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ART “4” “2”-DAY  08 October v.9.90
^ >Died on 08 October 1826:Théodore Garrard, English painter and sculptor born on 31 May 1760.
— After serving an apprenticeship under Sawrey Gilpin, later his father-in-law, Garrard became a student at the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1778, exhibiting his first sporting picture there in 1781. Though his occasional genre paintings were better received than his many animal subjects (Sir Joshua Reynolds purchased his View of a Brew-house Yard from the Academy exhibition of 1784), he initially determined to practice as a sporting artist, probably on the advice of the notorious sportsman Colonel Thomas Thornton [1755–1823] for whom he had worked in the 1780s.

Bay Hunter by a Lake (1790, 57x81cm)
A Farm (15x24cm)
A Thatched Barn (19x27cm)
A House by a Lane (21x37cm; 319x512pix, 20kb)
–- The Earl of Orford's Elk from Norway, Antelope from Africa, and Stag from Prince's Island (27x44cm; 900x1473pix, 183kb) _ In the 1790s Garrard showed a particular interest in painting both domestic and wild animals. In 1795 he exhibited at the Royal Academy a painting of a Nil Gaw Antelope from the West Indees, in 1796 a model of a Reindeer from Lapland, and in 1797 a model of a Stag from the banks of the Ganges. This picture is a study for a large painting which Garrard exhibited in 1801.
Coombe Hill (1791, 14x18cm) _ Garrard was chiefly an animal painter and sculptor. His oil sketches of landscapes in and around London, painted in the 1790s, were made for his own pleasure or to develop technical facility. They served no very important part in building his art and are perhaps so fresh precisely because of this. Coombe Hill is south of Richmond Park.
–- John Duke of Bedford (engraving; 1081x795pix, 209kb) Woburn Abbey in the background. _ John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford [06 Jul 1766 – 20 Oct 1839] was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 12 March 1806, but kept that position for only one year (He was succeeded by Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond on 11 April 1807). When the Duke of Wellington was Premier, the 6th Duke of Bedford was invited to come shooting at Woburn but was not regarded as a very good shot. His second son, John Russell, 1st Earl Russell [18 Aug 1792 – 28 May 1878] was prime minister of the UK (Jul 1846 - Feb 1852; and Oct 1865 - Jun1866), and grandfather of Bertrand Russell [18 May 1872 – 02 Feb 1970].
–- Bull and Cow (31x46cm; 718x905pix, 50kb) _ they are uninterested in each other, or in anything else, it seems.
Mr Taylor's Barn, Marlow (1795, 20x24cm) _ The landscape oil sketches which Garrard painted in the 1790s were probably painted in the open air, and seem chiefly to have been made for his own enjoyment. Nevertheless, he later adapted this one for the background of one of his paintings, The Holderness Cow, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1797. As well as specializing in pictures of rustic genre, Garrard also produced a wide range of animal subjects in plaster and bronze. In 1798 he helped secure the passing of an important Copyright Act for sculptors with the help of his patron, Samuel Whitbread II [1764–1815], a Whig MP and son of the founder of the famous brewery.
^ >Born on 08 October 1929: Jacek Malczewski (or Maleczevski), Polish painter born on 15 July 1854, specialized in doom and gloom.
— Jacek Malczewski made his only statement in painting; his immensely rich oeuvre remains ever intriguing and artistically uneven. The first stage was the so-called Siberian cycle, illustrating the torment of Polish deportees, portrayed naturalistically or filtered through the mystical poetry of Slowacki. During the Young Poland period, Malczewski created his own unique symbolic vocabulary in which corporeal and robust figures of chimeras, fauns, angels, and water sprites appear both in allegorical portraits, innumerable costume-clad self-portraits, landscapes, genre and religious scenes and, finally, in compositions which do not correspond to any thematic conventions. The art of Malczewski is dominated distinctly by two motifs, recurring and assorted painterly embodiments: the vocation of art and the artist, and death, under the antique form of Thanatos. The Malczewski oeuvre is the most vivid example of an intermingling of folk motifs and an anti-classical, Dionysian vision of antiquity, typical for Polish modernism; the artist achieved a peculiar polonisation of ancient mythology, not only by placing chimeras and fauns in a Polish landscape but also within an historical-national context, which ultimately proved to be regarded as the most important by this student of Matejko.

Self-Portrait in Armor (1914) _ He looks unhappy. The armor and the vast ocean in the background are tinged with red.
Self~Portrait dark and sad on a background of brightly lit happy fauns.
–- Destiny (1917, 72x102cm; 691x1000pix; 105kb _ .ZOOM to 1152x1667pix, 142kb) _ This painting belongs to Malczewski's final artistic period (1914-1925), during which he focused on the existential aspects of his art in the autobiographical cycle My Life. Throughout his career, ‘existential’ subjects (the exploration of the nature of destiny, death and artistic creation) in combination with symbolic portraiture, had been a main concern for Malczewski. His strong desire for independance for Poland found pictorial expression in such famous works as Polish Hamlet, Melancholia, and In the Dust Storm. From 1898 onwards, his reflections on death became a distinct catagory of his work. The symbolic canon evident in Malczewski's work from the 1890s onwards was to win him a place as one of the foremost representatives of Polish modernism, and was partly influenced by the works of Arnold Böcklin, Hans Thoma, and Franz von Stuck, which he saw in Munich in 1893. However, in contrast to the German artists' work, Malczweski's symbolism tended towards the visionary and tormented. Often, as in Destiny, the artist meets death on a Polish country road. The theme harks back to his personal belief that life is a long, unpredictable journey, which eventually will take the individual back to his roots in order to face the inevitable. Being guided by Christ towards his ultimate destiny, the artist passes rows of skeletons - the tragic remnants of the Polish insurgents deported to Siberia after the anti-Tsarist uprisings. While they fought a physical battle to obtain freedom, Malczewski fullfilled his artistic destiny and duty to his country by defending their memory and upholding spiritual resistance.
Melancholia (1894; 197kb) A rioting mob, floating just above the floor, fills the artist's studio.
In the Dust Devil (1893; 96kb) On the background of a wheat field and a distant forest of trees of uniform height, it is made up of faint figures of damned people.
Vicious Circle (1897; 140kb) People damned for their vices swirl around a tall stepladder on top of which sits a pensative young man.
Death (1902; 268kb) The artist stretches his face toward a woman who is holding a scythe in her right hand, and with her left closes his eyes.
Death (1911; 689x827pix, 149kb) A pale redhead is about to close the artist's eyes with her right hand, her left hand rests on a partition between them and bears a wedding ring.
The Hair-Whitening Angel (600x412pix, 123kb)
Farewell to the Studio (75x105cm; 502x708pix, 130kb) image marred by obtrusive pattern.
The Hour of Creation – The Sleeping Harpy (72x92cm; 545x685pix, 150kb) image marred by obtrusive pattern.
^Died on 08 October 1469: fra Filippo Lippi di Tomaso, Florentine painter born in 1406.
— Fra Flippo Lippi born: Florence, [now Italy]; about 1406 died: Spoleto, Papal States [now Italy], 8 or 10 October 1469 Filippo Lippi's father and mother died when he was in his early teens, and he then lived with an aunt in Florence. When she could no longer control him, at about age fifteen, she shipped him off to become a Carmelite monk. Frescoes by Masaccio were being painted in the Brancacci chapel of the Carmelite monastery. These were probably Lippi's first contact with art. In his early twenties Fra Lippi painted frescoes in the church and in the cloister of the monastery, and became increasingly impatient of the monastic life. When he was 26, he left the monastery. According to Vasari, who wrote the Lives of the Painters, Lippi was abducted by the Moorish pirates on the Adriatic and held as a slave for 18 months. He was freed only after he painted a portrait of his owner He was alway a man dominated by love affairs and impatient of methodical or tranquil conduct. When he was 36, Lippi became rector of the church of S. Quirico at Legnaia. His amorous adventures culminated at age 50 when he fled from Prato, a small city near Florence, with one of the nuns from the convent in which he was painting. Her name was Lucrezia Buti and Fra Lippi was later given permission to marry her by the Pope. The had a son, Filippo, called Filippino (1457~1504) to distinguish him from his father, who was trained by his father and became a noted Florentine painter in the second half of the century.

— Filippo Lippi (Filippo di Tommaso di Lippo) was brought up as an unwanted child in the Carmelite friary of the Carmine, where he took his vows in 1421. Unlike the Dominican Fra Angelico, however, Lippi was a reluctant friar and had a scandalous love affair with a nun, Lucrezia Buti, who bore his son Filippino and a daughter Alessandra. The two were released from their vows and allowed to marry, but Lippi still signed himself "Frater Philippus". His biography (romantically embroidered to include capture by pirates) is one of the most colorful in Vasari's Lives and has given rise to the picture of a wordly Renaissance artist, rebelling against the discipline of the Church. He must certainly have had a more eventful life than most, but there is little documentary evidence of his character and personality.
      Lippi was inspired to become a painter by watching Masaccio at work in the Carmine church, and his early work, notably the Tarquinia Madonna is certainly overwhelmingly influenced by him. In 1432 Lippi probably painted a fresco in the cloister of Santa Maria del Carmine, the Rules of the Carmelite Order, and in the same year he apparently left the convent permanently.
      He traveled to North Italy where he disseminated the latest Florentine discoveries and, at the same time, was open to the stylistic currents he found there. Lippi was in Padua in 1434 and perhaps earlier, where he was recorded together with Francesco Squarcione, the local painter and powerful personality. Back in Florence, he signed and dated the Tarquinia Madonna in 1437 and obtained an important commission for an altarpiece, the Madonna Enthroned with Saints (begun 1437) for the Barbadori family chapel in Santo Spirito, which he apparently finished during the following year. Lippi's art, and probably this painting, are warmly praised by Domenico Veneziano in a letter of 1438 to Piero, son of Cosimo de' Medici, with whom Fra Filippo had close dealings. In 1442, with Medici support, Pope Eugenius IV awarded him an important benefice. A large payment was made in 1447 for Saint Bernard's Vision of the Virgin, produced for the Palazzo della Signoria, as well as final payments for The Coronation of the Virgin, made for Sant'Ambrogio, which was commissioned in 1441.
      From about 1440, however, Lippi's style changed direction, becoming more linear and preoccupied with decorative motifs - thin, fluttering draperies, brocades, etc. Lippi is associated particularly with paintings of the Virgin and Child, which are sometimes in the form of tondi, a format he was among the first to use - a beautiful example, showing the wistful delicacy and exquisite pale lighting that characterizes his best works, is in the Pitti, Florence. Another formal innovation with which Lippi is closely associated is the "sacra conversazione" - his Barbadori Altarpiece is sometimes claimed as the earliest example of the type.
      Fra Filippo began to fresco the enormous choir of the Cathedral of Prato in 1452 (after Fra Angelico had turned down the assignment). He was aided by his chief assistant of the period, Fra Diamante; the work dragged on for years. As a fresco painter Lippi's finest achievement is this cycle on The Lives of Saints Stephen and John the Baptist (1452-1465). In Prato, Lippi also obtained a number of other assignments and purchased a house there in 1455. He is appointed chaplain in the nunnery of Santa Margherita in Prato.
      By 1458 he completed a painting for the king of Naples, a commission negotiated by the Medici, for whom Filippo produced an Adoration of the Child (now lost) in 1459. In spite of his secular activities, Filippo's late works are infused with religious feeling and are far more lyrical than the early ones. The Nativity in Florence, in Berlin, and in Florence, as well as the Madonna and Child in Florence are examples.
      By 1466 he had put the finishing touches on the frescoes in Prato; in the previous year negotiations had been underway for him to fresco the choir of the Cathedral of Spoleto in Umbria. The actual painting began in 1467 with the assistance of Fra Diamante, who completed the work about the time of Lippi's death in 1469. Despite the wishes of the Florentines, who wanted him to be interred in his native city, Fra Filippo was buried in Spoleto, where there is a monument dedicated to him in the Cathedral with an inscription by the humanist poet Angelo Poliziano.
      Filippo Lippi was not dedicated to the study of nature firsthand; instead, he depended largely upon painted and sculptured prototypes, and his figures are often inorganic and unanatomical, rendered without an ultimate conviction for their three-dimensional presence. Nor was Filippo deeply motivated by a desire to imitate antiquity; there are remarkably few paraphrases from ancient sculpture, and when isolated, they appear to have been achieved indirectly, filtered through Donatello or Luca della Robbia.
      For the most part his painted architecture, the buildings he invented, cannot even vaguely be reconstructed. Like Fra Angelico, Fra Filippo Lippi was taken with landscape, and he was successful in this genre in the backgrounds of many pictures; but his world is predominantly fantasy, accentuated by an unnaturalistic palette. Lippi, however, had moments of the greatest power, like the frescoes in Prato, which stand among the finest and most eloquent statements of the age.
      Lippi was highly regarded in his day (he was patronized by the Medici, who came to his aid when he was imprisoned and tortured for alleged fraud) and his influence is seen in the work of numerous artists, most notably Botticelli, who was probably his student. Four centuries later he was one of the major sources for the second wave of Pre-Raphaelitism.

== Fresco cycle in the Spoleto Cathedral (1466-1469): Lippi started his last and most ambitious work, the fresco cycle Life of the Virgin, in September 1467 in the conch of the apse of the Spoleto Cathedral. The cycle remained incomplete at his death but was finished a couple of months later, in December 1469, by his son Filippino, who was still very young at the time. The arrangement of the scenes is simple and symmetrical. The priestly grandeur of the images is drafted with graphic clarity.
Annunciation (1004x820pix, 185kb)
Nativity (1003x830pix, 194kb)
Death of the Virgin (825x1036pix, 183kb)
Coronation of the Virgin (703x975pix, 138kb) _ detail (1081x720pix, 194kb)
^Born on 08 October 1878: Alfred James Munnings, English painter who died on 17 July 1959.
— He grew up in the countryside of the Waveney Valley and left school at the age of 14 for a six-year apprenticeship with a firm of lithographers in Norwich, where he came to excel as a lithographic draftsman while also studying painting in evening classes. He left the printing business after his apprenticeship, supporting himself through freelance poster work and occasional sales of paintings. The loss of sight in his right eye in an accident in 1898 did not deflect his determination to paint, and in 1899 two of his pictures were shown at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition.

Off to the Meet (168kb)
Going out at Epsom (1929, 40x58cm)
Gypsies on the Downs (1912, 63x76cm)
The Hop Picker (1910, 52x61cm) almost monochrome
Near Dedham (1902, 46x61cm)
A Saddled Hunter in a Landscape (49x61cm) _ a saddled horse, no human anywhere.
Pigs In A Wood, Cornwall (63x76cm) _ a sow and six piglets.
Saddling for the Point-to-Point (56x62cm)
^ Died on 08 October 1455 (or 14 July 1455): Antonio Pisanello (or Pisano) di Puccio, Italian artist born in 1395 before 27 November.
— Italian painter, draftsman, and medallist, who was the last and most brilliant artist of the ornate, courtly International Gothic style. Originally named Antonio Pisano, he studied under Gentile da Fabriano, whose graceful, detailed style he inherited.
      Pisanello produced paintings, frescoes, drawings, and portrait medallions for the courts of Milan, Rimini, Naples, Mantua, Ferrara, and Verona. His well-known small painting, Princess of the House of Este (1443; 1128x800pix, 144kb), exemplifies his style; it shows a woman in profile against a tapestrylike floral background and is characterized by elegant long lines, clear colors, and exquisite drawing of details.
      His frescoes, such as his masterpiece Saint George and the Princess (1438), show to the greatest extent his precise and loving representation of the natural details of human figures, animals, flowers, and objects. His numerous drawings are also fastidiously detailed, and in some of them, particularly those of female nudes, he achieves a strength of three-dimensional modeling that establishes an important link between the Gothic and Renaissance styles. — Pisanello è fra i grandi talenti del Rinascimento; ma non potrebbe dirsi affatto ch’egli ruppe col passato. Egli non ha la vigorosa inquietudine d’un innovatore; ma una raffinatezza, una preziosità, da ultimo rampollo d’un nobile lignaggio. L’evoluzione artistica dette nell’opera di Pisanello lo specchio ideale d’un prodotto parallelo dell’evoluzione sociale: la cavalleria, ormai al tramonto nell’interpretazione dei singoli oggetti del mondo naturale, non restò forse addietro a nessun contemporaneo, di qualsiasi parte del mondo. Dipinse uccelli come soltanto i giapponesi. I suoi bracchi e levrieri, i suoi cervi, non la cedono neppure a quelli dei Van Eyck. Il suo posto, approssimativamente, è fra i tardi miniaturisti medievali franco-fiamminghi; i Limbourg da una parte, e dall’altra i Van Eyck.

Ginevra d'Este (1434, 43x30cm) Eseguito nei primi anni del rapporto di Pisanello con Ferrara, il dipinto mostra l’effigie di profilo di una giovane dama, identificata con Ginevra d’Este, sorella di Leonello. Sulla manica dell’abito della dama appare infatti l’impresa estense con il vaso biansato con le ancore, mentre il rametto di ginepro appuntato sull’abito è un chiaro richiamo al suo nome. La presenza della siepe di aquilegie e garofani sullo sfondo, simboli rispettivamente di fertilità, e di amore e matrimonio, e della farfalla, che può assumere la medesima valenza simbolica, ha condotto all’ipotesi che si tratti di un ritratto matrimoniale, eseguito poco prima delle nozze di Ginevra con Sigismondo Malatesta, nel 1434. Ma la valenza simbolica delle aquilegie, interpretabili anche come simbolo di dolore e morte, ha fatto anche ipotizzare una possibile esecuzione del ritratto dopo la tragica morte di Ginevra. L’identificazione dell’effigiata con Ginevra non è comunque unanimemente accettata, alcuni studiosi hanno infatti riconosciuto nella dama un ritratto di Margherita Gonzaga, figlia di Gianfrancesco e moglie di Leonello d’Este dal 1435 al 1439.
Madonna col Bambino e i santi Antonio abate e Giorgio _ (47x29cm) La tavola, l’unica firmata tra le poche rimasteci di Pisanello, raffigura, nella parte superiore, la Vergine all’interno di un clipeo di luce. Nella parte inferiore, sullo sfondo di un’impenetrabile foresta, appaiono i santi Antonio abate e Giorgio, entrambi accompagnati dagli animali accomunati al loro culto: il maiale e il drago. Nei tratti di san Giorgio, perfettamente abbigliato secondo la moda cavalleresca dell’epoca e con una grande cappello di paglia in testa, è stato talvolta riconosciuto il ritratto del giovane Leonello d’Este. Infatti, secondo alcuni studiosi, l’opera deve essere identificata con la tavola raffigurante la Madonna citata in una lettera di Leonello d’Este del 1432. Non tutti concordano però sulla datazione, che è stata da molti posticipata al quinto decennio del secolo, considerando il dipinto l’ultima tavola nota di Pisanello.
Visione di sant'Eustachio _ Visione di sant’Eustachio 1435-1440 circa tempera su tavola; 65 x 53 Londra, National Gallery Il soggetto del dipinto, la miracolosa visione del crocifisso tra le corna di un cervo apparsa all’ufficiale dell’esercito di Traiano Eustachio durante una battuta di caccia nel bosco, offre a Pisanello l’occasione di impiegare tutte le sue straordinarie capacità di pittore del mondo naturale. Tra tutte le sue opere, infatti, la tavola di Londra è quella per la quale sono conservati il maggior numero di disegni preparatori, che ritraggono dal vero soprattutto i numerosi animali. Anche in questo caso, com’era accaduto per il San Giorgio di Verona, Eustachio appare perfettamente abbigliato secondo i dettami della contemporanea moda da caccia.
Cicogna (1435, 19x21cm) Eccezionale disegnatore, Pisanello riprodusse sovente nei suoi fogli varie specie di animali, seguendo in ciò la pratica dei maestri lombardi. Già Giovannino de Grassi e Michelino da Besozzo avevano infatti mostrato una predilezione per la raffigurazione dal vero del mondo naturale, in particolare animale, che Pisanello deve aver approfondito durante il suo soggiorno a Pavia. Egli si recò nella città lombarda per eseguire la decorazione del castello visconteo, ricordata dalle fonti, ma di cui non rimane alcuna traccia, se non nella successiva produzione del pittore. La Cicogna, messa in relazione da alcuni studiosi con il Sant’Eustachio della National Gallery di Londra, mostra affinità tecniche con i fogli preparatori agli affreschi eseguiti in Sant’Anastasia a Verona.
Madonna della quaglia _ Madonna della quaglia 1420 circa Verona, Museo Civico di Castelvecchio Si tratta della prima opera nota di Pisanello, in cui sono evidenti i legami con l’opera di Michelino da Besozzo, Gentile da Fabriano e i massimi esponenti del “gotico internazionale”. Le affinità maggiori si scorgono con la Madonna del roseto del museo di Castevecchio a Verona, variamente attribuita a Michelino o a Stefano da Verona. Anche la Madonna della quaglia di Pisanello appare in un rigoglioso giardino, sullo sfondo di un roseto, attributo tradizionale della Vergine. I due cardellini rimandano alla crocifissione di Cristo, occasione in cui, secondo la tradizione, si sarebbero macchiati di rosso, mentre la quaglia è simbolo di resurrezione.
San Giorgio, la principessa e il drago _ (1438, 223x620cm) _ L’affresco è ciò che rimane di una più ampia decorazione eseguita da Pisanello nell’arco di ingresso della cappella Pellegrini nella chiesa domenicana di Sant’Anastasia a Verona. Le scene perdute raffiguravano l’uccisione del drago da parte di san Giorgio e sant’Eustachio, mentre l’affresco superstite mostra il momento in cui san Giorgio giunge nei pressi della città libica di Silena e si imbatte nella figlia del re, destinata a essere sacrificata a un terribile drago che terrorizzava i cittadini. La storia è narrata nella Legenda aurea di Jacopo da Varagine ed è resa con dovizia di particolari da Pisanello, che, in accordo con la tradizione tardo-gotica, trasforma san Giorgio in un cavaliere del suo tempo e dissemina la composizione di ricercati particolari decorativi. Si conoscono parecchi disegni preparatori alla composizione, tra cui un foglio per le figure degli impiccati, con ogni probabilità preso dal vero.
Saint George and the Princess of Trebizond, detail (1430)
Emperor Sigismund (1432)
La lussuria
Studio per la Decollazione del Battista
Madonna col Bambino e i santi Antonio abate e Giorgio
Ginevra d’Este
Visione di sant’Eustachio
Torneo cavalleresco
Leonello d’Este
Medaglia di Leonello d’Este
Medaglia di Alfonso V d’Aragona
^ Born on 08 October 1697: Cornelis Troost, Dutch painter, draftsman, and printmaker, who died on 07 March 1750.
— One of his teachers was Arnold Boonen. Troost was the most important Dutch artist of the 18th century; he received many commissions (the catalogue by Niemeijer contains 925 numbers). He had great success as a formal portraitist and painter of conversation pieces. He is best known for his pictures of actors in famous roles and for his witty genre scenes. His most famous work, made in his favorite technique of pastel and watercolor, is a series of five pictures entitled NELRI (1740) (Nemo loquebatur — Erat sermo inter fratres — Loquebantur omnes — Rumor erat in casa — Ibant qui poterant, qui non potuere cadebant). Although he generally looked back to the genre scenes of the Dutch 17th-century masters, his satirical paintings earned him the nickname “the Dutch Hogarth” after his English contemporary, but unlike Hogarth, Troost is a humorist without an ulterior motive; he never attempted to teach or preach. His work shows no stylistic development, despite his versatility in choice of subject-matter and technique. He was also called “the Netherlands' Watteau”.
— Jacobus Buys, and Pieter Tanjé were students of Troost.

Self Portrait (1739, 103x83cm) _ Troost shows himself in an oval frame against a stone wall. In front of the portrait are a palette with brushes and a drawn study on blue paper. Troost painted in a flamboyant and swift manner. This virtuosity also enabled him to work as a set painter for the Amsterdam theater; he had been also an actor.
orphanThe Regents of the Almoner's Orphanage, Amsterdam (1729, 414x417cm) _ The eight regents of the Amsterdam Almoners' orphanage are standing and sitting together with their accountant and the sheriff (or schout, an officer of the city or local council, both public prosecutor and superintendent of executions). The accountant, the third man from the left, is slightly to the rear. He has a pen behind his ear. On the far right is the sheriff with his hand on a document which he is holding for the man in front of him to read. The young boy [>>>] on the right of the foreground is an orphan. He is a reminder of these regents' task: the care of orphans. This painting is one of the largest; about the same size as The Night Watch (363x437cm) by Rembrandt [1606-1669]; larger yet is The Battle of Waterloo (1824, 576x836cm) by J.W. Pieneman [1779-1853]. Troost's canvas was originally larger than it is now; pieces have been cut off all around.
     This painting originally hung in the Regents' chamber in the orphanage. It must have been impressive, not only for its format, but also because of the drama of the composition. Steps lead to the stage where the subjects sit in their powdered wigs and classical surroundings. The orphan boy acts as a link between the viewer and the drama. Troost's experience as an actor and stage designer would have inspired him to make such a composition. On a piece of paper, left, he noted the names of the of the men in the portrait: 1. C. van Westerhoff, 2. J. Lepeltak, 3. Th. Rogge, 4. L. de Bas, 5. Mr. J. van Vliet, 6. Dr. C. Commelin Junior, 7. W. Swart, 8. P. Schrijver, A = A. van Bogaerde, Schout (sheriff), B = J. Capiteyn, Boekhouder (bookkeeper) Numbers 3 to 8 can be found on the canvas. The corresponding numbers beside the men have, however, unfortunately all but disappeared.
     Troost made a number of preparatory studies for this portrait: a study of each of the governors and a composition sketch (92x114cm; 524x652pix, 29kb). The final painting is close to the original design. Troost painted many successful portraits. He managed to record individuals in a convincing manner and to bring a certain lively energy to group portraits.
Three Governors of the Surgeons' Guild, Amsterdam (1731, 153x187cm) _ Here, Isaac Hartman, Elias Huyzer, and Adriaan Verduyn pose self-confidently. Their names and coats of arms are on the wall behind them. Troost has immortalised the three in a lively portrait. He has rendered the fashionable clothes wonderfully, with the powder from the wigs visible on their shoulders. Hartman is nonchalantly holding his surgeon's diploma. This resulted later in a scandal because it had been wrongly awarded to him. In fact, the whole painting caused something of a riot because the governors paid for it out of guild funds rather than their own pockets as was usual. A year after the portrait was completed, these men were all fired from their posts.
Van der Mersch, Johannes probably, a music lover certainly (1736, 72x57cm) _ This portrait shows a well-to-do man in his study. On the left of the foreground is a globe. On the right is a cello leaning against a chair. An open score rests on the table; on the right-hand page is the beginning of a sonata, the left-hand page bears the family coat of arms. Behind the dark curtain is a cupboard with the door open. Each shelf supports one large, leather-bound book, all the same size. Troost has portrayed one of the Van der Mersch brothers, Pieter, Dirk or Johannes. They belonged to a Mennonite {= believers in the anabaptist heresy followed by the apostate priest Menno Simonszoon [1496 – 31 Jan 1561]) family of Amsterdam. It is their coat of arms which is pictured in the music book.
     It is not known which of the three Van der Mersch brothers Troost painted here. The portrait comes from a private collection in England where Johannes had an estate. It may well have been him, although there can be no certainty. Whichever Van der Mersch it is, he was obviously a lover of music and fine art. In his left hand he holds a sheet with a drawing on it. The open book on the table is perhaps a sketchbook in which drawings were kept. This may suggest that he collected art like many gentry of his day. The cello and the sheet of music, opened at the 'Sonata Prima', speak for themselves. Van der Mersch loved music and probably also played himself.
     Van der Mersch is dressed in a beautiful, gray-green costume. This type of coat, despite all the buttons, was always worn open. The long waistcoat is partially buttoned. The coat and waistcoat are richly trimmed with blue silk which has been delicately rendered by Troost. The white frizzy curls are not Van der Mersch's own, it is a wig. It was fashionable in this period to powder wigs white. The more powder on the wig, the richer the person. The excess powder has been finely rendered by Troost on Van der Mersch's right shoulder. A little powder has also fallen on his cheek.
The Spendthrift, Act III, Scene V, from the play of the same name by Thomas Asselijn (1741, 68x86cm) _ This shows a scene from the farce The Spendthrift or the Wasteful Woman written by Thomas Asselijn in 1693. Joanna, the woman in the white dress spends money like water, buying the most extravagant items. Her father and husband have disguised themselves as Polish Jewish traders. They plan to catch Joanna trying to sell her expensive clothes for a pittance. She intends to use the money to by new valuables. Troost has turned this into a colorful scene. The scene is not set in a theatre but a parlor. It is an elegant room. The red of the wall coverings is carried through into the curtains. On the ceiling is a beautiful painting. There are also a variety of objets d'art, many of them exotic: a large blue and white vase of Chinese porcelain, a statue of Buddha, and small Chinese statues on the left and right. Visible through the open door is the grisaille decoration and the marble in the hall. The traders are standing in the center. One is holding Joanna's expensive gown. He is showing her a coin: this is what he is prepared to pay her and no more. Joanna is responding enthusiastically.
An Amsterdam Town Garden (1745, 66x56cm) _ It is a summer's day and this eighteenth-century town garden is largely covered in shade. A small girl in a white dress is standing in the only patch of bright sunlight. She is holding a bowl in the air. The man on the ladder has just picked a bunch of grapes. In the shadow of the house, a woman is sitting cleaning green cabbages. The parrot looks inquisitively at the cabbages floating in the bucket. This is an unusual scene for Cornelis Troost to choose: an Amsterdam garden in the peace of summer. He usually painted portraits and theater scenes.
     This small, decorative garden is a wonderful example of eighteenth-century town-garden design. Enclosed gardens like these were to be found at the back of the smart houses on the canals. The gardens were well cared for because they could be seen from the parlor on the first floor. An important detail in this picture is the small summerhouse. It is richly decorated with various statues. In front is a statue of a female nude. In the flowerbed are roses and African marigolds.
     High up on the roof of the summerhouse is an antique bust. In front rest two stone statues of nude boys. One is holding a painter's brush and the other a pen. The gilded statue of the woman on a blue plinth represents Dame Fortune, the goddess of prosperity. Cornelis Troost has used all kind of tricks to make the garden appear deeper than it is, for instance, the slanting, long patch of light. The red of the parrot, the bright colors of the flowers, the shining gold of Fortune and the girl's brilliant white dress enhance the suggestion of a bright, warm summer's day.
Jeronimus Tonneman and his Son (1736; 1030x885pix, 124kb) _ This small-scale double portrait of Jeronimus Tonneman and his son Jeronimus Jr. ranks with the best conversation pieces. It is a type of portrait which continues the tradition of portraying full-length figures, seen in little, in a familiar setting while posing informally or engaged in activities that allude to their status and interests. The tradition was initiated by Thomas de Keyser in the 1620s and was carnied on by other artists in their small family portraits (Frans Hals, Molenaer, Adriaen van Ostade, Terborch, de Hooch, Metsu, Emmanuel de Witte). The tradition was broken in about 1675 by the new vogue for courtly portraits and those with a classical flavor. Troost can be credited with resuscitating it in the 1720s, and by the following decade he was its unrivalled master in Holland. As in seventeenth-century Dutch portraits of this type, it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the interior which serves as a setting for a conversation piece is imaginary or not. For example, the room in which Tonneman is seated near his son playing a fashionable slender flute looks like a plausible portrait of an interior in his Amsterdam home. It is not. He did not have a room in his home decorated with a statue of Saint Susanna modeled after a work by the Flemish classical sculptor François Duquesnoy (he and members of his workshop were responsible for the splendid sculptures that decorate Amsterdam's new town hall) or large plaster reliefs of mythological and allegorical subjects. On the other hand, the parchment-bound volume of van Mander's Schilderboek that lies on the table doing double duty as a makeshift stand for the son's music and as a sign that we are in the company of people who know something about the arts, is most likely not an imaginary prop. It almost certainly belonged to Tonneman; three copies of van Mander's volume were listed in a 1754 posthumous sale of his belongings.
Alexander the Great in thee Battle of Granicus (110×132cm; 600x723pix, 103kb _ ZOOM to 1042x1256pix, 158kb)
Blind Man's Bluff (68×74cm; 600x730pix, 107kb _ ZOOM to 1032x1256pix, 161kb)
Nemo loquebatur. _ Dit is het beeld van Klikspaan's studenten in rust. Na tafel zijn zij huiswaarts gekeerd, hebben hunne hospita gelast de kachel op te stoken en het theegoed gereed te zetten, en verdiepen zich nu gedurende drie of vier volle en eenzame uren in de boeken. Niemand spreekt.
Erat sermo inter fratres. _ Klikspaan's studenten staan te redeneeren op den drempel der collegekamer, of laten daarbinnen, vóór professor's komst, dien hooggeleerden heer over de tong gaan: hem, zijne huisvrouw, zijne dienstmaagd, zijn os, zijn ezel, en zijn onderwijs. Straks ijlen zij naar de Convocatie, en bepleiten hunne studente-aangelegenheden met eene warmte, of er de toekomst van het menschelijk geslacht aan hing. De broeders keuvelen.
Loquebantur omnes. _ Eene babelsche spraakverwarring vormt van Klikspaan's studenten het gewone onderhoud. Zij stoeijen met de hollandsche taal of deze een leidsch dienstmeisje ware, en bezigen somtijds zulke groote woorden dat een leidsch agent, indien hij niet, door zijn dagelijks in aanraking komen met muzenzonen, de neiging daartoe al vroeg verleerd had, er van blozen zou. Hetgeen meer dan al het overige Klikspaan's jeugd van Salomo's hooge jaren onderscheidt, is dat de wijze koning van Israël, een oud man geworden zijnde, drie dingen noemde welke hem steeds te hoog en te wonderlijk gebleven waren. Den student van Klikspaan is niets te wonderlijk, niets te hoog. Hij weet alles, begrijpt alles, heeft van alles verstand, en voert over alles het hoogste woord.
Rumor erat in Casa (1740; 800x1020pix, 162kb) _ This painting is part of the NELRI series, Troost's best known work. (The name is derived from the first letters of the Latin inscriptions which accompany the five views of the activities of a group of men during the night of a reunion.) In this series we are shown what happens during a gathering that begins quietly in the early evening and ends well after midnight with the participants dead drunk. Troost is often called the Dutch Hogarth. They were exact contemporaries, both made formal portraits as well as conversation pieces, the name given to small-scale group portraits in a social setting. Both won fame for their series of genre pictures, which are commentaries on the life of their times, and for pictures of contemporary theatrical performances. Also both are satirists, but here there is a fundamental difference. Troost is never as critical or aggressive as Hogarth. Troost does not moralize. Instead of moralizing on the evils of drink, as Hogarth was wont to do, Troost's NELRI pictures humorously show the stages as well as the psychological and physiological effects of inebriation. In this respect he differs also from Jan Steen, in whose art moralizing was a dominant strain.
      Er wordt feest gevierd op Flanor's kamer, wier vensters in het holle van den nacht hoog opgeschoven staan - evenwel niet hoog genoeg om lucht te schenken aan de gemoederen vol punch brûlé. Eén heeft het zoo benauwd dat hij in overweging geeft de voorkamer naar de achterkamer te schuiven, ten einde meer ruimte te bekomen: ‘Duwen maar, kerels! duwen!’ Een ander stelt voor, de achterkamer even uit het venster der voorkamer te houden. Daar gaat het, met den doodgedronkene op de schouders, de straat op. Het hokvast getier van daareven wordt een tierend en zingend wandelen, een tusschen twee rijen slaapvertrekken van eerzame Leidenaars en Leidenaressen zich voortbewegend bacchanaal.
Ibant qui poterant, qui non potuere cadebant. _ In deze hoogere eenheid - de eenheid van het gaan, tenzij de wijn tot vallen nope - lost van Klikspaan's studenten, booze en brave, laffe en dappere, grootmoedige en kleingeestige, geniale en botte, de levensgeschiedenis onveranderlijk zich op. Op den dag der promotiepartij fraterniseert Flanor met den Klaplooper, de Hoveling met Bivalva, de liefhebber met den Aflegger, het Dispuutcollegie met de Rederijkerskamer, Minerva met Sempre Crescendo. De promotie is één aanhoudend drinkgelag; en, spiegel van vier of vijf academiejaren, caleidoscoop van studie, omgang, vechten, rijden, varen, toasten-slaan, resumeert dit gelag Klikspaan's Leven en Klikspaan's Typen. Morgen komt de maatschappij, en eischt van den student dat hij een ordelijk lid der zamenleving worde. Morgen begint de Groote Vasten der werkelijkheid. Vandaag wordt de promotiepartij gevierd. Vandaag is het Vastenavond. Nog eens voor het laatst den beker geligt, en tot den bodem hem geledigd. Zijn er wien de wijn uit het hoofd in de beenen schiet, - welnu, de rijtuigen die hen huiswaarts kunnen voeren, staan ingespannen. Of, geven de heeren de voorkeur aan de nachtdiligence, zoo aanstonds houdt zij stil voor het Huis ten Deyl.

Died on a 08 October:

1895 Adriana Johanna van Haanen, Dutch painter born (main coverage) on 14 June 1814. —(081006)

1886 José Casado del Alisal [1832–], Spanish painter.
— (un diputado) (1756x1116pix, 170kb)
Joaquín María López López, Presidente del Consejo de Ministros de España. (1866; round diam. 675pix, 2414kb png)
9 images at Wikimedia. —(091007)

1856 Théodore Chassériau, French painter born (full coverage) on 20 September 1819. —(050907)

1704 (before 09 Oct) Jan Pauwel Gillemans Jr., Flemish artist born on 03 September 1651.

1596 (08 Oct or earlier) Nicolò Circignani “Pomarancio il Vecchio”, Italian painter born in 1517 in Pomarance, near Volterra. His son, Antonio Circignani, and his student Cristoforo Roncalli [1552 – 14 May 1626] were both called “il Pomarancio”, as they were also born in Pomarance.
The Tempest Calmed (565x780pix, 210kb)

Born on a 08 October:

1868 Max Slevogt, German painter who died (full coverage) on 20 September 1932. —(060919)

^ 1843 Christine “Kitty” (Lange) Kielland, Norwegian landscape painter who died on 01 October 1914. She grew up in a rich and cultivated household; her brother Alexander Lange Kielland [18 Feb 1849 – 06 Apr 1906] became a well-known writer. In Stavanger she received a little training in drawing and painting, but it was not until she was nearly 30 that she was allowed to train to be a professional artist. In 1873 she went to Karlsruhe, where she was for two years a student of Hans Fredrik Gude. Under Gude’s supervision she made rapid progress. His realistic style had a decisive and long-lasting influence on her. From 1875 to 1878 Kielland lived in Munich, where she studied for a while with the French-inspired realist Hermann Baisch (1846–94). Her most important teacher at this time, however, was the young Norwegian painter Eilif Peterssen. In 1876 she visited Jæren, in the south of Norway, for the first time and was the first artist to paint this flat landscape. Her view, From Jæren (1877), painted, from sketches, in Munich, marks a new degree of confidence. The landscape, conceived realistically but with a unifying atmospheric effect, marks her out as one of Gude’s most outstanding students. In the summer of 1878 she was again at Jæren, and many of her best-known studies came into being at this time. From now on her painting is typified by her use of the realistically conceived landscape and by an unsentimental approach to subject-matter. — LINKS
Jærkysten (1874; 682x1142pix, 74kb)
Sommernatt i Sandviken (1891; 592x898pix, 82kb)
Peat-bog on the plain of Jæren (1882, 78x66cm; 591x500pix, 64kb) muddy colors even in the sky.
Sommernatt (1886; 400x541pix, 51kb)

1839 Henry Bacon, US artist who died in 1912. — LINKS
The Departure (1879, 72x51cm; _ ZOOMable)
The Departure from New York Harbor _ a different version.
Étretat (1890; 129kb) .—(061019)

^1776 Pieter Gerardus van Os, The Hague painter and etcher who died on 28 March 1839. He studied under his father Jan van Os [bapt. 23 Feb 1744 – 07 Feb 1808], as did his sister Maria Margaretha van Os [01 Nov 1780 – 17 Nov 1862] and his brother Georgius van Os [20 Nov 1782 – 24 July 1861], and from 1794 to 1795 at the Tekenakademie in The Hague. During this period he copied paintings from the collection of Willem V, including Paulus Potter’s Young Bull (1647). After completing his training, he departed for Amsterdam, where he supported himself primarily by painting rather mediocre portrait miniatures and giving drawing lessons. About 1805 he began to devote himself to producing landscape paintings filled with cattle and initially still strongly indebted to the 17th-century Dutch masters (e.g. Ox and Sheep, 1806). In 1808, his Hilly Landscape with Cattle won the prize provided by Louis Napoleon for the best landscape at the first public exhibition of Dutch contemporary art in Amsterdam. Potter’s Young Bull was still his most important model at this time, as witnessed by his attempts at life-size paintings of animals, for example Cow and Calf and Sheep (both 1810). — Simon van den Berg was a student of Pieter Gerardus van Os. — LINKS
–- Watercourse near 's-Graveland (1818; 1600x1282pix, 168kb)
A Sunlit River Landscape with Peasants Conversing by a Barn (1827, 72x90cm) —(051007)

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