ART 4 2-DAY 07 October v.9.90
Died on 07 October (30 June?) 1488:
Andrea di Michele di Francesco Cione del Verrocchio, Italian sculptor, goldsmith, and occasional painter and draftsman, born in 1435.
He started his training in the workshop of goldsmith Giuliano de Verrocchio, this is the origin of his name. With his bronze sculpture he developed the heritage of Donatello. Among his students the best are Leonardo da Vinci [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519] and Lorenzo di Credi [1459-1537].
— He was the leading sculptor in Florence in the second half of the 15th century, and his highly successful workshop, in which Leonardo da Vinci was trained, had a far-reaching impact on younger generations. A wide range of patrons, including the Medici family, the Venetian State and the city council of Pistoia, commissioned works from him. Exceptionally versatile, Verrocchio was talented both as a sculptor—of monumental bronzes, silver figurines and marble reliefs—and as a painter of altarpieces. He was inspired by the contemporary interest in the Antique and in the study of nature, yet, approaching almost every project as a new challenge, developed new conceptions that often defied both traditional aesthetics and conventional techniques. His fountains, portrait busts and equestrian sculpture are indebted to an iconographic tradition rooted in the early 15th century and yet they are transformed by his original outlook. His funerary ensembles are unique, so that, despite the great admiration they inspired, they had no imitators. Though a highly important artist in his own right, Verrocchio has often had the misfortune of being seen as in the shadow of his student Leonardo.
He had success in different fields of fine arts: in jewelry, sculpture and painting, but it was in the field of sculpture that he excelled most. From about 1475, Verrocchio’s workshop in Florence became a kind of academy of arts: a number of important painters were trained there: Lorenzo di Credi, Pietro Perugino [1447 March 1523], Luca Signorelli [1441 16 Oct 1523], and Leonardo da Vinci [1452 02 May 1519] are the most famous of them. Agnolo di Polo, Benedetto Buglioni, and Francesco di Simone Ferrucci are some of the others. Bartolomeo della Gatta was an assistant of Verrocchio. It is difficult to separate Verrocchio’s works in the field of painting from that of his students. Thus Verrocchio’s painting The Baptism of Christ (1475), which is considered to be the finest representation of the subject in Early Renaissance Florentine art, was clearly assisted by Leonardo, at that time active in Verrocchio’s workshop.
Andrea del Verrocchio (originally Andrea di Cione), Florentine sculptor and painter. He was born in Florence and, according to tradition, was trained in that city as a painter, by Alesso Baldovinetti [14 Oct 1425 29 Aug 1499]. Later Verrocchio conducted a large academy in Florence that became the principal center of the arts. Among his students were Leonardo, Sandro Botticelli [1445 17 May 1510], Lorenzo di Credi, and Perugino. [1450 – Mar 1523]
Most of the paintings once attributed to Verrocchio probably were executed by his students after his designs. The few paintings that exhibit his personal style are distinguished by firm drawing and modeling and enamel-like color. His landscapes particularly reveal him as a pioneer in the rendition of atmospheric perspective. Among his principal paintings are Baptism of Christ (1470) and several versions of the Madonna and Child . Recent studies of the Baptism of Christ have confirmed that one of the angels and part of the background are the work of Leonardo.
The Baptism of Christ (1473 _ ZOOM to 1400x1203pix _ ZOOM+ to 2672x2296pix, 754kb) _ Commissioned by the monastery church of San Salvi in Florence, the picture was painted in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio, whose style is well defined by the figures of Christ and the Baptist. The special fame of the work is however due to the Verrocchio's student who helped him paint the picture: in the blond angel on the left and in the landscape above is in fact recognizable the hand of Leonardo, the very young Leonardo, present in Verrocchio's workshop about 1470. Some critics ascribe the second angel to another young florentine artist, Sandro Botticelli.
Madonna and Child sitting (1470; 727x538pix, 35kb)
Madonna and Child standing (600x355pix, 90kb)
— Madonna with Saints John the Baptist and Donatus (1480, 189x191cm)
Head of a Girl (study)
Tobias and the Angel (1475) This altar painting shows close relationship with a Tobias and the Angel (1460) by Antonio Pollaiolo [1432-1496]
Born on 15 April 1675: Rosalba
Carriera, Venetian pastelist and painter who died on 15
April 1757. Along with her long-time friend, Antoine Watteau, whom she portrayed
in pastels, she was considered one of the two leading French portrait artists
of the Rococo era.
— She was a daughter of Andrea Carriera, who worked in the mainland podesteria of the Republic of Venice, and of Alba Foresti, an embroiderer. She had two sisters: Angela, who married the painter Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, and Giovanna, who, like Rosalba herself, never married. She originally painted snuff-boxes and later became a student of Giuseppe Diamantini and/or Federico Bencovich. There are more precise records of her life and of some of her works from 1700 onwards, when she started keeping the letters she received and rough copies of those she sent.
— Rosalba Carriera had a great vogue in Venice, chiefly among British tourists, in Paris (1720-1721), and Vienna (1730). She painted snuff boxes for the tourist trade with miniatures on ivory, a technique she seems to have pioneered as against the earlier use of card as a ground. She was painting miniatures by 1700, and her earliest pastels are of 1703. In 1705 she was made an 'accademico di merito' by the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, a title reserved for non-Roman artists. She achieved immense popularity, and made pastel portraits of notabilities from all over Europe, She also had great success with her near-pornographic demi-vierges, much earlier examples of the genre than those by Greuze. She went blind at the end of her life, which provoked a mental collapse.
A sister-in-law of Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Rosalba Carriera achieves the same airy lightness of touch as her relative in her portraits. These were done in pastel and in them she explored the finest shadings of her subjects' characters, the most fleeting of their moods. Thus, without falling either into the dangers of the encomiastic portrait or of the documentary, Rosalba matches the immediacy of pastel technique to the freshness of her psychological and social penetration of her subjects, offering an unrivalled picture of the society of her time. In the Elderly Lady the mature beauty of the noblewoman and her serene good-natured existence are conveyed with incomparable skill. Typical of her work is the portrait of Cardinal Melchior de Polignac with its superb rendering of the physical features of the subject, catching immediately the wilful character of the prelate.
Trained as a miniaturist, Rosalba Carriera became very famous and sought-after throughout Europe, and especially in Paris where she was highly esteemed by Watteau for her portraits in pastels. This technique, which she used exclusively, was particularly suitable for the haziness and lightness of her pictures and also for her mawkish obligingness towards her sitters. Her portraits are a typical example of what Diderot called "flatterie", that is, they tend towards over-embellishment and idealization.
— Rosalba was born in Venice, Italy in 1675. Little is known of her early life nor how she came to pick up her amazing talent with pastels, not to mention oils; which she handled with similar ease in the demanding art of miniature portrait painting. Pastels were brand new at the time, probably a French invention, and inasmuch as Venice was a trade port, it's not surprising they turned up there first in Italy. They've always been considered something of a women's art medium, at least until Degas embraced them in the late 1800s. Men did their painting in oil.
At first, pastels were reserved for the quick, color sketches for which they were designed. But gradually, because of the speed with which they could be used, they became popular with those lacking the time and patience to sit for an oil portrait. And, being done on paper, not to mention mostly by women, they were no doubt cheaper than oils. But Carriera not only proved the equal to any male portrait painter in Venice, but also proved pastels the equal of oils in their richness, color, and handling. She was accepted as one of the few female members of the Guild of St. Luke (doctors and artists) and later, the French Academy.
One of her best works, Self-portrait with a Portrait of her Sister, done in 1709 after she took up residence in Paris, was something of an advertisement. She worked with her sister, whom she herself had taught to paint, in managing quite a busy portrait workshop. The pastel painting (I still have trouble with that concept) depicts the rather plain face of the artist, no doubt made up to look her best, attired in satin and lace, blending tool in hand, showing off the portrait of her slightly more attractive sister. Most of her other female portraits are a good deal more glamorous, even erotic, with deeply plunging décolletage and even the occasional bare breast. Her Young Lady with a Parrot is more typical.
Rosalba Carriera is credited with having greatly popularized the medium of pastels in France during the early 1700s; and with introducing, perhaps even instructing, the renowned French pastel artist, Maurice Quentin de la Tour, to the use of pastels as a portrait medium. Tragically, perhaps as a result of years spent straining to paint miniature portraits, her eyesight failed her the last ten years of her life.
— Gustaf Lundberg was a student of Carriera.
— Self-Portrait as Winter (1731)
–- Head of Diana (36x30cm; 1067x897pix, 58kb)
–- Portrait of a Lady as Diana (33x27cm; 1120x920pix, 86kb)
Felicità Sartori (1735)
— Cardinal Melchior de Polignac (1732, 57x46cm)
— Elderly Lady (1740, 50x40cm)
— Flora (1735, 47x33cm)
— Young Cavalier (1730, 55x42cm)
— America (1730)
— Bambina Leblond con Ciambella (1730, 34x27cm) _ Il ritratto di una ragazzina della famiglia Le Blond appare nella vaporosa leggerezza dei toni del colore usati dall'artista. Ella infatti era abilissima nell'uso dei pastelli , tanto da ottenere le più delicate sfumature e le più fresche trasparenze, negli incarnati del volto. Ne è un esempio questo ritratto di giovinetta dalle guance rosee, la bocca minuscola e arrossata, gli occhi grandi e spalancati. Il viso dolce è incorniciato dai capelli biondi che ricadono a boccoli sulle spalle. L'abilità tecnica, raggiunta dall'artista, le permette di descrivere minutamente anche l'abbigliamento. La ragazzina porta una sciarpetta di pizzo annodata al collo e indossa un bellissimo vestito bianco, decorato con fiori azzurri e rosa, e trattenuto nella scollatura da un nastro. Particolare curioso è indubbiamente la dolce ciambella che trattiene in mano.
Died on 07 October 1946: Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson,
English painter born on 13 August 1889.
— Son of H. W. Nevinson, the war correspondent and author, he studied painting at St John's Wood, London, in 1908, although his formative years as a student were spent at the Slade School of Art (1909–1912) in London. He was influenced by Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, as well as Sandro Botticelli, as seen from an early Self-portrait (1911, 31x23cm; 512x366pix, 13kb). The Futurist Exhibition of March 1912, held at the Sackville Gallery, London, proved decisive for his development. He met Gino Severini and returned with him to Paris where he encountered Umberto Boccioni, Ardengo Soffici, Guillaume Apollinaire and Amedeo Modigliani. He continued his studies at the Académie Julian and the Cercle Russe in Paris, announcing his affiliation with Futurism by exhibiting a painting called Rising City (1912) in the Friday Club exhibition of January 1913. Its title was a homage to The City Rises (1910, 199x301cm; 600x902pix, 160kb) of Boccioni [19 Oct 1882 – 16 Aug 1916] which had been shown at the Futurist Exhibition.
By autumn 1913 Nevinson's Futurist loyalties had become even more intense. He displayed a boisterous painting called Departure of the Train de Luxe at Frank Rutter's Post-Impressionist and Futurist Exhibition, held at the Doré Galleries in London, and the picture's debt to similar compositions by Severini was overt. Nevinson was also instrumental in organizing a dinner in honor of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti at the Florence Restaurant in November 1913, which prefigured later performance art developments. Nevinson subsequently found himself enlisted in these prodigious performances, banging a drum backstage in order to ‘enhance the dynamic qualities' of Marinetti's belligerent verse.
Futurism had by now become a catchword in London for anything new and outrageous, and the British avant-garde grew resentful of its influence. Nevinson continued to make Futurist paintings of machine-age London, celebrating the dynamism of the underground Tube trains, the traffic in the Strand, and, in a huge, raucous painting called Tum-Tiddly-Um-Tum-Pom-Pom (1914), a Bank Holiday crowd on Hampstead Heath. Wyndham Lewis and other rebel artists felt the need to break away from Marinetti, however, and they were particularly enraged when he published with Nevinson a Futurist manifesto called Vital English Art. It implied that many British painters and sculptors had attached themselves to the Futurist cause. Lewis and the group associated with the Rebel Art Centre immediately repudiated the manifesto and within weeks announced the arrival of Vorticism.
Nevertheless, Nevinson continued to espouse the Italian movement's beliefs, until the advent of World War I changed his mind. Having gone to France with the Red Cross and been invalided home soon afterwards, he announced that he would be using ‘Futurist technique' to express the reality of war in his new work. However, the paintings he produced bore little relation to the enthusiasm with which Marinetti had greeted the war. In Returning to the Trenches (1915) he depicts the column of marching men as oppressed figures, caught up in a wearying and relentless mechanism over which they have no control. Futurist ‘lines of force' and multiple motion are employed to convey a very un-Futurist sense of disillusion with the futility and waste of combat, and in subsequent paintings Nevinson confirmed that he saw the Great War essentially as a tragic event. Bleak, outspoken and often angry, his paintings of 1915–1916 are among the masterpieces of his career, bravely opposing the prevailing jingoistic tendency.
Nevinson's view of the conflict only softened later when he executed bland paintings of aerial fighting as official commissions. By 1919 he declared that he had given up Futurism. Retreating instead to a more traditional vision, he painted some lively interpretations of New York, which fuse a lingering love of Futurist angularity with a new respect for naturalistic observation. Nevinson was at his best when dealing with the dynamism and vertiginous scale of big-city life. He saw the alarming aspects of urban dehumanization, and his most powerful canvases of the 1920s dramatize it with such titles as Soul of a Soulless City (1920). He also saw striking and more uniting images, such as that of the British national game of soccer, in Any Wintry Afternoon in England (1930). In later years he concentrated more on pastoral scenes and flower pieces, where a gentler mood prevailed.
— Dance Hall Scene (1914, 22x20cm)
— A Studio in Montparnasse (1926, 127x76cm)
— The Arrival (1913, 76x63cm) _ When this work was first exhibited a reviewer commented: “It resembles a Channel steamer after a violent collision with a pier. You detect funnels, smoke, gangplanks, distant hotels, numbers, posters all thrown into the melting-pot, so to speak. Mr. Nevinson acted as interpreter, explaining that it represented a state of simultaneous mind”. Nevinson was fascinated by the idea of 'simultaneity', which was championed by the French Orphists and Italian Futurists. In June 1914 The Observer published Vital English Art: A Futurist Manifesto, which was co-produced by Nevinson and the Italian Futurist leader, the poet Filippo Marinetti. This attempt to lead the London avant-garde prompted Wyndham Lewis to launch Vorticism with the publication of the magazine Blast.
— La Mitrailleuse (1915, 61x51cm) _ Nevinson presents a grim view of a French machine-gun post in the trenches during the First World War. His earlier celebration of war had been transformed by personal experience of its devastating effects, witnessed while working as an ambulance driver at the Front. Employing a modified Futurist style, Nevinson draws visual links between the machine gun noted in the title and the angular features and clothing of the soldiers. This reflects both the artist’s recognition of humans as ‘mentally and physically capable of killing’ and his sympathy for those made inhuman by conflict.
— Bursting Shell (1915, 93x72cm) _ One of the most apocalyptic of Nevinson’s paintings, Bursting Shell uses the strong lines and swirling movement of Futurist and Vorticist compositions to recreate the effect of an explosion. The dark shapes, which could be shards of debris or shadows, fracture what appear to be the bricks and timber of buildings and roads. The strong focal point of the vortex – with its bright light and dizzying spiral – simulates the disorientating sensory experience of an explosion.
— A Star Shell (1916, 51x41cm) _ Nevinson’s depictions of the Western Front drew on his experiences in the Red Cross and the Royal Army Medical Corps. He caused controversy by depicting soldiers as brutalized and mechanistic, though his work was popular with some troops. Here, a flare hangs in the night sky, a parody of a star, to illuminate a barren landscape. Flares were sent up at night to reveal men moving around in No Man’s Land. There is no evident human presence, but the silhouetted posts and churned-up earth hint at the carnage and the many deaths that the place has witnessed.
— The Soul of the Soulless City (1920, 92x61cm) _ The skyscrapers and railways of New York epitomized the dynamism of the modern metropolis. This painting, originally titled New York – an Abstraction, shows Nevinson’s enthusiastic response, in which the urgency of the city is matched with a modernist style of painting derived from Futurism. However, Nevinson’s work did not receive the success for which he had hoped, and his initial excitement gave way to the disillusion indicated by his revised title.
— Any Wintry Afternoon in England (1930, 61x76cm; 508x635pix, 151kb) _ A typical winter weekend, and a group of men play football in the pouring rain. Behind them is an urban backdrop of industrial buildings and terraced houses. Smoke rises from the factory chimneys, and steam emerges from the train, enveloping the scene in a foggy atmosphere. The players struggle against the wind and rain, their movement and that of the waterlogged ball – oversized and not quite round – suggested by their shifting contours and the visible force-lines in their wake.
Born on 07 October 1859: Nils
Gustav Wentzel, Norwegian painter who died on 10
He was descended from a Bohemian family of glassmakers who settled in Norway about 1750. He studied at Knud Bergslien’s art school (1879–1881) and at the same time at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, and in 1883 he was a student of Frits Thaulow, who introduced him to plein-air painting. Wentzel paid a short visit to Paris that same year and stayed there again in 1884 as a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau at the Académie Julian. In 1888–1889 he studied with Alfred Roll and Léon Bonnat at the Académie Colarossi. During this period he painted mainly interiors with figures, the urban middle-class and artisans in their homes, and also artists’ studios. His earliest paintings, for example Breakfast I (1882), render detail with a meticulousness unsurpassed in Norwegian Naturalism. Wentzel’s work gradually adopted an influence from contemporary French painting, including a more subtle observation of the effects of light and atmosphere on local color, as in The Day After (1883) and Breakfast II (1885). Scenes from the Norwegian countryside became more frequent, such as Old Folks (1888). The Dance in Setesdal (1891) represents a more romantic note in his work, which predominated in the early 1890s. Later he preferred landscapes, especially snowscapes, rural scenes etc, as subjects, although he did not maintain the standard of his earlier work.
— Wentzel, maler, født i Oslo, død i Lom. Elev ved Statens håndverks- og kunstindustriskole, av Knud Bergslien 1879-81 og Fritz Thaulow i 1883. Studerte ved Academie Julian i Paris 1884 og hos Roll og Bonnat 1888-89. Motivene fant Wentzel i Setesdal, Valdres, Hardanger, Telemark, Hallingdal, Vågå, Asker og til slutt i Lom. Gift med Christiane Marie (Kitty) Bætzmann [1868-1961]. Separert i 1910, men mot slutten av livet bodde begge i Lia i Lom. To sønner, Bjørn og Jørgen, begge bosatt i Lom. Jørgen var bonde og maler, Bjørn ballettedanser. Flyttet til Ottadalen på grunn av økonomien. Kitty Wentzel har gitt sjarmerende skildringer av Gustav Wentzel og det spennende, men fattige kunstnerlivet i bøkene Gustav Wentzel (1956) og Fra mitt livs karusell (1960). Tildelt St. Olavs orden.
[< photo] [Sjølportrett (1925) >]
Gustav Wentzel vart født i Oslo. Han var elev av Bergslien og Thaulow og studerte ei tid i Paris. I sine måleri var Wentzel oppteken av ljoset og fargane og kontrastane mellom ute og inneljos og mellom ljos og skugge. Han var og ein god folkelivsskildrar. I 1919 fløtte han til sin son i Furuheim i Lia, der han sette seg opp eit atelie. Haukdalen har fleire måleri og skisser å vise fram av Gustav Wentzel, mellom anna ei rekkje aktteikningar og eit flott bilete han har måla av sin kone, Kitty. Gustav Wentzel budde fast i Lom i åtte år frå 1919 til han døde i 1927. Han var ofte å sjå ute på ski om vinteren med staffeli på ryggen og fargane i lomma for at dei ikkje skulle fryse. Han fekk på desse turane festa på lerretet snøstormar i vinterlandskap, vintervegar i januarsol, tømmerkjørarar i vinterskogen. Fleire stod modellar for han i Liagrenda.
Gustav Wentzel var mykje på reisefot den tida han budde i Asker og var fleire gonger på vitjing i Nord-Gudbrandsdalen. Tidleg på 1900-talet var han fleire turar til Vågå der han budde både på Sandbu, Kvarberg og Sve. Han hadde med seg familien på desse turane og han nytta ofte høvet til å måle. I 1915 gifta den eldste sonen Jørgen seg med Magnhild Prestjordet frå Skjåk. Dei fløtte til det vesle bruket Høgbrenna i Lia der dei budde i 4 år . Gustav var ofte på besøk og likte seg svært godt. I 1919 kjøpte han Furuheim saman med sonene, der dei bygde seg hus med atelier i andre etasje med utsikt mot Lomseggen. Dette var eit ynda motiv for Wentzel. Yngstesonen Bjørn med si tyskfødde kone Eva Kønig kjøpte da Høgbrenna etter broren og busette seg der i 1920. Bjørn reiste på den tida mykje rundt i Europa som scenekunstnar og var samtidig journalist for Aftenposten og dei budde fast i Høgbrenna fram til 1953 da dei fløtte saman med Kitty ned i Haukdalen.
Kitty Wentzel var ein stor beundrer av Gustav Wentzel som medmenneske og kunstnar, og meinte at han vart uberettiga kritisert for sin kunst i dei seinare åra han levde. Ho skreiv m.a. i ei landsdekkande avis: "Må jeg be om plass for nedenstående i deres ærede blad. Ærbødigst. Herr Jeppe Nielsen. Helt siden De begynte Deres geschæft som kritiker, har De ved hver given anlening overøst Guetav Wentzel med ondsindede og sakløse --Jeg kalder det med vilje ikke kritikk. Nu er han død, men De gir ikke opp . Endog i graven forfølger de ham med Deres angrep på hans kunst. Forhåpentlig blir det siste gang De får anledning til å boltre Dem i skjellsord mot denne vår store kunstners livsverk. For de er en meget gammel mann Hr. Nielsen! Men ett kan De vere forvisset om. Trods Deres dom, vil Gustav Wentzels navn leve og lyse i Kunstens verden, meget, meget lenge, efter at glemselens slør har bret seg over Deres navn og virke. De har vert for liten, herr. Nielsen. Kitty Wentsel."
–- Ung pike som spinner (807x644pix, 73kb)
–- Spinnersken (492x734pix, 55kb)
–- Vinterlandskap med gård (80x110cm; 572x788pix, 33kb)
–- Winter picture from Vågå (1914, 79x98cm; 822x1024pix, 46kb)
–- Interiør fra Paris (1884, 60x92cm; 676x1040pix, 67kb) _ Interiør fra Paris er malt under Nils Gustav Wentzels tredje opphold i Paris, som varte fra juletider 1883 til juni 1884. Bildet viser med høy sannsynlighet hans studievenn fra Bergsliens malerskole, Ragnvald Hjerlow, sittende i et hyggelig møblert værelse, hvor lyset kommer strømmende inn i rommet gjennom florlette gardiner. Antageligvis er det Wentzels værelse i pensjonatet i rue de Douais vi ser fremstilt. Her bodde han sammen med studiekameratene Sverre Ihle og Nils Schjelbred. Noen måneder av oppholdet var han elev av den veletablerte salongrealisten Adolphe William Bouguereau ved det store private Académie Julian. Produksjonen under tiden i Paris ser imidlertid ikke ut til å ha vært stor, og den begrenser seg sansynligvis bare til Nasjonalgalleriets nyervervede bilde. På tross av hjemlengsel fantes det lyspunkter i tilværelsen: "Jeg har dog havt det ganske herligt en gang imellem den sidste tid. Her en kveld til eksempel havde jeg meget gemytlig hos frøknene Kielland og Backer, der var kun inviteret nogle faa, Jonas Lie med frue, maleren Skredsvig, Eilif Peterssen, Werenskiold og en tre-fire norske damer der var sang, musik og interessante samtaler om politik, kunst o.s.v.
Andreas Aubert omtalte Wentzels Paris-interiør, som ble vist på Høstutstillingen i 1884, på følgende måte: "Malemaaden i dette er væsentlig forskjellig fra alt, hvad vi har seet af ham. Det eiendommelige ved hans Begavelse har fra første Stund været et borende Blik, der har vært istand til at gjennemtrænge Detaljen lige til dens inderste Eiendommelighed." Videre skrev han at Wentzel her rettet øyet mot: "Helhedens Lysvirkning.... Lyset er blevet kridtet, Skyggerne sorte; for mange vil Billedet - i Lighet med andre der er malet paa samme Maade - føles som dækked af klar Mældug.
Wentzel hadde det meste av sin utdannelse fra Kristiania. Men i likhet med de andre kunstnerne av mellomgenerasjonen, hadde han mottatt impulser om hva som skjedde ute i Europa - og da særlig i Paris - hjemme i Kristiania gjennom de norske pariserfarernes utstilte bilder. På tross av sin lyse og lette maleriske gjennomføring, viser bildet at han bygget på senrealismens strengt registrerende fremstillingsform.
Ingebjørg Ydstie forbinder Wentzels bilde med Harriet Backers berømte Blått interiør, som han hadde sett på Høstutstillingen i 1883, like før han dro til Paris. På tross av enkelte ulikheter mener hun at dersom man sammenligner de to bildene: "blir det klart at Wentzels intensjon likefullt er nært beslektet med malerinnens; å skildre lyset gjennom fargen". I Wentzels komposisjon finner man igjen mange av de elementer man har møtt i hans tidligere arbeider; interiøret, lyset som strømmer inn gjennom vinduet, fondveggen som plasseres parallelt med billedplanet, samt de stillebensaktige komposisjonene både på peishyllen og bordet. Wentzel gjorde som Harriet Backer sa om sitt eget maleri - han bragte friluftsmaleriet innendørs - "Plein-Airen i Interiøret", men uten å oppgi sin forkjærlighet for nøyaktig gjengitte gjenstander.
— Frokost I, Kunsterens mor og bror (1882; 374x515pix, 67kb)
Died on 07 (06?) October 1953: Emil Filla,
Czech painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer, and collector, born on 04 April
After a short period at a business school and in an insurance office in Brno, he became a student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1903). In 1904 he won the Academy’s first prize. At the end of the year he set out on a lengthy journey to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Italy. He became absorbed in the Old Masters, especially Rembrandt. His own style passed from Post-Impressionism to a more expressive dominance of color. In 1907 he took part in the first exhibition of The Eight with a program painting, The Reader of Dostoyevsky, partly influenced by the Munch exhibition in Prague in 1905. At the same time the picture is a very personal manifesto reflecting the Angst and scepticism of his generation.
At the second exhibition of The Eight in 1908, Filla included paintings of the country around Dubrovnik. He moved to Prague, and in 1909, the year he visited Paris, he painted his expressive Red Ace, on the strength of which he was admitted to the Mánes Union of Artists. In 1911 he edited several issues of Volné smery, in which he promoted Cubism and published reproductions of Picasso’s works that he had seen in Paris. Following negative reaction from his readers and from the leaders of the association he and various of his friends withdrew from Mánes and founded the Group of Plastic Artists in May of that year, oriented primarily towards Cubism. He did not himself produce genuinely Cubist work until the end of 1912, when he somewhat arbitrarily combined various phases of Cubism as he had observed them in the work of Picasso, Braque and others (e.g. Two Women, 1912). In 1913 he created his first Cubist sculptures (e.g. Head, bronze, 37cm high).
— Fight of Two Dogs (1908, 39x49cm; 523x670pix, 86kb _ ZOOM to 1065x1367pix, 342kb)
— Reader of Dostoevsky (1907, 99x80cm; 587x421pix, 48kb _ ZOOM to 1196x860pix, 155kb)
— Red Fox. (1946 monotype, 1946, 15x10cm; 998x610pix, 164kb) with, on the same page, three images of details (554x610pix, 141kb) (554x610pix, 142kb) (554x610pix, 136kb)
— The Smoker (1914; 376x250pix, 54kb)
— (The Stock Market?) (400x330pix, 51kb)
— Zátiší (1926; 450x322pix, 39kb)
— Zátiší s hruškami (1922; 290x250pix, 25kb)