the Republic. With an army of 120'000 men - the largest Europe had seen since the Roman Empire - Louis XIV marched into the Netherlands. He came as far as the border with the province of Holland where, without too much trouble, the French captured the fortified town of Naarden. However, the Dutch had closed the route to Amsterdam by breaking the Zuider Zee dyke to the north of Naarden - the Dutch Waterline of defense was born. Flooding the land was for centuries a key aspect of Dutch defense strategy. The idea was to be able to protect the west of the country from an army invading by land. Holland's water line ran from Muiden on the Zuiderzee to Schoonhoven on the Lek, and on to Heusden on the Maas. Van der Meulen had entered the service of Louis XIV in 1664. He specialized in painting field battles. This painting was made by van der Meulen from a sketch made on the spot. To do this he traveled with the French army. Besides the court painters, Louis XIV was also accompanied by noblemen and women during his campaigns. _ See Allegory of the Disaster Year 1672 (43x38cm; 1600x1384pix, 231kb) by Jan van Wijckersloot.
L'Armée de Louis XIV devant Tournai en 1667 (1684, 207x345cm; 704x1175pix, 162kb) _ On the death of Philip IV of Spain, Louis XIV claimed the Low Countries and the Franche-Comté in the name of his wife Marie-Thérèse. This policy of conquest led the king to the gates of Tournai in 1667 during the so-called War of Devolution. The city, badly protected by the old 13th century town wall, could offer little resistance. It was besieged on 21 June 1667, capitulated on the 23rd, and the king made a triumphal entry on the 25th. The treaty of Aachen, on 02 May 1668, marked its attachment to France.
      Here the artist has depicted, not the siege of the city, but the setting up of the camp with, in the middle ground, the deployment of the troops and, in the background, the city, recognizable by its superb cathedral. Camp life is described by a multitude of picturesque details, admirably painted and treated with vigour. The group of unsaddled horses to the left, a type of depiction in which Van der Meulen excelled, is particularly successful. A few touches of red, blue, and yellow enliven the whole. Groups of trees carry the eye to the brightly-lit plain where the musketeers are parading in blue uniforms and the light cavalry of the guard in red. In the background Tournai, seen from the north-east, spreads out its monuments behind its medieval walls. To the left of the cathedral we make out the imposing Saint Martin's Abbey with its narrow spire and the massive tower of Saint Brice. On the other side of the five belfries and above the Romanesque nave, we glimpse the tower of the now demolished Saint Nicaise's Church. Preparatory drawings were done by the artist in situ during his journey in 1667, following the French troops.
      After joining Charles Le Brun at the Manufacture des Gobelins in 1664, Van der Meulen was commissioned with drawing the views of the cities conquered by the king. The Brussels painting belongs to the first series of the King's Conquests, painted for the Royal Pavilion in Marly and placed in 1684, covering the various campaigns in Flanders, Franche-Comté and Holland. Designed as decoration, this series is remarkable for its variety and for its painting quality. Whilst the Brussels artist took French nationality in 1673, he never, in his art, denied his Flemish origins. Here he imparts a new dimension to the painting of battle scenes, achieving the right balance between military scenes, topographical descriptions and landscapes.
Construction du Château de Versailles (1669, 103x139cm; 920x1066pix, 158kb) _ The Château de Versailles, a 17th-century palace built by Louis XIV, was the principal residence of the kings of France and the seat of the royal government for more than 100 years. The first scenes of the French Revolution were also enacted at the palace, whose gardens, the masterpiece of André Le Nôtre, have become part of the national heritage of France and one of the most visited historic sites in Europe. Although it was a place of entertainment, the grandiose palace was also well equipped as a center of government. Of about 20'000 persons attached to the court, some 1000 courtiers with 4000 attendants lived in the palace itself. About 14'000 soldiers and servants were quartered in annexes and in the town, which was founded in 1671 and had 30'000 inhabitants when Louis XIV died in 1715.
      The palace of Versailles led to the French court style in interior decoration and furnishings, as well as in exterior decoration and gardens. Versailles was intended to be the outward and visible expression of the glory of France, and of Louis XIV, then Europe's most powerful monarch. His finance minister, Colbert, set up a manufacture that made works of art of all kinds, from furniture to jewelry, for interior decoration. A large export trade took French styles to almost every corner of Europe, made France a center for luxuries, and gave to Paris an influence that has lasted till the present day. The vast initial cost of Versailles has been more than recouped since its completion. Even Louis XIV's most violent enemies imitated the decoration of his palace at Versailles. In 1667 Charles Le Brun was appointed director of the Gobelins factory, which had been bought by the King, and Le Brun himself prepared designs for various objects, from the painted ceilings of the Galerie des Glaces {Hall of Ice-Cream? ... no... of Mirrors} at Versailles to the metal hardware for a door lock.
Louis XIV at the Taking of Besançon (1674; 575x692pix, 157kb)
–- Landscape, Horses Drawing Cart Loaded With Bales (etching 18x26cm; 928x1339pix, 483kb)
^ >Born on 15 October 1775: John Vanderlyn, Kingston NY Neoclassical painter, specialized in History Painting, who died on 23 (24?) September 1852.
— The grandson of Pieter Vanderlyn [1687–1778], a portrait painter active in the Hudson River Valley, he manifested an early talent for penmanship and drawing. During his late youth he moved to New York, where he worked in a frame shop and studied in Archibald Robertson’s drawing academy. Vanderlyn's revolutionary sympathies led him to study and work in Paris in the early days of Napoléon's empire. Vanderlyn studied under François-André Vincent. Vanderlyn's copy of a portrait by Gilbert Stuart brought him to the attention of that artist, with whom he then worked in Philadelphia.
     He spent much of his career in Paris (he also visited Rome), and his style was nearer to the mainstream of European Neoclassicism and Romanticism than that of almost any other US painter of his generation. His best-known painting is Ariadne Asleep on Naxos (1814), a reclining figure in the tradition of the Venuses of Giorgione and Titian that is regarded as the finest US nude before Eakins. Although such works won him considerable renown in France, he was much less successful in the US, where he worked mainly as a portraitist, and he became embittered in his final years.
      His ambitious historical compositions found no market, and his admirable portraits were so slowly made that few had the patience to pose for him. Late in life he was commissioned to paint The Landing of Columbus, but was had to employ assistants. He died impoverished and embittered.

Self-Portrait (1800, 64x53cm)
Self-Portrait (drawing; 100x55cm)
Caius Marius Meditating in the Ruins of Carthage (1807, 221x174cm; 599x468pix, 32kb _ .ZOOM to 1246x973pix, 95kb _ ZOOM+ to 2591x2024pix, 245kb _ .ZOOM++ to 4824x3696pix, 1045kb _ .HUMONGAZOOM to 9648x7392pix, 4139kb) _ The life of Caius (or Gaius) Marius [157 BC – 13 Jan 86 BC] is included in the Bioi paralleloi (translation) by Plutarch [46-120], who relates that, being exiled in 88 BC, Caius Marius crossed the sea to North Africa
towards Carthage. Sextilius, a Roman, was then governor in Africa; one that had never received either any injury or any kindness from Marius; but who from compassion, it was hoped, might lend him some help. But he was scarce got ashore with a small retinue, when an officer met him, and said, “Sextilius, the governor, forbids you, Marius, to set foot in Africa; if you do, he says, he will put the decree of the senate in execution, and treat you as an enemy to the Romans.” When Marius heard this, he wanted words to express his grief and resentment, and for a good while held his peace, looking sternly upon the messenger, who asked him what he should say, or what answer he should return to the governor? Marius answered him with a deep sigh: “Go tell him that you have seen Caius Marius sitting in exile among the ruins of Carthage;” appositely applying the example of the fortune of that city to the change of his own condition.

Ariadne Asleep on Naxos (1812, 175x224cm; 599x783pix, 62kb _ ZOOM to 1549x2024pix, 266kb) _ Compare with:
      _ Asleep on the Bus (636x885pix, 78kb) by Samuel Staudt
and with photos:
      _ Reed asleep on Jenny (600x800pix, 50kb)
      _ Yelley Asleep on the Job (997x1490pix, 194kb)
      _ Orange asleep on the kitchen floor (525x700pix, 68kb _ ZOOM to 1536x2048pix, 1419kb)
      _ Alyana Asleep on her Couch (683x1024pix, 109kb)
Columbus Landing at Guanahani, 1492 (1847, 365x548cm; 702x1084pix, 97kb) _ Vanderlyn made this painting for the Capitol in Washington. In it he glorifies the arrival on this West Indian island of Columbus, regarded as the founder of the White and Christian Americas. The Indians crouch like wild animals, frightened and puzzled, and some of the explorer's Spanish sailors crawl on the ground, already hunting for gold.
Murder of Jane McCrea (1804, 91x67cm; 725x596pix, 81kb) _ During the US War of Independence, on 27 July 1777, the fiancée of a British soldier, Jane McCrea was killed in Fort Edward by Amerindian allies of the British, who then riddled her body with bullets to make it appear that she was shot accidentally by the "rebels" who tried to rescue her. — Jane McCrea, the daughter of the Rev. James McCrea, was born in 1751. Jane had eight brothers and sisters: John, William, Samuel, Stephen, Philip, Catherine, Creighton, James and Robert. In 1777 Jane was living with her brother, Colonel John McCrea, at Fort Edward. Her fiancée, Lieutenant David Jones, was serving in the army of General Burgoyne [1722 – 04 Jun 1792]. On 27 July 1777, Jane went to visit her friend Mrs. McNeil. Later that day the house was surrounded by Indians allied to the British. The war party divided into two groups, each with one of the women. Mrs. McNeil was taken to the British camp where she was released. In the other group, during a dispute between two warriors, Jane was killed. General Burgoyne did not punish the guilty men for fear of breaking the alliance with that tribe. This decision enraged local Americans and many men now joined in the struggle against the British. It was later claimed that the death of Jane McCrea greatly aided the Patriot cause and contributed to the defeat of Burgoyne's army at the two battles of Saratoga [19 Sep 1777, 07 Oct 1977]. The incident continued to be used as propaganda against the English and the story was immortalized by Vanderlyn's painting. — Burgoyne was advancing slowly southward. Before him, his Amerindian scouts were spreading havoc. One of the victims who became a cause célèbre was the young Jane McCrea, engaged to a British officer. On Sunday 27 July 1777, she was awaiting the British arrival at the cabin of elderly Mrs. McNeill at Fort Edward village. A group of Amerindians arrived and snatched the women from the house. Mrs. McNeill was set free, naked but unharmed, but Jane was killed and scalped. Her scalp was brought into Burgoyne's camp, and, after the Amerindians threatened to leave if the culprit was punished, Burgoyne, much to the dismay of many of his officers, pardoned the Amerindian, turning the story of Jane McCrea into a rallying point for American Patriots.
      _ Compare: The Murder of Jane McCrea (1846 lithograph; 781x685pix, 231kb) by Currier & Ives.
Francis Lucas Waddell (1837, 64x53cm)
John A. Sidell (1830, 76x61cm)
Mrs. Marinus Willett and Her Son Marinus, Jr. (1802, 94x72cm)
Daniel Strobel, Jr. (1799, 21x16cm)
Egbert Benson (1794, 76x61cm)
^ Died on 15 October 1690: Juan de Valdés Leal (Juan de Nisa), Spanish painter and engraver born on 04 May 1622.
— He was born in Seville, where he worked from 1656 after some early years in Cordova. With Murillo he helped to found an academy of painting there in 1660, and after Murillo's death in 1682 he was the leading artist in the city. Like Murillo, he was primarily a religious painter, but he was very different in style and approach. He had a penchant for macabre or grotesque subject-matter, and his style is characterized by feverish excitability, with a vivid sense of movement, brilliant coloring, and dramatic lighting. His most remarkable works are two large Allegories of Death (commissioned 1672) in the Hospital de la Caridad, Seville. He also polychromed Roldán's great altarpiece in the Caridad.

–- Saint Ambrose Receiving the Last Sacrament from Saint Honorius (1673, 117x107cm; 1097x970pix, 222kb _ .ZOOM to 2194x1940pix, 817kb)
Allegory of Death (1672, 220x216cm semicircle top; 740x753pix, 102kb) _ Of all the great painters of the school of Seville - alongside Zurbarán, Velázquez and Murillo - the distinctive style of Valdés Leal is the most difficult to place. Only two major allegories on the transience of life and on death which he himself is said to have described as "hieroglyphs of our afterlife" have remained truly popular. His patron, Don Miguel de Mañara, was a Knight of the Order of Calatrava who became a benefactor of the brotherhood of the hospital and its church in penitence for his previous life of decadence. The epitaph on his grave succinctly describes the spirit that commissioned such a powerful vanitas still life: "Here lie the bones and ashes of the worst person who ever lived on earth". His last will and testament contains the most humble self accusation not only as a great sinner, but also as an adulterer, robber and servant of the devil. The Allegory of Death presents the triumph of the grim reaper, who sweeps into the picture as an imposing figure. One skeletal foot stands on the globe, while the other stands on armaments, the trappings of office and insignia of power. Under his arm, he carries a coffin and in his hand a scythe. As his right hand snuffs out the life-light represented by the candle, he stares at the spectator from the very depths of his empty eye-sockets.
Assumption of the Virgin (1659; 863x629pix, 110kb) _ The dramatic side of seventeenth-century Spanish painting is well represented by Juan de Valdés Leal. He tended to give expression to the pessimism of the Baroque, which, for all his religious idealism, he was sometimes unable to suppress and which inspired theatrical visions. Impetuous, dynamic, a bold colorist who experimented with the principles of defocusing, Valdés Leal was a forerunner of Romanticism. The Assumption of the Virgin is among his more decidedly Baroque works.
Saint Jerome (211x131cm; 778x406pix, 66kb) The painting is a typical example of the realism of the School of Seville.
The Marriage at Cana (1660, 136kb)
Jesus Disputing with the Elders (1686, 149kb)
^ Died on 15 October 1829: Georges Dawe, English portrait painter and writer born on 08 February 1781.
— He was the son of the mezzotint engraver Philip Dawe who taught him engraving. He continued to concentrate on engraving when he entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1796, producing portraits until 1802, when he turned to history painting. In 1803 he won a gold medal and the following year made his début at the Royal Academy, where he exhibited until 1818, often showing such anecdotal and literary works as Imogen Found in the Cave of Belarius (1809). He was elected an ARA in 1809 and an RA in 1814 and soon afterwards returned to portrait painting. In 1816 he painted a number of portraits of George IV’s daughter Princess Charlotte, several of which were engraved. In 1817 he went to Brussels and was present at the review of the allied troops by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington in Cambrai. Soon afterwards he was invited by Tsar Alexander I of Russia to paint the portraits of all the senior officers who had taken part in the Napoleonic Wars. In 1819 he went to Saint-Petersburg where, over the next nine years, he painted nearly 400 portraits. These were placed in a specially built gallery (since destroyed) in the Winter Palace in Saint-Petersburg. He returned briefly to England in 1828 before travelling to Berlin, where he painted the portraits of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1828) and Frederick William III, King of Prussia (1828). From Berlin he moved to St Petersburg and then to Warsaw before being forced by illness to return to England, where he died shortly afterwards. His book The Life of George Morland with Remarks on his Works (1807) is both a lively account of his godfather’s dissipated lifestyle and a fairly critical appreciation of his work.

V. G. Madatov
General Alexei Yermolov (1823)
Imogen Found in the Cave of Belarius (1809, 100x127cm) _ Imogen and Belarius are characters in the comedy by Shakespeare [26 Apr 1564 – 23 Apr 1616], Cymbeline, which is too complicated and confusing to summarize here.
–- General Piotr Bagration (1824) _ In 1819 George Dawe arrived in Russia at the invitation of the Emperor Alexander I to paint portraits of the heroes of the Napoleonic Wars for a Military Gallery in the Winter Palace. In some cases these portraits could not be taken from the life, if the general had died in battle or from wounds received. In such cases the artist had to turn to existing images and this portrait of General Pyotr Bagration was taken from an earlier engraving and pencil sketches. The artist nonetheless managed to create a memorable image of one of the most glorious Russian military leaders.
      Pyotr Ivanovich Bagration [1765-1812] was a prince, descended from the Georgian ruling family, but without a powerful patron or money to buy a position, and thus he began his military career as an ordinary infantry soldier. It took him 11 years to reach the rank of Major, being promoted solely thanks to his military talents. He was famed for remaining cool-headed in the most dangerous situations and for always taking calm, measured decisions; at the same time he was renowned for great personal bravery. Both Count Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov, the most famous of all Russian military leaders, placed Bagration in the most dangerous situations, where they knew it would be necessary to fight against overwhelming odds. He made his name during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787 to 1791, and went on to fight in Suvorov's Italian and Swiss campaigns (1799), against Napoleon in 1805 and 1806-1807, and in the Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809. But the peak of his glory was the Battle of Borodino in 1812, which determined the outcome of the war against Napoleon. The battle lasted 6 hours and Bagration received a fatal wound, dying three weeks later. In this portrait, Bagration in shown wearing a general's uniform with gold embroidered oak leaves: this uniform was worn before going into battles which were to be decisive.
–- Dmitry V. Vasilchikov [1778-1859] (70x62cm)
^ Died on 15 October 1609: Joseph Heintz (or Heinz) Jr., Swiss painter born on 15 June 1564.
Heinz artist— {There is absolutely no truth to the story that his ghost haunted Heinz Company executive meetings until they reluctantly agreed to gradually introduce a whole palette of colors for their ketchup, so that kids could develop their talents by playing with their food artistically, for example decorating hamburgers not only in tomato red, but also in Blastin' Green, Funky Purple, pink, orange, teal, Stellar Blue, etc., or any mixture thereof.}
— At the end of the 16th century the court of Emperor Rudolph II in Prague was one of the most important art and cultural centers of Europe. The Emperor gathered together important artists: painters, sculptors, goldsmiths, who developed a characteristic style as important as that of the Fontainebleau school flowered at the same period in France. One component of the Rudolphean style was the painting of the Flemish Spranger, another the German Hans von Aachen, and the third the Swiss Joseph Heintz. Heintz was in Rome between 1583 and 1587 and was a student of Hans von Aachen whom he followed to Prague. He was perhaps the best colorist in Prague and he exerted an influence on the older painter in the Emperor's court.
— Heintz received his early training from a painter and from his father, an architect-mason. From 1584 to around 1591, Heintz was in Italy, where he joined a circle of German and Netherlandish artists in Rome. He also studied ancient art and copied paintings by Renaissance artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo, and Polidoro da Caravaggio [1515-1565]. In 1587 he traveled to Florence and Venice, absorbing the styles of Tintoretto, Titian, and Paolo Veronese. In 1591 Emperor Rudolf II summoned Heintz to Prague, naming him "portraitist and court painter" and ennobling him in 1602. Heintz continued to visit and work in both countries, drawing and copying Italian works of art while serving as Rudolf's art agent and making his own pictures. Heintz's paintings included religious images, portraits, and, following the emperor's taste, erotic mythological themes. Agitated figures, shallow depth, and a cool-toned, colorful palette characterize his very personal style. Heintz spent his later career primarily as an architect, mainly in Augsburg and Prague. He designed the east facade of Augsburg's new customs house, basing his architectural forms on his father's ideas and on contemporary architecture in Rome, Venice, and Lombardy.

Adonis Parting from Venus (40x31cm; 930x702pix, 129kb)
Diana and Acteon (1596, 40x49cm, 839x1030pix, 120kb)
The Fall of Phaeton (1596, 123x67cm; 1239x680pix, 128kb)
The Abduction of Proserpina (1605, 63x94cm; 750x1158pix, 124kb)
^ Born on 15 October (or 12 May?) 1826: Giovanni “Nino” Costa, Italian painter and critic who died on 31 January 1903.
— He was taught by one of the leading Neo-classical painters in Rome, Vincenzo Camuccini, from 1843 to 1847. He also studied under Francesco Podesti [21 Mar 1800 – 10 Feb 1895] and Francesco Coghetti [12 Jul 1804 – 20 Apr 1875] at the Accademia di San Luca, Rome. These painters instilled in Costa the basic academic techniques, in particular that of painting a scene or figure in mezza macchia, or half-tones, which he was to apply to great effect in his landscape paintings. In 1848 Costa joined the Legione Romane of Giuseppe Garibaldi [04 Jul 1807 – 02 Jun 1882]; after the fall of the Roman Republic in 1849 he took refuge from the papal police in the Campagna, outside Rome.
     Between 1849 and 1859 Costa lived and worked in this region and met several foreign artists, including the Swiss painter Émile François David [1824–1891] and the English painter Charles Coleman [1807–1874], who encouraged his interest in landscape painting; the latter introduced him to Frederic Leighton [03 Dec 1830 – 25 Jan 1896] and George Heming Mason [11 Mar 1818 – 22 Oct 1872], and they became lifelong friends. Costa met Corot at Barbizon in the 1860s. Costa visited Paris in 1862; then Londres, where he stayed with Leighton, and met Burne-Jones et Watts. Costa recalled these years and described his working practices in his memoirs, Quel che vidi e quel che intesi (published posthumously in 1927): his first bozzetto was the basis for all subsequent ideas, being inspired ‘by the love for eternal truth’.
     His emphasis on working directly from nature and his clear uncluttered style owe as much to the vedutisti tradition as to the Roman Puristi and the Nazarenes. Contact with Coleman and Leighton, among others, developed his inclination towards a romanticism and lyricism that is evident in his early work and was to dominate his later work. Costa’s most important painting of his early years, Women Loading Wood at Porto d’Anzio (1852), combines these influences. As late as 1861 his impressionistic technique was described derisively as ‘primitive’ in Il mondo illustrato when the work was exhibited at the Società Promotrice di Belle Arti in Florence. This was the type of criticism that was made of the Macchiaioli.
     Il termine macchiaioli venne usato per la prima volta sulla gazzetta del popolo nel 1862. In questi tempi la saletta del Caffè Michelangelo in Via Larga oggi Via Cavour era affollata di giovani talenti e qui gli artisti amavano scambiarsi le proprie idee al di fuori di ogni regola scolastica ed accademica, in un atmosfera forse confusionaria ed irrequieta ma densa di stimoli e fermenti creativi. L'arte di questi pittori come la definì Adriano Cecioni teorico e critico del movimento, consisteva: "nel rendere le impressioni che ricevevano dal vero col mezzo di macchie di colori di chiari e di scuri". Al suo ritorno da Parigi anche Il critico Diego Martelli nel corso di un importante conferenza sugli impressionisti fatta a Livorno nel 1879, parla del caffè Michelangelo, descrivendolo come un luogo ricco di discussioni sui problemi dell'arte e di come la cultura figurativa locale si fosse diffusa, uscendo così dai limiti della provincia toscana internazionalizzandosi. Il movimento dei Macchiaioli nasce di fatto nel 1856; affermando che la forma non esiste ma è creata dalla luce e che l'individuo vede tutto il mondo circostante attraverso forme non isolate dal contesto della natura quindi come macchie di colore distinte o sovrammesse ad altre macchie di colore, perché la luce colpendo gli oggetti viene rinviata al nostro occhio come colore. Il colore, è per l'individuo l'unico modo di entrare a contatto con la realtà, che dovrà, per i macchiaioli essere restituita nel quadro come una composizione a macchie. Da questa teoria prende le mosse e viene influenzato il movimento degli impressionisti francesi nato ben più tardi ed informato delle nuove tendenze dalle frequenti visite a Parigi dei artisti italiani.

A Turkish Odalisque (400x220pix, 32kb)
Il Cappello Nuovo (19 x 14 3/8; 450x335pix, 19kb) _ aunctioned at Shannon's for $2300 in April 2001.
Foglia Sabina (1892, 46x76cm; 345x576pix, 58kb) _ In the later years of his career Costa established a pattern of work which involved spending the winter months in Rome while in the summer and autumn of the year he visited different parts of the Italian countryside to paint; it was probably during one of these sojourns that the painting was done. Some uncertainty remains as to the precise location of the view: the River Foglia follows a north-easterly direction through the Marche and joins the Adriatic at Pesaro; it seems most likely that the hill-town seen in the painting is one of the fortified settlements which overlooks the river, such as Sassocorvaro or Montecalvo in Foglia. The town clusters close to a hillside against a darkling bluish-grey sky of great pathos and dignity. More puzzling is the reference in the painting's title of Sabine Mountains, which lie to the north-east of Rome, and with which region Costa had been familiar since the time when he had been forced to leave Rome following the unsuccessful defence of the city against the French in 1849. The title of the painting may be taken to indicate either that Costa recognised in the topography of the Foglia valley something which reminded him of the countryside around Rome, or that the painting represents a place in the Sabine Mountains also called Foglia, although no such place-name appears in the Italian Touring Club guide to the area.
Idillio (400x296pix, 37kb)
(Landscape) (372x1200pix, 107kb)
Alpine Lake (55x44cm)
^ Died on 15 October 1811: Nathaniel Dance~Holland, English painter and politician, born on 18 May 1735 (1734?), elder son of George Dance I. — {Dance and Holland are absent from his paintings.}
— He studied under Francis Hayman before going to Rome in 1754. As Nathaniel Dance he established himself as a portrait painter but was determined to succeed as a history painter. His picture The Death of Virginia (1759) is of documentary importance as the first dated Classical history painting by a British artist working in Rome. In 1762 Dance assisted Pompeo Girolamo Batoni, whose influence brightened his palette and introduced him to a grander clientele, including Edward Augustus, Duke of York [1739–1767], who sat for both artists in 1764 (Dance’s Edward Augustus, Duke of York). In the same year Dance painted a portrait of Angelica Kauffman, with whom he was in love. He returned to London in 1765 and rapidly achieved fame as a portrait and history painter. His Timon of Athens (1767) was purchased by George III; but after the King appointed Benjamin West to be his history painter in 1772, Dance concentrated on portraits. He was among the 22 artists who successfully petitioned the King in 1768 to establish a Royal Academy, and he served for periods as a council member and visitor, until 1782. At the Academy’s first exhibition (1769) Dance showed full-length portraits of George III and Queen Charlotte; two years later he exhibited David Garrick as Richard III. In the mid-1770s Dance became financially independent, and his output declined sharply, virtually ceasing after his marriage in 1783 to a wealthy widow. He resigned from the Academy in 1790 on his election as Member of Parliament for East Grinstead and subsequently only exhibited occasional landscapes as a ‘gentleman’. In 1800 he was made a baronet and assumed the name of Dance-Holland; he died leaving a fortune of over £200'000.

Sir Francis and Lady Dashwood at West Wycomb Park (1776, 71x91cm)
Thomas Nuthall with a Dog and Gun (224x146cm) _ Thomas Nuthall [1715-1775] was solicitor to the East India Company and the Treasury, and legal adviser to William Pitt the elder. In 1772, however, he fell from favour on charges of malpractice. A passionate huntsman, he also held the post of Ranger of Enfield Chase. In this capacity he fought throughout the 1760s to save its oak woods from disafforestation. He is shown here in his Ranger's outfit, suitably posed beside an oak tree. He is in the process of loading his gun, one arm raised to guide the ramrod down the barrel. This was a pose much favored by sporting gentry and artists alike as it introduced action and graceful movement into the conventional male full-length portrait.
The Meeting of Dido and Aeneas (1766, 122x172cm) _ This painting shows a scene of love at first sight. In a stage-like composition, it depicts the episode from Virgil's epic The Aeneid when the hero Aeneas and Dido, queen of Carthage, first lay eyes on each other. Aeneas's mother Venus, the goddess of love, has guided the lovers towards each other through a mist which she suddenly removes. Here it is seen billowing away from under Aeneas's feet. Dance-Holland lived in Rome from 1754 to 1766. He collaborated with Pompeo Batoni, one of the most famous artists of the day, and was influenced by his theatrical approach to classical subjects.

Died on a 15 October:

2005 Ramón Gaya Pomés [10 Oct 1910–], pintor y poeta español. nace en Murcia, en el Huerto del Conde, el 10 de Octubre de 1910. Sus padres, catalanes, se han trasladado allí por la profesión de su padre, Salvador Gaya, maquinista litógrafo, “un obrero muy siglo XIX, ilustrado, socializante, apasionado wagneriano, admirador de Tolstoi, de Nietzsche”. Su madre, Josefa Pomés, es hermana del periodista y escritor Ramón Pomés. Ramón es el segundo hijo del matrimonio; el primero, Ernesto, muere a los siete años, cuando Ramón apenas tiene unos meses. Salvador Gaya va a participar en la instalación de un taller de litografía dedicado a la fabricación de etiquetas para la industria del pimentón. En ese momento la familia tiene alquilada una casa en el recinto del Huerto del Conde, y es allí donde su padre enseña la técnica del dibujo litográfico a dos alumnos del Círculo de Bellas Artes que se estaban preparando para ser pintores, Pedro Flores y Luis Garay. Incluido dentro de la Generación del 27, la obra de Ramón Gaya se enmarca, por tanto, dentro del afán de renovación artística que sacudió a la juventud de los años veinte y treinta del siglo XX. En cuanto a su faceta como pintor, Gaya se incluye dentro del "grupo de Murcia", formado por pintores que, nacidos en dicha ciudad, marcharon a Madrid (Gaya fue allí, en el mismo 1927, becado por el ayuntamiento de su ciudad natal) y se integraron en el mundo cultural de la vanguardia.
Autorretrato con geranio (1982, . 61x50cm; 640x520pix).
— (mujer) (800x628pix, 148kb)
L'Hora de la Pintura (592x755pix, 114kb)
— (¿plaza de San Marcos?) (559x755pix, 95kb)
— (por la ventana, techos de una ciudad) (597x755pix, 93kb)
— (puente cubierto) (574x755pix, 106kb)
— (bodegón) (541x755pix, 95kb)
Bodegón del Naipe (520x640pix)
Los baños del Tiber (1971; 385x480pix, 55kb)
29 Autoretratos (4144kb, pdf)
40 images at Museo Ramón Gaya —(091009)Katzman and self-portrait

^ 2004 Herbert Katzman, US Expressionist painter and draftsman born on 08 January 1923. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago. After serving in the US Navy in World War II, he went to Paris in 1947, where he met other US artists and writers including James Baldwin [02 Aug 1924 – 01 Dec 1987]. Katzman met his first wife, Judith Duny Baker, an aspiring painter, in Paris, where one of their sons was born. The family returned to the US in 1951 but went to Florence in 1955 when Katzman won a Fulbright Fellowship. Then he settled in New York City, which, particularly along its waterways, was one of his favorite subjects. His densely textured figurative canvases were slathered with a palette knife laying down thick paint resembling frozen waves. His figure and landscape paintings are deviously expressionist in character, in a style reminiscent of Soutine [1894 – 09 Aug 1943], but more restrained. — Photo before self-portrait (1975) >>>
Red Fish (1952, 58x51cm; 388x332pix, 146kb _ .ZOOM to 776x664pix, 57kb)
Plucked Chicken in Iron Pot (1954,: 121x152cm; 441x557pix, 173kb _ .ZOOM to 882x1114pix, 103kb)
Still Life with Crabs (1951, 99x64cm; 675x436pix _ .ZOOM to 1350x872pix, 95kb)
— {... What? No cats?} —(061013)

^ 1923 Angiolo Tommasi, (aka Agniolo Tommasi?), Italian artist born in 1858. The second of five brothers, Angiolo was born in Livorno. There he attended the local School of Drawing, after which he frequented Angiolo Lemmi’s and Natale Betti’s studios. When his mother died in the 1870’s, his father remarried Mrs. Adele Bertolini who owned a home in Bellariva - not far from Florence - called "la Casaccia". To nurture the artistic proclivities of both Angiolo and his brother Ludovico Tommasi [1866-1941], the family moved to Bellariva so that the sons might attend the Academy of Fine Arts and the classes offered by Giuseppe Ciaranfi. La Casaccia soon became the place where artists and scholars such as Giovanni Fattori, Telemaco Signorini and Silvestro Lega would meet weekly. Lega, a frequent visitor, was invited by Mr. and Mrs. Tommasi to attend to the artistic education of young Angiolo and, later on, younger Ludovico. In 1882 Angiolo married Adelina Bertolini, his stepmother’s sister. In 1885 he moved to Florence, where he exhibited his works at the Promotrice shows for new talent. In 1889, he received an award for Le Bagnanti in Paris and in 1899, Tommasi participated in the First Venice Biennial. At the beginning of the new century he travelled to Latin America where his voyages ranged far and wide, from Patagonia to Tierra del Fuego, exhibiting some of his works in Buenos Aires. Once back in Italy, he moved to Torre del Lago, in the vicinity of Lucca, where he became a member of Giacomo Puccini’s entourage and devoted himself to a style of painting that had moved beyond the Macchiaioli revolution. In 1920, a solo exhibition of his works was held in Florence.
— Cugino (fratello?) di Adolfo Tommasi [1851-1933] e fratello di Ludovico Tommasi [1866-1941], inizia studiando pittura prima con un modesto artista livornese, Marco Lemmi, poi frequentando i corsi tenuti all’Accademia di Firenze, dove è allievo di Ciaranfi e frequenta Fattori e Lega. Quest’ultimo, già assiduo frequentatore assieme ad altri intellettuali della casa Tommasi e Bellariva, è senz’altro un importante punto di riferimento per la formazione pittorica dell’artista. Nel 1884 espone tra Livorno e Firenze e, nel 1889, a Parigi, dove ottiene una medaglia di bronzo per Le bagnanti, mentre nel 1895 partecipa alla Biennale veneziana. Intanto incomincia a soggiornare a Torre del Lago dove si stabilisce al ritorno da un viaggio nell’America del Sud intrapreso nel 1899. A Buenos Aires espone in quell’anno numerosi paesaggi della Patagonia e della Terra del Fuoco, commissionategli dal governo argentino. A Torre del Lago frequenta Giacomo Puccini e si ritrova insieme a Plinio Nomellini, Ferruccio Pagni e Cecco Fanelli, all’osteria di Gambe di Merlo. In questi anni esegue paesaggi e marine, ma anche dipinti di soggetto sociale o umanitario e ritratti; opere tutte caratterizzate da una forte luce che unita a una pittura veloce è indice dell’interesse per la pittura vitalista in sintonia con la coeva cultura del cosiddetto umanesimo germanico.
Pietro Mascagni (1899, 134x92cm; 499x342pix, 36kb) _ Mascagni [07 Dec 1863 – 02 Aug 1945], born in Livorno like Tommasi, was an operatic composer, one of the principal exponents of verismo, a style of opera writing marked by melodramatic, often violent plots with characters drawn from everyday life.
Despina Donegani (1894, 59x46cm oval; 662x537pix, 129kb)
Giuseppe Malenchini (1899, 119x80cm; 466x317pix, 13kb)
Giulio Salvestri (1895, 85x46cm; 414x333pix, 29kb)
Ritratto di un Donegani (1894, 59x46cm oval; 681x548pix, 119kb)
Vecchi cenci (1899, xcm; 562x370pix, 51kb)
La culla aka Paesaggio (1905, 38x63cm; 199x334pix, 19kb)
Massaciuccoli Lake (289x504pix, 107kb) —(051014)

^ 1875 Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Theodor Hosemann, German painter and lithographer born (main coverage) on 24 September 1807. (in German)

^ 1719 Jan Mortel, Dutch painter born in 1650. — {Immortel est ce qu'il ambitionnait de devenir grâce à ses tableaux, mais malgré tous ses efforts il est resté Mortel}.
click for enhanced imageStill Life with a partly peeled half-orange on a pewer plate, etc. (1677, 72x57cm; 862x370pix, 35kb) The spiral-cut peel hangs over the edge of the plate, which is in a stone niche on a partly cloth-draped ledge, on which are arranged other oranges, an opened oyster, a glass of wine, nuts, and grapes; a butterfly flies above. There is also, in the background shadows, what looks like a monstrous flying insect of the Pleistocene era [detail >]. The writing in the painting's lower left corner “Anna quast./1640” must have been added later by another hand, but it led to the former mistaken attribution to Anna Quast, née Splinter (fl.. 1632-after 1649), the wife of the Amsterdam painter Pieter Quast and occasional still-life painter. However the painting clearly shows the influence of the works of Jan Davidszoon de Heem and his circle in the 1650s and 1660s, an it very closely resemblances Mortel painting of about 1675-1680.
     There is no doubt about the authorship of the gloriously derivative
      _ No More Life With Orange Peel Parts and Abstractions Replacing All the Rest of the Stuff (2005, 910x1290pix framed, 332kb),
      _ Stuff the Rest Replacing-Abstractions (2005, 910x1290pix framed, 523kb), and
      _ Tcesni Suortsnometh the Monstrous Insect (2005, 920x1300pix not framed, 809kb): they are quite obviously the work, or what passes for work by the pseudonymous Jean Limmortel.

^ 1676 Simon de Vos, Antwerp Flemish painter born on 20 (28?) October 1603. In 1615 he became a student of the unrelated Cornelis de Vos [1584 – 09 May 1651]; Jan Cossiers may have been a fellow-apprentice. By 1620 Cornelis de Vos was already a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke. For the next eight years he may either have worked in Rubens’s studio or have traveled abroad. The latter is more likely in view of the similarities between de Vos’s oeuvre and that of Johann Liss, who was in Rome and Venice at that time. This hypothesis is supported by the italianizing characteristics evident in de Vos’s early work. The Portrait of Three Men (1626) has been attributed to de Vos and the sitters identified as Jan Cossiers, Simon de Vos, and possibly Johan Geerlof; if this is correct, de Vos would have painted it in Aix-en-Provence. (De Vos and Cossiers may already have met in Rome between 1624 and 1626.) The iconography of the picture seems consonant with the genre works of the Bentveughels (members of the Schildersbent, a confraternity of northern artists working in Rome). — Jan van Kessel II was a student of Simon de Vos.
–- Abigael devant David (1640; 885x1063pix, 82kb _ .ZOOM to 1328x1595pix, 181kb)
David et Abigael (1655) _ In the Old Testament, Abigail was the wife of Nabal of southern Judah, on whose death she became one of the first wives of David (1 Samuel 25) and the mother of his son Chileab.
The Raising of Lazarus (109x160cm) which is narrated in the Gospel according to Saint John, Chapter 11.

^ 1648 Simone Cantarini da Pesaro (or Pesarese), Italian painter and engraver baptized as an infant on 21 August 1612 (born in April 1612?). Cantarini was called Simone da Pesaro or Il Pesarese. He was a painter of portraits and religious subjects in the style of Guido Reni [04 Nov 1575 – 18 Aug 1642]. He was one of the most eminent students of Guido Reni and one of the most gifted engravers in the tradition of the Carracci. He had a strong personality and developed a highly original style, which united aspects of Bolognese classicism with a bold naturalism. — Lorenzo Pasinelli and Flaminio Torri were students of Cantarini. — LINKS
Holy Family (72x55cm)
Saint Matthew and the Angel (1646, 117x91cm; 390x303pix, 33kb) _ detail (390x520pix, 65kb) the hands of Matthew holding the book, and the left hand of the angel holding the inkpot and pen.

Born on a 15 October:

^ 1938 Brice Marden, US minimalist painter. — LINKS
–- For Pearl (1970, 244x251cm; 358x375pix, 12kb) _ Small image, but bigger than necessary: a postage stamp would be ample to appreciate the three equal rectangular section, each in a different flat dull color. The only question of interest relating to this non-art is what could possibly have been the motivation of the greater fool who paid $1'875'750 for the grotesquely large original at Sotheby's on 14 November 2000. _ For those who like full screen images (averaging only 8kb each), the pseudonymous Bicorn Merdan has provided not just one like Marden's but, nine more of them, each with a little extra adornment beyond the original designs which come from different countries:
      _ Four Diamonds aka Trip Trap # 00# 01# 02# 03# 04# 05# 06# 07# 08# 09
–- Untitled (725x724pix, 56kb) black and yellow doodles on an off-white background. Merdan has transformed this into the gloriously intricate and colorful, though incongruously titled
      _ Mare Dans la Brise aka Tort Rot (2006; screen filling, 255kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1954kb)
–- 10 (Dialog 2) (1988, 213x152cm; 358x375pix, 12kb) _ $2'472'000 was paid for this on 12 November 2003 by the same, or an even greater fool, who perhaps believed the following nonsense (reproduced here for information only and representing in no way the opinions of this web site): This is one of a group of twelve paintings by Brice Marden that mark a significant threshold between his more monochromatic wax panel paintings of the 1960s and a re-introduction of the painterly gesture that lead to in the Cold Mountain paintings of 1988-1991. Marden’s trajectory as an artist encompasses a dramatic re-definition of his painterly vocabulary in which he was uniquely successful in seemingly contradictory styles. Marden’s ability to master both the opaque and the transparent, the monochromatic and the multi-hued, the non-gestural and the gestural marks him as an artist of true gifts and innate talent. 10 (Dialog 2) and its fellow paintings are a testament to Marden’s inventiveness and exploratory spirit.
      In the 1980s, the opaque surfaces of Marden’s beeswax paintings miraculously dissolved into transparent planes animated with a tracery of gesture, finely balanced and evocative of Abstract Expressionism. Yet, line re-entered Marden’s painting through his drawings, beginning in 1972, with linear ink grid patterns in lattice-like compositions. In the late 1970s, his Basel cathedral window studies were a natural expansion of this motif, using colored inks in a tracery of delicate, crystalline webs to convey a new sense of light to his spatial compositions.
      Marden’s geometric restraint was further loosened from rectilinear architectonics by his growing appreciation of Oriental art and calligraphy, beginning in 1984. That year, Marden was exposed to the most renowned forms of writing-as-drawing in Masters of Japanese Calligraphy, 8th – 19th Century, the first comprehensive exhibition of calligraphy in the United States. Based originally on objects in nature and life, calligraphy, over the centuries, ``went on to gather sophisticated aesthetic and pictographic complexity and refinement, [while] it retained the mesh of the traces of the kinesthetic movements of the hand with the patterns of the forces of nature.” . Uniquely suited to Marden’s new pursuits, calligraphy would be joined by Marden’s simultaneous study of the organic, elemental construction of seashells. Encountered during visits in 1984 to a seashell museum in Thailand, the volute shells which most fascinated Marden were formed by a process of secretion, evolving in a spiral of gradual growth and additive chambers.
      During the course of 1985 and 1986, Marden combined the curving organic forms of the shells with the sequential frontality of calligraphy to explore a method for balancing gesture with planar composition. Webs of triangular glyphs, originally arranged in columnar verticals in his Rexroth portfolio of etchings (1985), became the core motif for Marden’s paintings of the mid-1980s, and the gradual liberation of this construct into a more “all-over” pattern, akin to organic growth and Jackson Pollock, is the triumph of Marden’s reinvention of his painterly vocabulary in works such as 10 (Dialog 2).
      In the paintings of 1987-1988, Marden’s rhythmic and dense network of web-like forms, including diagonals, takes over and fills the surface, breaking the autonomy of the grid and creating a more complex deployment of spatial energies. The sense of color and motion in works such as 10 (Dialog 2) transcends the frontal and static calligraphic roots of Marden’s new style, as the webbed glyphs of different colors and opacity blend and superimpose one into another, interweaving ``above’’ and ``under’’ into an organic whole, striving to burst beyond a single function or spatial position. The palette of 10 (Dialog 2) exhibits Marden’s deft touch at balancing hues as shades of red are punctuated with whites and grays whose transparency creates a veiled sense of shallow space.
      The rhythmic ebb and flow of the linear, all-over composition echoes the painterly webs of Pollock, yet Marden’s linear interconnections and controlled overlappings are closer to Pollock’s more restrained ink drawings than the orgiastic layers of his enamel paintings. In 10 (Dialog 2), the architecture of the linear web is easily traced as one color ends where another begins, and the washes of color reveal the underlying structure of strokes that went before them, thus, engaging the viewer in a poetic dialogue revealing and concealing its painterly layers.
Grove Group I (530x800pix, 70kb)
Range (439x800pix, 112kb)
Miranda (800x798pix, 218kb)
–- Au Centre (654x795pix, 16kb) divided into two equal featureless rectangles, flat gray, one slighly darker than the other; the center of their boundary identical to any other point along it. Bicorn Merdan has outminimalized this with his much more aptly titled
      _ O Centré Sans Trait shown here full size >>>. But, contrary to this spoof, Merdan is really a maximalist addicted to inept titles, so he has also produced a picture with innumerable rectangles (or partial rectangles) and a distinctive center, the colorful and intricately detailed
      _ Au 103 (2006; screen filling, 330kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 1817kb) _ One year later Merdan has provided Au Centre with a colorful background:
–- Au Centre with Merdan background (654x795pix, 51kb) which looks much better without the lousy Marden non-art:
–- Merdan Background Alone (2007; screen filling, 36kb) and becomes absolutely stunning when you zoom in on a single element, an original Merdan masterwork, which he titles :
–- Mes Dents, Sans Trop (2007; screen filling, 677kb) —(071014)

1855 Emilio Sánchez Perrier, Spanish artist who died on 13 September 1907.

1649 “James” Tissot, Dutch painter who died on (full coverage) on 08 August 1902. —(080107)

1827 Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm Riefstahl, German artist who died in the night of 11 to 12 October 1888.

=1802 Johann Michael Wittmer (or Widmer), German Orientalist painter who died on 09 May 1880. En 1820 il étudie aux Beaux-Arts de Munich. En 1828 il voyage en Italie. En avril 1833 il accompagne le prince-héritier Maximilien de Bavière dans un voyage en Grèce et en Orient. Les conditions exceptionnelles de son voyage, lui permettent de fixer des scènes de la haute aristocratie à Constantinople, à côtés de paysages et de scènes de la vie quotidienne du peuple turc. Il est aussi connu pour sa peinture religieuse. — An den Süssen Wassern Asiens in Konstantinopel (1837) —(051014)

^ 1745 Jean-Baptiste-Marie Huet I, French Rococo animal painter and engraver of some distinction, who died on 27 August (January?) 1811, nephew of Christophe Huet [22 Jun 1700 – 02 May 1759]. His three sons Nicolas Huet II [1770–], François Huet [14 Jan 1772 – 28 July 1813] and Jean-Baptiste Huet II [29 Dec 1772] were painters and engravers. Jean-Baptiste Huet was trained by his father, Nicolas Huet [1718->1788], who had been a student of Jean-Baptiste Oudry and specialized in paintings of flowers and fruit. Jean-Baptiste was then apprenticed to the animal painter Charles Dagomer (fl 1762–4; d. <1768), a member of the Académie de Saint-Luc. He also studied under François Boucher. Huet’s interest in printmaking and his acquaintance with Gilles Demarteau, who later engraved many of his compositions, both date from this period. About 1764 Huet entered the studio of Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, where he further developed his skill as an engraver; most of his engravings and etchings were reproductions of his own work. On 30 July 1768 he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale, and on 29 July 1769 he was received (reçu) as an animal painter with his painting of Un Dogue se Jetant sur des Oies. He first exhibited pictures at the Paris Salon in 1769. The most important of these were his morceau de réception, The Fox in the Chicken-run, and The Milkmaid. The latter is a good example of his work in the petite manière of genre painting popularized by François Boucher, whom he knew and admired. Huet’s exhibits of 1769 were well received by the critics, especially by Louis Petit de Bachaumont and des Boulmiers in Le Mercure de France. The quality of his animal pictures was widely praised, although Diderot made some criticisms of his draftsmanship. Huet wanted the Académie to recognize him as a history painter, so he submitted an Adoration by the Shepherds to the 1775 Salon and followed this in 1779 with a painting of Hercules and Omphale. Critical and academic opinion was unfavorable; however, evidence of his aspirations can be seen in his later works, an example being the Classical bas-relief in the background of the Spaniel Attacking a Turkey (1789). Huet exhibited regularly at the Salon until 1789. LINKS
Un Dogue se Jetant sur des Oies (128x162cm)
Attributs Champêtres (68x63cm)

^ 1678 Willem Grasdorp, Dutch still life painter who died on 28 May 1723. =— {That's Grasdorp NOT Grassdork.} — A student of Ernst Stuven, Grasdorp was a drunkard who had to be imprisoned for several years after he repeatedly mistreated and assaulted Stuven and others.
Flowers in a Vase on a Marble Plinth (79x62cm; 500x385pix, 49kb) _ With its elegant flowers this bouquet fills almost the entire painting, which is subtly constructed on a Greek cross (X) pattern. The overall structure only becomes obvious when you block out the butterfly, top left: then suddenly the whole composition falls to pieces. This rather loose scheme is matched by the dynamic character of the floral display: the convoluting stems are arranged in such a way that they almost move. This is typical for the Baroque period, with fanciful forms conjuring a sense of grandeur and opulence. The dynamic expression of the picture is also reflected in the free and rapid application of the paint. Take for example the large leaves, that are quickly and convincingly painted, avoiding detail on purpose. Yet, the artist is able to give the illusion of accuracy. The butterfly, for example, appears to be finely painted, despite the use of a broad brush. The flowers are painted with a light, deft touch, and shown in the Baroque fashion, in all their splendor at full bloom.
Vase with Flowers (73x56cm; 400x313pix, 20kb)
–- Still Life with Grapes and a Peach (39x30cm; 800x623pix, 148kb) copy by a follower. —(051014)

^ Born on 15 October 70 BC: Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro), in Mantua, Italy. Not a painter, but a painted (not from life, of course, but from imagination), poet, author. who would die on 21 September 19 BC. VIRGIL ONLINE: (in Latin): The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics — (in English translation): The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Aeneid, The Eclogues, The Georgics — Dante would make Virgil his companion into the afterworld in La Divina Commedia.
Virgil in paintings:
by Ingres: Virgil Reading Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia (1815)
_ by Signorelli Virgil (1500) & Dante and Virgil Entering Purgatory, (1500)
_ by Bouguereau Dante and Virgil in Hell
_ by Blake Dante and Virgil at the Gates of Hell & Dante and Virgil Approaching the Angel Who Guards the Entrance of Purgatory (1825) & The Devils, with Dante and Virgil by the Side of the Pool (1825) & Virgil Girding Dante's Brow with a Rush (1825)
_ by Simone Martini G~>title page of Petrarch's Virgil (illuminated manuscript, 1336) _ Thanks to Petrarch's sonnets we know that the poet and the painter became very good friends. Simone must undoubtedly have been influenced by the proto-Humanist cultural world of Petrarch, and we can see clearly how the manuscript illumination of Petrarch's Virgil in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, with its classical and naturalistic overtones (sophisticated gestures, white cloth drapery, the delicate figures of the shepherd and the peasant), anticipates the typical style of early 15th-century French manuscript illumination.

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