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ART “4” “2”-DAY  11 October v.9.90
^ Born on 11 October 1803: Barend Cornelis Koekkoek [pronounced "quack, quack"?], Dutch painter who died on 05 April 1862.
— He received his first lessons from his father, Johannes Hermanus Koekkoek [1778–1851], and also studied at the Tekenacademie in Middelburg. Subsequently he became a student at the Amsterdam Rijksakademie under Jean Augustin Daiwaille [1786–1850]. He first participated in an exhibition in 1820. Between 1826 and 1834 he traveled constantly, visiting the Harz Mountains, the Rhine and the Ruhr. His first great success came in 1829 when he won the gold medal of the Amsterdam society Felix Meritis with Landscape with a Rainstorm Threatening. The painting is notable for its accurate and sober study of nature; it marked Koekkoek’s commitment to a style of landscape divorced both from the predominantly topographical approach of the 18th century and from the flat and decorative manner of contemporary mural painting. In 1834 he moved permanently to Cleve in Germany, where he developed into one of the most important landscape painters of his generation and achieved international fame.
— Paul Joseph Constantin Gabriël and Johannes Tavenraat were students of Koekkoek.

Winter Landscape (1838)
Heuvellandschap met rustend boerenvolk onder een eik paneel (38x52cm)
View of a Park (1835)
^ Died on 11 October 1523: Bartolomeo Cincani “Montagna”, Italian painter and draftsman born in 1450.
— Bartolomeo Cincani, who used the pseudonym Montagna, was from the Brescia region. His initial training was presumably under Domenico Morone in Verona. He was subject to a distinctly Venetian influence, probably in the studio of Giovanni Bellini. He may also have adopted the Mantegnesque severity. His occasional obsession with detail is reminiscent of Carpaccio. Montagna was active in Venice (Scuola di San Marco) and in Verona, mainly however in Vicenza. Powerful use of color (zinc plating), symmetrical picture composition, and marked light-dark contrasts are his distinguishing characteristics. The Friulian School (Pellegrino and Pordenone) is indebted to him
— He was the leading painter in Vicenza during the last quarter of the 15th century and the first quarter of the 16th. His son Benedetto Montagna [1480-1557], who continued his father’s style of painting, is more significant for his engravings. Bartolomeo Montagna is first documented in 1459 in Vicenza, near which he was born, as a minor and, still a minor, in 1467. In 1469 he is recorded as a resident of Venice. In 1474 he was living in Vicenza where, in 1476 and 1478, he was commissioned to paint altarpieces (now lost). He has variously been thought to have been a student of Andrea Mantegna, Giovanni Bellini, Antonello da Messina, Alvise Vivarini, Domenico Morone, and Vittore Carpaccio. While none of these artists, except Carpaccio, was irrelevant to Montagna’s stylistic formation, Giovanni Bellini was the primary influence on his art. Montagna may have worked in Bellini’s shop around 1470.
      Several of Montagna’s paintings of the Virgin and Child in which the influence of Antonello da Messina is especially marked are likely to be close in date to Antonello’s sojourn in Venice (1475–1476); they are therefore best considered Montagna’s earliest extant works rather than as an unexplained parenthesis about 1485 between two Bellinesque phases. These early paintings appear to be followed by others in which the geometrically rounded forms derived from Antonello become more slender and sharper-edged. Their figures are imbued with a deeply felt, individual humanity, sometimes austere and minatory, sometimes tender. Among them are some larger-scale works, for example the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Nicholas and Lucy and a Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Ansanus, Anthony Abbot, Francis, and Jerome (often but wrongly attributed to Carpaccio). This group also includes a fresco fragment depicting the Virgin and Child, the modern frame of which is inscribed, ‘Painted 1481 in the choir of the church of Magrè near Schio-Vicenza’. The date seems plausible on stylistic grounds, and the work thus provides a chronological point of reference for the rest of the group. In 1482, again in Venice, Montagna undertook to paint canvases of The Flood and the Creation for the Scuola di San Marco; the former was completed in 1485–1486 by Benedetto Diana, and both were subsequently destroyed by fire.
— The students of Montagna included Francesco Bassano, Giovanni Buonconsiglio, Cima da Conegliano, Marcello Fogolino.

–- Saint Bernardino and a Holy Bishop (1492, 64x69cm; 977x1056pix, 80kb _ .ZOOM to 1956x2118pix, 551kb)
Saint Jerome (1500, 51x58cm; 851x950pix, 150kb) _ The most striking aspect of this picture is the fabulous landscape on the right, which seems to be only partially invented. The Veronese provenance of the work suggests the interesting theory that it was painted for the convent of Saint Jerome at the Roman theater. The topographical features of Verona recur here, though in altered form: the river, the ruins, the double staircase cut into the tufa, the church and the convent. Bartolomeo's main inspiration seems to have stemmed from a reality that he returned to a state of nature, converting the townscape he knew into a rustic landscape.
Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints Andrew, Monica, Ursula, Sigismund, and angel musicians (1498, 410x260cm; 1068x670pix, 144kb) _ detail: the angel musicians (770x1116pix, 159kb) _ Signed and dated on the step: "OPVS/BARTHOLOMEI/MONTA/GNA MCCCCLX- XXXVIIII." The large capitals in the background frieze are the initials of the Latin phrase meaning: "Implore God's grace for us." The medallion on the left portrays Matteo de' Pasti's profile plaque of Christ. Another Latin inscription on the step records a 1715 restoration, which does not seem to have much altered the painting. Preliminary drawings for this work have survived. Trained in Venice, Bartolomeo interpreted the great Venetian models in an archaizing vein, as did all the contemporary artists of the mainland. His prodigiously skillful draftsmanship defined lapidary forms that may be splintered or flaked but are always pure and as resonant as crystal. His strict sense of order is open, however, to an aristocratic feeling for nature, which is shown in pungently descriptive passages. In this altarpiece, the noble figures are displayed within a purely Lombard architectural setting. The composition is also architectonic, and its precedents go back through Antonello da Messina to Piero della Francesca, whose device of a pendant ostrich egg has been adopted here. The brown and silvery harmonies of the Lombard palette add a note of elegant austerity.
Ecce Homo (80kb)
^ Born on 11 October 1629: Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne, Haarlem Flemish Mennonite painter and draftsman, best known for his travel diaries and sketches, who died on 26 July 1702. He had three artist sons: Jan Vincentszoon van der Vinne [03 Feb 1663 – 01 Mar 1721], Izaak Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1665–1740], and Laurens Vincentszoon van der Vinne [1658–1729] who may be the author of some of the drawings attributed to his father. Three of Laurens’s children worked as painters and engravers: Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne (1686–1742), Jacob Laurenszoon van der Vinne (1688–1737) and Jan Laurenszoon van der Vinne (1699–1753). In the next generation Jacob’s son Laurens Jacobszoon van der Vinne (1712–42) became a flower painter, and two of Jan’s children, Jan Janszoon van der Vinne (1734–1805) and Vincent Janszoon van der Vinne (1736–1811), seem to have been the last artists active in the family.
— Vincent Laurenszoon van der Vinne was trained at a weaving mill. Then, when he was 18, he spent nine months as the student of Frans Hals (who later painted his portrait in 1660), and in 1649 he joined the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke. From 1652 to 1655 van der Vinne traveled through Germany, Switzerland, and France, accompanied some of the time by Guillam Dubois [1610–1680], Dirck Helmbreker, and Cornelis Bega. During the trip van der Vinne kept an illustrated diary and on his return worked this up in a second volume, copying his drawings and adding topographical prints by Matthäus Merian the elder and Jean Boisseau. He also filled a sketchbook with Rhineland landscapes. The year after he returned from this trip he married Anneke Jansdr de Gaver [–1668], and six months after her death he married Catalijntje Boekaert. Besides the drawings from his 1652–1655 travels, he produced a number of townscapes in pen and ink with gray wash, some on a journey through the Netherlands in 1680. He also made drawings in black and red chalk depicting the city gates of Haarlem and ruins found in the surrounding countryside. He received commissions for ceiling paintings, signboards, landscapes, portraits and other works, but his known painted work is confined to a few vanitas still-lifes, such as Vanitas Still-life with a Royal Cromn and a Print of Charles I of England, beheaded in 1649 (>1649, 95x69cm), leçon de vanité, allusive aux fragiles occupations humaines (du berger au savant, du roi au musicien, etc...). On lit en haut «Denckt op t'ent» (pense à la fin) et, en bas, sous le portrait du roi: «t'kan verkeren» (cela peut changer). Contre-note optimiste, l'espérance signifiée par la gourde du pèlerin, lequel chemine vers Dieu.

Memento Mori (1656; 450x423pix, 36kb) _ Exquisite vanitas still lifes like this were widely popular in seventeenth-century Europe. They were meant to exhort the viewer to prepare for death. Vanitas still lifes are based on a biblical passage from Ecclesiastes, "Vanity of vanities, ... all is vanity," that urges the reader to remember that saving one's soul is more important than wordly gains. All objects in this painting have symbolic meaning intended to remind the viewer that wealth, power and knowledge acquired in this world are unimportant in the face of inevitable death. The watch and hourglass give notice of the passage of time. The plumed helmet, sword and gun refer to soldierly activities; the globe, maps and the money bags to worldly knowledge and material possessions. Books indicate scholarly pursuits, but warn as well against conceited pride that comes with learning. The overturned goblet cautions against overindulgence, but also symbolizes the Sense of Taste. The musical instruments refer to the Sense of Hearing, to Music — one of the Seven Liberal Arts — and, in case of the lute and flute, to carnal love. Since they wither and die, the cut flowers in a vase allude to the transience of life, as does the skull, a particularly stark reminder of death. But the ivy crowning the skull offers hope because it is a symbol for immortality. Apart from its allegorical meaning, the painting is a pleasure for the eye in its masterful representation of different materials, its color, and the organization of these diverse elements.
Vanitas with a Royal Crown and the portrait of Charles I King of England Decapitated in 1649 (95x69cm; 797x573pix, 54kb) _ Vincent van de Vinne is best known for his still-lifes. Beside Pieter van Roestraten, a genre and still-life painter (and the son-in-law of Frans Hals) Vinne is the only documented student of Hals, though not a trace of their contact with him is evident in their works. Leçon de vanité, allusive aux fragiles occupations humaines (du berger au savant, du roi au musicien, etc...). On lit en haut «Denckt op t'ent» (pense à la fin) et, en bas, sous le portrait du roi : «t'kan verkeren» (cela peut changer). Contre-note optimiste, l'espérance signifiée par la gourde du pèlerin, lequel chemine vers Dieu.

Died on a 11 October:

^ >1994 Nic Jonk, Dutch painter and sculptor born on 11 July 1928.
–- Abstract Composition (652x478pix, 31kb _ .ZOOM to 1304x956pix, 137kb) pale _ The pseudonymous Colas Jomp has provided a much more colorful intensified version:
      _ Abstract Composition, Jonky No More (2007; 652x478pix, 112kb) _ .ZOOM to 1304x956pix, 356kb) _ Going much further, Jomp had already completely transformed the pale jonky picture into a series of much more elaborate and very colorful abstractions (you can click from each one to four others) titled simply (and very inaccurately):
      Junk 1 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 2 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 3 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 4 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 5 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 6 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 7 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 8 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail 1 (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb) _ detail 2 (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
      _ Junk 9 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb)
    _ Junk 10 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail (screen filling, 275kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2593kb)
    _ Junk 11 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb)
    _ Junk 12 (2006; 658x932pix, 270kb) _ detail (screen filling, 276kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2577kb) —(071010)

1982 Josep Renau Montoro [1907–], pintor, dibujante, cartelista,. y fotógrafo español. Fue militante del Partido Comunista de España. Durante la Guerra Civil española colaboró con la causa republicana. En septiembre de 1936 fue nombrado director general de Bellas Artes por el gabinete de Gobierno presidido por Francisco Largo Caballero. Gestionó el nombramiento de Pablo Ruiz Picasso como director del Museo del Prado de Madrid, al tiempo que le encargó la elaboración de un mural para el pabellón español de la Exposición de París de 1937, mural que resultó ser el Guernica; y desarrolló una gran actividad encaminada a evacuar los cuadros del museo para preservarlos de los bombardeos. Al terminar la contienda se exilió a Alemaña.
— His father Josep Renau Montoro was a painter, art restorer, and professor of drawing. After six years his father took him out of school and made him his assistant. Thus paintings by Velasquez, Goya, Titian, among others, passed through the young boy's hands. Later, as a student at the Fine Arts School in San Carlos, his father's institution, he met a number of other young men and women who would later form the core of the Valencian avant-garde. Among them were Antonio Ballester, who also designed posters during the war, and Manuela Ballester, who became Renau's wife.
      After completing his studies in 1925 he worked as a painter, assistant to a lithographer, and graphic designer, producing numerous posters, magazine covers, and book jackets. Meanwhile he learned photography, which would prove central to his work thereafter. He moved to Madrid twice, in 1928 and again the following year, but did not feel comfortable there on either trip, returning each time to Valencia. Meanwhile, his paintings and posters were exhibited both in Madrid and in Valencia and sometimes won prizes. In 1932 he took a position as a professor of drawing in the San Carlos School, a position he held until civil war broke out, but it was not the primary source of his inspiration.
      That inspiration came from the German expressionist and dadaist movements, from surrealism, and from the various projects fusing art and politics that swept across Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. Renau produced his first photomontage, The Arctic Man, in 1929. With the advent of the Second Republic in 1931, experimental European art became increasingly available in Spain, and Renau discovered John Heartfield, George Grosz, and Otto Dix in the German magazine AIZ. He also studied the Russian constructivists Rodchenko and Lissitsky carefully and began to apply what he learned in his own work.
      Renau also joined the Communist Party in 1931; all this together combined to convince him that art and politics needed to serve one another. Indeed, of all the progressive Spanish artists of his day Renau is unquestionably the most serious and ambitious theorist. Beginning in the 1930s and continuing for the rest of his life, his essays explore a number of issues in political art. He argues, for example, that artists can take possession of the manipulative techniques of advertizing and commercial exploitation, make them self-conscious, turn them against themselves, and make them instruments for the people's liberation. He also reflects on the satisfaction political artists can take in responding to external cultural priorities and needs, rather than their private impulses. In 1934, in the midst of the October revolutionary strike, he was arrested.
      With the outbreak of the civil war, Renau became a public figure. He was already the editor of the magazine Nueva Cultura and in 1936 became co-director of Verdad, the Communist party newspaper in Valencia that made some unifying overtures to the Socialists. That same year the Republican government appointed him Undersecretary for Fine Arts. He was instrumental in appointing Pablo Picasso honorary director of the Prado Museum and in moving the Prado's paintings elsewhere to save them from the Nationalist air raids on Madrid. When asked to design the photographic displays for the Spanish Pavilion at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris, he took the job on with great industry. Indeed, he probably made the opening invitation to Picasso to contribute to the Pavilion. Picasso eventually painted Guernica, his single most famous work, and exhibited it there in Paris. Meanwhile, Renau was producing some of the war's most memorable posters and photo montages. "The poster-maker," he wrote in 1937, "is the artist of disciplined freedom, of freedom conditioned by objective exigencies, that is to say, external to his individual will." His final wartime project was a series of thirteen montages titled The thirteen points of Negra­n, designed to illustrate the prime minister's plan for winning the war­.
      With the war's end Renau escaped to France and made his way to Mexico. There he collaborated with the Mexican painter and Spanish Civil War veteran David Siqueiros on a large mural for the Electrician's union. But it would be photomontage that would occupy him most deeply for the rest of his life. Given his proximity to the most powerful capitalist nation on earth, and given his interest in transforming and undermining commercial imagery, it is perhaps not surprising that he turned toward the United States and its popular iconography. The idea for a comprehensive satiric and critical photo montage of American consumerism and political ideology gradually took hold in him. He collected and categorized a vast quantity of illustrations from magazines like Life and Fortune and began cutting and assembling them in dramatic color collages.
      The project took more than twenty years to complete. Meanwhile, in 1958 he left Mexico for East Germany. According to East German writers, he left because the C.I.A. was plotting an attempt on his life. A selection from his collage series, Fata Morgana -- The American Way of Life, was published in 1967 and the entire series of 69 images was finally issued in 1989. It explodes and ridicules US notions of gender, parodies and exaggerates the culture of consumerism, and indicts US racism with special force. But it also takes up specific topics, from the Korean war to the Klu Klux Klan to US popular culture. It is paralleled by another Renau collage series, Ãœber Deutschland, that takes the Federal Republic of Germany as its object.
      Renau made his first return trip to Spain in 1976, the year after Franco died, ending thirty-seven years of exile and exhibiting his work in his homeland for the first time since the civil war. In 1978 the Catalan writer Joan Fuster wrote an open letter to him:
      "All your life you have been an artist for the street: placards, posters, photomontages . . . You really aren't a 'painter.' You are a fighter whose weapons are the instruments of painters." Renau's collected essays were soon published in Spain, and he established a foundation in his name. —(091008)

^ 1958 Osvaldo Licini, Monte Vidon Corrado (near Ascoli Piceno) Italian artist born on 22 March 1894. From 1911 he studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna (under Giorgio Morandi) and from 1914 to 1916 at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence. From 1917 to 1926 he lived on the Côte d’Azur, where he devoted himself to landscape painting, and in Paris, where he had contacts with such artists of the École de Paris as Modigliani, Picasso and Kisling, and with avant-garde poets and literati, including Jean Cocteau and Blaise Cendrars. He developed a brightly colored naturalistic style, influenced by Matisse and Raoul Dufy, and in 1923 and 1924 he exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris. In 1926 he returned to Italy and took part in the first exhibition of the Novecento Italiano in Milan.
— A soli quattordici anni si iscrive all'Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna, che frequenta fino al 1914, insieme ai compagni Morandi e Pozzati. Terminati gli studi si trasferisce a Firenze, dove si avvicina alle proposte culturali di Soffici e al pensiero politico di Papini. Animato dalla propaganda interventista, si arruola volontario, ma viene ferito ad una gamba e ricoverato all'ospedale San Gallo di Firenze. Durante la degenza nel nosocomio intreccia una relazione con l'infermiera Beatrice Müller, dalla quale nasce il figlio Paolo. Al termine del conflitto si stabilisce a Parigi, dove vivono già la madre e la sorella, ballerina all'Opéra. Nella capitale francese partecipa alle esposizioni dei Salons d'Automne e dei Salons des Indépendants e conosce gli artisti che animano la vita culturale parigina, come Picasso, Cocteau, Cendrars, Kisling e Modigliani, del quale diventa amico. Nel 1926 torna in Italia e si stabilisce a Monte Vidon Corrado, cominciando una vita appartata e scandita secondo i lenti ritmi del paese e della vita familiare. Espone raramente: nel 1926 prende parte alla Prima Mostra di Novecento a Milano, e due anni più tardi alla prima esposizione de Les Italiens de Paris nella capitale francese. Negli anni Trenta abbandona la pittura figurativa per l'astrattismo e, nel 1935, espone alla I mostra collettiva di arte astratta italiana, che ha luogo nello studio torinese di Casorati e Paulucci. Pur non condividendo appieno le idee del capo del futurismo, Licini partecipa alla conferenza tenuta da Marinetti al Teatro delle Arti di Roma per la difesa dell'arte, in opposizione al concetto fascista di arte degenerata, e, nel 1939, espone alla III Quadriennale di Roma a fianco dei futuristi. Nel 1941 firma il manifesto Valori primordiali Milano Como con Munari e Nizzoli. Anche dopo la fine della Seconda guerra mondiale, l'artista si allontana raramente dal paese, nel quale ricopre pure la carica di sindaco. Continua la sua ricerca artistica con serietà e coerenza, e, negli anni 1956 e 1957, dipinge le serie delle Amalasunte e degli Angeli, che rappresentano la sua produzione più felice. Nel 1958, anno della sua morte, ottiene i più alti riconoscimenti per la sua carriera: il Centro Culturale Olivetti di Ivrea gli dedica una personale, e durante la Biennale di Venezia ottiene il Gran Premio Internazionale di Pittura.
The Miracle of Saint Mark (600x784pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1829pix)
–- S*>#L'angelo senza testa e con coda (1952, 36x27cm; 665x858pix, 130kb)
–- S*>#Marina con vela (1955, 35x27cm; 603x900pix, 82kb)

Addentare (1936, 65x88cm; 288x400pix, 8kb) —(051010)

^ 1935 Samuel John Peploe, Scottish painter born on 27 January 1871. — {one of the Peploe people}— He studied at the Royal Scottish Academy schools from 1893 to 1894, and then at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi in Paris, where he shared rooms with Robert Brough. The influence of the rustic realism of French painters and of the Glasgow Boys is clear in landscape drawings and paintings executed in Edinburgh from the mid-1890s. His still-life studies reveal the influence of the work of both Manet and Hals, which he saw in European galleries, with their combinations of thick impasto and fluid brushwork, dark background, strong lighting and meticulous handling of tones. Between 1900 and about 1910, when he moved to Paris, he painted in Edinburgh, on sketching holidays in Scotland and in northern France with John Duncan Fergusson, and exhibited in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London. — LINKS
Landscape, Cassis (63x53cm)
–- S*>#Roses in a White Vase With Fruit (1926, 56x51cm; 900x808pix, 168kb) _ ‘Studies of roses, in particular, began to appear…which he continued to produce throughout the years, changing as his style developed but invariably fine.’ Roses in a White Vase with Fruit was painted when Peploe’s still lifes were at their most vibrant and the color schemes pared down to a limited number of complimentary colors. In 1923 Walter Sickert wrote of the new phase that Peploe had entered with his work; ‘He has transferred his unit on attention from attentuated and exquisite gradations of tone to no less skillfully related colour. And by relating all his lines with frankness to the 180 degrees of two right angles, he is able to capture and digest a wider field of vision than before… His volte-face has been an intellectual progress. Obviously beautiful as was Mr. Peploe’s earlier quality, his present one will establish itself as the more beautiful of the two.’ About 1920 Peploe began to paint on an absorbent white gesso ground and ceased to varnish his pictures, allowing the pure color of the paint to show. He also moved away from painting with strong black outlines and increasingly focused upon the two-dimensional aspect of his designs. He held at least one exhibition in London and Edinburgh every year, the majority comprised of still life studies which he painted at home in his studio, where his introverted character was able to produce works of remarkably bold and confident execution, without the outside distractions which hampered his outdoor work. According to Peploe’s niece, the artist would often spend painstaking weeks setting up still lifes in his studio, substituting objects and re-assessing their position in the set-up until the harmony of color and balance of composition was exactly how he wanted it to be. He would enter his studio in the morning and view the arrayed still life afresh, gently adjusting, adding and subtracting until he was satisfied. Every consideration was made, the contours of the tablecloth, the hues of the plump fruit and the angles of the selected blooms of roses in favorite china vases. Only after he was certain that he had reached the desired effect, would he begin work upon his painting. His temperament made him ideally suited to the task he had set himself, to render the perfect still life. His calm reasoning and thoughtful manner enabled him to make a careful analysis of the problems which faced the still life painter, and he set about resolving them in a series of works which include many of his most satisfying paintings. ‘Peploe immersed himself in work, he struggled with the ideals that he had constantly in mind; by application and sheer hard work he steadily gained command over his materials, his design became more flexible and his work increased in power.’
–- S*>#A Baby (24x16cm; 900x588pix, 108kb) _ The baby may be one of the children of the artist Ernest Stephen Lumsden [1883-1948] and his wife, the etcher Mabel Royds [1874-1941]. Mabel knew Peploe from her days at the Edinburgh College of Art where she worked from 1911.

–- S*>#Arran (1912, 33x41cm; 510x641pix, 83kb) _ {This site is not responsible for the following nonsense, but look at the image and decide for yourself} _ This rare view of Arran by Peploe is also an important statement displaying some of the most significant influences in his development as a ground-breaking twentieth-century Scottish artist.
     Peploe lived in Paris between 1910 and 1912. Having grown tired of Edinburgh and looking to develop artistically, his relocation to Paris was greatly influenced by the presence there of his close friend and fellow Colourist, John Duncan Fergusson. According to Stanley Cursiter in his biography of Peploe, '...on his arrival in Paris [Peploe] found himself in the midst of the fierce controversy which was raging over [the] new movement; argument ran high, convictions, practices, and long-respected theories were all in the melting-pot....'.
      Fergusson was living in the midst of this exciting avant-garde art scene and for years shared his experience through letters to Peploe. Now he was able to take him to see Picasso with whom Peploe was most impressed; he also took him to the Salon d'Automne where they met Bourdelle, Friesz, Pascin and others. Peploe was moved by Cézanne's work and in 1912 another friend and Scottish artist, Ernest Archibald Taylor, described how Peploe '...was tremendously taken up with an artist's work, an artist named Chaubad [sic], very strong stuff, thick thick lines and flat colours' . Auguste Chaubaud, a follower of the Fauves, exhibited at the Salon d'Automne of which Fergusson was a Sociétaire but more significantly had his first one-man show at Bernheim-Jeune in 1912.
      Arran is of bold design, strong angular brushwork, and lines of rich dark green, gray, and deep emerald all of which display Peploe's brilliant use of a modern vision that is unmistakably Scottish. Such was the stylistic change that on his return to Scotland in 1912, Peploe's new style shocked and saddened his dealer, P. McOmish Dott, who refused to exhibit his new work {good judgment!}. However, this view of Arran with its flattened perspective clearly underlines Peploe's understanding of Cézanne's late landscapes, particularly in relation to structure, distortion of plane and simplicity of form. In direct opposition to Cézanne's use of color and texture, Peploe's use of thick lines and flat colors confirm this first foray into the Scottish landscape as remarkable.
      If one considers that up until 1917 when he discovered Kirkcudbright, Peploe found reconciling his new style to the Scottish landscape a troublesome affair, then this rare view of Arran is not only very advanced for Scottish landscape art at the time, it is truly a tour de force. _ Compare the more colorful, symmetrical, and humorous
      _ Rana Narra (2005; 920x1300pix, 453kb) by the pseudonymous Lemuel Jones-Vimhy, and its abtraction
      _ Harán Sin Rana (2005; 920x1300pix, 233kb), as well as what that might look like after a few drinks too many:
      _ Harán Sin Rana Después de Demasiados Tragos (2005; 920x1300pix, 43kb), followed by the further abstracted in an almost unrecognizable way
      _ Aran Sin Rana (2005; 920x1300pix, 582kb) and what that might look like after some more drinks:
      _ Aran Sin Rana Después de Demasiados Tragos (2005; 920x1300pix, 35kb). —(051010)

^ 1911 Eugène Henri Cauchois, French flower still-life painter born on 14 February 1850.
–- Flowers in a Porcelain Vase (730x960pix, 82kb _ .ZOOM 1 to 1094x1440px, 185kb _ .ZOOM 2 to 1915x2520px, 318kb)
–- S*>#Vase de Roses et Bouquet de Violettes (73x60cm; 900x722pix, 87kb)
–- S*>#Still Life with Roses, Cherries, and Grapes (70x50cm; 799xpix, 65kb)
–- S*>#Still Life of Flowers in a rectangular basket (54x65cm; 900x1101pix, 209kb)
–- S*>#Still Life of Flowers in an oval basket (55x66cm; 702x900pix, 94kb)
–- S*>#A Vase and a Basket of Flowers (19 Jul 1892, 65x54cm; 900x732pix, 128kb)
–- S*>#Still Life with Flowers, Books, and Fan (52x76cm; x799pix, 68kb)
–- S*>#Floral Still Life with Grapes and Pomegranates (100x81cm; 800x652pix, 146kb)
–- S*>#A Private Moment (152x152cm; 510x513pix, 55kb)

1899 José María Galván y Candela , Spanish painter born (main coverage) on 01 August 1837. —(091010)

^ 1888 (in the night of 11 to 12 Oct) Wilhelm Ludwig Friedrich Riefstahl, German artist born on 15 August (15 October?) 1827. Riefstahl war ein bekannter Künstler des 19. Jahrhunderts, der wegen des Aufkommens moderner Kunstrichtungen und dem damit verbundenem Wandel des Kunstgeschmacks heute weniger bekannt ist. Als Zeichner und Lithograf schuf er Werke, die auch heute noch unsere volle Aufmerksamkeit verdienen. Am 15. August 1827 wurde er als Sohn eines Schnürleibchenmachers in Neustrelitz geboren. 1843 ging er nach Berlin in die Werkstatt des bekannten Lithografen Gropius. Gleichzeitig nahm er Unterricht an der Akademie der Künste. 1847 wurde er von Franz Kugler zur Mitarbeit am Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte herangezogen. Mitte der 50 er Jahre widmete er sich der Ölmalerei mit Landschaftsmotiven aus Norddeutschland. Sein Gemälde "Strandpredigt" bezeichnete den künftigen Weg Riefstahls, die Hinwendung zu religiösen Themen und zur Malerei. 1860 heiratete er seine Neustrelitzer Cousine Christiane. Das Ehepaar Riefstahl pflegte Bekanntschaften mit der Pianistin Clara Schumann und anderen künstlerischen Persönlichkeiten dieser Zeit. Ab 1861 reiste Riefstahl regelmässig nach Tirol und Italien. Die Alpenwelt und die Bergbauern waren fortan die Thematik seiner immer monumentaler werdenden Ölgemälde. 1865 besuchte er Neustrelitz. Hier entstand das Gemälde "Zigeuner vor der Fasanerie". 1866 erfolgte die Übersiedlung von Berlin nach Karlsruhe. Er er hielt dort die Ernennung zum Professor an der dortigen Kunstakademie, wurde 1874 ihr Direktor. Ab 1870 wurde er schlagartig auch über die Grenzen Deutschlands hinaus bekannt. Die letzten 10 Jahre seines Lebens verbrachte er in München. Dort verstarb er am 11. Oktober 1888.
Am Allerseelentage auf dem Friedhofe zu Egg im Bregenzer Walde (1869, 102x170cm)
A Wedding Procession in the Bavarian Tyrol (283x460pix, 50kb)
Hönnetal mit Burg Klusenstein (1859 slightly tinted lithograph; 318x487pix, 35kb)
Minden Bahnhof (1840 lithograph; 560x423pix, 17kb) —(051010)

^ 1631 Martin Ryckaert (or Marten Rijckaert, but NOT Ryejacket), Flemish artist born on 08 December 1587. Uncle of David Ryckaert III [bap. 02 Dec 1612 – 1661] — LINKS
Rugged landscape with gypsies (20x27cm; 585x800pix, 91kb) _ Gypsies were also called "heathens" or "Egyptians" in the language of the 17th century. Palm-reading was a typical attribute of the gypsy (foreground left), as were the wide hats the man in the center is wearing.
Rocky Mountainous Landscape (509x800pix, 509x800pix, 109kb) —(061010)

Born on a 11 October:

^ 1892 Anton Räderscheidt, Cologne German painter who died on 08 March 1970. He studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Cologne, and at the Kunstakademie (1910–1914), Düsseldorf. From 1915 to 1917 he fought in World War I. Räderscheidt then studied to be an art teacher (1917–1919), serving his probationary period at the Realgymnasium at Mülheim, Cologne. He married the artist Marta Hegemann [1894–1970] in 1918. After qualifying he began working as a freelance artist and became associated with Cologne Dada. However, with Wilhelm Fick [1893–1967], Franz Seiwert [1894–1933] and Heinrich Hoerle [1895–1935] he founded the Stupid Group in 1920. With the painters Angelika Hoerle [1899–1923], Fick’s sister and Heinrich Hoerle’s wife, and Peter Abelen (1884–1962) he contributed to Live (1919), a volume of woodcuts of murdered socialists (e.g. Rosa Luxemburg, 1919). He changed the style of his work from Dada to Phantastischer Realismus between 1920 and 1924, producing still-lifes and semi-figurative images. His subjects were treated in a detailed but dry fashion and included disconcerting scenes of static figures in stripped down interiors or wide open spaces. In 1925 he gained public recognition through reviews and through the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition at Mannheim and the traveling show Junges Rheinland. Also at this time he joined the Gruppe Progressiver Künstler with Heinrich Hoerle and Seiwert, although he did not actively collaborate with the group. In the late 1920s and 1930s he concentrated on portraiture (e.g. Self-portrait, 1928). In 1933 Räderscheidt spent six months with his family in Rome and on the island of Procida near Naples, producing neo-impressionist urban scenes. He left Cologne in 1934, moving first to Motzensee near Berlin and then to France via Switzerland and England. In 1937 he established a studio in Rue des Plantes, Paris, and became a member of the Surindépendants. In 1939 he ran a restaurant for emigrants in the house that he had built at Sanary near Toulon. In 1940 he was interned, escaping to Switzerland but then interned again, and finally released in 1942. During an intense period of productivity (1942–1947) his work became expressionistic and at times abstract. Räderscheidt returned to Cologne in 1949 and began to paint portraits and townscapes. By 1965–1967 he was producing black-and-white images of street scenes, crowds and couples with free, animated brushwork. Despite suffering a stroke (1967), from 1968 he produced hand-studies, self-portraits and portraits, working in a variety of media. His late work developed continuously around the themes of the lonely, introverted individual, notably in a long series of self-portraits, the crowd and couples.
Selbstbildnis mit Melone in Landschaft (1926, 32x25cm)
Four self-portraits _ they were painted after a stroke damaged the cortex of his right parietal lobe. As his brain recovered, his attention to the left side of his world returned.

1869 (10 Oct Julian) Filipp Andreyevich Malyavin, Russian painter who died (full coverage) on 23 December 1940. —(051010)

^ 1858 Nils Kreuger, Swedish painter, draftsman, and illustrator, who died on 11 May 1930. From 1874 he studied at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, where he soon became a friend of Richard Bergh and Karl Nordström, both of whom were later prominent exponents of the more advanced Swedish painting of the 1880s and 1890s. After being forced to interrupt his studies because of illness, Kreuger studied from 1878 at the art school of Edvard Perséus [1841–1890] in Stockholm before he went to Paris, where he stayed for the most part until 1887. He made his début at the Paris Salon in 1882, and he also resided in the artists’ colony in Grez-sur-Loing. During this period he painted such works as Old Country House (1887) with a free brushwork and sense of light that owed much to Jules Bastien-Lepage. In 1885 Kreuger was active in organizing the Opponenterna, a protest movement led by Ernst Josephson against the conservative establishment of the Konstakademi in Stockholm, and the following year he helped to found the Konstnärsförbund. Like the majority of the Konstnärsförbund’s members, Kreuger abandoned the French-inspired plein-air realism of the 1880s for symbolically colored National Romanticism in the 1890s. For Kreuger this change took place between 1893 and 1896 in Varberg on the west coast of Sweden, where, together with Bergh and Nordström, he founded the Varberg Group. Drawing on Paul Gauguin’s Synthetism, the group contributed to the formation of the National Romantic style of the 1890s in Sweden. Kreuger’s encounter with van Gogh’s drawings at an exhibition in Copenhagen in 1893 also played a decisive role in his development. He devised an intensely personal style in which the landscape was composed in large blocks that were then covered by a pattern of directional lines and dots in India ink (somewhat in the manner of van Gogh’s late landscape drawings) to bring out the painting’s color values and create an effect of decoratively stylized forms: for example Spring in Halland (1894). Kreuger also produred many drawings and illustrations. — Leander Engström was a student of Kreuger.
Landscape (437x513pix, 195kb)
2 Horses in a Landscape (500x617pix, 78kb)

^ >1849 Alfred Wierusz-Kowalski, Polish painter of Polish customs and rural life, who died on 16 February 1915. From 1868 to 1870 he studied at the Warsaw Drawing Class under Rafal Hadziewicz [1803–1886], Aleksander Kaminski [1823–1886] and Wojciech Gerson. In 1871 Kowalski enrolled at the Akademie in Dresden and in 1872 he went to Prague with his friend, the Czech painter Václav Brozík. In 1873 Kowalski went to Munich, where he studied for one year at the Akademie under Alexander Wagner [1838–1918] and then for a short time at Józef Brandt’s private studio. Kowalski’s success in selling work in Munich persuaded him to settle there. In 1890 he was nominated Honorary Professor at the Akademie, the third Pole to hold the position (the first two were Brandt and Czachorski). On a visit to Poland about 1897 Kowalski purchased an estate (Mikorzyn) near Konin, where he stayed during subsequent visits, making sketches for use in his paintings. He became best known for his hunting scenes and for sledge and coach rides in the snow. Like his teacher Józef Brandt, Wierusz-Kowalski had as his main motif the horse, frequently depicted in hunting scenes, horse and sleigh rides and peasants weddings. He rarely, and only in his early period, painted portraits. The underlying theme of vast landscapes with peasants, galloping horses, or horse-drawn sleighs cutting through snow-covered land is freedom and the force of life in an unlimited expanse of land. These paintings were valued for their exotic flavor by European and US art dealers and collectors alike. Wierusz approached his subjects narratively in compositions full of dynamism and attention to detail.
Napad Wilków (975x1689pix, 551kb)
–- An Exciting Journey (73x119cm; 977x1575pix, 85kb) _ Wierusz-Kowalski particularly favored the painting of horses and of landscape, especially winter scenes. His popularity as an artist, however, derived largely from his pictures of wolves, either on their own, howling at the moon, or in packs, pursuing horses and travelers in sledges in snowy landscapes, as in the present work. Wierusz-Kowalski painted various versions of these subjects in different formats to satisfy growing demand, using photographs and studies of tame wolves bred on his Mikorzyn estate as aids to these compositions. His dramatic pictures of wolves assaulting sleighs were also based on childhood memories of such events. An Exciting Journey captures the thrill of such an encounter. While the frightened horses charge forward, the traveler in the carriage is prepared, targeting and taking aim at the wolves. Russian and Polish paintings of vast snow-covered landscapes being crossed by galloping horses or horse-drawn sleighs traversing snow-covered wastes can be seen as expressions of the freedom and life-affirming qualities of the great outdoors. And yet, by introducing the threat of wolves, Wierusz-Kowalski hints at the darker side that such a life entails: the constant struggle for survival.
–- S*>#The Hunt (102x77cm; 900x665pix, 121kb) _ The crispness of the snow and the dried blades of grass in the foreground, as well as the close observation of the animals' movements and glossy coats, rival the works of Kowalski's former tutor and mentor, Jozef Brandt.
–- S*>#Troika on a Dusty Road (86x148cm; 513x900pix, 151kb)
–- S*>#Soldiers Stopping for a Rest (29x23cm; 799xpix, 82kb)
–- S*>#The Welcoming Party (45x59cm; 671x900pix, 128kb)
–- S*>#Giddy Up! (50x61cm; 510x625pix, 74kb)
–- S*>#The Happy Return (48x62cm; 800x1098pix, 162kb)
–- S*>#Prince Lubomirski on Horseback (41x32cm; 510x385pix, 220kb) _ This belongs to Wierusz-Kowalski's early period. The Lubomirskis are one of Poland's most eminent noble families. The present work shows the mounted prince and his hound in an autumnal landscape setting out for a hunt. The combination of portraiture and hunting scene allowed for a particularly dynamic and elegant depiction of the sitter, reminiscent of the works of Maksymilian Gierymski.

^ 1828 André-Henri Dargelas, French artist who died in 1906.
–- S*>#Play Time (38x46cm; 742x900pix, 121kb)
–- S*>#Le saut à la corde (39x32cm; 900x700pix, 151kb)

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