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ART “4” “2”-DAY  12 October v.9.90
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DEATHS: 1654 FABRITIUS 1869 NAVEZ   1678 CODDE 
BIRTH: 1937 MANGOLD 1928 HELD 
1492: COLUMBUS'S LANDING
^ Died on 12 October 1654: Carel Fabritius, Dutch painter baptized as an infant on 27 February 1622.
— The name Fabritius comes from the Latin 'faber', craftsman. This self-selected name suggests that Fabritius may have begun his career as a carpenter. He learned to paint too, probably from his father, a teacher in Beemster. In 1641 Fabritius became a student and assistant at Rembrandt's studio in Amsterdam. He stayed for a few years. From 1645 Fabritius was active as a master painter in his own right, first in Beemster and after 1650 in Delft. He died there in 1654, one of the victims of the gunpowder explosion that devastated a quarter of the city. Fabritius was one of Rembrandt's most promising students. He painted portraits and developed the art of trompe-l'oeil painting.
+ ZOOM IN  on real self-portrait + — Carel Fabritius was Rembrandt van Rijn’s most outstanding student: he was a brilliant experimental artist whose exceptional reputation rests on a handful of surviving paintings. Carel was born to the family of a village schoolmaster and amateur artist, who himself gave his son the first lessons in drawing and painting. Between 1641 and 1643 Carel worked in Rembrandt’s workshop in Amsterdam. His earliest known painting The Raising of Lazarus reveals his careful study of his master’s The Night Watch. Approximately to this period belongs the proto-romantic Self~portrait.
      In 1650, Fabritius moved to Delft, where he entered the Lucas Guild two years later. His short life ended tragically: he died in the explosion of a municipal powder store, which devastated almost a quarter of Delft, and with him perished the greater part of his work. Those that survived, about a dozen, however, show his original gift and early artistic independence. In particular, he opened up new ways of handling space and perspective. He also differed from Rembrandt in the treatment of light background. Fabricius did not specialize, as so many others did, in any field, but covered the wide range of portraiture, genre pictures and still life. During the few years he worked in Delft he had a great influence on the local school of painters, especially on de Hooch and Vermeer. The latter was his student and continued to develop his particular conception of how light should be used.
— Dutch Baroque painter of portraits, genre, and narrative subjects whose concern with light and space influenced the stylistic development of the mid-17th-century school of Delft.
     He was Rembrandt's most gifted student and a painter of outstanding originality and distinction, but he died tragically young in the 12 October 1654 explosion of the Delft gunpowder magazine, leaving only a tiny body of work (much may have perished in the disaster). In his youth he worked as a carpenter (the name Fabritius was once thought to have derived from this profession, but it is now known that his father had used it) and he was probably in Rembrandt's studio in the early 1640s. He settled in Delft in about 1650.
      Although only about a dozen paintings by him are known, they show great variety. His earliest surviving works (The Raising of Lazarus, National Museum, Warsaw, c.1645) are strongly influenced by Rembrandt, but he broke free from his master and developed a personal style marked by an exquisite feeling for cool color harmonies and (even though he often worked on a small scale) unerring handling of a loaded brush (The Goldfinch, 1654 — Beheading of John the Baptist, Self-Portrait #1, Self-Portrait #2, Self-Portrait #3, Delft).
These qualities, together with an interest in perspective. occur in the work of Vermeer, the greatest of Delft painters, and Fabritius certainly influenced him, although it is not likely (as is sometimes maintained) that he was his master, this distinction perhaps belonging to Bramer.
     It must have been Rembrandt's chiaroscuro, employed as a subtle method of defining form through the inflection of light which impressed Fabritius most deeply. But while most other students of Rembrandt slavishly applied chiaroscuro, making it pretty and charming like Dou, Fabritius went in another direction altogether. Rembrandt's chiaroscuro was basically tonal, using intensities of light on a scale varying from very dark to very bright. The paintings of Fabritius, of which The Goldfinch is a brilliant example, maintain an overall brightness, a golden glow; yet within the strong light, light is still more inflected - not by toning it down or intensifying it but by tingeing it with subtle hues of color It was this method that Vermeer learned from Fabritius.
      These qualities, together with an interest in perspective, occur in the work of Vermeer, the greatest of Delft painters, and Fabritius certainly influenced him, although it is not likely (as is sometimes maintained) that he was his master, this distinction perhaps belonging to Bramer.
      Carel's brother Barent Fabritius [1624-1673] was also a painter, but of much lesser quality. He too may have studied under Rembrandt; he mainly painted portraits and religious works.

LINKS
Self-Portrait (1654, 70x61cm; 799x743pix, 73kb _ ZOOM to 1439x1256pix, 199kb) _ This resolute likeness most probably represents Carel Fabritius only months before he was fatally wounded in his studio in Delft by the explosion of a gunpowder magazine on 12 October 1654 at 11:35. The disaster and its aftermath are recorded in a series of paintings by Egbert Lievenszoon van der Poel [09 Mar 1621 – 19 Jul 1664] including The Explosion of the Delft magazine (1654; 755x965pix, 80kb) and View of Delft after the Explosion of 1654 (1654, 36x50cm; 802x1056pix, 125kb).
      The son of a schoolmaster and Sunday painter who may have taught him the rudiments of the art, Fabritius studied with Rembrandt between around 1641 and 1643. Only eight certainly authentic works by him survive. The National Gallery is fortunate in owning two: this portrait, and a curious small View of Delft which may have formed part of a perspective box or peepshow. Fabritius is also recorded as having made illusionistic perspective wallpaintings, but none is known.
      Fabritius proved to be Rembrandt's most gifted and original student. At the time of his death at 32 he had already evolved a style and technique at variance with his teacher's. While Rembrandt normally - although not invariably - set his sitters in light against a dark background, Fabritius's silhouette looms starkly against a cloudy sky impastoed white highlights on the metal thrusting the cuirass forward in space. His preparation of the canvas was also quite different. Rembrandt preferred a double ground, a cool grey superimposed over orange-red; analysis has shown that the single ground of this picture is a light cream color.
      Rembrandt had painted himself wearing a military breastplate or gorget (a collarlike piece of armor) in the late 1620s and 1630s, and this became a popular type of self portrait among his students. Its significance has been much debated, some scholars arguing that it suggests Dutch patriotism, a readiness to champion the homeland's hard-won independence, others denying that any such topical meaning could have been intended. Military armour, like pastoral costume, Italian Renaissance or Burgundian dress, was thought to be less susceptible to the vagaries of fashion than civilian outdoor wear, and thus more 'timeless'. Fabritius's fur cap also seems anachronistic, its shape closer to the outline of sixteenth-century headgear than to contemporary hats. But perhaps Rembrandt's invention of a timeless or heroic type of portrait had a more personal significance for Fabritius.
      His surname, sometimes used by his father and adopted by the artist by 1641, is derived from the Latin word faber, meaning manual workman, and was applied to smiths, building workers and carpenters. Fabritius worked as a carpenter before entering Rembrandt's studio, and a probable self portrait of about 1648-9 showing him in coarse working dress (now in Rotterdam) has been interpreted as alluding both to his former occupation and to his name. 'Fabritius' has, however, another, altogether grander significance. C(aius) Fabritius or Fabricius was a soldier and consul of the Roman republic, celebrated for frugality, courage and integrity. His story was familiar from Plutarch's account, and a fellow student in Rembrandt's studio was later to paint an episode from his life in Amsterdam Town Hall. The last records of C(arel) Fabritius in Delft speak of mounting debts but growing professional recognition. If the Rotterdam picture depicts Fabritius/faber the craftsman-painter, might not the National Gallery portrait recall the man of whom Virgil wrote 'Fabricius, poor, yet a prince'?
Self-Portrait (1645, 65x49cm; 1053x799pix, 170kb) _ Carel Fabritius was Rembrandt's most outstanding student: he was a brilliant and experimental artist whose prodigious reputation rests on a handful of surviving paintings. Born in the village of Midden-Beemster and trained by his father, an amateur artist, Fabritius was in Rembrandt's Amsterdam studio in the years around 1640. His earliest known painting, The Raising of Lazarus reveals Fabritius's careful study of his master's The Night Watch, completed in 1642. This proto-romantic self-portrait, in which the artist shows himself with long, tousled hair, opennecked shirt and working smock against a background of crumbling plasterwork, probably dates from shortly after The Raising of Lazarus. There was perhaps a sense in which the choice of this dress had a special significance for Fabritius. The Latin word faber, from which Carel's father had taken the cognomen Fabritius, means workman, and the painter's pose and dress in this portrait may have been intended as an allusion to his name. Compositionally, the most striking feature is the daring placing of the head so far down on the panel, giving a greater than usual emphasis to the part of the picture that is occupied by the peeling plaster wall, and allowing Fabritius to explore effects of texture and shadow. It is a measure of Carel's extraordinary imaginative gifts that he could dispense in this way with the conventional centrality of the sitter's head in a bust portrait. Fabritius was to move to Delft in 1650 but died four years later in the explosion of the municipal powder magazine in the town, a premature end to a remarkable career.
Self-Portrait (62x51cm; 860x703pix, 98kb)
Self~Portrait (1647; 128x97cm; 1000x755pix, 240kb)
–- Abraham de Potter [1592-1650], zijdelakenkoopman te Amsterdam (1640, 68x57cm; 800x670pix, 33kb _ .ZOOM to 1600x1340pix, 155kb) _ This man's name is presented in the upper right-hand corner of the painting. He is a silk sheet salesman from Amsterdam. According to the inscription De Potter was fifty-eight years old at the time Carel Fabritius painted him in 1640, though strangely enough, De Potter's date of birth, 1592, says otherwise. The Fabritius and De Potter families were friends. In 1647, Carel Fabritius borrowed 650 guilders from Abraham's son Jaspar. Perhaps Fabritius painted this portrait as a token of his gratitude. He later also paid back the borrowed sum. The painting is not life-size.
     In 1641, Carel Fabritius became apprenticed to Rembrandt. He was already a fully qualified painter and already painted this portrait among others. In his later work Rembrandt's influence was to become clearly visible. Fabritius painted the background to the painting bright yellow. Rembrandt, however, usually chose a darker surrounding. De Potter's face is also painted differently from to the way Rembrandt would have done it. Fabritius has built up the face out of white areas of paint instead of painting every nuance precisely. Only the ear and eye have been more sketchily depicted.
–- De onthoofding van Johannes de Doper (1640, 149x121cm; 800x645pix, 62kb _ .ZOOM to 1600x1290pix, 309kb _ .ZOOM+ to 1965x1680pix, 275kb) _ The severed head of John the Baptist is presented on a platter. His bloodless corpse hangs over forward, the neck just out of view. The executioner is showing the head to a girl, Salome, shown in a splendid dress with an ermine collar and feathers in her hair. The head is her reward for her magnificent dance. See, for example, Salome Dancing for Herod (176x133cm) by Jacob Hogers.
     John the Baptist was imprisoned after publicly criticizing King Herod for marrying his sister-in-law Herodias. Afraid of John's power, Herod did not dare to punish him further. Herodias hated the prophet even more. When her daughter Salome danced at the festival Herod promised his stepdaughter that she could have whatever she wished. The vengeful Herodias grabbed her chance and whispered to Salome to ask for the head of John the Baptist. And she got what she wanted.
     The story of John's death is told in the Mark 6:21-27:
And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birthday made a supper to his lords [...] and when the daughter of the said Herodias came in and danced and pleased Herod and those who sat with him, the king said unto the girl, Ask of me whatever thou wilt, and I will give it to thee. [...] And she went forth and said unto her mother, What shall I ask? And she said, the head of John the Baptist. And she came in straightway with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, I will that thou give me at once on a platter the head of John the Baptist. And the king was exceedingly sorry [...] and immediately the king sent an executioner and commanded the head to be brought.
      Remarkably, the name Salome is not mentioned there. In fact it was invented later. The story of Salome and John the Baptist has often been depicted, for example in Salome (1524, 72x54cm) by Van Oostsanen. But no other artist has painted Salome with such arrogance as Carel Fabritius.
     Fabritius's depiction of this macabre scene from the Book of Mark is full of drama. The style of Fabritius's teacher Rembrandt is clearly discernible. The painting is dark and without colour, while the main characters are brightly lit from the side. John's bloodless corpse contrasts vividly with the bronzed body of the executioner. This is a real working man, as his weathered head and arms show. The ladylike paleness of Salome's skin contrasts with the woman behind her.
     In the background a crowd of common people have gathered. One man looks straight at the viewer with a telling expression. Next to him is a man with piercing eyes. Was one of these figures perhaps Carel Fabritius himself? One woman has raised a warning finger at the dead prophet. She resembles the old women that Rembrandt painted, for example The Prophetess Anna (1631, 60x48cm).
Mercury and Aglauros (1647, 72x91cm; 640x798pix, 82kb _ ZOOM to 1281x1597pix, 308kb) _ The intimate lighting and very human portrayal of the ancient story related in Ovid's Metamorphoses, show the influence of Rembrand on his student Fabritius. At some point the false signature "Rembrandt 1652" was added on the lower left step.
In the Roman myth, Aglauros was poisoned with jealousy by the goddess Minerva and refused to take Mercury to her sister Herse, with whom the god had fallen in love. When Aglauros rejected Mercury's offer of gold, the moment seen here, he turned her into stone:
Bk II: 708-736 Mercury sees Herse
Hinc se sustulerat paribus caducifer alis, Munychiosque volans agros gratamque Minervae despectabat humum cultique arbusta Lycei. illa forte die castae de more puellae vertice supposito festas in Palladis arces pura coronatis portabant sacra canistris. inde revertentes deus adspicit ales iterque non agit in rectum, sed in orbem curvat eundem: ut volucris visis rapidissima miluus extis, dum timet et densi circumstant sacra ministri, flectitur in gyrum nec longius audet abire spemque suam motis avidus circumvolat alis, sic super Actaeas agilis Cyllenius arces inclinat cursus et easdem circinat auras. quanto splendidior quam cetera sidera fulget Lucifer, et quanto quam Lucifer aurea Phoebe, tanto virginibus praestantior omnibus Herse ibat eratque decus pompae comitumque suarum. obstipuit forma Iove natus et aethere pendens non secus exarsit, quam cum Balearica plumbum funda iacit: volat illud et incandescit eundo et, quos non habuit, sub nubibus invenit ignes. vertit iter caeloque petit terrena relicto nec se dissimulat: tanta est fiducia formae. quae quamquam iusta est, cura tamen adiuvat illam permulcetque comas chlamydemque, ut pendeat apte, collocat, ut limbus totumque adpareat aurum, ut teres in dextra, qua somnos ducit et arcet, virga sit, ut tersis niteant talaria plantis. The god with the caduceus lifted upwards on his paired wings and as he flew looked down on the Munychian fields, the land that Minerva loves, and on the groves of the cultured Lyceum. That day happened to be a festival of Pallas, when, by tradition, innocent girls carried the sacred mysteries to her temple, in flower-wreathed baskets, on their heads. The winged god saw them returning and flew towards them, not directly but in a curving flight, as a swift kite, spying out the sacrificial entrails, wheels above, still fearful of the priests crowding round the victim, but afraid to fly further off, circling eagerly on tilted wings over its hoped-for prey. So agile Mercury slanted in flight over the Athenian hill, spiraling on the same winds. As Lucifer shines more brightly than the other stars, and golden Phoebe outshines Lucifer, so Herse was pre-eminent among the virgin girls, the glory of that procession of her comrades. Jupiter’s son was astonished at her beauty, and, even though he hung in the air, he was inflamed. Just as when a lead shot is flung from a Balearic sling it flies on and becomes red hot, discovering heat in the clouds it did not have before. He altered course, leaving the sky, and heading towards earth, without disguising himself, he was so confident of his own looks. Nevertheless, even though it is so, he takes care to enhance them. He smoothes his hair, and arranges his robe to hang neatly so that the golden hem will show, and has his polished wand, that induces or drives away sleep, in his right hand, and his winged sandals gleaming on his trim feet.
Bk II: 737-751 Mercury elicits the help of Aglauros
Pars secreta domus ebore et testudine cultos tres habuit thalamos, quorum tu, Pandrose, dextrum, Aglauros laevum, medium possederat Herse. quae tenuit laevum, venientem prima notavit Mercurium nomenque dei scitarier ausa est et causam adventus; cui sic respondit Atlantis Pleionesque nepos 'ego sum, qui iussa per auras verba patris porto; pater est mihi Iuppiter ipse. nec fingam causas, tu tantum fida sorori esse velis prolisque meae matertera dici: Herse causa viae; faveas oramus amanti.' adspicit hunc oculis isdem, quibus abdita nuper viderat Aglauros flavae secreta Minervae, proque ministerio magni sibi ponderis aurum postulat: interea tectis excedere cogit. There were three rooms deep inside the house, decorated with tortoiseshell and ivory. Pandrosus had the right hand room, Aglauros the left, and Herse the room between. She of the left hand room first saw the god’s approach and dared to ask his name and the reason for his visit. The grandson of Atlas and Pleione replied ‘I am the one who carries my father’s messages through the air. My father is Jupiter himself. I won’t hide the reason. Only be loyal to your sister and consent to be called my child’s aunt. Herse is the reason I am here. I beg you to help a lover.’ Aglauros looked at him with the same rapacious eyes with which she had lately looked into golden Minerva’s hidden secret, and she demanded a heavy weight of gold for her services. Meanwhile she compelled him to leave the house.
Bk II: 752-786 Minerva calls on Envy
Vertit ad hanc torvi dea bellica luminis orbem et tanto penitus traxit suspiria motu, ut pariter pectus positamque in pectore forti aegida concuteret: subit, hanc arcana profana detexisse manu, tum cum sine matre creatam Lemnicolae stirpem contra data foedera vidit, et gratamque deo fore iam gratamque sorori et ditem sumpto, quod avara poposcerat, auro. protinus Invidiae nigro squalentia tabo tecta petit: domus est imis in vallibus huius abdita, sole carens, non ulli pervia vento, tristis et ignavi plenissima frigoris et quae igne vacet semper, caligine semper abundet.
      Huc ubi pervenit belli metuenda virago, constitit ante domum (neque enim succedere tectis fas habet) et postes extrema cuspide pulsat. concussae patuere fores. videt intus edentem vipereas carnes, vitiorum alimenta suorum, Invidiam visaque oculos avertit; at illa surgit humo pigre semesarumque relinquit corpora serpentum passuque incedit inerti. utque deam vidit formaque armisque decoram, ingemuit vultumque una ac suspiria duxit. pallor in ore sedet, macies in corpore toto.
      Nusquam recta acies, livent robigine dentes, pectora felle virent, lingua est suffusa veneno; risus abest, nisi quem visi movere dolores; nec fruitur somno, vigilantibus excita curis, sed videt ingratos intabescitque videndo successus hominum carpitque et carpitur una suppliciumque suum est. quamvis tamen oderat illam, talibus adfata est breviter Tritonia dictis: 'infice tabe tua natarum Cecropis unam: sic opus est. Aglauros ea est.' haud plura locuta fugit et inpressa tellurem reppulit hasta.
Now the warrior goddess turned angry eyes on her, and in her emotion drew breath from deep inside so that both her strong breast and the aegis that covered her breast shook with it. She remembered that this girl had revealed her secret with profane hands, when, breaking her command, she had seen Erichthonius, son of Vulcan, the Lemnian, the child born without a mother. Now the girl would be dear to the god, and to her own sister, and rich with the gold she acquired, demanded by her greed. Straightaway the goddess made for Envy’s house that is filthy with dark decay. Her cave was hidden deep among valleys, sunless and inaccessible to the winds, a melancholy place and filled with a numbing cold. Fire is always absent, and fog always fills it.
      When the feared war goddess came there, she stood outside the cave, since she had no right to enter the place, and struck the doors with the butt of her spear. With the blow they flew open. Envy could be seen, eating vipers’ meat that fed her venom, and at the sight the goddess averted her eyes. But the other got up slowly from the ground, leaving the half-eaten snake flesh, and came forward with sluggish steps. When she saw the goddess dressed in her armor and her beauty, she moaned and frowned as she sighed. Pallor spreads over her face, and all her body shrivels.
      Her sight is skewed, her teeth are livid with decay, her breast is green with bile, and her tongue is suffused with venom. She only smiles at the sight of suffering. She never sleeps, excited by watchful cares. She finds men’s successes disagreeable, and pines away at the sight. She gnaws and being gnawed is also her own punishment. Though she hated her so, nevertheless Tritonia spoke briefly to her. ‘Poison one of Cecrops’s daughters with your venom. That is the task. Aglauros is the one.’ Without more words she fled and with a thrust of her spear sprang from the earth. .
Bk II: 787-811 Envy poisons Aglauros’s heart
Illa deam obliquo fugientem lumine cernens murmura parva dedit successurumque Minervae indoluit baculumque capit, quod spinea totum vincula cingebant, adopertaque nubibus atris, quacumque ingreditur, florentia proterit arva exuritque herbas et summa cacumina carpit adflatuque suo populos urbesque domosque polluit et tandem Tritonida conspicit arcem ingeniis opibusque et festa pace virentem vixque tenet lacrimas, quia nil lacrimabile cernit. sed postquam thalamos intravit Cecrope natae, iussa facit pectusque manu ferrugine tincta tangit et hamatis praecordia sentibus inplet inspiratque nocens virus piceumque per ossa dissipat et medio spargit pulmone venenum, neve mali causae spatium per latius errent, germanam ante oculos fortunatumque sororis coniugium pulchraque deum sub imagine ponit cunctaque magna facit.
     Quibus inritata dolore Cecropis occulto mordetur et anxia nocte anxia luce gemit lentaque miserrima tabe liquitur, et glacies incerto saucia sole, felicisque bonis non lenius uritur Herses, quam cum spinosis ignis supponitur herbis, quae neque dant flammas lentoque vapore cremantur.
Envy, squinting at her as she flees, gives out low mutterings, sorry to think of Minerva’s coming success. She takes her staff bound with strands of briar, and sets out, shrouded in gloomy clouds. Wherever she passes she tramples the flower-filled fields, withers the grass, blasts the highest treetops and poisons homes, cities and peoples with her breath. At last she sees Athens, Tritonia’s city, flourishing with arts and riches and leisured peace. She can hardly hold back her tears because she sees nothing tearful. But after entering the chamber of Cecrops’s daughter, she carried out her command and touched her breast with a hand tinted with darkness and filled her heart with sharp thorns. Then she breathed poisonous, destructive breath into her and spread black venom through her bones and the inside of her lungs. And so that the cause for pain might never be far away she placed Aglauros’s sister before her eyes, in imagination, her sister’s fortunate marriage, and the beauty of the god, magnifying it all.
      Cecrops’s daughter, tormented by this, is eaten by secret agony, and troubled by night and troubled by light, she moans and wastes away in slow, wretched decay, like ice eroded by the fitful sun.
Bk II: 812-832 Aglauros is turned to stone
Saepe mori voluit, ne quicquam tale videret, saepe velut crimen rigido narrare parenti; denique in adverso venientem limine sedit exclusura deum. cui blandimenta precesque verbaque iactanti mitissima 'desine!' dixit, 'hinc ego me non sum nisi te motura repulso.' 'stemus' ait 'pacto' velox Cyllenius 'isto!' caelestique fores virga patefecit: at illi surgere conanti partes, quascumque sedendo flectimur, ignava nequeunt gravitate moveri: illa quidem pugnat recto se attollere trunco, sed genuum iunctura riget, frigusque per ungues labitur, et pallent amisso sanguine venae; utque malum late solet inmedicabile cancer serpere et inlaesas vitiatis addere partes, sic letalis hiems paulatim in pectora venit vitalesque vias et respiramina clausit, nec conata loqui est nec, si conata fuisset, vocis habebat iter: saxum iam colla tenebat, oraque duruerant, signumque exsangue sedebat; nec lapis albus erat: sua mens infecerat illam.. Often she longed to die so that she need not look on, often to tell her stern father of it as a crime. Finally she sat down at her sister’s threshold to oppose the god’s entrance when he came. When he threw compliments, prayers and gentlest words at her, she said ‘Stop now, since I won’t go from here until I have driven you away.’ ‘We’ll hold to that contract’ Cyllenius quickly replied, and he opened the door with a touch of his heavenly wand. At this the girl tried to rise, but found her limbs, bent from sitting, unable to move from dull heaviness. When she tried to lift her body, her knees were rigid, cold sank through her to her fingernails, and her arteries grew pale with loss of blood.
      As an untreatable cancer slowly spreads more widely bringing disease to still undamaged parts so a lethal chill gradually filled her breast sealing the vital paths and airways. She no longer tried to speak, and if she had tried, her voice had no means of exit. Already stone had gripped her neck, her features hardened, and she sat there, a bloodless statue. Nor was she white stone: her mind had stained it.
_ Compare: Hermes, Herse, and Aglauros (1584, 232x173cm; 689x500pix, 83kb) by Veronese.
The Goldfinch (1654, 34x23cm; 931x614pix, 109kb _ ZOOM to 2317x1576pix, 375kb) _ This painting may have served as a house sign for a family in The Hague whose name, De Putter, is Dutch for goldfinch. If it were placed on a plastered wall, the effect would have been strikingly illusionistic.
The Watchman (1654, 68x58cm; 599x509pix, 56kb _ ZOOM to 2382x2024pix, 430kb) _ Ought to be titled The Watched Man: sprawled on a low bench, apparently asleep, he is being watched by a dog.
View of Delft with a Musical Instrument Seller's Stall (1652, 15x32cm) _ This painting suggests that Fabritius, like other contemporary Dutch painters, made use of a camera obscura.
—(061010)
^ Born on 12 October 1937: Robert Peter Mangold, US artist. — {did he have the Midas touch?}
— Mangold first studied at the Cleveland Institute of Art from 1956 to 1959, and then at Yale University, New Haven, CT (BFA, 1961; MFA, 1963). In 1961 he married Sylvia Plimack, and they moved to New York. Robert Mangold’s early work consisted largely of monochromatic free-standing constructions displayed against the wall, such as Grey Window Wall (1964, 244x229cm); their architectonic forms and gray tonal scale led to their association with Minimalism. The almost sculptural quality of this work was soon abandoned in favor of shaped and multipartite canvases such as Cool Grey Area with Curved Diagonals (1966). Mangold’s consistent use of flat color and geometry in such works as Red X within X (1980) was modified by a consistent manipulation of the painting’s edge and by an illusionism that distinguished his work from the sober immediacy of Minimalism. The book Six Arcs (1978) was designed and illustrated by Mangold.
— Mangold spent his youth in Buffalo, New York. In 1956, he enrolled in the illustration department of the Cleveland Institute of Art. Within a year, he had transferred to the fine-arts division of the school in order to pursue an education in painting, sculpture, and drawing. While studying at the institute in 1957, Mangold traveled to see the Carnegie International in Pittsburgh, where he gained exposure to the work of a wide variety of Abstract Expressionist painters, including Willem de Kooning, Adolph Gottlieb, Franz Kline, and Jackson Pollock. That same year, he attended a major exhibition of Clyfford Still’s paintings at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo. Subsequently, Mangold’s painting reflected an interest in Abstract Expressionism as well as in the work of Alberto Burri and Antonio Tàpies. He began producing large-scale abstract paintings, moving away from an earlier interest in naturalism. After graduating in 1959, he was awarded a fellowship to attend the Yale Norfolk Summer School of Music and Art, Norfolk, Connecticut, and in the fall of 1960 he entered the graduate program at the Yale University School of Art and Architecture, New Haven. There, he experimented with a variety of stylistic idioms. His classmates included Nancy Graves, Brice Marden, and Richard Serra. He married fellow art student Sylvia Plimack [18 Sep 1938~] in 1961, and they moved to New York upon the completion of his M.F.A. in 1962. He took a position as a guard at the Museum of Modern Art, moving after a few months to an assistant’s position in the museum’s library. At the museum, he met a number of artists also working as guards there, including Robert Ryman and Sol LeWitt.
      By 1964, Mangold had moved into his signature Minimalist style in painting. His first solo exhibition, entitled Walls and Areas, was held at the Fischbach Gallery in 1965. The exhibition consisted of large paintings on Masonite and plywood; some works were painted thickly to approximate sections of wall, while others were sprayed to produce lighter effects. From 1964 through 1973, Mangold was affiliated with Thibaut and Fischbach galleries in New York and had numerous exhibitions in European galleries. In 1965–66, the Jewish Museum, New York, mounted the first major exhibition of Minimalist painting, which included Mangold’s work. Mangold became an instructor in the fine-arts department of the School of Visual Arts, New York, in the mid-1960s. His second solo exhibition held at Fischbach Gallery in 1967 featured his experiments with sections of circles on board and Masonite.
      In 1968, Mangold began employing acrylic instead of oil paint, rolling rather than spraying it on Masonite or plywood grounds. Within the year, he moved from these more industrially oriented supports to canvas. He received a fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation in 1969, with which he and Plimack built a home in the Catskills. They lived there through the mid-1970s, at which time they moved to Washingtonville, New York, where they still reside. In 1970, Mangold began working with shaped canvases and within the year began brushing rather than spraying paint onto canvas.

LINKS
— Before you read further, consider that some consider Mangold as a so-called “artist”, whose “work” is not worth showing. For those who might want to know why, the pseudonymous “Robber” Mantrash has put in his hard work and strenuous efforts for more than one minute, and has succeeded in producing pictures almost as worthless, starting with:
     _ Mantrashpiece 01 (2005, 415x415pix, 2kb _ ZOOM to 800x800pix, 2kb).
Circle In and Out of a Polygon 2, (1973, 183x184cm). Shortly after receiving an M.F.A. from Yale University in 1963, Robert Mangold worked as a guard at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Reminiscing about the months he spent there, Mangold commented that even the greatest paintings began to lose their appeal after hours of uninterrupted viewing. The Mondrians were the exception, however, and actually looked “better and better over time.”
      Inspired, perhaps, by Piet Mondrian’s reductivist tendency, Mangold emptied his painting of all external references, focusing instead on internal formal relationships. For this reason, his work is often described as Minimalist. But whereas much Minimalist painting and sculpture is premised on predetermined, mathematical progressions, rigid configurations, and industrial materials, Mangold’s work is quite unsystematic. The difference between Mangold’s art and that of many of his contemporaries lies in its idiosyncratic, intuitive nature. His geometric compositions are frequently distorted: what appears to be a perfect circle or square drawn on a two-dimensional surface is partially contorted in order to fit within the confines of the shaped canvases. While he has worked in series to explore the various permutations of such designs, Mangold has not limited himself to one specific strategy and often makes unique images. His palette, consisting of warm ochers, saturated blues, olive greens, and chocolate browns, among other hues, is more reminiscent of Italian frescoes than of the cool, detached tones and commercially mixed colors commonly used by artists associated with Minimalism.
      In 1973 Mangold created at least four versions of Circle In and Out of a Polygon; two were done on canvas and two on Masonite. In all four the interior graphite line becomes interchangeable with the top, left, and bottom borders of the support. Similarly, half of the circle is outlined on the acrylic surface, while the other half continues as the curved edge on the painting’s right. Mangold challenges his viewers to mentally reverse such images in order to comprehend the compositional nuances of the geometric abstraction. It is this emphasis on the conceptual basis of vision that truly links Mangold to the Minimalists, who brought their audiences to an unprecedented level of perceptual awareness.
Red Ellipse, Tan Frame (73kb)
–- A Triangle Within Two Rectangles #4 (498x846pix, 17kb) picture missing a rectangular area at top left, flat blue blackground, with a faint line separating two rectangles, and a faint line around a triangle. This minimalist non-art has been transformed by the pseudonymous Beta Wurzel into numerous superbly maximalist abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ A Trial With Two Wrecked Angles (2007; 550x778pix, 143kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 274kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 534kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1248kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2834kb) and
      _ At Wrangle With Tuareg Tangles (2007; 550x778pix, 143kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 274kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 534kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1248kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 2834kb)
Curled Figure Study XX (2002, 156x190cm; 450x550pix, 30kb) _ Monochrome dull violet with thin twin spirals. Wurzel has curled the spirals the other way, introduced many more spirals to use the two quarters of the frame that Mangold left blank, added a variety of brilliant colors (mostly red and green), and transformed it into two related series (you can click instantly from one series to the other at the same level), each consisting of 10 brilliant symmetrical abstractions, which, on any level, do not enlarge the previous one, but add to its edges and center maintaining a fixed size of the image through level 6. For levels 7, 8, and 9, whose size is required to appreciate the fine details but exceeds most computer screens, there is an alternate image reduced to 932x1318pix:
      _ Furled Bigger, level 0 (2006; 932x1318pix, 522kb _ level 1, 932x1318pix, 308kb _ level 2, 932x1318pix, 349kb _ level 3, 932x1318pix, 428kb _ level 4, 932x1318pix, 562kb _ level 5, 932x1318pix, 645kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 552kb _ level 7, 1318x1864pix, 1086kb _ level 8, 1864x2636pix, 2178kb _ level 9, 2636x3728pix, 6487kb ||| _ level 7, 932x1318pix, 576kb _ level 8, 932x1318pix, 608kb _ level 9, 932x1318pix, 562kb) and
      _ Hurled Digger, level 0 (2006; 932x1318pix, 522kb _ level 1, 932x1318pix, 308kb _ level 2, 932x1318pix, 349kb _ level 3, 932x1318pix, 428kb _ level 4, 932x1318pix, 562kb _ level 5, 932x1318pix, 645kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 552kb _ level 7, 1318x1864pix, 1086kb _ level 8, 1864x2636pix, 2178kb _ level 9, 2636x3728pix, 6487kb ||| _ level 7, 932x1318pix, 576kb _ level 8, 932x1318pix, 608kb _ level 9, 932x1318pix, 562kb)
Fragment VIII (2000 lithograph, 93x178cm frame; 618x1097pix, 161kb) a black and dark yellow split trapezoidal shape only covers about half of the white background.
Half Column B (2005 etching and aquatint, 101x20cm; 2006x400pix, 148kb)
Tall Column B (2005 etching and aquatint, 202x20cm; 1589x158pix, 56kb)
30 images at Krakow Gallery _ mostly rectangles painted nearly uniformly in one single color each and with one or a few undulating or curled lines..
—(061018)

Died on a 12 October:


^ 1969 Serge Poliakoff, French painter, born Russian (main coverage) on 08 January 1900. —(060602)

1952 Marceliano Santamaría Sedano [18 Jun 1866–], pintor español. Inició sus estudios en la Escuela de Arte de Burgos, su ciudad natal, donde fue alumno de Evaristo Barrio e Isidro Gil. Posteriormente, viajó a Madrid, donde ingresó en la Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, al tiempo que trabajó en el taller de Manuel Domínguez. Tras concluir sus estudios, fue pensionado para la Academia de Roma. A su regreso, se instaló en Madrid, donde fue profesor auxiliar del Instituto de San Isidro y, más adelante, catedrático de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios, de la que llegó a ser director. En 1913, fue recibido en la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
(village on a stream) (711x829pix, 213kb)
(wheat field) (545x600pix, 116kb)
Cosiendo al Sol (1933, 47x58cm; 480x586pix, 88kb) a rural house
Arroyuelo (1935, 60x54cm; 480x418pix, 54kb) as if seen through a purplish gray filter. —(090617)

>1924 Antonio Muñoz Degrain [18 Nov 1843–], pintor español. Inició sus estudios con Rafael Montesinos en la Academia de San Carlos de Valencia, su ciudad natal, en contra del parecer de su familia que lo destinaba a la arquitectura. En 1856, viajó a Roma por sus propios méritos. La dureza de las condiciones de vida en la capital italiana y su corta edad lo obligaron a regresar, aunque poco después pudo realizar el viaje en mejores condiciones merced a una pensión concedida por la Diputación Provincial de Valencia. De regreso a España, en 1879 logró la cátedra de pintura de la Escuela de Bellas Artes de Málaga, de la que pasó a la de Madrid en 1898 para sustituir a Carlos de Haes en la cátedra de paisaje. — Portrait of Muñoz Degrain (1472x976pix, 224kb) by Sorolla
Los amantes de Teruel (374x590pix, 74kb)
Un chubasco en Granada (97x145cm; 499x750pix, 69kb)
Paisaje del Pardo al disiparse la niebla
Cervantes en Argel (28 Nov 1918, 200x300cm; 482x764pix, 115kb) _ La acción que representa este cuadro se desarrolla bajo la gran arquería de un puente monumental, cuyo arranque se ve al fondo, a la izquierda. En primer término, a la derecha, aparece el sultán, presumiblemente Hasán Bajá, gobernador turco de Argel, con un cetro, sentado con las piernas cruzadas y rodeado de diversos estandartes, al que acompañan varios de sus servidores, uno de los cuales, en primer plano, escribe algo así como: “MIKAIL (ilegible) CRISTIANO (ilegible) Y DIJO QUE EL” (suponiendo ciertas incorrecciones ortográficas). A la izquierda, pero en segundo término, aparece, en una zona algo más oscura, la figura de Cervantes, en pie, en actitud arrogante, cubierto por una especie de manto, en cuya parte baja puede leerse, con claridad, una fecha, “1879”, y en la parte superior una inscripción difícil de precisar. Está siendo liberado de los grilletes por un esclavo, a sus pies, y otro a su derecha; detrás de él, a la derecha, hay un monje en oración. Este grupo reposa sobre una plancha en cuyo lateral, justo debajo de Cervantes, puede leerse con claridad la palabra “ALA” y, a lo largo de la misma, la jaculatoria “ALABADO SEA DIOS” con caracteres inspirados en la escritura cúfica. Debajo se ve un perro y varios remeros de la galera en la que se desarrolla esta acción principal. El fondo se cierra por los azules del mar y el blanco del caserío islámico, con inscripciones decorativas, detalles anecdóticos, como la figura de un ahorcado al fondo o la de una mujer como una dolorosa, a la izquierda, masas de gentes y barcos surcando el mar.
      Cervantes estuvo cautivo cinco años y medio en Argel, tras ser abordada la galera Sol por una flotilla turca, cuando regresaba a España después de la batalla de Lepanto. Fue entonces entregado como esclavo a Dalí Mamí y, como dirá don Quijote a Sancho, aprendió el valor de la libertad: “Por la libertad se puede y debe aventurar la vida” (Capítulo LVIII, Segunda Parte). Después de distintas vicisitudes y tras pasar cinco meses oculto en una cueva próxima a Argel junto con otros cautivos, trató de escapar, pero fue descubierto el 30 de setiembre de 1577, gracias a un cómplice, natural de Melilla, conocido por el sobrenombre de “el Dorador”. Cervantes se reconoce como único culpable ante el gobernador turco de Argel, Hasán Bajá, que le perdona la vida, aunque vuelve al presidio, hasta que, después de varios intentos fallidos de escapar, fue pagada su libertad en 1580. Para los biógrafos de Cervantes ha resultado siempre chocante que sus reiteradas intentonas por salir de Argel se viesen correspondidas con un castigo benevolente de su enemigo, teniendo en cuenta la crueldad de Hasán Bajá, por otra parte, conocido sodomita. Ello ha servido para especular con la hipótesis de una relación del gobernador con el escritor, por el que, desde luego, mostró un indudable interés. Gracias a la Topographia e historia general de Argel, de Fray Diego de Haedo, a los diferentes informes realizados tras su rescate y a las alusiones que existen en las obras del escritor, el paso de Cervantes por Argel constituye uno de los episodios más conocidos de su azarosa biografía. Para la evocación pictórica fue probablemente importante la historia del cautivo que Cervantes cuenta en la Primera Parte del Quijote. En el capítulo XL puede leerse: “yo cupe a un renegado veneciano que, siendo grumete de una nave, le cautivó el Uchalí, y le quiso tanto que fue uno de los más regalados garzones suyos, y él vino a ser el más cruel renegado que jamás se ha visto. Llamábase Azán Agá, y llegó a ser muy rico, y a ser rey de Argel; con el cual yo vine de Constantinopla, algo contento, por estar tan cerca de España [...] porque jamás me desamparó la esperanza de tener libertad. [...] / Pusiéronme una cadena, más por señal de rescate que por guardarme con ella; [...] / Sólo libró bien con él un soldado español, llamado tal de Saavedra, el cual, con haber hecho cosas que quedarán en la memoria de aquellas gentes por muchos años, y todas por alcanzar la libertad, jamás le dió palo, ni se lo mando dar, ni le dijo mala palabra”.
      La extraordinaria similitud entre el rostro de Cervantes y el de Muñoz Degrain ha llevado a pensar en una identificación entre la figura del escritor y la del pintor. Esta hipótesis se vería fortalecida si, como cabe suponer, la fecha de 1879 que puede leerse en la parte baja del manto del escritor se refiere a un episodio de la biografía de Muñoz Degrain que pudiera ponerse en paralelo con el aquí pintado. En ese año de 1879 realizó, acompañado por el también pintor Bernardo Ferrándiz, un viaje al norte de Marruecos, en concreto a la zona conocida como el Barranco del Lobo, donde ambos artistas tuvieron que ser protegidos por tres compañías de soldados españoles ante un imprevisto ataque moro, anécdota que precisamente fue recordada en La Correspondencia de Valencia el 9 de enero de 1914
      Muñoz Degrain realiza aquí un extraordinario despliegue de su más osada gama cromática: rojos y blancos son aplicados con vehemencia, sobre todo, para describir los ropajes de los personajes, que brillan con intensidad, en tanto que en los reflejos acuosos reverberan amarillos y violetas. Aunque se trata de una crónica histórica, la pintura se ajusta perfectamente a las características formales e iconográficas del orientalismo que interesó a Muñoz Degrain durante sus últimos años, dentro del cual produjo obras sobrecogedoras y fantásticas, que respondían a una particular concepción simbolista de la pintura, donde la fascinación a determinados temas y lugares se combinan con una ejecución donde los colores sugieren sensaciones mágicas. El cuadro despliega una extraordinaria riqueza decorativa, con un vibrante y jugoso colorido, dentro de la exuberante fantasía que le caracteriza, de asombroso efecto.
      Este cuadro forma parte de la serie que el pintor inició en 1916 sobre temas cervantinos, que pasarían por donación a la Biblioteca Nacional. Dicha serie está compuesta por veinte cuadros pintados entre 1916 y 1919 que representan episodios de la vida de Cervantes, alegorías y retratos del Quijote y escenas del Quijote. Para su realización contó con la ayuda de Flora Castrillo.
56 images at Foro Xerbar —(091011)

1915 Ferdinand Hart Nibbrig, Dutch painter and printmaker born on 05 April 1866. From 1881 he studied at the Quellinus School in Amsterdam, and from 1883 to 1888 he attended classes with August Allebé at the city’s Rijksacademie voor Beeldende Kunsten. At the age of 22 he went to Paris for further training at the Académie Julian and in the studio of Fernand Cormon; there he first saw the work of Paul Signac and Georges Seurat, who strongly influenced his style. He had previously painted in the style of his Impressionist contemporaries Jacobus van Looy and Georg Hendrik Breitner, but after 1889 he modified his palette and began to employ the Pointillist style. In 1889 he returned to the Netherlands.

1875 Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux [11 May 1827–], French sculptor and painter. — (Portrait of Carpeaux between sketches of sculptures) (engraving in Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News of 06 November 1875; 3920x2676pix, 4756kb png) — LINKS —(081010)

1869 François Joseph Navez, French painter born (full coverage) on 16 November 1787. —(050911)

^ 1866 Antonie Waldorp, Dutch painter born on 22 March 1803.
The River Meuse at Dordrecht (1842, 36x50cm)

^ 1840 Jeanne-Philiberte Ledoux, French painter born in 1767, daughter of architect and writer Claude-Nicolas Ledoux [21 Mar 1736 – 19 Nov 1806]. She studied under J. B. Greuze [1725-1805].
Girl with the Dove (1154x866pix, 194kb) _ Compare
      _ Girl with the Dove (1154x866pix, 194kb) by Jean-Baptiste Greuze.
A girl in prayer (55x45cm; 717x600pix, 53kb) _ The sad young girl is praying beside the corner of a table. On the table is a letter.
A young lady (1651, oval 40x32cm) _ that's no lady, that's ... I'd rather not say. —(091010)

^ 1837 Louis Dupré, French artist born on 09 January 1789. — Relative? of Jules Dupré (1811~1889)?
L'Acropole à Athène (1819; 600x1166pix, 171kb)

^ 1772 Samuel Scott, English marine and topographical painter and etcher born in 1703. He began as a marine painter in the tradition of the van de Veldes, but he turned to topographical views in the manner of Canaletto, who was then enjoying great success in England. He was not simply a mechanical imitator, however, and had a feeling for the English atmosphere that is lacking in Canaletto, who brought the Venetian light with him to England. Scott also could achieve a distinctive grandeur of design, as in An Arch of Westminster Bridge, which is often considered his masterpiece. He left London in 1765 and settled in bath for reason of health, evidently painting little in his later years. — In 1725 a sea-piece ascribed to Scott appeared at auction in London. In 1727 he was appointed Accomptant in the Stamp Office, Lincoln’s Inn Square, London, an office he held for 28 years at an annual salary of £100. (This was probably a purchased sinecure, suggesting that Scott came from a prosperous background.) By the early 1730s he had apparently followed the advice of the miniature painter Christian Frederic Zincke to become a professional painter and at the end of the decade had attracted a steady supply of commissions for marine subjects, from which he reportedly earned at least £700 per annum. For his earliest recorded commission (1732), he was hired by the landscape painter George Lambert to embellish with ships six views of East India Company settlements, destined for the Court Room, East India House, Leadenhall Street, London. In May 1732 he accompanied William Hogarth, Ebenezer Forrest and two others on the ‘Five Days’ Peregrination’ along the Thames, an artistic and social jaunt recorded (as a parody of an antiquarian tour) in a manuscript by Forrest and in drawings by Hogarth and Scott. He participated in the ‘Walpole–Scott Club’, a weekly supper party with Edward Walpole and others in the mid-1730s. Edward Walpole, according to Horace Walpole, ‘has several of [Scott’s] largest and most capital works’, and it seems likely that these amiable gatherings led to other commissions too. — Sawrey Gilpin and William Marlow were students of Scott. — LINKS
Part of Old Westminster Bridge (1750, 539x800pix, 161kb)
A Thames Wharf (1755, 932x790pix, 59kb)

1678 Pieter-Jacobs Codde, Dutch painter born (full coverage) on 11 December 1599. —(050911)

1678 Willem Schellinks (or Schellincks, Schellings), Dutch draftsman, painter, etcher, and poet, born on 02 February 1623 (1627?). He was the oldest surviving son of Laurens Schellinks, tailor and freeman of Amsterdam, and Catalijntje Kousenaer. Laurens originally came from Maasbree (Limburg) but established himself in Amsterdam in 1609. There were seven other children, of whom Daniel Schellinks [1627–1701] also became a painter.

^ 1676 Juan de Arellano, Spanish artist baptized as an infant on 03 August 1614. He was taught by Juan de Solís. Juan de Arellano was the pre-eminent painter of flower-pieces in 17th-century Spain. Although Spaniards of the previous generation had painted such works, it was the inspiration of Flemish and Italian examples in Madrid that from about 1650 encouraged Arellano’s success as a specialist in this genre. According to Palomino, who moved to the Court shortly after the artist’s death and befriended many painters who had known him, Arellano began to paint flowers only in his thirties after a beginning that showed little promise. When asked why he devoted himself to flower-pieces and had abandoned figures, he replied that it was because with them he worked less and earned more.
Garland of Flowers with Landscape (1652).

1590 Kano Eitoku [16 Feb 1543–], Japanese painter. — LINKS
Flowers and Birds of the Four Seasons (left hand screen) (165x359cm; 536x1209pix, 147kb)
Flowers and Birds of the Four Seasons (right hand screen) (165x359cm; 533x1217pix, 160kb)
13 ZOOMable images at Wikimedia —(081010)

1492 Piero della Francesca [1412–], Italian painter and mathematician. He studied under Domenico Veneziano. Piero's students included Pietro Perugino, Melozzo da Forlí, and Luca Signorelli. — LINKS
The Baptism of Christ (1450, 168x116cm; 2256x1576pix, 415kb) —(081010)

1491 Fritz Herlen, German painter born before 1449. —(081010)


Born on a 12 October:


>1933 Guido Molinari [–21 Feb 2004], Montréal Canadian abstract painter. He studied briefly at the School of Design at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (1950-1951), and began making drawings and paintings combining automatic methods with a disciplined approach. He was a leader in the development of a rigorous color abstraction in Montréal. Characteristic of his paintings in the 1960s were vertical, hard-edged bands of color Pictorial space in these paintings was created by the spectator's perception of the shifting and mixing of the colors. More recently, color in his work had been reduced to very dark values, and rather than narrow bands, the paintings were divided into 2 to 5 large vertical sections. In 1956 Molinari was a founding member of the Association des artistes non-figuratifs de Montréal. He exhibited at the Biennale in Venice in 1968, where he was awarded the David E. Bright Foundation prize. In 1977 he participated in the Paris Biennale, and in 1980 he was awarded the Paul-Émile Borduas Prize by the Québec government. Molinari, who taught at Concordia University until 1997, exerted a powerful influence on younger artists, through his teaching, his theoretical writing and his opinions, firmly held and strongly stated.
Mutation rythmique bi-jaune (1965, 152x122cm; 577x461pix, 189kb) _ This is composed of vertical stripes, of equal width, in varying hues of yellow, orange and brown. Each color band has straight, distinct edges separating it from the others. The paint is applied in a uniform flat fashion and covers the entirety of the canvas. The juxtaposition of the colored bands creates the illusion that some of the stripes are closer to the surface than others, and that the areas where the colors meet are moving or vibrating. These visual tricks identify this work with the Op Art movement. In purely technical terms, the sharply delineated areas of color place this work also in the Hard Edge movement popularized by US artists such as Ellsworth Kelly and Frank Stella. In the Quebec context. Mutation rhythmique bi-jaune is a product of Molinari’s dedication to the Neo-Plasticist approach that rejected the Automatist idea of spontaneous, objective abstraction in favor of a dedication to formal qualities of pure color and geometric forms.
untitled (1966, 58x45cm; 577x436pix, 221kb)
Sérielle Bi-Bleu (1967, 203x275cm; 478x640pix, 33kb)
Mutation sérielle verte-rouge (1966, 206x249cm; 360x450pix, 39kb)
Blue Quantifier #25 (Oct 1993, 102x66cm) —(091011)

1928 Alvin Jacob Held, US painter who died (full coverage) on 26 July 2005 —(050911)

^ >1862 Louis-Marie de Schryver, French painter who died on 06 December 1942. Louis-Marie de Schryver was born to a prominent Parisian family with strong ties to the literary and artistic circles of the city. De Schryver's father was a man of letters and a connoisseur of fine art, developing friendships with several distinguished artists, including Jean Jacques Henner, Rosa Bonheur and Philippe Rousseau. Through his passion for art and his artistic connections he encouraged his son to pursue a career as a painter. A precocious child, de Schryver exhibited his first painting at the age of thirteen in the Salon des Champs-Elysées, an early beginning to what was to become a long and distinguished career. As a member of the priviledged upper class, from which he would often use his family connections and friends as models for his pictures, de Schryver innately understood the spirit of the belle époque and the concerns of fashionable society. He developed a special interest in the proliferation of flower vendors in Paris and chose them as the central subject of his oeuvre. Their daily presence on the boulevards reflected the unquenchable desire of Parisians for beauty, colour and scent. The bounteous and varied blossoms offered by the flower vendors appropriately mirrored the beauty and costumes of the ladies of fashion whose salons and boudoirs de Schryver's paintings surely graced. De Schryver's flower vendors would often be set against a majestic backdrop, either a grand Parisian boulevard or an impressive architectural monument.
–- Flower Seller at the Place de la Concorde (1892, 58x68cm; 1157x1399pix; 132kb) _ Louis de Schryver, born to a life of privilege, was ideally suited to capture the Beau Monde of late 19th century Paris. His street scenes evoke the Belle Époque concerns of fashionably clad women, shown in the foreground searching out the freshest blooms. The two ladies depicted with the flower seller both look very much like de Schryver’s young cousin, who posed for many of his paintings. The backdrop of this intimate scene is a very lively one; the Madeleine in the distance is flanked by the impressive buildings of the Place de la Concorde, which are brightened with striped awnings. The fountain’s high reaching water spray enlivens the scene. The beautiful mother at right in her stylish dress and hat, with her daughter holding a hoop toy, along with men in top hats and canes at far left, offer the viewer a window onto the excitement of Parisian life at this time. The fancy clothes and accessories of all these characters speak to the social importance of seeing and being seen. The artist painted the flower sellers of Paris over and over, and their presence on the boulevards symbolized Parisians’ unquenchable desire for beauty, color and scent.
–- Place de l'Opéra (1899, 55x66cm; 1311x1575pix; 119kb) featuring ... you've guessed it ... a flower seller. —(091011)

^ 1812 Eduard Schleich II (d.Ä.), German painter who died on 08 January 1874. He studied from 1827 in the history painting class of the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich but soon left to study privately. He was initially drawn towards the late Romantic landscape painting style of Carl Rottmann and Christian Morgenstern, and from about 1830 he had success with mountain landscapes based on sketches made in Upper Bavaria and the Tyrol. In these he relied on studies of 17th-century Dutch landscape painting, especially its treatment of light and skies, to achieve clear and simple images of the Bavarian mountains in varying light conditions (e.g. A Peak, 1865). Schleich was much influenced by Peter Paul Rubens’s landscape paintings, to which he was introduced by the painter Carl Rahl, and which he studied in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich and in the collection at Schloss Weissenstein in Pommersfelden. A visit to the Salon of 1851 in Paris had a strong impression on Schleich, especially the work of the Barbizon school. At the same time he encountered paintings by the English artists John Constable and Richard Parkes Bonington. Schleich’s own work includes both studies of his surroundings, for example Lake Starnberg with Schloss Starnberg (1850), and largely invented scenes based on subjects only fleetingly observed, such as Venice by Moonlight (1860). Though Gusztáv Keleti and Julius Marák were students of Schleich, he was rarely a teacher, but he was seen as a model by many younger Munich landscape painters. The staffage in Schleich’s landscapes was often added by friends, for example the painter Friedrich Voltz {1817–1886]. He was the father of Eduard Schleich II (d.J.) [15 Feb 1853 – 28 Oct 1893]
Women bathing in the sea near Dieppe (1860; 600x1031pix, 227kb) _ {How about naming it Deep Dieppe Dip?}

^ 1753 Lié-Louis Perin-Salbreux, French painter of portraits, still life, pastel, and miniatures, who died on 20 December 1817.
Lady in Blue (oval 6x5cm; 2x-size _ ZOOM to 4x-size, 65kb) —(051011)

^ 1637 Cesare Gennari, Italian painter who died on 11 February 1688. Cesare Gennari was the son of Ercole and Lucia Barbieri, sister of Guercino, the Baroque painter. With his brother Benedetto Gennari II [bap. 19 Oct 1633 – 09 Dec 1715] he ran Guercino's studio after the death of Guercino, with whom they and others of their family had worked. Cesare was possibly the more talented than Benedetto, although, unlike Benedetto who spent considerable time abroad and worked for notable patrons, he remained in his native surroundings all his life. Cesare's works sometimes have been mistaken for those of Guercino. Important works by Cesare Gennari include S. Rosa da Lima, Pace, Carita. His Penitent Magdalene (1662) is characteristic of his accomplished style.
Maddalena Penitente (11 Mar 1652, 240x169cm; 568x400pix, 43kb)
Cleopatra (600x400pix, 49kb) _ Cleopatra VII “Thea Philopator” [69 BC – 30 Aug 30 BC], rather than be paraded a prisoner in the victory parade of Octavian [23 Sep 63 BC – 19 Aug 14 AD] (the future emperor Caesar Augustus) committed suicide by causing an asp to bite her, as shown in the painting.
Allegoria della Pittura (119x98cm; 800x649pix, 91kb) —(051011)

click to ZOOM IN^ 1492 Columbus arrives in the Indies (West, not East as he thought)
      After sailing across the Atlantic Ocean, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sights Watling Island in the Bahamas, initially believing that he had found Asia. His expedition goes ashore the same day and claims the island for Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, the sponsors of Columbus's attempt to find a Western ocean route to Cathay (China), India, and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia.

THE EVENT AS PAINTED BY
EDWARD HICKS
FREDERICK KEMMELMEYER
SALVADOR DALI >>>


      On 03 August 1492, Columbus had set sail from the Spanish port of Palos, commanding three small ships--the Pinta, the Niña, and the flagship Santa Maria--and 120 men. After leaving Watling, Columbus visited Cuba and Hispaniola, where he traded with natives that he incorrectly termed "Indians.” During these travels, the Santa Maria was wrecked, and Columbus left thirty-eight men on Hispaniola with munitions and supplies before sailing back to Spain aboard the two smaller ships. The expedition returned to Palos in March of 1493, and Columbus was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. During his lifetime he led three more expeditions to the New World, discovering various Caribbean islands, the Gulf of Mexico, and the South American mainland, but never accomplished his original goal--a Western ocean route to India.
     Columbus had waited at the Spanish court six years before King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella agreed to sponsor his voyage.
      He persuaded his men to continue their westward voyage even when they threatened mutiny because they had not yet reached the expected islands of the Orient. Certainly Columbus is a model of determination and courage. Yet the man was much more complex than that.
     Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, in 1451. Little is known of his early life, but he worked as a seaman and then a maritime entrepreneur. He became obsessed with the possibility of pioneering a western sea route to Cathay (China), India, and the gold and spice islands of Asia. At the time, Europeans knew no direct sea route to southern Asia, and the route via Egypt and the Red Sea was closed to Europeans by the Ottoman Empire, as were many land routes. Contrary to popular legend, educated Europeans of Columbus' day did believe that the world was round, as argued by St. Isidore in the seventh century. However, Columbus, and most others, underestimated the world's size, calculating that East Asia must lie approximately where North America sits on the globe (they did not yet know that the Pacific Ocean existed). With only the Atlantic Ocean, he thought, lying between Europe and the riches of the East Indies, Columbus met with King John II of Portugal and tried to persuade him to back his "Enterprise of the Indies," as he called his plan. He was rebuffed and went to Spain, where he was also rejected at least twice by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. However, after the Spanish conquest of the Moorish kingdom of Granada in January 1492, the Spanish monarchs, flush with victory, agreed to support his voyage.
      Christopher was a very devout Catholic who observed all the fasts of the church and prayed regularly. His very name Christopher, which means Christ-bearer, he understood as a title of his destiny to carry the message of the gospel to far-off lands. He diligently searched the Scriptures and thought he found assurance for a call to sail to the far reaches of the globe with the Christian message. Zechariah 9:10 said that "he shall speak peace unto the heathen: and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth. And Psalm 107:23-24 promised that "they that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep.”
      Christopher was particularly concerned with the power of the Ottoman Turks who controlled the eastern Mediterranean and were threatening Europe. If a way could be found of reaching India by sailing West, the Turks could be attacked from behind and perhaps the Holy Land itself could be rescued from their hands. Columbus was interested in trade and riches, but Christian concern also lay behind his plans.
      When land is sighted, in recognition of the divine aid in his voyage, Columbus names it San Salvador, and prays, "O Lord, Almighty and everlasting God, by Thy holy Word Thou hast created the heaven, and the earth, and the sea; blessed and glorified be Thy Name, and praised be Thy Majesty, which hath designed to use us, Thy humble servants, that Thy holy Names may be proclaimed in this second part of the earth.”
      In keeping with the Christian motive underlying his mission, Columbus at first showed great concern for how the natives, whom he called Indians, were treated. He wrote: "So that they might be well-disposed towards us, for I knew that they were a people to be delivered and converted to our holy faith rather by love than by force, I gave to some red caps and to others glass beads, which they hung around their neck, and many other things. . . .I believe that they would easily be made Christians, for it seemed to me that they had no religion of their own.”
      Unfortunately, Columbus' concern for the salvation of the souls of these people was coupled with an attitude of superiority which saw nothing wrong in forcibly capturing the people and making them slaves of the Europeans. The missionary drive which was prominent during his first voyage, in later voyages became subordinate to his love of wealth and position.
     Later in October 1492, Columbus sighted Cuba, which he thought was mainland China, and in December the expedition landed on Hispaniola, which Columbus thought might be Japan. He established a small colony there with 39 of his men. The explorer returned to Spain with gold, spices, and "Indian" captives in March 1493 and was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. He was the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland in the 10th century. During his lifetime, Columbus led a total of four expeditions to the New World, discovering various Caribbean islands, the Gulf of Mexico, and the South and Central American mainlands, but he never accomplished his original goal--a western ocean route to the great cities of Asia. Columbus died in Spain in 1506 without realizing the great scope of what he did achieve: He had discovered for Europe the New World, whose riches over the next century would help make Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth.
  —   Christophe Colomb découvre ... les Bahamas. Le jour, où il aborda à Guanahani (aujourd'hui San Salvador), une île de l'archipel des Bahamas, il crut qu'il avait découvert un nouveau monde. C'est de cette date que malheureusement on situe la découverte des Amériques. Christophe Colomb, qui était au service d'Isabelle de Castille, était parti de Palos le 03 Aug de la même année. Il luttait contre la lassitude de son équipage qui voulait rebrousser chemin, quand une terre fut en vue.

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