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ART “4” “2”-DAY  10 October v.9.90

^ Born on 10 October 1654:
Giovanni Gioseffo
(or Giuseppe) dal Sole, Italian painter who died on 22 July 1719. — {Was Sole eventually eclipsed by Luna?}
— Figlio del paesista Antonio Maria, fu avviato alla pittura dal Canuti, ma preferi' passare poi, con lo scultore amico Giuseppe Mazza, nell'accademia aperta nel proprio palazzo dal conte Fava. Il suo perfezionamento avvenne pero' nella bottega di Lorenzo Pasinelli, al quale lo raccomando' lo stesso Fava (1672). Nel 1686 lavora a Parma col quadraturista Aldrovandini e poco dopo viene chiamato ad affrescare palazzo Mansi a Lucca, dove propone 'una precoce assunzione di motivi delibatissimi di cerimoniale arcadico e, quasi, di poetica galante' (Volpe). Risalgono al 1692 gli affreschi nella cupola di Santa Maria dei Poveri a Bologna, dove gli e' accanto il Mazza. La riflessione su Ludovico Carracci e sul Reni si coglie nella filtrata eleganza della pala con la Trinita' dipinta nel 1700 per la chiesa del Suffragio di Imola.

–- Judith with the Head of Holofernes (109x90cm; 920x814pix, 56kb _ .ZOOM to 2000x1627pix, 202kb) _ According to the story, which is intended not to tell historical facts but to strengthen the faith of the Jews in the abiding presence among them of God, the Master of history, who could save Israel from its enemies, Nebuchadrezzar, king of Assyria, had sent his general Holofernes on an expedition against Israel and he besieged the Jewish city of Bethulia. The beautiful Jewish widow Judith had a plan, which, after fasting and praying, she carried out as told in the Bible, Judith 10:11-13:20 :
     As Judith and her maid walked directly across the valley, they encountered the Assyrian outpost. The men took her in custody and asked her, “To what people do you belong? Where do you come from, and where are you going?” She replied: "I am a daughter of the Hebrews, and I am fleeing from them, because they are about to be delivered up to you as prey. I have come to see Holofernes, the general in chief of your forces, to give him a trustworthy report; I will show him the route by which he can ascend and take possession of the whole mountain district without a single one of his men suffering injury or loss of life."
      When the men heard her words and gazed upon her face, which appeared wondrously beautiful to them, they said to her, “By coming down thus promptly to see our master, you have saved your life. Now go to his tent; some of our men will accompany you to present you to him. When you stand before him, have no fear in your heart; give him the report you speak of, and he will treat you well.” So they detailed a hundred of their men as an escort for her and her maid, and these conducted them to the tent of Holofernes. When the news of her arrival spread among the tents, a crowd gathered in the camp. They came and stood around her as she waited outside the tent of Holofernes, while he was being informed about her. They marveled at her beauty, regarding the Israelites with wonder because of her, and they said to one another, "Who can despise this people that has such women among them? It is not wise to leave one man of them alive, for if any were to be spared they could beguile the whole world."
      The guard of Holofernes and all his servants came out and ushered her into the tent. Now Holofernes was reclining on his bed under a canopy with a netting of crimson and gold, emeralds and other precious stones. When they announced her to him, he came out to the antechamber, preceded by silver lamps; and when Holofernes and his servants beheld Judith, they all marveled at the beauty of her face. She threw herself down prostrate before him, but his servants raised her up. Then Holofernes said to her: "Take courage, lady; have no fear in your heart! Never have I harmed anyone who chose to serve Nebuchadnezzar, king of all the earth. Nor would I have raised my spear against your people who dwell in the mountain region, had they not despised me and brought this upon themselves. But now tell me why you fled from them and came to us. In any case, you have come to safety. Take courage! Your life is spared tonight and for the future. No one at all will harm you. Rather, you will be well treated, as are all the servants of my lord, King Nebuchadnezzar."
      Judith answered him: "Listen to the words of your servant, and let your handmaid speak in your presence! I will tell no lie to my lord this night, and if you follow out the words of your handmaid, God will give you complete success, and my lord will not fail in any of his undertakings. By the life of Nebuchadnezzar, king of all the earth, and by the power of him who has sent you to set all creatures aright! not only do men serve him through you; but even the wild beasts and the cattle and the birds of the air, because of your strength, will live for Nebuchadnezzar and his whole house. Indeed, we have heard of your wisdom and sagacity, and all the world is aware that throughout the kingdom you alone are competent, rich in experience, and distinguished in military strategy. ... Our people are not punished, nor does the sword prevail against them, except when they sin against their God. But now their guilt has caught up with them, by which they bring the wrath of their God upon them whenever they do wrong; so that my lord will not be repulsed and fail, but death will overtake them. Since their food gave out and all their water ran low, they decided to kill their animals, and determined to consume all the things which God in his laws forbade them to eat. They decreed that they would use up the first fruits of grain and the tithes of wine and oil which they had sanctified and reserved for the priests who minister in the presence of our God in Jerusalem: things which no layman should even touch with his hands. They have sent messengers to Jerusalem to bring back to them authorization from the council of the elders; for the inhabitants there have also done these things. On the very day when the response reaches them and they act upon it, they will be handed over to you for destruction. As soon as I, your handmaid, learned all this, I fled from them. God has sent me to perform with you such deeds that people throughout the world will be astonished on hearing of them. Your handmaid is, indeed, a God-fearing woman, serving the God of heaven night and day. Now I will remain with you, my lord; but each night your handmaid will go out to the ravine and pray to God. He will tell me when the Israelites have committed their crimes. Then I will come and let you know, so that you may go out with your whole force, and not one of them will be able to withstand you. I will lead you through Judea, till you come to Jerusalem, and there I will set up your judgment seat. You will drive them like sheep that have no shepherd, and not even a dog will growl at you. This was told me, and announced to me in advance, and I in turn have been sent to tell you.”
      Her words pleased Holofernes and all his servants; they marveled at her wisdom and exclaimed, "No other woman from one end of the world to the other looks so beautiful and speaks so wisely!" Then Holofernes said to her: "God has done well in sending you ahead of your people, to bring victory to our arms, and destruction to those who have despised my lord. You are fair to behold, and your words are well spoken. If you do as you have said, your God will be my God; you shall dwell in the palace of King Nebuchadnezzar, and shall be renowned throughout the earth.” Then he ordered them to lead her into the room where his silverware was kept, and bade them set a table for her with his own delicacies to eat and his own wine to drink. But Judith said, “I will not partake of them, lest it be an occasion of sin; but I shall be amply supplied from the things I brought with me.” Holofernes asked her: "But if your provisions give out, where shall we get more of the same to provide for you? None of your people are with us.” Judith answered him, "As surely as you, my lord, live, your handmaid will not use up her supplies till the Lord accomplishes by my hand what he has determined."
      Then the servants of Holofernes led her into the tent, where she slept till midnight. In the night watch just before dawn, she rose and sent this message to Holofernes, "Give orders, my lord, to let your handmaid go out for prayer." So Holofernes ordered his bodyguard not to hinder her. Thus she stayed in the camp three days. Each night she went out to the ravine of Bethulia, where she washed herself at the spring of the camp. After bathing, she besought the Lord, the God of Israel, to direct her way for the triumph of his people. Then she returned purified to the tent, and remained there until her food was brought to her toward evening.
      On the fourth day Holofernes gave a banquet for his servants alone, to which he did not invite any of the officers. And he said to Bagoas, the eunuch in charge of his household: "Go and persuade this Hebrew woman in your care to come and to eat and drink with us. It would be a disgrace for us to have such a woman with us without enjoying her company. If we do not entice her, she will laugh us to scorn.” So Bagoas left the presence of Holofernes, and came to Judith and said, "So fair a maiden should not be reluctant to come to my lord to be honored by him, to enjoy drinking wine with us, and to be like one of the Assyrian women who live in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar.” She replied, "Who am I to refuse my lord? Whatever is pleasing to him I will promptly do. This will be a joy for me till the day of my death." Thereupon she proceeded to put on her festive garments and all her feminine adornments. Meanwhile her maid went ahead and spread out on the ground for her in front of Holofernes the fleece Bagoas had furnished for her daily use in reclining at her dinner. Then Judith came in and reclined on it. The heart of Holofernes was in rapture over her, and his spirit was shaken. He was burning with the desire to possess her, for he had been biding his time to seduce her from the day he saw her. Holofernes said to her, "Drink and be merry with us!" Judith replied, "I will gladly drink, my lord, for at no time since I was born have I ever enjoyed life as much as I do today." She then took the things her maid had prepared, and ate and drank in his presence. Holofernes, charmed by her, drank a great quantity of wine, more than he had ever drunk on one single day in his life.
      When it grew late, his servants quickly withdrew. Bagoas closed the tent from the outside and excluded the attendants from their master's presence. They went off to their beds, for they were all tired from the prolonged banquet. Judith was left alone in the tent with Holofernes, who lay prostrate on his bed, for he was sodden with wine. She had ordered her maid to stand outside the bedroom and wait, as on the other days, for her to come out; she said she would be going out for her prayer. To Bagoas she had said this also. When all had departed, and no one, small or great, was left in the bedroom, Judith stood by Holofernes' bed and said within herself: “O Lord, God of all might, in this hour look graciously on my undertaking for the exaltation of Jerusalem; now is the time for aiding your heritage and for carrying out my design to shatter the enemies who have risen against us." She went to the bedpost near the head of Holofernes, and taking his sword from it, drew close to the bed, grasped the hair of his head, and said, "Strengthen me this day, O God of Israel!" Then with all her might she struck him twice in the neck and cut off his head. She rolled his body off the bed and took the canopy from its supports.
      Soon afterward, she came out and handed over the head of Holofernes to her maid, who put it into her food pouch; and the two went off together as they were accustomed to do for prayer. They passed through the camp, and skirting the ravine, reached Bethulia on the mountain. As they approached its gates, Judith shouted to the guards from a distance: "Open! Open the gate! God, our God, is with us. Once more he has made manifest his strength in Israel and his power against our enemies; he has done it this very day." When the citizens heard her voice, they quickly descended to their city gate and summoned the city elders. All the people, from the least to the greatest, hurriedly assembled, for her return seemed unbelievable. They opened the gate and welcomed the two women. They made a fire for light; and when they gathered around the two, Judith urged them with a loud voice: "Praise God, praise him! Praise God, who has not withdrawn his mercy from the house of Israel, but has shattered our enemies by my hand this very night." Then she took the head out of the pouch, showed it to them, and said: "Here is the head of Holofernes, general in charge of the Assyrian army, and here is the canopy under which he lay in his drunkenness. The Lord struck him down by the hand of a woman. As the Lord lives, who has protected me in the path I have followed, I swear that it was my face that seduced Holofernes to his ruin, and that he did not sin with me to my defilement or disgrace."
      All the people were greatly astonished. They bowed down and worshiped God, saying with one accord, "Blessed are you, our God, who today have brought to nought the enemies of your people." Then Uzziah said to her: "Blessed are you, daughter, by the Most High God, above all the women on earth; and blessed be the Lord God, the creator of heaven and earth, who guided your blow at the head of the chief of our enemies. Your deed of hope will never be forgotten by those who tell of the might of God. May God make this redound to your everlasting honor, rewarding you with blessings, because you risked your life when your people were being oppressed, and you averted our disaster, walking uprightly before our God." And all the people answered, "Amen! Amen!"

The story of Judith has inspired many other artists, see:
De Bray [1627 – 04 Dec 1697] .Judith and Holofernes
Botticelli : Discovery of the Body of Holofernes (1470) — The Return of Judith to Bethulia (1472)
Bigot : Judith and Holofernes (1640)
Boulogne : Judith and Holofernes (1626)
Furini : Judith and Holofernes (1636)
— Lama : Judith and Holofernes, (1730)
Mantegna : Judith and Holofernes (1495)
Tintoretto Judith and Holofernes
Donatello Judith and Holofernes (detail) (1460) — Judith and Holofernes (detail) (1460)
Baglione Judith and the Head of Holofernes (1608)
Caravaggio Judith Beheading Holofernes  Judith Beheading Holofernes (detail) (1598) — Judith Beheading Holofernes (detail) (1598)
Liss : Judith in the Tent of Holofernes
Solimena : Judith Presenting the Head of Holofernes to the People (1730)
Gentileschi Caravaggio's Judith Slaying Holofernes (1599) — Judith Beheading HolofernesJudith Beheading Holofernes (1612) _ (detail)Judith Slaying Holofernes (1621) — Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes (1625) _ (detail)Judith Slaying Holofernes (1620)
Allori : Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1615)  
Baldung Griens Judith with the Head of Holofernes
Cranach the Elder [1472 – 16 Oct 1553] Judith Dining with Holofernes (1531) — Judith Victorious (1530) — Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1530)
— Follower of Beccafumi Judith with the Head of Holofernes
Rosso Fiorentino Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1540)
Rubens Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1622) — Judith with the Head of Holofernes
Saraceni Judith With The Head Of Holofernes
Solimena Judith with the Head of HolofernesJudith with the Head of Holofernes
Titian Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1515)
Correggio [1489-1534] Judith (1514)
Giorgione [1457-1610] Judith (1504)
Michelangelo [1475-1564] Judith and Holofernes (1512).
Klimt [14 Jul 1862 – 06 Feb 1918] Jvdith vnd HolofernesJudith II (1901)

Morte di Priamo (112x150cm; 363x490pix, 75kb) _ In primo piano Pirro uccide il vecchio re di Troia, Priamo; alle loro spalle il sacerdote Panto si rivolge in preghiera all'altare di Giove. L'occhio e' tuttavia portato a soffermarsi sul gruppo in secondo piano, con una donna incoronata ghermita da due soldati. Si tratta di una raffigurazione che, se non pone problemi per l'episodio in primo piano, lascia dubbiosi proprio per questo secondo brano, che il pittore ha cos“ vistosamente enfatizzato. L'atteggiamento disperato della donna puo' indurre a identificare nella principessa rapita cos“ brutalmente l'infelice Cassandra, figlia appunto di Priamo, e nei suoi aggressori gli atridi Agamennone e Menelao. In questo caso il dipinto visualizzerebbe, non senza qualche licenza, l'episodio narrato da Virgilio nel secondo libro dell'Eneide. La tela ha indugiato a lungo tra i nomi di Lorenzo Pasinelli e poi del raro Giovan Domenico Muratori, ma deve essere restituita a Giovan Gioseffo Dal Sole. Il pittore appare ormai in possesso di un solido mestiere: l'episodio virgiliano e' reso con drammatica concitazione e insieme con una scaltra attenzione a sottolinearne in termini melodrammatici l'apice patetico. Il particolare momento di crescita del pittore da porsi sul principio degli anni '80 e' testimoniato dalla sopravvivenza di un gruppo insolitamente ricco di disegni preparatori (uno conservato al Louvre e l' altro in una collezione privata inglese) in cui Dal Sole sembra montare e smontare i diversi pezzi della composizione alla ricerca di una soluzione che piu' lo soddisfi.
_ In Greek mythology, Priam is the last king of Troy. Homer described Priam as an old man, powerless but kindly, not even blaming Helen, the wife of his son Paris, for all his personal losses resulting from the Trojan War. In the final year of the conflict, Priam saw 13 sons die; the Greek warrior Achilles killed three of them within one day. When Troy fell, Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, butchered the old king on an altar. Both Priam's death and his ransoming of Hector were already favorite themes of ancient art.

^ Born on 10 October 1901: Alberto Giacometti, Swiss Surrealist sculptor, painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 11 January 1966. He was a son of Giovanni Giacometti [07 March 1868 – 25 June 1933], who was a second cousin of Augusto Giacometti [16 August 1877 – 09 Jun 1947].
— Alberto Giacometti began drawing about 1910 to 1912, followed by painting and sculpting from 1913 to 1915. While at secondary school in Schiers, near Chur (1914–1919), he developed his drawing style primarily through portraiture. In 1919–1920 in Geneva he studied painting at the École des Beaux-Arts and sculpture at the École des Arts et Métiers but was more impressed by subsequent visits to Italy (1920–1921), where he worked without formal instruction. In sculpture he worked in an academic mode, while in painting he emulated his father’s Post-Impressionist and Fauvist style, which he thoroughly mastered by late 1921, as in Self-portrait. In January 1922 he began studying sculpture in Paris under Émile-Antoine Bourdelle at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, where he continued intermittently for five years. In 1925 he ceased drawing and painting to concentrate on sculpture, and his brother Diego Giacometti [15 Nov 1902 – 15 July 1985] joined him in Paris. In 1927 they moved into the studio at 46, rue Hippolyte-Maindron in Montparnasse, where Alberto worked for the rest of his life, with annual visits to his family in Switzerland.
— Alberto Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland, and grew up in the nearby town of Stampa. His father, Giovanni, was a Post-Impressionist painter. From 1919 to 1920, he studied painting at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and sculpture and drawing at the Ecole des Arts et Métiers in Geneva. In 1920, he traveled to Italy, where he was impressed by the works of Alexander Archipenko and Paul Cézanne at the Venice Biennale. He was also deeply affected by African and Egyptian art and by the masterpieces of Giotto and Tintoretto. In 1922, Giacometti settled in Paris, making frequent visits to Stampa, and occasionally attended Antoine Bourdelle’s sculpture classes.
      In 1927, the artist moved into a studio with his brother, Diego, his lifelong companion and assistant, and exhibited his sculpture for the first time at the Salon des Tuileries, Paris. His first show in Switzerland, shared with his father, was held at the Galerie Aktuaryus, Zurich, in 1927. The following year, Giacometti met André Masson, and by 1930 he was a participant in the Surrealist circle until 1934. During the early 1940s, he became friends with Simone de Beauvoir, Pablo Picasso, and Jean-Paul Sartre. From 1942, Giacometti lived in Geneva, where he associated with the publisher Albert Skira. He returned to Paris in 1946. The artist’s friendship with Samuel Beckett began around 1951. Giacometti died in Chur, Switzerland.
— Alberto Giacometti was born on 10th October 1901 in Borgonovo in Val Bregaglia to Giovanni, a neo-impressionist painter, and Annetta Stampa. He had a happy childhood. His father introduced him to working in the atelier, his godfather (the painter Cuno Amiet) taught him the latest styles and techniques, and the other members of his family assisted with his artistic development by sitting for him as models. In 1916, during high school, he displayed total mastery of impressionist language in a portrait of his mother modelled with plastilina. He left high school and moved to Geneva to attend the School of Fine Arts. Following a trip to Venice and Rome in 1920, during which he developed a passion for the work of Tintoretto and Giotto, he resolved to recover the innocent gaze of man's origins through primitive art and anthropology. In 1922 he moved to Paris to attend the courses of sculptor Antoine Bourdelle and partly experimented with the Cubist method. In 1925 his brother Diego joined him in Paris and became his permanent assistant. Alberto shared a sympathy for the surrealist movement with the Swiss artists he met in Paris and in 1927 began to display his first surrealist sculptures at the Salon des Tuileries. Success was not long in coming and Alberto began to frequent artists such as Arp, Mirò, Ernst and Picasso and writers including Prévert, Aragon, Eluard, Bataille and Queneau. He became firm friends with Breton and wrote and drew for his magazine Le surréalisme au Service de la Révolution. But Giacometti felt the need to return to the idea of "absolute resemblance" and after his father's death in 1933 shut himself off in period of a renewed apprenticeship. From 1935 to 1940 he concentrated on the study of the human head, starting from the gaze, considered the seat of thoughts. He also drew entire figures in an attempt to capture the identity of individual human beings with a single glance. In this period he met Picasso and Beckett and established a dialogue with Sartre which was to influence the work of both. He spent the Second World War years in Geneva. In 1946 he returned to Paris and met up again with his brother Diego, beginning a new artistic phase in which his statues became stretched out, their limbs elongated in a space that contained and complemented them. In 1962 he received the Grand Prize for sculpture at the Venice Biennial. In his later years he worked frenetically and displayed his work at a sequence of large exhibitions throughout Europe. Although seriously ill, he went to New York in 1965 for his exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. As his last work he prepared the text for the book Paris sans fin, a sequence of 150 lithographs containing memories of all the places where he had lived. He is buried in Borgonovo, close to his parents.
— Milo Milunovic was a student of Alberto Giacometti.

Head-and-Shoulders Self-Portrait (600x408pix _ ZOOM to 1400x952pix)
Full Length Self-Portrait Sitting at the Easel (600x496pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1157pix)
Madame D. (1944; 600x492pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1148pix)
Rue d'Aleisa (1954 color lithograph, 65x54cm; 728x558pix, 129kb) pale washed-out colors, sloppy drawing, acceptable only if done during an earthquake.
^ Born on 10 October 1656: Nicolas de Largillière, French Rococo painter who died on 20 March 1746.
— Nicolas de Largillière was born in Paris but passed his youth in Antwerp and, from about 1674, spent some years in England as Lely's assistant. He was thus almost a Flemish painter when he returned to Paris in 1682. He became one of the most successful portrait painters of the second half of Louis XIV’s reign. His principal rival was Rigaud (who had beet his assistant) but, although Largillièrre was patronized by the Court, most of his sitters came from the wealthy middle classes, leaving the aristocrats to Rigaud. By the end of Largillière's career he had produced some 1500 portraits. The Sainte Geneviève is the only survivor of the large ex-voto type of picture that he painted for the Corporations. He also painted a few pictures of still-life. In 1734–1735 and again from 1738 to 1742 he was Directeur of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, of which he had been a member since 1686.
— Nicolas de Largillière once told a friend that he never wanted official commissions; private clients were less troublesome, and payment was quicker. Unlike his friend court painter Hyacinthe Rigaud, Largillière worked for Paris's wealthy middle class. He grew up in Antwerp, then worked in England as Sir Peter Lely's assistant, painting draperies and still lifes and developing a lustrous version of Anthony van Dyck's style. This Flemish training imparted the warm hues, broad, thick brushstrokes, and sinuous curves that gave Largillière's paintings their dynamism. He returned to Paris in 1682, gained Académie Royale membership in 1686, and ultimately became its director. By the late 1680s, Largillière had established his reputation among the bourgeoisie. He produced 1200 to 1500 portraits in his lifetime, gradually becoming less formal and more relaxed in describing pose and costume. He also painted group portraits to commemorate solemn occasions, landscapes, still lifes, and religious works. When Largillière ordered his student Jean-Baptiste Oudry to depict a bouquet of all-white flowers, Oudry reported learning a basic lesson in color. By carefully observing their subtle variations and then trying to paint them, Oudry came to understand how to express highlights, shades of gray, and shadows as his teacher Largillière did.
— Although born in Paris, Largillièrre spent his youth in Antwerp, becoming a student of the still life and genre painter Antoine Goubau in 1668. Soon after his acceptance as a master in the Guild of Saint Luke (1672), the artist went to England. There he studied portraiture, perhaps in the studio of Peter Lely. He returned to Paris in 1679 and became a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1686, advancing rapidly to important posts in the hierarchy of that institution. The major part of his work is devoted to portraiture, but Largillierre also produced history paintings, landscapes, and still lifes. His rival for court commissions was Hyacinthe Rigaud, while his own clientele was primarily the wealthy bourgeoisie who found his taste for warm color tones, sumptuous fabrics, and a regal manner of presentation very much to their liking. Extremely successful during his long life, the artist produced a huge ceuvre. Anthony van Dyck's influence on English portraiture as well as the seventeenth century French portrait tradition are both critical to his stylistic development. Largillierre is pivotal in the transition from the baroque to the rococo portrait style during the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV.
— De Largillière's students included Jean-Baptiste Oudry, Jean-Baptiste Descamps, Robert Gardelle, Jean-Baptiste Lemoyne II, Gustaf Lundberg, Pierre Mosnier, Jean Restout II.

Self-Portrait (1725, 889x700pix, 60kb)
The Artist and his Family (1710, 149x200cm; 800x1095pix, 116kb)
Catherine Coustard, Marquise de Castelnau, Femme de Charles-Léonor Aubry, avec son Fils Léonor (1700, 138x106cm; 1/3 size, 255kb — ZOOM to 1/2 size, 343kb) _ Catherine Coustard came from a family of well-to-do cloth merchants in Paris and married into the Aubrys, wealthy, middle-class civil servants and statesmen from Tours. At the time of this portrait, her father-in-law had just been ennobled after serving twenty years as secretary to the king, thus precipitating the great step upward in family prestige that this picture commemorates.
A Boy in Fancy Dress (1710, 115x146cm; 960x752pix, 70kb) _ Dressed in a fanciful Roman costume, a young boy with blond hair and blue eyes poses before an enigmatic landscape. Facing frontally, he twists his torso in order to hold and stroke his dog. Both the boy and the animal watch a goldfinch with outspread wings perched on a thornbush. Although the young sitter's identity is unknown, he is presumed to be a member of the French royal family. Nicolas de Largillière positioned his figure before an atmospheric landscape and used fluent brushwork, rich autumnal colors, and exquisite treatment of draperies. All these characteristics betray his training in a Flemish late Baroque style heavily indebted to Anthony van Dyck. The inclusion of elaborate symbolism also reflects a Baroque sensibility. The child's costume refers to nobility, his pet dog to fidelity, and the thornbush to the Crown of Thorns. Through an extended series of connections, the goldfinch functions as a symbol of the Passion: goldfinches eat seeds from the thorny thistle, another reminder of the Crown of Thorns, and the red spot on their breast is a further reminder of Christ’s bloody death.
–- Gentleman A (81x65cm; 1251x990pix, 67kb _ .ZOOM to 2504x1980pix, 465kb)
–- Gentleman B (136x105cm; 1126x848pix, 73kb _ .ZOOM to 2108x1696pix, 595kb _ .ZOOM+ to 4504x3392pix, 2509kb)
–- Pierre Van Schuppen? (1680, oval 72x60cm; 735x570pix, 37kb _ .ZOOM to 1256x950pix, 70kb _ .ZOOM+ to 2043x1583pix, 193kb)
–- A Lady (81x65cm; 1176x970pix, 85kb _ .ZOOM to 2412x1940pix, 617kb)
–- A Lady as Pomona (65x55cm; 734x592pix, 43kb _ .ZOOM to 1957x1580pix, 274kb)
Charles Le Brun (1686, 232x182cm, 953x750pix, 120kb)
Princess Louisa Maria Teresa Stewart (1700, 127kb)
The Countess of Montsoreau, her Sister as Diana, and an Attendant (1714, 122kb)
Gentleman C (1720, 126kb)
Paysage Boisé (136kb)
Nature Morte avec Gibier, Fleurs, Fruits, et un Épagneul (1680, 1097x1448pix, 589kb)

Died on a 10 October:

1958 Maurice de Vlaminck, French painter born (full coverage) on 04 April 1876. — (060403)

^ 1917 Willem Maris, Dutch artist specialized in animals within landscapes, born on 18 February 1844, brother of landscape painters Jacob Henricus Maris [25 August 1837 – 07 Aug 1899] and Matthijs Maris [17 August 1839 – 22 August 1917]
— Willem Maris, one of three artist brothers, was born in 1844 in The Hague. His first lessons in drawing were from his brothers Jacob and Matthijs. For a while he followed evening classes at the Hague Academy and later continued his studies with the cattle painter Stortenbeker. In the Mauritshuis in The Hague, Willem copied the work of the seventeenth-century animal painter Paulus Potter, by whom an example is Four Cows in a Meadow (1651, 25x30cm) . From an early age Willem went outdoors to sketch the countryside. In 1901 he wrote in a letter: 'As far as I can remember, even before I was twelve ... I was out in the pastures drawing cows ... I have nearly always worked outside, summers in the fields and winters in the barns'. Maris painted many Dutch landscapes with animals, especially cows and ducks.
     In 1862 Willem Maris established himself as an independent painter. In the same year his friendship with the painter Anton Mauve began. They had met in the Gelderland village of Oosterbeek, where the Maris brothers often stayed during the summer, in the company of other painters. Like Mauve, Willem Maris was considered part of the Hague School, because it was particularly the atmosphere and mood of a landscape which he tried to capture. He portrayed his subjects with increasingly free brush-strokes. However his sun-filled pastures are much more colorful than the grayer landscapes of other painters of the Hague School.
     — LINKS
Cow beside a Ditch Year (1895, 65x81cm) _ A pied cow is standing with its front legs in a ditch and is reflected in the water. Thick bushes and a fence enclose the small meadow. In the background another cow, with a red coat, is being milked. Willem Maris - the youngest of the artist brothers, Maris - has masterfully captured the atmosphere of a sunny day using loose brushstrokes. The cow is the central point in this landscape; the point where color and light are most concentrated. Willem Maris made a famous statement about his work: 'I do not paint cows, but light'. This painting is a good illustration of this.
     Cows in the meadow and ducks at the water's edge were favorite themes of Willem Maris. He made numerous variations on these themes. Because of his attention for atmosphere and the fall of the light on the landscape, Willem Maris, together with his brothers and other contemporaries, belongs to the Hague School. Maris also worked a lot in the open air, depicting his subjects in a swift style using loose brushstrokes. However, in landscapes by other Hague-School painters somber, gray colors often dominate, for instance in The Marsh by Maris's friend Anton Mauve. The sunny landscapes of Willem Maris are far richer in color
Ducks (1880, 93x113cm) _ Ducks in the sunshine on the water's edge: a simple subject beautifully treated by the painter Willem Maris. But the object here was not to reproduce the scene in precise detail; this work is more of a study in light and color Maris has captured the atmosphere and the light at the waterside superbly. The light comes from the top left corner, a little from behind: it catches the water plants, the ducklings and the backs of the ducks, it brushes over the heads of the ducks and casts a shadow over their eyes and beaks. The light and the style of painting make the feathers of the ducks and the down of the ducklings almost tangible.
     As an artist associated with the Hague School Maris was influenced by Impressionist paintings such as those Claude Monet, for example La Corniche (1884, 75x94cm). Like them Maris focused on trying to capture the light and atmosphere of the moment and used (for example, for the heads of the ducks) tiny touches of unmixed color. The dots of color in the grass give a convincing impression of weeds and small flowers. The reeds to the right above the ducklings comprises no more than a few rough light-green brushstrokes: sunlit leaves. There is no stem. In this way Maris gives the viewer the feeling of a fleeting impression; a view of the water's edge with ducks that catches the eye for a moment and disappears.
     Maris's use of paint in various parts of this work is quite different. While thick strokes of paint are sometimes visible in the grass and the duck feathers, the water is a smooth surface. The ducklings on the water are thinly painted, almost translucent, like the reflections in the water. Willem Maris painted animals almost exclusively.
A Warm Summer's Day (33x48cm)
Cattle By A Stream (95x68cm) — (051009)

^ >1884 Jan (or Johannes) Rutten, Dutch painter born on 31 July 1809. — {Whatever he did, his pictures were always Rutten.}
Dordrecht, with the Grote Kerk (58x82cm; 456x640pix, 23kb).
Gezicht in Dordrecht (279x400pix, 13kb) _ Hoewel Rutten ook heel veel topografisch correcte schilderijen heeft gemaakt (vaak in opdracht van Simon van Gijn) is dit schilderij wat dat betreft niet optimaal. De huizen zouden aan het Vlak kunnen staan, maar da ontbreekt links de Roobrug. Rechts is een brug te zien die er nooit geweest is. Het gebouw links is misschien de Joppetoren die bij het Groothoofd heeft gestaan. _ Dordrecht has inspired many painters, not all of them Dutch.
View in a town with people by a grocery market and a cargo boat being unloaded (1863, 66x61cm; 480x453pix, 47kb).
Gouda (54x44cm; 480x375pix, 41kb).
A view of Hotel Bellevue in Dordrecht with the Grote Kerk beyond (1860, 47x61cm; 399x512pix, 27kb)
De Grote Markt in Haarlem met de St. Bavokerk, de Vleeshal en de Nieuwe Kerk (1857, 70x61cm; 630x550pix, 74kb) _ Johannes Rutten maakte naam als schilder en tekenaar van nauwkeurig uitgewerkte, topografisch vaak juiste stadsgezichten en kerkinterieurs. Zijn geboorteplaats Dordrecht vormde zijn belangrijkste inspiratiebron: alle delen van de stad heeft Rutten gedurende tientallen jaren in meer dan 800 tekeningen en aquarellen vastgelegd. Maar ook beeldbepalende locaties in andere Hollandse steden, en een enkele keer zelfs in een buitenlandse plaats, werden door hem vereeuwigd. Rutten kreeg les van de bekende Abraham van Strij [1753-1826], zijn zwager en telg uit een omvangrijke en gerenommeerde Dordtse schildersfamilie. Johannes Rutten was als tekenmeester verbonden aan het Teekengenootschap Pictura in Dordrecht. —(091007)

^1874 Thomas Shotter Boys, London painter and printmaker, born on 02 January 1803 {the Boys boy}. He was apprenticed on 04 February 1817 to George Cooke. His early training in engraving influenced his future career; his ability to draw a fine line, lay aquatint washes and hand-color prints was an important factor in the creation of his particularly lucid style of watercolor landscapes and townscapes. At this time Cooke was engraving volumes of picturesque views by Turner and James Hakewell [1778–1843] as well as his own view of the Thames (1822); Boys went on to establish a reputation for his own lithographed volumes of picturesque tours. — Edward John Poynter [20 Mar 1836 – 26 Jul 1919] was a student of Boys. — LINKS
–- Landscape with a Lockgate (1833, 24x22cm; 903x832pix, 62kb)
–- Abbaye de Saint Amand, Rouen (lithograph with hand coloring, 37x27cm; 1156x842pix, 102kb)
–- Bridge on the Moselle Coblentz (1838 lithograph with hand coloring, 39x29cm; 1092x799pix, 85kb)
–- Regent Street, Looking towards the Quadrant (1842 lithograph with hand coloring, 31x42cm; 794x1110pix, 87kb)
–- Notre Dame, Paris, from the Quai St. Bernard (1838 color lithograph 25x38cm; 799x1246pix, 103kb)
Pont des Arts, Paris (1830; 600x1192pix _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x2781pix)
–- Byloke, Ghent (1838 color lithograph, 27x37cm; 797x1125pix, 100kb) snow scene
La Seine et le Palais des Tuileries (1835, 20x30cm) —(061009)

1746 Johann Christian Sperling, Danish artist born in 1690 or 1691.

Born on a 10 October:

1910 Ramón Gaya Pomés, Spanish painter who died (main coverage) on 15 October 2005.—(091009)

^ 1890 Georg Scholz, Danish artist who died in 1945. Georg Scholz was one of the leading members of Die Neue Sachlichkeit (The New Objectivity), a politically-infused artistic movement founded in the 1920s by Scholz and Otto Dix in Germany. In contrast to the highly abstracted German Expressionist painting of the prior decade, Die Neue Sachlichkeit was characterized by pictorial realism, presenting its subjects in a manner that was easily accessible to the public. These pictures were vehicles for social criticism, and depicted recognizable characters or events of contemporary or political significance. Founded during one of the most highly-charged periods of modern German history, Die Neue Sachlichkeit provided a candid view of the growing unrest of the nation's intellectuals. For Scholz, this was the most important period of his career, and this picture is a fine example of his production during that era.
–- S*>#Von Kommenden Dingen (1922, 75x97cm; 604x800pix, 89kb) _ This painting depicts a group of important men discussing some sort of business agenda in front of an assemblage of factories, the ultimate symbol of industrial progress. The cast of characters includes: a beady-eyed, US opportunist with an absurdly sharpened pencil on the left, the Communist leader Vladimir Lenin [22 Apr 1870 – 21 Jan 1924] looking like an overfed capitalist dandy in the center, and the famous politician, Walter Rathenau [29 Sep 1867 – 24 Jun 1922], grossly stereotyped, on the right. As a leading industrialist and director of the national electric company (AEG: Allgemeine-Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft ), Rathenau played an integral role in the shaping of German foreign policy, and was a figure of great importance in the German-Jewish community. During the First World War, he served as the head of the German KRA (economic war management), and later as Minister of Reconstruction between 1919-1921 and Foreign Minister in 1922. Rathenau was murdered by right-wing extremists in Berlin in 1922, the same year that this painting was completed. Von Kommenden Dingen (Of Things to Come) shares its title with a popular book of political musings that Rathenau wrote in 1917. With this picture, Scholz provides his own commentary on the state of political affairs, which was highly influenced by the subjects that he has chosen to depict.
–- S*>#Die Liebespaar (1920, 50x52cm; 476x494pix, 52kb) _ This was painted in an important period of transition in Georg Scholz's art. Having joined the Novembergruppe in 1919, he soon left it in protest at the group's trend away from their original radicalism, and together with Rudolf Schlichter and Wladimir Zabotin he founded Rih based in Karlsruhe. According to their manifesto, the group's goal was `giving full recognition to the expressive forms proper to art that runs counter to society - the art of children and the sick - seeing these forms in accordance with their own criteria: not as rational, conscious achievements but as an expressive idiom with laws of its own, which our cognitive equipment must be enabled to recognize and value'. Das Liebespaar reflects Scholz's move away from the angst-ridden subject matter inspired by his war-time experience, and his embracing of the more illusionistic imagery and a heightened representation of material texture. The highly stylized, geometric treatement of the figures' bodies and faces reflects the artist's previous practice as industrial designer and illustrator, whilst the brightly colored, dynamic forms surrounding the couple reflect the influence of the Italian Futurists, with whom Scholz shared a loathing of the academic aesthetic and a fascination with excitements and dynamism of modern life.

^ >1850 Léon-François Comerre, French artist who died on 20 February 1916. — {Disait-on de ses oeuvres que c'était des commérages?}
–- A Girl (62x45cm; 900x633pix, 49kb) head and shoulders, her long red hair covers half her face.
–- Jeune Fille au Soleil (65x47cm; 892x622pix, 42kb)
–- Départ Pour le Bal (65x47cm; 771x546pix, 24kb)
–- Study for Manteau Légendaire (845x1400pix, 63kb) —(091008)

1738 Benjamin West, US painter who died (full coverage) on 11 March 1820. —(061008)

1684 Jean-Antoine Watteau, French painter who died (full coverage) on 18 July 1721. —(061009)

^ 1622 (infant baptism) Johannes Lingelbach, in Frankfurt am Main, German painter, active in the Netherlands and Italy, who died in November 1674. By 1634 his family had settled in Amsterdam, where presumably Lingelbach was trained as a painter. He visited France in 1642 and arrived in Italy two years later. However, he is not mentioned in any document of 1644, although he is recorded in Rome from 1647 to 1649. Lingelbach left Rome in 1650 and by 1653 was back in Amsterdam, where he remained until his death. Lingelbach is perhaps the only one of the Dutch Italianates with a catalogue of numerous signed and dated works to document his artistic development. The first two signed works are The Blacksmith (1650) and Self-portrait with Violin (1650). Unfortunately no certain works survive from the previous years. Kren (1982) attributed a series of works depicting Roman trades, some formerly ascribed to Pieter van Laer, to Lingelbach’s early career. The original group consisted of three small paintings: the Acquavita-seller, the Cake-seller and The Tobacconist. While these paintings have some striking points in common with the Melmeluzzi Blacksmith of 1650 and the signed Dentist on Horseback (1651), it is still uncertain whether they belong to Lingelbach’s pre-1650 work or are by another hand (sometimes called the Master of the Trades). In the Melmeluzzi Blacksmith the forms are drawn with a dry, incisive line that gives the figures an almost caricature-like air, whereas in the Roman Trades the volumes are given body by a dense, intense and mellow style of painting.— LINKS
–- S*>#Self-Portrait at the Easel in his Studio (47x37cm; 510x402pix, 41kb) he also painted a Self Portrait with a Violin.
Piazza del Popolo (58x73cm; 800x1046pix, 542kb _ ZOOM to 1770x2314pix, 2516kb)
Bathing Gypsies (800x652pix, 74kb)
Roman Market Scene (1653, 110x188cm; 650x1120pix, 122kb) _ This painting confronts the spectator with a curious, if not bizarre combination of more or less identifiable topographical elements. A broad, seemingly rural, crowded market square reminiscent of the Campo Vaccino in Rome is bordered on the left by a dark row of large ruins and buildings, which enclose the scene like the wings of a stage set. On the far left is the corner of a classical temple, modelled on the nearby Temple of Saturn. Between the ruin and the tall, sturdy houses further towards the centre of the image is a narrow view of the stairway leading up to the Capitoline, depicted on a noticeably reduced scale. A prominent place on the market square has been cleared for a powerful sculptural group. In reality, this classical sculpture of a lion attacking a horse was housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Capitoline in the seventeenth century. Further to the right, the square gradually gives way to a plain with the fountain from the Campo Vaccino at the far end. The plain is demarcated by the ruins of an imaginary city or palace, beyond which we discern hills reminiscent of the Latian landscape. Both square and plain are crowded with a rich variety of figures, including bird and fruit vendors, a storyteller, beggars, farmers, a horsedrawn carriage and a conspicuously large number of well-dressed Dutch burghers.
–- S*>#Tradesmen and Other People Near a Fountain in a Roman Square (68x65cm; 900x862pix, 184kb) _ The column depicted is probably the Antonine column in the Piazza Colonna in Rome, but the scene is otherwise imaginary. The fountain shown here recurs in a number of Lingelbach's works; for example, the View outside Rome.
Village Festival (1652)
Königin Christina von Schweden auf dem Weg nach San Paolo fuori le Mura (600x816pix)
Italienische Strassenszene (600x464pix)
The Herbs Market in Rome (1670, 70x88cm)
Italian Peasants at the Door of a Roman Inn (36x47cm)
A Sea Battle (31x40cm; 700x918pix, 107 kb) It is thought that the painting represents the naval battle of Lepanto (07 Sep 1571), in which Christians defeated Muslims, a victory attributed to the praying of the rosary as requested by Pope Pius V, who between Turks and Europeans, and which gave rise to the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary on 07 September. Compare
      _ The Battle of Lepanto (1572, 169x137cm; 1045x850pix, 217kb) by Veronese [1528 – 19 Apr 1588].
      _ The Battle of Lepanto by Luca Cambiaso [18 Oct 1527 – 06 Sep 1585] —(081008)

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