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ART “4” “2”-DAY  07 October v.9.90
^ Died on 07 October (30 June?) 1488:
di Michele di Francesco Cione del Verrocchio, Italian sculptor, goldsmith, and occasional painter and draftsman, born in 1435.
— He started his training in the workshop of goldsmith Giuliano de Verrocchio, this is the origin of his name. With his bronze sculpture he developed the heritage of Donatello. Among his students the best are Leonardo da Vinci [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519] and Lorenzo di Credi [1459-1537].
— He was the leading sculptor in Florence in the second half of the 15th century, and his highly successful workshop, in which Leonardo da Vinci was trained, had a far-reaching impact on younger generations. A wide range of patrons, including the Medici family, the Venetian State and the city council of Pistoia, commissioned works from him. Exceptionally versatile, Verrocchio was talented both as a sculptor—of monumental bronzes, silver figurines and marble reliefs—and as a painter of altarpieces. He was inspired by the contemporary interest in the Antique and in the study of nature, yet, approaching almost every project as a new challenge, developed new conceptions that often defied both traditional aesthetics and conventional techniques. His fountains, portrait busts and equestrian sculpture are indebted to an iconographic tradition rooted in the early 15th century and yet they are transformed by his original outlook. His funerary ensembles are unique, so that, despite the great admiration they inspired, they had no imitators. Though a highly important artist in his own right, Verrocchio has often had the misfortune of being seen as in the shadow of his student Leonardo.
— He had success in different fields of fine arts: in jewelry, sculpture and painting, but it was in the field of sculpture that he excelled most. From about 1475, Verrocchio’s workshop in Florence became a kind of academy of arts: a number of important painters were trained there: Lorenzo di Credi, Pietro Perugino [1447 – March 1523], Luca Signorelli [1441 – 16 Oct 1523], and Leonardo da Vinci [1452 – 02 May 1519] are the most famous of them. Agnolo di Polo, Benedetto Buglioni, and Francesco di Simone Ferrucci are some of the others. Bartolomeo della Gatta was an assistant of Verrocchio. It is difficult to separate Verrocchio’s works in the field of painting from that of his students. Thus Verrocchio’s painting The Baptism of Christ (1475), which is considered to be the finest representation of the subject in Early Renaissance Florentine art, was clearly assisted by Leonardo, at that time active in Verrocchio’s workshop.
— Andrea del Verrocchio (originally Andrea di Cione), Florentine sculptor and painter. He was born in Florence and, according to tradition, was trained in that city as a painter, by Alesso Baldovinetti [14 Oct 1425 – 29 Aug 1499]. Later Verrocchio conducted a large academy in Florence that became the principal center of the arts. Among his students were Leonardo, Sandro Botticelli [1445 – 17 May 1510], Lorenzo di Credi, and Perugino. [1450 – Mar 1523]
     Most of the paintings once attributed to Verrocchio probably were executed by his students after his designs. The few paintings that exhibit his personal style are distinguished by firm drawing and modeling and enamel-like color. His landscapes particularly reveal him as a pioneer in the rendition of atmospheric perspective. Among his principal paintings are Baptism of Christ (1470) and several versions of the Madonna and Child . Recent studies of the Baptism of Christ have confirmed that one of the angels and part of the background are the work of Leonardo.

The Baptism of Christ (1473 _ ZOOM to 1400x1203pix _ ZOOM+ to 2672x2296pix, 754kb) _ Commissioned by the monastery church of San Salvi in Florence, the picture was painted in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio, whose style is well defined by the figures of Christ and the Baptist. The special fame of the work is however due to the Verrocchio's student who helped him paint the picture: in the blond angel on the left and in the landscape above is in fact recognizable the hand of Leonardo, the very young Leonardo, present in Verrocchio's workshop about 1470. Some critics ascribe the second angel to another young florentine artist, Sandro Botticelli.
Madonna and Child sitting (1470; 727x538pix, 35kb)
Madonna and Child standing (600x355pix, 90kb)
Madonna with Saints John the Baptist and Donatus (1480, 189x191cm)
Head of a Girl (study)
Saint Monica
Tobias and the Angel (1475) This altar painting shows close relationship with a Tobias and the Angel (1460) by Antonio Pollaiolo [1432-1496]
Candlestick (1468)
^ Born on 15 April 1675: Rosalba Carriera, Venetian pastelist and painter who died on 15 April 1757. Along with her long-time friend, Antoine Watteau, whom she portrayed in pastels, she was considered one of the two leading French portrait artists of the Rococo era.
— She was a daughter of Andrea Carriera, who worked in the mainland podesteria of the Republic of Venice, and of Alba Foresti, an embroiderer. She had two sisters: Angela, who married the painter Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, and Giovanna, who, like Rosalba herself, never married. She originally painted snuff-boxes and later became a student of Giuseppe Diamantini and/or Federico Bencovich. There are more precise records of her life and of some of her works from 1700 onwards, when she started keeping the letters she received and rough copies of those she sent.
— Rosalba Carriera had a great vogue in Venice, chiefly among British tourists, in Paris (1720-1721), and Vienna (1730). She painted snuff boxes for the tourist trade with miniatures on ivory, a technique she seems to have pioneered as against the earlier use of card as a ground. She was painting miniatures by 1700, and her earliest pastels are of 1703. In 1705 she was made an 'accademico di merito' by the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, a title reserved for non-Roman artists. She achieved immense popularity, and made pastel portraits of notabilities from all over Europe, She also had great success with her near-pornographic demi-vierges, much earlier examples of the genre than those by Greuze. She went blind at the end of her life, which provoked a mental collapse.
     A sister-in-law of Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, Rosalba Carriera achieves the same airy lightness of touch as her relative in her portraits. These were done in pastel and in them she explored the finest shadings of her subjects' characters, the most fleeting of their moods. Thus, without falling either into the dangers of the encomiastic portrait or of the documentary, Rosalba matches the immediacy of pastel technique to the freshness of her psychological and social penetration of her subjects, offering an unrivalled picture of the society of her time. In the Elderly Lady the mature beauty of the noblewoman and her serene good-natured existence are conveyed with incomparable skill. Typical of her work is the portrait of Cardinal Melchior de Polignac with its superb rendering of the physical features of the subject, catching immediately the wilful character of the prelate.
     Trained as a miniaturist, Rosalba Carriera became very famous and sought-after throughout Europe, and especially in Paris where she was highly esteemed by Watteau for her portraits in pastels. This technique, which she used exclusively, was particularly suitable for the haziness and lightness of her pictures and also for her mawkish obligingness towards her sitters. Her portraits are a typical example of what Diderot called "flatterie", that is, they tend towards over-embellishment and idealization.
— Rosalba was born in Venice, Italy in 1675. Little is known of her early life nor how she came to pick up her amazing talent with pastels, not to mention oils; which she handled with similar ease in the demanding art of miniature portrait painting. Pastels were brand new at the time, probably a French invention, and inasmuch as Venice was a trade port, it's not surprising they turned up there first in Italy. They've always been considered something of a women's art medium, at least until Degas embraced them in the late 1800s. Men did their painting in oil.
     At first, pastels were reserved for the quick, color sketches for which they were designed. But gradually, because of the speed with which they could be used, they became popular with those lacking the time and patience to sit for an oil portrait. And, being done on paper, not to mention mostly by women, they were no doubt cheaper than oils. But Carriera not only proved the equal to any male portrait painter in Venice, but also proved pastels the equal of oils in their richness, color, and handling. She was accepted as one of the few female members of the Guild of St. Luke (doctors and artists) and later, the French Academy.
     One of her best works, Self-portrait with a Portrait of her Sister, done in 1709 after she took up residence in Paris, was something of an advertisement. She worked with her sister, whom she herself had taught to paint, in managing quite a busy portrait workshop. The pastel painting (I still have trouble with that concept) depicts the rather plain face of the artist, no doubt made up to look her best, attired in satin and lace, blending tool in hand, showing off the portrait of her slightly more attractive sister. Most of her other female portraits are a good deal more glamorous, even erotic, with deeply plunging décolletage and even the occasional bare breast. Her Young Lady with a Parrot is more typical.
     Rosalba Carriera is credited with having greatly popularized the medium of pastels in France during the early 1700s; and with introducing, perhaps even instructing, the renowned French pastel artist, Maurice Quentin de la Tour, to the use of pastels as a portrait medium. Tragically, perhaps as a result of years spent straining to paint miniature portraits, her eyesight failed her the last ten years of her life.
— Gustaf Lundberg was a student of Carriera.

Self-Portrait as Winter (1731)
–- Head of Diana (36x30cm; 1067x897pix, 58kb)
–- Portrait of a Lady as Diana (33x27cm; 1120x920pix, 86kb)
Felicità Sartori (1735)
Cardinal Melchior de Polignac (1732, 57x46cm)
Elderly Lady (1740, 50x40cm)
Flora (1735, 47x33cm)
Young Cavalier (1730, 55x42cm)
America (1730)
Bambina Leblond con Ciambella (1730, 34x27cm) _ Il ritratto di una ragazzina della famiglia Le Blond appare nella vaporosa leggerezza dei toni del colore usati dall'artista. Ella infatti era abilissima nell'uso dei pastelli , tanto da ottenere le più delicate sfumature e le più fresche trasparenze, negli incarnati del volto. Ne è un esempio questo ritratto di giovinetta dalle guance rosee, la bocca minuscola e arrossata, gli occhi grandi e spalancati. Il viso dolce è incorniciato dai capelli biondi che ricadono a boccoli sulle spalle. L'abilità tecnica, raggiunta dall'artista, le permette di descrivere minutamente anche l'abbigliamento. La ragazzina porta una sciarpetta di pizzo annodata al collo e indossa un bellissimo vestito bianco, decorato con fiori azzurri e rosa, e trattenuto nella scollatura da un nastro. Particolare curioso è indubbiamente la dolce ciambella che trattiene in mano.
^ Died on 07 October 1946: Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson, English painter born on 13 August 1889.
— Son of H. W. Nevinson, the war correspondent and author, he studied painting at St John's Wood, London, in 1908, although his formative years as a student were spent at the Slade School of Art (1909–1912) in London. He was influenced by Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, as well as Sandro Botticelli, as seen from an early Self-portrait (1911, 31x23cm; 512x366pix, 13kb). The Futurist Exhibition of March 1912, held at the Sackville Gallery, London, proved decisive for his development. He met Gino Severini and returned with him to Paris where he encountered Umberto Boccioni, Ardengo Soffici, Guillaume Apollinaire and Amedeo Modigliani. He continued his studies at the Académie Julian and the Cercle Russe in Paris, announcing his affiliation with Futurism by exhibiting a painting called Rising City (1912) in the Friday Club exhibition of January 1913. Its title was a homage to The City Rises (1910, 199x301cm; 600x902pix, 160kb) of Boccioni [19 Oct 1882 – 16 Aug 1916] which had been shown at the Futurist Exhibition.
      By autumn 1913 Nevinson's Futurist loyalties had become even more intense. He displayed a boisterous painting called Departure of the Train de Luxe at Frank Rutter's Post-Impressionist and Futurist Exhibition, held at the Doré Galleries in London, and the picture's debt to similar compositions by Severini was overt. Nevinson was also instrumental in organizing a dinner in honor of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti at the Florence Restaurant in November 1913, which prefigured later performance art developments. Nevinson subsequently found himself enlisted in these prodigious performances, banging a drum backstage in order to ‘enhance the dynamic qualities' of Marinetti's belligerent verse.
      Futurism had by now become a catchword in London for anything new and outrageous, and the British avant-garde grew resentful of its influence. Nevinson continued to make Futurist paintings of machine-age London, celebrating the dynamism of the underground Tube trains, the traffic in the Strand, and, in a huge, raucous painting called Tum-Tiddly-Um-Tum-Pom-Pom (1914), a Bank Holiday crowd on Hampstead Heath. Wyndham Lewis and other rebel artists felt the need to break away from Marinetti, however, and they were particularly enraged when he published with Nevinson a Futurist manifesto called Vital English Art. It implied that many British painters and sculptors had attached themselves to the Futurist cause. Lewis and the group associated with the Rebel Art Centre immediately repudiated the manifesto and within weeks announced the arrival of Vorticism.
      Nevertheless, Nevinson continued to espouse the Italian movement's beliefs, until the advent of World War I changed his mind. Having gone to France with the Red Cross and been invalided home soon afterwards, he announced that he would be using ‘Futurist technique' to express the reality of war in his new work. However, the paintings he produced bore little relation to the enthusiasm with which Marinetti had greeted the war. In Returning to the Trenches (1915) he depicts the column of marching men as oppressed figures, caught up in a wearying and relentless mechanism over which they have no control. Futurist ‘lines of force' and multiple motion are employed to convey a very un-Futurist sense of disillusion with the futility and waste of combat, and in subsequent paintings Nevinson confirmed that he saw the Great War essentially as a tragic event. Bleak, outspoken and often angry, his paintings of 1915–1916 are among the masterpieces of his career, bravely opposing the prevailing jingoistic tendency.
      Nevinson's view of the conflict only softened later when he executed bland paintings of aerial fighting as official commissions. By 1919 he declared that he had given up Futurism. Retreating instead to a more traditional vision, he painted some lively interpretations of New York, which fuse a lingering love of Futurist angularity with a new respect for naturalistic observation. Nevinson was at his best when dealing with the dynamism and vertiginous scale of big-city life. He saw the alarming aspects of urban dehumanization, and his most powerful canvases of the 1920s dramatize it with such titles as Soul of a Soulless City (1920). He also saw striking and more uniting images, such as that of the British national game of soccer, in Any Wintry Afternoon in England (1930). In later years he concentrated more on pastoral scenes and flower pieces, where a gentler mood prevailed.

Dance Hall Scene (1914, 22x20cm)
A Studio in Montparnasse (1926, 127x76cm)
The Arrival (1913, 76x63cm) _ When this work was first exhibited a reviewer commented: “It resembles a Channel steamer after a violent collision with a pier. You detect funnels, smoke, gangplanks, distant hotels, numbers, posters all thrown into the melting-pot, so to speak. Mr. Nevinson acted as interpreter, explaining that it represented a state of simultaneous mind”. Nevinson was fascinated by the idea of 'simultaneity', which was championed by the French Orphists and Italian Futurists. In June 1914 The Observer published Vital English Art: A Futurist Manifesto, which was co-produced by Nevinson and the Italian Futurist leader, the poet Filippo Marinetti. This attempt to lead the London avant-garde prompted Wyndham Lewis to launch Vorticism with the publication of the magazine Blast.
La Mitrailleuse (1915, 61x51cm) _ Nevinson presents a grim view of a French machine-gun post in the trenches during the First World War. His earlier celebration of war had been transformed by personal experience of its devastating effects, witnessed while working as an ambulance driver at the Front. Employing a modified Futurist style, Nevinson draws visual links between the machine gun noted in the title and the angular features and clothing of the soldiers. This reflects both the artist’s recognition of humans as ‘mentally and physically capable of killing’ and his sympathy for those made inhuman by conflict.
Bursting Shell (1915, 93x72cm) _ One of the most apocalyptic of Nevinson’s paintings, Bursting Shell uses the strong lines and swirling movement of Futurist and Vorticist compositions to recreate the effect of an explosion. The dark shapes, which could be shards of debris or shadows, fracture what appear to be the bricks and timber of buildings and roads. The strong focal point of the vortex – with its bright light and dizzying spiral – simulates the disorientating sensory experience of an explosion.
A Star Shell (1916, 51x41cm) _ Nevinson’s depictions of the Western Front drew on his experiences in the Red Cross and the Royal Army Medical Corps. He caused controversy by depicting soldiers as brutalized and mechanistic, though his work was popular with some troops. Here, a flare hangs in the night sky, a parody of a star, to illuminate a barren landscape. Flares were sent up at night to reveal men moving around in No Man’s Land. There is no evident human presence, but the silhouetted posts and churned-up earth hint at the carnage and the many deaths that the place has witnessed.
The Soul of the Soulless City (1920, 92x61cm) _ The skyscrapers and railways of New York epitomized the dynamism of the modern metropolis. This painting, originally titled New York – an Abstraction, shows Nevinson’s enthusiastic response, in which the urgency of the city is matched with a modernist style of painting derived from Futurism. However, Nevinson’s work did not receive the success for which he had hoped, and his initial excitement gave way to the disillusion indicated by his revised title.
Any Wintry Afternoon in England (1930, 61x76cm; 508x635pix, 151kb) _ A typical winter weekend, and a group of men play football in the pouring rain. Behind them is an urban backdrop of industrial buildings and terraced houses. Smoke rises from the factory chimneys, and steam emerges from the train, enveloping the scene in a foggy atmosphere. The players struggle against the wind and rain, their movement and that of the waterlogged ball – oversized and not quite round – suggested by their shifting contours and the visible force-lines in their wake.
^ Born on 07 October 1859: Nils Gustav Wentzel, Norwegian painter who died on 10 February 1927.
Wentzel— He was descended from a Bohemian family of glassmakers who settled in Norway about 1750. He studied at Knud Bergslien’s art school (1879–1881) and at the same time at the Royal School of Design in Christiania, and in 1883 he was a student of Frits Thaulow, who introduced him to plein-air painting. Wentzel paid a short visit to Paris that same year and stayed there again in 1884 as a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau at the Académie Julian. In 1888–1889 he studied with Alfred Roll and Léon Bonnat at the Académie Colarossi. During this period he painted mainly interiors with figures, the urban middle-class and artisans in their homes, and also artists’ studios. His earliest paintings, for example Breakfast I (1882), render detail with a meticulousness unsurpassed in Norwegian Naturalism. Wentzel’s work gradually adopted an influence from contemporary French painting, including a more subtle observation of the effects of light and atmosphere on local color, as in The Day After (1883) and Breakfast II (1885). Scenes from the Norwegian countryside became more frequent, such as Old Folks (1888). The Dance in Setesdal (1891) represents a more romantic note in his work, which predominated in the early 1890s. Later he preferred landscapes, especially snowscapes, rural scenes etc, as subjects, although he did not maintain the standard of his earlier work.

— Wentzel, maler, født i Oslo, død i Lom. Elev ved Statens håndverks- og kunstindustriskole, av Knud Bergslien 1879-81 og Fritz Thaulow i 1883. Studerte ved Academie Julian i Paris 1884 og hos Roll og Bonnat 1888-89. Motivene fant Wentzel i Setesdal, Valdres, Hardanger, Telemark, Hallingdal, Vågå, Asker og til slutt i Lom. Gift med Christiane Marie (Kitty) Bætzmann [1868-1961]. Separert i 1910, men mot slutten av livet bodde begge i Lia i Lom. To sønner, Bjørn og Jørgen, begge bosatt i Lom. Jørgen var bonde og maler, Bjørn ballettedanser. Flyttet til Ottadalen på grunn av økonomien. Kitty Wentzel har gitt sjarmerende skildringer av Gustav Wentzel og det spennende, men fattige kunstnerlivet i bøkene Gustav Wentzel (1956) og Fra mitt livs karusell (1960). Tildelt St. Olavs orden.
sjølportrett[< photo]     [Sjølportrett (1925) >]
      Gustav Wentzel vart født i Oslo. Han var elev av Bergslien og Thaulow og studerte ei tid i Paris. I sine måleri var Wentzel oppteken av ljoset og fargane og kontrastane mellom ute og inneljos og mellom ljos og skugge. Han var og ein god folkelivsskildrar. I 1919 fløtte han til sin son i Furuheim i Lia, der han sette seg opp eit atelie. Haukdalen har fleire måleri og skisser å vise fram av Gustav Wentzel, mellom anna ei rekkje aktteikningar og eit flott bilete han har måla av sin kone, Kitty. Gustav Wentzel budde fast i Lom i åtte år frå 1919 til han døde i 1927. Han var ofte å sjå ute på ski om vinteren med staffeli på ryggen og fargane i lomma for at dei ikkje skulle fryse. Han fekk på desse turane festa på lerretet snøstormar i vinterlandskap, vintervegar i januarsol, tømmerkjørarar i vinterskogen. Fleire stod modellar for han i Liagrenda.
     Gustav Wentzel var mykje på reisefot den tida han budde i Asker og var fleire gonger på vitjing i Nord-Gudbrandsdalen. Tidleg på 1900-talet var han fleire turar til Vågå der han budde både på Sandbu, Kvarberg og Sve. Han hadde med seg familien på desse turane og han nytta ofte høvet til å måle. I 1915 gifta den eldste sonen Jørgen seg med Magnhild Prestjordet frå Skjåk. Dei fløtte til det vesle bruket Høgbrenna i Lia der dei budde i 4 år . Gustav var ofte på besøk og likte seg svært godt. I 1919 kjøpte han Furuheim saman med sonene, der dei bygde seg hus med atelier i andre etasje med utsikt mot Lomseggen. Dette var eit ynda motiv for Wentzel. Yngstesonen Bjørn med si tyskfødde kone Eva Kønig kjøpte da Høgbrenna etter broren og busette seg der i 1920. Bjørn reiste på den tida mykje rundt i Europa som scenekunstnar og var samtidig journalist for Aftenposten og dei budde fast i Høgbrenna fram til 1953 da dei fløtte saman med Kitty ned i Haukdalen.
      Kitty Wentzel var ein stor beundrer av Gustav Wentzel som medmenneske og kunstnar, og meinte at han vart uberettiga kritisert for sin kunst i dei seinare åra han levde. Ho skreiv m.a. i ei landsdekkande avis: "Må jeg be om plass for nedenstående i deres ærede blad. Ærbødigst. Herr Jeppe Nielsen. Helt siden De begynte Deres geschæft som kritiker, har De ved hver given anlening overøst Guetav Wentzel med ondsindede og sakløse --Jeg kalder det med vilje ikke kritikk. Nu er han død, men De gir ikke opp . Endog i graven forfølger de ham med Deres angrep på hans kunst. Forhåpentlig blir det siste gang De får anledning til å boltre Dem i skjellsord mot denne vår store kunstners livsverk. For de er en meget gammel mann Hr. Nielsen! Men ett kan De vere forvisset om. Trods Deres dom, vil Gustav Wentzels navn leve og lyse i Kunstens verden, meget, meget lenge, efter at glemselens slør har bret seg over Deres navn og virke. De har vert for liten, herr. Nielsen. Kitty Wentsel."

–- Ung pike som spinner (807x644pix, 73kb)
–- Spinnersken (492x734pix, 55kb)
–- Vinterlandskap med gård (80x110cm; 572x788pix, 33kb)
–- Winter picture from Vågå (1914, 79x98cm; 822x1024pix, 46kb)
–- Interiør fra Paris (1884, 60x92cm; 676x1040pix, 67kb) _ Interiør fra Paris er malt under Nils Gustav Wentzels tredje opphold i Paris, som varte fra juletider 1883 til juni 1884. Bildet viser med høy sannsynlighet hans studievenn fra Bergsliens malerskole, Ragnvald Hjerlow, sittende i et hyggelig møblert værelse, hvor lyset kommer strømmende inn i rommet gjennom florlette gardiner. Antageligvis er det Wentzels værelse i pensjonatet i rue de Douais vi ser fremstilt. Her bodde han sammen med studiekameratene Sverre Ihle og Nils Schjelbred. Noen måneder av oppholdet var han elev av den veletablerte salongrealisten Adolphe William Bouguereau ved det store private Académie Julian. Produksjonen under tiden i Paris ser imidlertid ikke ut til å ha vært stor, og den begrenser seg sansynligvis bare til Nasjonalgalleriets nyervervede bilde. På tross av hjemlengsel fantes det lyspunkter i tilværelsen: "Jeg har dog havt det ganske herligt en gang imellem den sidste tid. Her en kveld til eksempel havde jeg meget gemytlig hos frøknene Kielland og Backer, der var kun inviteret nogle faa, Jonas Lie med frue, maleren Skredsvig, Eilif Peterssen, Werenskiold og en tre-fire norske damer der var sang, musik og interessante samtaler om politik, kunst o.s.v.
      Andreas Aubert omtalte Wentzels Paris-interiør, som ble vist på Høstutstillingen i 1884, på følgende måte: "Malemaaden i dette er væsentlig forskjellig fra alt, hvad vi har seet af ham. Det eiendommelige ved hans Begavelse har fra første Stund været et borende Blik, der har vært istand til at gjennemtrænge Detaljen lige til dens inderste Eiendommelighed." Videre skrev han at Wentzel her rettet øyet mot: "Helhedens Lysvirkning.... Lyset er blevet kridtet, Skyggerne sorte; for mange vil Billedet - i Lighet med andre der er malet paa samme Maade - føles som dækked af klar Mældug.
      Wentzel hadde det meste av sin utdannelse fra Kristiania. Men i likhet med de andre kunstnerne av mellomgenerasjonen, hadde han mottatt impulser om hva som skjedde ute i Europa - og da særlig i Paris - hjemme i Kristiania gjennom de norske pariserfarernes utstilte bilder. På tross av sin lyse og lette maleriske gjennomføring, viser bildet at han bygget på senrealismens strengt registrerende fremstillingsform.
      Ingebjørg Ydstie forbinder Wentzels bilde med Harriet Backers berømte Blått interiør, som han hadde sett på Høstutstillingen i 1883, like før han dro til Paris. På tross av enkelte ulikheter mener hun at dersom man sammenligner de to bildene: "blir det klart at Wentzels intensjon likefullt er nært beslektet med malerinnens; å skildre lyset gjennom fargen". I Wentzels komposisjon finner man igjen mange av de elementer man har møtt i hans tidligere arbeider; interiøret, lyset som strømmer inn gjennom vinduet, fondveggen som plasseres parallelt med billedplanet, samt de stillebensaktige komposisjonene både på peishyllen og bordet. Wentzel gjorde som Harriet Backer sa om sitt eget maleri - han bragte friluftsmaleriet innendørs - "Plein-Airen i Interiøret", men uten å oppgi sin forkjærlighet for nøyaktig gjengitte gjenstander.
Frokost I, Kunsterens mor og bror (1882; 374x515pix, 67kb)
^ Died on 07 (06?) October 1953: Emil Filla, Czech painter, printmaker, sculptor, writer, and collector, born on 04 April 1882.
      After a short period at a business school and in an insurance office in Brno, he became a student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1903). In 1904 he won the Academy’s first prize. At the end of the year he set out on a lengthy journey to Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Italy. He became absorbed in the Old Masters, especially Rembrandt. His own style passed from Post-Impressionism to a more expressive dominance of color. In 1907 he took part in the first exhibition of The Eight with a program painting, The Reader of Dostoyevsky, partly influenced by the Munch exhibition in Prague in 1905. At the same time the picture is a very personal manifesto reflecting the Angst and scepticism of his generation.
      At the second exhibition of The Eight in 1908, Filla included paintings of the country around Dubrovnik. He moved to Prague, and in 1909, the year he visited Paris, he painted his expressive Red Ace, on the strength of which he was admitted to the Mánes Union of Artists. In 1911 he edited several issues of Volné smery, in which he promoted Cubism and published reproductions of Picasso’s works that he had seen in Paris. Following negative reaction from his readers and from the leaders of the association he and various of his friends withdrew from Mánes and founded the Group of Plastic Artists in May of that year, oriented primarily towards Cubism. He did not himself produce genuinely Cubist work until the end of 1912, when he somewhat arbitrarily combined various phases of Cubism as he had observed them in the work of Picasso, Braque and others (e.g. Two Women, 1912). In 1913 he created his first Cubist sculptures (e.g. Head, bronze, 37cm high).

Fight of Two Dogs (1908, 39x49cm; 523x670pix, 86kb _ ZOOM to 1065x1367pix, 342kb)
Reader of Dostoevsky (1907, 99x80cm; 587x421pix, 48kb _ ZOOM to 1196x860pix, 155kb)
Red Fox. (1946 monotype, 1946, 15x10cm; 998x610pix, 164kb) with, on the same page, three images of details (554x610pix, 141kb) (554x610pix, 142kb) (554x610pix, 136kb)
The Smoker (1914; 376x250pix, 54kb)
(The Stock Market?) (400x330pix, 51kb)
Zátiší (1926; 450x322pix, 39kb)
Zátiší s hruškami (1922; 290x250pix, 25kb)

Died on a 07 October:

^ 2001 Herbert Lawrence Block “Herblock”, US political cartoonist Herbert Lawrence Block “Herblock” born on 13 Oct 1909. — Herblock's 20th century US historyWashington Post's posthumous tribute

^ >1940 Maurice Leloir, French painter born on 01 November 1853. Historical painter, watercolorist, engraver, illustrator, playwright, and film producer, Maurice Leloir was born into a family of artists. Leloir was trained formally by his father, historical painter Jean-Baptiste Auguste Leloir [1809-1992], his mother, Héloïse Colin [1820-1874], and his brother Alexandre-Louis Leloir [1843-1884]. Maurice Leloir was elected President of the French Watercolor Society and was a very renowned illustrator. His illustration work included work for editions by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau [1712-1778], playwright Jean-Baptiste Molière [1622-1673], and novelist Honoré de Balzac [1799-1859]. He was also a talented playwright and became the founder and president of the Costume Society in 1906; he wrote the Dictionary of Costume, which he also illustrated. Leloir went to the United States in 1928 at the invitation of the silent screen star Douglas Fairbanks to serve as an artistic advisor on the film The Man in the Iron Mask, starring Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford. Leloir was also commissioned to design theater scenes for Sarah Bernhardt, André Antoine, Albert Carré, and Firmin Gémier. Leloir was a renowned expert on the history of costume and also, one of the field's most avid collectors. His 1920 gift to the Musée Carnavalet in Paris of 2000 costumes and accessories forms the core of the present-day Musée Galliera - Musée de la mode de la Ville de Paris.
Manon Lescaut (1892, 105x161cm; 259x400pix, 27kb) This is based on the penultimate scene from the Histoire du Chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut, the 1731 novel by the Abbé Prévost.
–- S*>#Paysanne Landaise (38x22cm; 800x439pix, 65kb) —(051006)

1931 Charles de Sousy Ricketts, English painter born (main coverage) on 02 October 1866. —(051006)

^ 1918 Pierre-Maurice-Raymond Duchamp-Villon, French sculptor and draftsman born on 05 November 1876, the second son of a Normandy notary. He played a central role in the development of modern aesthetics, as did his half-brother Jacques Villon [31 Jul 1875 – 09 Jun 1963] and his brother Marcel Duchamp [28 Jul 1887 – 02 Oct 1968]. He came from an educated family and was an assiduous student at secondary school in Rouen; in 1894 he registered at the Faculté de Médecine in Paris, where he attended classes for several years. Rheumatic fever forced him to break off his studies in 1898 just before completion and left him immobilized for a considerable length of time; this unforeseen event altered the whole course of his life. During this period of enforced leisure [1899–1900], he modeled small statuettes (of subjects such as familiar animals and female figures), discovering his true vocation as a sculptor. He was essentially self-taught and rapidly attained a high level of mastery and maturity. He settled in Paris about 1901 and changed his name to Duchamp-Villon at his father’s insistence. As early as 1902 he exhibited a portrait of his future wife (whom he married in 1903) in the Société Nationale, and he exhibited works regularly at the Salon d’Automne from its foundation in 1903. In 1905 he held his first private exhibition with Jacques Villon in the Galerie Legrip, Rouen. — From 1894 to 1898 he studied medicine at the University of Paris. When illness forced him to abandon his studies, he decided to make a career in sculpture, until then an avocation. During the early years of the century he moved to Paris, where he exhibited for the first time at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in 1902. His second show was held at the same Salon in 1903, the year he settled in Neuilly-sur-Seine. In 1905 he had his first exhibition at the Salon d’Automne and a show at the Galerie Legrip in Rouen with his brother, the painter Jacques Villon; he moved with him to Puteaux two years later. His participation in the jury of the sculpture section of the Salon d’Automne began in 1907 and was instrumental in promoting the Cubists in the early 1910s. Around this time he, Villon, and their other brother, Marcel Duchamp, attended weekly meetings of the Puteaux group of artists and critics. In 1911 he exhibited at the Galerie de l’Art Contemporain in Paris; the following year his work was included in a show organized by the Duchamp brothers at the Salon de la Section d’Or at the Galerie de la Boétie. Duchamp-Villon’s work was exhibited at the Armory Show in New York in 1913 and the Galerie André Groult in Paris, the Galerie S. V. U. Mánes in Prague, and Der Sturm gallery in Berlin in 1914. During World War I Duchamp-Villon served in the army in a medical capacity, but was able to continue work on his major sculpture
      _ The Horse The Horse The Horse The Horse The Horse. He contracted typhoid fever in late 1916 while stationed at Champagne; the disease ultimately resulted in his death in the military hospital at Cannes. — LINKS

1817 Godefroy Pierre-Louis de Larive, Swiss artist born on 21 October 1735.

1690 Arent van Ravesteyn, Dutch artist born in 1625. — Relative? of Jan Anthoniszoon van Ravesteyn [1570-1657]

Born on a 07 October:

^ 1923 (infant baptism) Jean-Paul Riopelle, Canadian abstract expressionist painter and sculptor, who died on 12 March 2002. From an early age he drew extensively and painted landscapes from nature. From 1939 to 1941 he studied at Montreal Polytechnic while also taking a correspondence course in architecture. He temporarily abandoned painting in 1941, but from 1943 to 1945 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montreal and at the Ecole du Meuble, where he spent most of his time. He and like-minded painters, later known as Les Automatistes, met regularly in the studio of Paul-Emile Borduas [01 Nov 1905 – 22 Feb 1960], one of the teachers at the Ecole du Meuble, to discuss their ideas and in particular their interest from about 1945 in abstract art, Surrealism, and automatic techniques. He was one of the signers of the Refus global manifesto (1948). In 1949 he moved to Paris and continued his career as an artist, where he commercialized on his image as a wild Canadian. — LINKS
Composition (1954; 580x1104pix)
–- untitled (436x786pix, 106kb) suitable at best for wallpaper, as it is covered with a fairly repetitive small-scale pattern without any noticeable large-scale design.
Mitchikanabikong (1975, 195x391cm; 359x700pix, 202kb _ .ZOOM to 1040x2039pix, 250kb) _ detail 1 (700x447pix, 215kb) left third _ detail 2 (700x469pix, 224kb) central third _ detail 3 (700x466pix, 232kb) right third _ irregular rectangles, three off-white and three gray, in checkerboard pattern, with an irregular yellowish-pinkish-yellowish streak across the bottom of the three top rectangles. This has been transformed into the just as abstract, but much more colorful and varied
      _ Mitchell He Can Bike Along aka Oido Río (2006; screen filling, 347kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 3259kb) by the pseudonymous Benoit La Gobêche, who further transformed it into the symmetrical
      _ Meet a Chicken's Beak aka Oir Río (2006; screen filling, 348kb _ ZOOM to 1864x2636pix, 2932kb)
The Wheel II (1956, 200x200cm; 635x640pix, 141kb)
untitled (1947, 65x81 cm; 516x640pix, 160kb)
–- untitled (990x1233pix, 128kb) _ La Gobêche has transformed this messy bunch of brush strokes into the beautifully symmetrical and richly detailed abstractions
      _ You Are Entitled (2007; 724x1024pix, 264kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 578kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 5374kb) and
      _ Entitled? Are You? (2007; 724x1024pix, 264kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 578kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 5374kb)
–- Provence (900x1310pix, 229kb) very similar to the preceding untitled.
–- Composition (649x900pix, 136kb)
–- Abstract (800x644pix, 125kb) —(071006)

^ >1918 Domenico “Mimmo” Rotella, Italian painter and collagist who died on 08 January 2006. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Naples and in 1945 moved to Rome, where he produced oil paintings in an Expressionist manner. In 1948 he adopted an abstract geometric idiom, which he rejected on returning to Italy in 1952 after spending a year on a scholarship at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Abandoning painting, he devoted himself first to phonetic poems composed of inarticulate, onomatopoeic sounds, and from 1954 to a new medium known as décollage: having eliminated paint tubes and brushes, he now created pictures from the layered textures and colored shapes of commercial posters torn from city walls. The first such works, for example A Little Above (1954, 64x84cm), were essentially abstract. Encouraged by the Italian critic Emilio Villa, in April 1955 he took part in Esposizione d’arte attuale, a group exhibition held in a barge on the Tiber in Rome, which led to his being labelled a neo-Dadaist. In the same year he held a one-man show at the Galleria del Naviglio in Milan, followed by exhibitions in Venice, London and Zurich, and in 1961 the French critic Pierre Restany [1930~] invited him to join Nouveau Réalisme, a group based in Paris that included other artists using décollage.
— Rotella's mother was a well-known milliner. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts of Naples and trained and served reluctantly as a noncommissioned officer in a horse-drawn artillery regiment in World War II. Living in Rome after the war, Rotella devoted himself to painting and in 1951 had his first solo exhibition, a display of abstract, geometric paintings, at Gallery Chiurazzi in Rome. Rotella spent the year from 1951 to 1952 at the University of Kansas City in Missouri, on a Fulbright grant. He had his second solo exhibition at the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery in Kansas City in 1952. In addition to painting, he continued to practice a form of experimental, purely phonetic poetry that he had developed and that he called by the nonsense term "epistaltic" poetry. He made a record of his poetry and gave a performance at Harvard University. When he returned to Rome he came to the conclusion that there was nothing left to do in painting, and he shortly thereafter discovered the materials and processes of décollage. Rotella was best known for collages made from old and weathered posters that he stripped off outdoor walls in Rome. He began producing those works in the early 1950's, not realizing that at least two other artists, the Frenchmen Raymond Hains and Jacque Villeglé, had already started to produce similar works collaboratively. Unlike those artists, who exhibited their torn and layered posters as they came off the wall without alteration, Rotella applied his appropriated materials to canvases and then developed the compositions further by tearing off pieces. All three artists, as well as a fourth, François Dufrêne, became known as Les Affichistes. Mr. Rotella's earlier compositions were primarily abstract, but in the early 1960's he began to feature images of movie stars and consumer goods. He also began to experiment with photographic and other processes of reproduction, and he produced three-dimensional assemblages as well, but his work would always revolve around mass media imagery. In 1960, the French critic Pierre Restany invited Rotella to join the Nouveax Réalistes, a group that included the other Affichistes as well as Yves Klein, Arman, Jean Tinguely, Daniel Spoerri and others who incorporated real-world materials into their art and thereby laid the foundations for French Pop Art. — LINKS
–- Miami I (885x540pix, 56kb)
–- Miami II (887x545pix, 57kb) _ The pseudonymous Alétor Aucinémode has combined and metamorphosed these two similar pictures into the abstract
      _ Miami Même (2006; 707x1000pix, 352kb)
Punte i mezzo (1524x1134pix, 1078kb) messy collage pieces on a poster of a red sphere and half-sphere.
Cinemascope (1962, 173x133cm; 800x607pix, 153kb) messy collage of torn posters.
Asalto (800x708pix, 119kb) small messy collage pieces on a poster. —(071006)

>1892 Ramón Barba Guichard [–04 May 1964], Spanish draftsman, newspaper photographer, and (mostly) sculptor active in Colombia from 1925.
–- Self-Portrait (551x395pix, 18kb) a drawing —(091007)

1856 John White Alexander, US painter who died (full coverage) on 01 June 1915. —(051006)

^ 1856 Rafael Senet Pérez, Spanish artist who died in 1926. En 1881, con escasos recursos económicos, viaja a Roma y acude al estudio de José Villegas, donde se dedica a la realización de obras protagonizadas por personajes populares italianos y a temos orientales influidos directamente por el propio Villegas. Desde Roma viaja a Nápoles y Venecia cuyos paisajes, costas y gentes lleva al lienzo. Dado el éxito de su pintura en Inglaterra, firma un contrato con el marchante Tooth por el que éste adquiere en exclusiva toda su producción. En la década de los ochenta se presenta a numerosas exposiciones nacionales e internacionales, recibiendo el reconocimiento de público y crítica. Senet siempre trabajó en una línea claramente realista, con una técnica suelta y vigorosa, consiguiendo en sus obras un sentimiento de exaltación a la belleza natural.
–- The Gondoliers (52x32cm; 1335x796pix, 74kb)
–- A Canal in Venice (52x32cm; 1335x768pix, 72kb)
–- Estudio de Hombre (52x32cm; 936x677pix, 65kb)
(cymbalist) (1214x696pix, 291kb) —(081005)

^ >1850 Léon Herbo, Belgian genre and portrait painter who died in 1907. A student of Legendre and Stallaert at both the Academies of Tournai and Brussels, Herbo mastered the art of fine detail. He then continued his studies in France, Germany, and Italy before returning to settle in Brussels. It is believed that he produced over 1200 paintings during his lifetime. In 1876, Herbo, Julien Dillens and Emile Namur founded L’Essor, the Belgian realist school. The group’s members were concerned with realism, each of them, however, finding his own style and emphasizing his distinct personality. In 1889 Herbo continued working in Brussels and began teaching at the Academy, where he would soon take over as Director.
La Charmeuse (1890, 79x92cm; 750x862pix, 607kb) _ Female beauty was much prized in the 19th century and for the first time a number of pictures were painted whose sole purpose was the depiction of beauty; not so much in the form of specific portraiture, but more as homage to feminine beauty in its own right. It was this climate of receptivity that encouraged Greuze, and later Leon Herbo and others like him, to paint series of portraits of attractive girls. It is incontestable that the appeal of the most risqué cosmopolitan beauties depicted in many pictures lay in their citizenship of the demimonde. Emile Zola’s Nana may have figured for the model of some of these paintings, as she did in Manet’s portrait of her. The vogue for titles such as La Mystérieuse or La Belle Dame sans Merci, presented the late 19th century woman as an intriguing creature, emphasizing the inner qualities of the female sex while at the same time presenting their decorative exterior. Herbo’s La Charmeuse is one work from an important group of paintings done by the artist during the late 19th century, paying tribute to the beautiful women of his time, and exploring their sensual and seductive nature.
–- Odalisque (110x145cm; 668x892pix, 46kb)
–- S*>#A Beauty holding a pigeon (65x52cm; 900x706pix, 84kb) half length, facing front.
–- S*>#A Beauty holding a bird nest (1886, 124x70cm; 900x488pix, 39kb) full length, in profile.
–- S*>#Rosa (1887, 72x96cm; 334x510pix, 37kb
) —(081006)

^ 1654 Jan-Baptist Huysmans, Flemish artist who died on 14 July 1716. — LINKS
Mountainous Landscape (146kb)
A Cowherd in a Woody Landscape (1697; 420x515pix).—(061019)

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