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ART “4” “2”-DAY  06 October v.9.90
^Died on 06 October 1927: Louis Paul Henri Sérusier, French Nabi painter and theorist born on 09 November 1864. — {a-t-il jamais peint un cerisier? un serrurier?}
— Son of a wealthy perfume and glove manufacturer, he was a star student at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris, early on showing a bent towards philosophy. Having little inclination for business, Sérusier was eventually allowed to follow his chosen career of art. He studied at the Académie Julian (1885–1890), where his popularity and wide-ranging intellectual gifts led to his election as chief student monitor (massier). This position gave him a certain authority, which was increased when his painting of Un Tisseur Breton (1888) won an honorable mention at the Salon of 1888. Paul Gauguin was one of his teachers.
  —    Séjournant pendant l'été 1888 à Concarneau, il se rend à Pont-Aven et fait la connaissance d'Emile Bernard qui le présente à Gauguin. Sur les conseils de Gauguin, Sérusier peint Le Talisman. De retour à Paris, il fonde avec Bonnard, Denis, Ranson, Ibels et Piot le groupe des Nabis ("prophètes" en hébreu). Après le départ de Gauguin, Sérusier abandonne Pont-Aven et le Pouldu et séjourne dans le centre de la Bretagne, au Huelgoat. Puis il s'installe à Chateauneuf-du-Faou. Sa peinture évolue, il peint des sujets religieux, mythologiques et légendaires, décore sa maison de fresques.
— The students of Sérusier included Lucia Dem Balacescu and Roger de La Fresnaye.

Le Bois d'Amour (Talisman) (1888; 2089x1648pix; 932kb)
Sous la Lampe
Le Pardon de Notre-Dame-de-Portes à Châteauneuf du Faou
L'Incantation ou Le Bois sacré
Jeune Bretonne à la cruche
La Vieille du Pouldu
Paysage ogival
Portrait de jeune Bretonne _ (38x23cm) _ Dans ce portrait, Sérusier procède un peu à la manière des Primitifs italiens du Quattrocento, en plaçant la figure de profil dans un environnement dépouillé. L'élégance figée de cette jeune Bretonne en costume de pardon est caractéristique de la période de Sérusier au Huelgoat et à Châteauneuf-du-Faou.
^>Born on 06 October 1887: Charles~Édouard Jeanneret-Gris “Le Corbusier” [–27 Aug 1965], Swiss-born French painter, urban planner, painter, lithographer, writer, designer, theorist, best known as an architect of the International Style. He adopted the pseudonym Le Corbusier for his architectural work about 1920 and for his paintings about 1930. — He studied engraving and chasing at the art school in his native La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. He received his first architectural commission in 1905. Worked with the architects Josef Hoffmann in Vienna 1907-1908, Auguste Perret in Paris 1908-1909 and Peter Behrens in Berlin 1910; also traveled extensively throughout Europe. Settled in 1917 in Paris, where he met Ozenfant with whom he founded the Purist movement in painting: still-life compositions of standardized objects such as bottles and musical instruments in profile. First one-man exhibition with Ozenfant at the Galerie Thomas, Paris, 1918. Wrote with Ozenfant Après le Cubisme (1918) and La Peinture Moderne (1925), and founded with him the magazine L'Esprit Nouveau 1920-1925. Though increasingly active as an architect, he continued always to paint, signing his works first 'Jeanneret' then from 1928 'Le Corbusier', a pseudonym derived from the name of a maternal grandparent. From about 1926 began to include the human figure in his compositions and to work in a freer, more Surrealist style. Took French nationality in 1930. His later works included a series of woodcarvings made from 1945 with the aid of Joseph Savina, and a number of designs for tapestries. Le Corbusier died at Cap Martin. — In the range of his work and in his ability to enrage the establishment and surprise his followers, he was matched in the field of modern architecture perhaps only by Frank Lloyd Wright. His visionary books, startling white houses and terrifying urban plans set him at the head of the Modern Movement in the 1920s, while in the 1930s he became more of a complex and sceptical explorer of cultural and architectural possibilities. After World War II he frequently shifted position, serving as ‘Old Master’ of the establishment of modern architecture and as unpredictable and charismatic leader for the young. Most of his great ambitions (urban and housing projects) were never fulfilled. However, the power of his designs to stimulate thought is the hallmark of his career. Before he died, he established the Fondation Le Corbusier in Paris to look after and make available to scholars his library, architectural drawings, sketches and paintings.

Femme et Coquillage (2268x1984pix, 1260kb) _ Le Corbusier's paintings are heavily influenced by Picasso, blocks of color and outlines combining to create striking images. The effect is most pronounced in this mural painting from his office in Paris all but concealing a woman's distorted shape amid a chaotic, built-up environment
Abstraction (Violins and Bottles) (1925, 27x21cm, 617x800pix _ ZOOM not recommended to 1233x1600pix, 266kb) sketchily done on the back of a paper whose print shows through. _ The pseudonymous Jeannot Lecorbillard has combined this and several other works of Le Corbusier and metamorphosed them into two related series (you can click instantly from one series to the other at the same level), each consisting of 9 finely detailed symmetrical abstractions with a screen filling background which is part of the overall design (the picture itself on any level does not enlarge the previous one, but adds to its edges and center) (for levels 7, 8, and 9, whose size is required to appreciate the fine details but exceeds most computer screens, there is an alternate image reduced to size 6, 932x1318pix):
      _ Obstructions, Violations, and Bottlenecks, level 1 (2006; 165x234pix, 14kb _ level 2 to 233x330pix, 24kb _ level 3 to 330x466pix, 37kb _ level 4 to 466x660pix, 64kb _ level 5 to 659x932pix, 124kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 246kb _ level 7 to 1318x1864pix, 629kb _ level 8 to 1864x2636pix, 1466kb _ level 9 to 2636x3728pix, 3178kb ||| _ level 7 size 6, 400kb _ level 8 size 6, 498kb _ level 9 size 6, 435kb) and
      _ Bottlenecks, Violations, and Obstructions, level 1 (2006; 165x233pix, 14kb _ level 2 to 233x330pix, 24kb _ level 3 to 330x466pix, 37kb _ level 4 to 466x660pix, 64kb _ level 5 to 659x932pix, 124kb _ level 6 to 932x1318pix, 246kb _ level 7 to 1318x1864pix, 629kb _ level 8 to 1864x2636pix, 1466kb _ level 9 to 2636x3728pix, 3178kb ||| _ level 7 size 6, 400kb _ level 8 size 6, 498kb _ level 9 size 6, 435kb)
–- Taureau III (1953, 162x114cm)
–- La Chute de Barcelone (1939, 81x100cm)
–- Guitare Verticale (1934, 100x81cm)
–- Nature morte à la pile d'assiettes (1920, 81x100cm)
Nature morte (1920, 81x100cm; 553x680pix, 108kb) _ mostly brown and orange; 2 bottles, 1 guitar, 3 UPOs (Unidentified Pictured Objects); wall, hall, door in top left background; no plate.
–- Femme couchée, cordage et bateau à la porte ouverte (1935, 130x162cm)
–- La Main Ouverte (1955 color lithograph, 54x40cm; 1152x826pix, 154kb)
Tapisseries (1955 lithograph poster, 48x67cm; 114kb) mostly black, red, and off-white.

^ Died on 06 October 1889: Jules Dupré, French Barbizon School painter born on 05 April 1811, specialized in landscapes . — {Lui, au moins, il a fait honneur a son nom. Voyez ses tableaux du pré.}— Not to be confused with French Realist artist Julien Dupré [1851-1910]
— Dupré was a founder of modern French landscape painting. He was born in Nantes, the son of a porcelain manufacturer. Settling in Paris, he was influenced by 17th-century Dutch landscape paintings in the Louvre, by the early 19th-century English landscapist John Constable [11 Jun 1776 – 31 Mar 1837] and by the leading Barbizon landscapist Théodore Rousseau [15 Apr 1812 – 22 Dec 1867]. Dupré's work expresses the brooding, dramatic aspects of nature. In his later works, the vivid, sharply contrasting colors are applied in thick impasto.
— Dupré a laissé une œuvre variée, tant par les thèmes abordés que par le style qui n’a cessé d’évoluer au grés des influences subies (hollandaise, anglaise), et des émotions du peintre. Lié au groupe des artistes de Barbizon tels que Rousseau,Troyon, Daubigny [15 Feb 1817 – 19 Feb 1878], il s’en détache par une perception lyrique très personnelle de la nature qui doit en partie sa puissance évocatrice à Théodore Rousseau.
— The son of a porcelain manufacturer, Dupré started his career in his father's works, after which he painted porcelain at his uncle's china factory at Sèvres. He first exhibited paintings in 1831 and in 1834 was awarded a second-class medal at the Salon. Visiting England in the same year, he learned, from the landscapes of John Constable, how to express movement in nature. The districts of Southampton and Plymouth, with their wide expanses of water, sky, and ground, provided his subjects. Late in life, he joined the artists' colony at Barbizon on the edge of the forest of Fontainebleau, where his style evolved, gaining in breadth, or largeness of treatment, and exhibiting greater simplicity in color harmony.
— He began his career in Creil, Ile de France, as a decorator of porcelain in the factory of his father, François Dupré [1781–], and later worked at the factory founded by his father in Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche, Limousin. It was in this region of central France that Dupré became enchanted by the beauty of nature. He went to Paris to study under the landscape painter Jean-Michel Diébolt [1779–], who had been a student of Jean-Louis Demarne. Dupré began to see nature with a new awareness of its moods, preferring to paint alone and en plein air. He was fascinated by bad weather, changes of light and sunsets. Many of his paintings depict quiet woodland glades, often with a pond or stream (e.g. Plateau of Bellecroix, 1830). In 1830–1831 he associated with other young landscape painters, including Louis Cabat, Constant Troyon, and Théodore Rousseau, and with them sought inspiration for his study of nature in the provinces, exhibiting the finished paintings at the annual Salons. In 1832 he visited the region of Berry with Cabat and Troyon, and in 1834 he was among the first French landscape painters to visit England. He spent time in London, Plymouth, and Southampton and painted several views of these cities (e.g. Environs of Southampton, 1835). While in England he met, and was influenced by, Constable, Turner, and Richard Parkes Bonington. He traveled to the Landes and the Pyrenees with Rousseau in 1844, and they also explored the forests of the Ile de France in search of motifs. Dupré also painted in Normandy, Picardy, and Sologne. Although he was a member of the Barbizon school, he did not visit the Forest of Fontainebleau as frequently as did others of the group, preferring instead to settle in 1849 in the village of L’Isle-Adam, north of Paris, where he remained for much of his life.
— The students of Jules Dupré included his brother Léon Victor Dupré [18 Jun 1816 – 1879], and Louis Valtat.

–- Paysage au Temps des Foins (66x105cm; 635x1053pix, 53kb _ .ZOOM to 1271x2107pix, 400kb)
–- Paysage (43x59cm; 767x1043pix, 44kb _ .ZOOM to 1151x1565pix, 101kb) thatched houses by a canal or pond; seems out-of-focus.
–- La Grenouillère (24x35cm; 941x1399pix, 169kb)
Vaches en Paturage (1837; 600x824pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1923pix)
Mer Agitée (1870; 600x772pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1801pix)
Terrain Éboulé en Forêt de Compiègne (1876, 33x42cm; 600x755pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1761pix)
Le Chemin Creux (1850, 101x81cm; 600x481pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1123pix)
Chênes de Fontainebleau (1843, 81x99cm; 960x1170pix _ ZOOM not recommended to 1833x2234pix, 3303kb)
Vue_du_Panthéon_et de_l'Église Saint-Étienne_du_Mont,_Paris.
Les Berges d'une Rivière (1831, 30x54cm)
Vieux Chêne et Troupeau au Bord d'une Mare (32x46cm)
Paysage avec Dame en Rouge (1830)
^ >Died on 06 October 1893: Ford Madox Brown, English Pre-Raphaelite painter born on 16 April 1821.
     He was the father of Lucy Madox Brown. His students included Marie Spartali Stillman.
— Born in Calais, Ford Madox Brown revealed a precocious talent for art at an early age. From 1836 to 1846 he studied drawing in Europe, first in Bruges with a student of David, later in Antwerp with Baron Wappers. He travelled to Paris and Rome, where he befriended Cornelius and Overbeck, survivors of the German Romantic Nazarene movement. In 1841 he produced his first important oil painting, taking the execution of Mary Queen of Scots as his subject. Back in England, he met Rossetti and became associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, although he never joined it. From 1850 on, however, his works, mainly on historical and religious themes, closely adhered to the Pre-Raphaelite precepts. He executed an important series of frescoes in the Manchester Town Hall (1880-1893), illustrating episodes in the history of the city, and numerous stained-glass designs. His life was a continual succession of adversities and delusions; neglected by both the critics and the public, he never knew real success. He died in London.
— He was born at Calais and trained at Antwerp (under Wappers), in Paris, and at Rome, where he came into contact with the Nazarenes. Settling in England in 1846, he became a friend of the Pre-Raphaelites and--with his taste for literary subjects and meticulous handling--an influence on their work, though he was never a member of the Brotherhood. Rossetti studied briefly with him in 1848 and Brown's Chaucer at the Court of Edward III (1851) contains portraits of several of the Brotherhood.
      In 1861 Brown was a founder member of William Morris's company, for which he designed stained glass and furniture. The major work of the later part of his career is a cycle of paintings (1878-93) in Manchester Town Hall on the history of the city. Brown was an individualist and a man of prickly temperament; he opposed the Royal Academy and was a pioneer of the one-man show.
— Always an outsider to the art establishment who viewed him as suspiciously foreign because of his birth outside Britain, although to British parents, Ford Madox Brown studied art in the great schools of Antwerp and Paris and brought their influence to bear in his paintings. His pictures are now much in demand, but his contemporaries largely ignored his work and he never made much money out of painting. After visiting Rome in 1845 he became very influenced by the Nazarene School of painting, as invented and practiced by the German painters Johann Overbeck [1789-1869] and Peter von Cornelius [1783-1875].
      Madox Brown's work was highly original at a time when British art was mundane and predictable; his subjects were to do with English literature and language but produced in a dark, highly mannered, and dramatic style synthesized from his early European training and his tours of Italy and Switzerland. His work bore the brunt of his two great weaknesses — finishing and retouching. Even more so than Rossetti, he was almost incapable of finishing his paintings, this meant that he was never able to leave a work alone, even when it was ostensibly finished, he would continually retouch it, even though sometimes the painting was already sold.
      Ford Madox Brown first met Dante Gabriel Rossetti [09 Apr 1882 – 12 May 1828] in March 1848 and for a short time gave him academic painting lessons. This rather fell on deaf ears and Rossetti moved on, but in time they resumed their friendship. Ford Madox Brown became closely involved with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood through his friendship with Rossetti, but never a member because he was regarded with xenophobic suspicion by William Holman Hunt [02 Apr 1827 – 07 Sep 1910] and John Millais [08 Jun 1829 – 13 Aug 1896].
      Ironically it is Ford Madox Brown who in years to come became regarded as the ultimate Pre-Raphaelite because he painted many of their characteristic paintings. One such, the very first shown in the 1852 summer exhibition, The Pretty Baa-Lambs, is a very Pre-Raphaelite-looking picture with its brilliant color (painted on a white ground), naturalistic detail and contemporary subject matter. He had often painted out of doors before but this was the first time he had painted in natural light and it showed to anyone who looked properly. Unfortunately few did, the painting was hung in a poor position and went largely unnoticed.
      The same year he enjoyed perhaps his best period and produced three of his finest paintings, all of them Pre-Raphaelite in everything except name: The Last of England, An English Autumn and Work. The latter, landmark, painting took him 13 years to finish. It is a modern allegory of society and a literal rendition of Heath Street, Hampstead. In it he shows ordinary people as heroes, but without a shade of sentimentality: at the center are common navvies digging. They are surrounded by a thronging crowd of contemporary people: ragged working class children and beggars alongside street traders and smart upper class ladies. The muscle workers are the navvies and itinerant farm workers, while the brain workers are two of Brown's heroes - the Reverend F.D. Maurice, a pioneer of working class education and Christian socialist, and Thomas Carlyle, the author of Past and Present. Ford Madox Brown eventually made enough money from his paintings to buy a house in Fitzroy Square which became a lively center for artists and writers to gather together and swap ideas and gossip.
      After receiving little notice for his work Brown gave up exhibiting at the R.A. after 1853; and by 1856 he had lost his belief in the Pre-Raphaelite ethos of painting modern morality works, instead he started collaborating with Morris and Co., working on designs for art glass and illustrations. He was commissioned to paint 12 large murals inside Manchester Town Hall showing the glorious history of Manchester, and he spent a great deal of time on the project, after which he played no significant part in artistic development.
      Browns later career is peripheral to the Pre Raphaelite story although he lived until 1983. He taught at the Working Men's College and he was involved with design work for Morris and Company. In time, Brown achieved a level of financial security and his house in Fitroy Square became a noted rendezvous for artists and writers subsequently recalled by his grandson and biographer Ford Madox Ford. The later part of his career is taken up with work on his twelve murals in the Manchester Town Hall which illustrate the history of the city. The combination of a heroic style and local history proved not to be a success and the work is not among his best. However, Madox Brown retains his place as a seminal figure in the Pre Raphaelite movement and an artist of great power and originality.
— Dates on Ford Madox Brown's paintings are odd because he never felt finished with a painting. He would keep making changes years later, even after a picture had been sold. So often a definitive date is just impossible to establish.

Jesus washing Peter's feet at the Last Supper (1865) _ Brown's first religious painting in the Pre Raphaelite style. Here we can also see the other side of the Pre Raphaelite style and its effect on Brown in that in the same way as Millias details in 'The Carpenter's Shop' Brown shows Christ and his disciples as ordinary people. Christ is deliberately betrayed in a humble, unflattering way and his treatment of the figures is bold and realistic. Brown continued to paint religious and historical pictures of this style, blending Pre Raphaelite realism with his own highly academic mannerism.
The First Translation of the Bible into English: Wycliffe Reading His Translation of the Bible to John of Gaunt Date (1848, 119x154cm)
William Tell's SonThe English Boy _ Note the similarity and subtle differences between these two portraits.
Manfred on the Jungfrau (1861) _ Inspired by Byron's Manfred.
The Finding of Don Juan by Haidee (1878) _ The subject of this painting is taken from Byron's Don Juan, Canto II, verses 110-112.
Lear and Cordelia (1854) _ text of Shakespeare's King Lear Act I Scene 1
Romeo and Juliet (1870) _ text of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet
William Shakespeare
The Seeds and Fruits of English Poetry (1853, 34x46cm) _ This painting shows Chaucer reading at the court of Edward III with his patron, the Black Prince, on his left. In the wings appear the 'fruits' of English poetry: Milton, Spenser and Shakespeare on the left; Byron, Pope and Burns on the right; Goldsmith [10 Nov 1730 – 04 Apr 1774] and Thomson [11 Sep 1700 – 27 Aug 1748] in the roundels; and the names of Campbell, Moore, Shelley, Keats, Chatterton, Kirke White, Coleridge, and Wordsworth are written on the cartouches held by the standing children in the base.
The Last of England (1855, 81x74cm) _ This is his best-known picture. It was inspired by the departure of Woolner, the Pre-Raphaelite sculptor, for Australia, and deals with the great emigration movement which attained its peak in 1865. Social realism is one more area of the Pre Raphaelite movement where Brown made an important contribution. It is also prominent in the picture Work.
Stages of Cruelty (1890) _ The title refers to William Hogarth's engravings on the theme of cruelty of animals leading to cruelty to humans.
The Pretty Baa-Lambs (1859, 61x76cm; _ ZOOMable) _ detail _ One of his first Pre Raphaelite paintings was The Pretty Baa-Lambs first exhibited in 1852 which he painted outdoors in full sunlight. It is an uncompromisingly truthful picture and shows how determined Brown must have turned to the Pre Raphaelite style. Browns first important landscape in the Pre Raphaelite style. It was painted at Stockwell, in South London where the artist had been living and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1852. Brown wrote in his diary that the picture 'was painted almost entirely in sunlight which twice gave me fever while painting ... The lambs and sheep used to be bought every morning from Clapham Common in a truck; one of them ate all the flowers one morning in the garden, and they used to behave very ill.' His wife and daughter modeled for the figures.
Chaucer at the Court of Edward III (1851, 372x296cm; _ ZOOMable)
Work (1863, 135x196cm) _ detail (_ ZOOMable) _ Ford Madox Brown had the idea for Work after seeing a group of navvies laying water pipes in Heath Street, Hampstead, London. Much of the painting was done on the spot in the open air. The famous anthology piece Work shows Brown's dedicated craftsmanship and brilliant coloring, but is somewhat swamped by its social idealism. Brown describes how the picture was painted 'To insure that peculiar look of light all round which objects have on a dull day at sea, it was painted for the most part in the open air on dull days, and, when the flesh was being painted, on cold days. Absolutely without regard to art of any period or country, I have tried to render this scene as it would appear.' This comment reflects the fearless honest search for reality which was also typical of Holman Hunt.
Head of a Page Boy (1837, 36x31cm; _ ZOOMable)
May Memories (43x33cm)
Elijah Restoring the Widow's Son (1868, 94x61cm)
The Coat of Many Colors (1867)


Died on a 06 October:

^ 1809 Jean Bardin, French historical painter and draftsman born on 31 October 1732 in Montbard (Côte d'Or). Formé à Paris et à Rome selon le parcours des artistes de son temps, il orienta par la suite sa carrière vers l'enseignement, en devenant directeur de l'école gratuite de dessin d'Orléans(1786-1809).
Tullia Drives over the Corpse of her Father (1765; 360x465pix, 21kb) _ detail (113x88cm; 2108x1662pix, 1085kb). Tullia was the daughter of Servius Tullius, the sixth legendary king of ancient Rome (since 579 BC). In 535 BC she and her husband Tarquinius Superbus led a conspiracy against her father and had him murdered so that Tarquin became king (the last one, as he and the monarchy were overthrown in 510 BC). Clivus Urbius, the narrow street on which she drove her chariot over the corpse of her father was then renamed Vicus Sceleratus. In Ab Urbe Condita Lib. I, Titus Livius thus narrates what happened after Tarquin threw Servius Tullius bodily out of the Senate:
Fit fuga regis apparitorum atque comitum; ipse prope exsanguis cum sine regio comitatu domum se reciperet ab iis qui missi ab Tarquinio fugientem consecuti erant interficitur. Creditur, quia non abhorret a cetero scelere, admonitu Tulliae id factum. Carpento certe, id quod satis constat, in forum invecta nec reverita coetum virorum evocavit virum e curia regemque prima appellavit. A quo facessere iussa ex tanto tumultu cum se domum reciperet pervenissetque ad summum Cyprium vicum, ubi Dianium nuper fuit, flectenti carpentum dextra in Vrbium clivum ut in collem Esquiliarum eveheretur, restitit pavidus atque inhibuit frenos is qui iumenta agebat iacentemque dominae Servium trucidatum ostendit. Foedum inhumanumque inde traditur scelus monumentoque locus est — Sceleratum vicum vocant — quo amens, agitantibus furiis sororis ac viri, Tullia per patris corpus carpentum egisse fertur, partemque sanguinis ac caedis paternae cruento vehiculo, contaminata ipsa respersaque, tulisse ad penates suos virique sui, quibus iratis malo regni principio similes propediem exitus sequerentur.

Born on a 06 October:

^ 1922 Antônio Bandeira, Brazilian painter born on 26 May 1922. Nasceu em Fortaleza, no Ceará. Autodidata, em 1941, aos 19 anos de idade, participou da criação de um Centro Cultural em Fortaleza, juntamente com Clidenor Capibaribe, o Barrica (1913) e Mário Barata (1915-1983). Um e outro, mais velhos e experientes que ele, muito orientaram Bandeira em sua iniciação no movimento artístico daquele Estado. Em 1944 funda a Sociedade Cearense de Belas Artes, com Inimá de Paula, Aldemir Martins, João Maria Siqueira e Francisco Barbosa Leite. Em 1945, Antônio Bandeira participou da exposição do Instituto dos Arquitetos Rio de Janeiro, na qual foi contemplado com uma bolsa de estudos na França. Entre 1946 e 1950, em Paris, freqüenta a Escola Superior de Belas Artes e a Académie de La Grande Chaumière. Independente, pouco afeito à disciplina, com idéias próprias que tencionava desenvolver, em breve Bandeira romperia com o ensino tradicional, juntando-se a Wols e Bryen e dando origem ao grupo Banbryols, iniciais dos nomes dos três pintores. O grupo duraria de 1949 a 1951, quando Wols morre. De volta ao Brasil, em 1951, instala-se no ateliê do amigo escultor José Pedrosa, onde também trabalhava Milton Dacosta. Volta a Paris em 1965, onde permanece até sua morte. Acho definitiva, para a compreensão de sua obra, esta afirmação:´Nunca pinto quadros.Tento fazer pintura´. Quer dizer, o quadro não parece significar para ele uma realidade autônoma, uma estrutura que possui suas próprias leis, algo que se constrói com elementos específicos. A pintura é um estado de alma que ele extroverte aqui e ali, sem outro objetivo que o de comunicar um sentimento, uma emoção, uma lembrança. Enfim, é ´uma transposição de seres, coisas, momentos, gostos, olfatos que vou vivendo no presente, passado, no futuro.
Ville Bleue (1956, 100x80cm; 480x383pix, 32kb)
L'Arbre sur bleu (1956, 100x81cm; 480x383, 46kb)
Flore Nocturne (1965, 162x97cm; 480x285pix, 46kb) —(060930)

>1916 Pablo Palazuelo [–03 Oct 2007], Madrid Spanish painter, sculptor and engraver. Estudió Arquitectura en Madrid y en el Royal Institute of British Architects de Oxford. Desde 1939, se dedicó exclusivamente a la pintura. Tras realizar algunas obras neocubistas, comenzó a interesarse por Paul Klee [18 Dec 1879 – 29 Jun 1940], cuya obra le marcó profundamente y le condujo a la abstracción. Sus primeros dibujos abstractos, fechados entre 1947 y 1948, se publicaron en revistas de poesía. Estas primeras realizaciones abstractas se basaron en la observación de estructuras naturales, tales como cristales de nieve, exámenes microscópicos de células o fotografías aéreas. — wikipedia/Pablo Palazuelo
Umbra (1972; 2217x1412pix, 1148kb)
Macba 3 (1433x1921pix, 1231kb)
— Segundo Cantoral (1978)
— El Número y las Aguas (1978)—(091003)

^ 1913 Meret Oppenheim, in Berlin, Swiss woman Surrealist painter and “sculptor” who died on 15 November 1985.
–- Oh-oh-das Schicksal der Menschen! (1971; 840x603pix, 27kb) _ The pseudonymous Merit Offenhome has transformed this pale picture into the twin maximalist abstractions:
      _ Ode to the Chick's Derm's Shine (2007; 550x778pix, 104kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 222kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 501kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1482kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3845kb) and
      _ So Hot (2007; 550x778pix, 104kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 222kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 589kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1482kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3845kb)
–- Fahne (1974; 840x588pix, 21kb) minimalist: one dark bar on a light background. _ Compare the four times less minimalist (it has four bars)
      _ .Kinetisches Objekt, vier exentrische Streifen, je zwei synchron (1975, 122x122cm; 494x525pix, 11kb) by Gerhard von Graevenitz [19 Sep 1934 – 25 Aug 1983]._ Inspired by the pseudonymous Gersoft Craedelweevulz, who has immensely beautified the Graevenits picture, Offenhome has surpassed even Craedelweevuls by transforming Fahne into numerous superbly maximalist abstractions which can be reached by clicks of the mouse from the first two:
      _ Fun (2007; 550x778pix, 140kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 285kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 589kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1505kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3201kb) and
      _ Farniente (2007; 550x778pix, 140kb _ ZOOM 1 to 778x1100pix, 285kb _ ZOOM 2 to 1100x1556pix, 589kb _ ZOOM 3 to 1710x2418pix, 1505kb _ ZOOM 4 to 2658x3760pix, 3201kb)
–- Frau mit Hut (1978; 840x575pix, 29kb)
–- Etwas unter einem Heuhaufen (1969; 817x1120pix, 46kb) —(070925)

^ >1898 Charles Lapicque, French painter, sculptor, and printmaker, who died on 15 July 1988. He was an engineer by training, studying machinery and architecture and conceiving a passion for geometrical working drawings and perspective. These led him to draw for his own pleasure and finally to teach himself to paint. He consistently worked with great freedom, oblivious to current trends. Encouraged by Jacques Lipchitz, he decided in 1928 to devote more of his time to painting while working at the Faculté des Sciences in Paris on scientific research into value and color in relation to pictorial creation. The results of his experiments, first published in specialized reviews, appeared in book form in 1958. These complementary activities make Lapicque unique in French painting: his scholarly rigor, far from hampering his painting, seems to have encouraged his audacity. In 1937, Lapicque was commissioned to execute five decorative panels for the Palais de la Découverte in Paris. He subsequently began to take a particular interest in Cubism, as a result of which his work approached that of Jean Bazaine and Maurice Estève. Together they became known as ‘painters in the French tradition’ as distinct from the École de Paris. Lapicque himself realized, however, that the post-Cubist fragmentation of the pictorial space in paintings such as the Great Talavera (1941) represented the end of an era rather than the beginning of a new one. — LINKS
–- Hommage à Palestrina (1925, 65x92cm; 1030x1400pix, 189kb) abstract _ Compare (if you dare) the incomparable
      _ Fromage à Palestine, na! (2005, 920x1300pix, 558kb) by the pseudonymous Charmes Letraiffle, and what it might look like after a few too many cheese and wine, and wine, and wine tastings (you may want to check that for yourself): the inconsequential
      _ Fromage à Palestine, zéro de conduite! (2005, 920x1300pix, 37kb) .
–- Mythologie Marine (1987, 60x81cm; 488x675pix, 29kb _ .ZOOM to 975x1350pix, 68kb) _ Compare with the palindromic
      _ Thy Myth (2005; 460x650pix, 98kb _ ZOOM to 651x920pix, 185kb _ ZOOM+ to 920x1300pix, 461kb) by Letraiffle, and with its version
      _ Tho' Moth (2005; 920x1300pix, 722kb).
Le port de Loguivy (1939, 65x92cm; 334x465pix, 122kb gif) _ Compare the much more imaginative and entertaining
      _ Le porc du port d'Ivry-Gueule (à marée basse) aka Pig-o-War (1440x1080pix, 112kb) by Jeff MacNelly, remembering that beauty is in
      _ the eye of the beholdee (624x516pix, 123kb), not to mention
      _ its uprigging (624x516pix, 139kb), and you had better believe it,
      _ or else! (624x516pix, 161kb).
Galerie Balanci Graham (Nov 1975; 1024x597pix, 153kb) poster.
–- S*>#Croiseur au mouillage de Saint-Marc la nuit (1955, 54x81cm; 510x767pix, 92kb)
–- S*>#Nuit sur la Lagune (1955, 38x55cm; 510x748pix, 91kb) _ These pictures are not abstract enough for you? Well, the last two are so similar that Letraiffle used them both to make a single fairly symmetrical abstraction: Veni, Vidi (2005; 920x1300pix, 454kb)
–- S*>#Quai à Venise (1955, 38x57cm; 510x782pix, 95kb)
–- S*>#Suzanne et les Vieillards (1972, 81x66cm; 900x707pix, 143kb) a very rough colored sketch.
71 images at Ciudad de la Pintura —(081004)

^ 1771 (or some day in December 1771?) Jacques Nicolas Paillot de Montabert, Troyes French painter and author who died on 06 May 1849. He learned painting in Paris; he was a student of Jacques-Louis David. Paillot began to expose his works at the Salon in 1812. He went blind in 1834. In the preface of his Traité complet de la peinture (9 volumes, 1829) he stated correctly that Europe had as yet witnessed no methodical and complete treatise on the art of painting. Paillot remained well within the realm of French academic tradition. believing that “for the painter representation is only the means for attaining the great end, which is harmony or beauty; and one can thus understand what must be the importance and usefulness of this study of beauty, aim of all the fine arts.” Paillot wrote also Observations sur le coloris et sur la peinture encaustique (1812), Disssertation sur les peintures du Moyen Age et sur celles qu'on a appelées gothiques.
Lord Byron (1823; 480x360pix, 44kb)

^ 1745 Franciszek Smuglewicz, Polish painter who died on 18 September 1807. — {Smuggle witch? Smuggle which witch?}— The son, not of a smuggler, but of the Warsaw craft painter Lukasz Smuglewicz [1709–1780], he was apprenticed to Szymon Czechowicz. Living from 1763 to 1784 in Rome, he initially studied under Anton von Maron and then from 1766 at the Accademia di San Luca on a scholarship given by King Stanislas V. There he became influenced by classicizing academicism, a style to which he remained faithful. He became proficient in fresco painting and at oil portraits (e.g. The Byres Family in Rome, 1776). He also did watercolor copies (1770–1776) of antique frescoes, being at that time conversant with international antiquarian and collecting circles. — Jonas Rustemas was an assistant of Smuglewicz. — Portrait of Franciszek Smuglewicz (1800) by Jozef Peszka.
Portrait of the Prozor Family (1789; 944x750pix, 81kb)
Przysiega T. Kosciuszki na rynku krakowskim 24. 3. 1794 (1797; 612x700pix, 128kb)
Battle of Chocim (476x748pix, 36kb) —(051005)

^ 1578 (infant baptism) Hieronymus (or Jeroom) van Kessel II, Flemish portrait painter, active also in Germany and Italy, who died in 1636. He was the son of the draper Jan van Kessel I and Martha Boerens. In 1594 he was apprenticed to Cornelis Floris, and in later years he may also have studied in Paris under Hieronymus Francken I. Before 1606 he was working in Frankfurt, but early in 1606 he moved to Augsburg, where he first lived in the house of Abraham Wilden and later with Max Fugger. He worked as a portrait painter, which brought him into conflict with local artists, who nevertheless failed to oust him. Around 1609 he must have been in Innsbruck, but in the summer of 1610 he was again in Augsburg, before leaving for Italy in the autumn of the same year. He was in Rome by 1613, the year in which he painted a signed portrait of a Family with Two Children. He subsequently returned to Innsbruck, where he came under the protection of Archduke Maximilian of Austria and the archduchesses Maria Christierna [1575–1621] and Eleonore [1582–1620]. In 1615 he was registered as a painter in Cologne, where his work included the signed Portrait of a Man Aged 41 (1615). He remained in Cologne until 1616, although he returned there regularly to paint portraits, including his Portrait of a Man Aged 32 (1620). On the occasion of a possible return visit to Antwerp in 1616, Archduke Albrecht granted Hieronymus certain professional privileges on the recommendation of Archduke Maximilian. — His son Jan van Kessel II [bapt. 05 Apr 1626 – 18 Oct 1679] also became a painter, two of whose seven sons became painters too: Ferdinand van Kessel [1648–1696} and Jan van Kessel III [1654-1708]. The Amsterdam landscapist Jan van Kessel [bapt. 22 Sep 1641 – 24 Dec 1680 bur.] was apparently unrelated.

^ 1536 Santi di Tito, Florentine painter, draftsman, and architect, who died on 24 (02?) July 1603. — {he did not use the pseudonym Josip Broz} —— Nothing is known of Santi di Tito's early years but he probably went to Florence about 1550 to receive his artistic training firstly from Bastiano da Montecarlo, then from Agnolo Bronzino, and finally from Baccio Bandinelli. In 1554 Santi di Tito was admitted to the Compagnia di San Luca in Florence. It was surely the years in Bronzino's studio, alongside artists such as Alessandro Allori, that defined Santi di Tito's portrait style. The numerous Medici portraits produced by Bronzino and his workshop, in which clarity and elegance prevail, would have set Santi a good example for succeeding in this genre.He studied in the workshop of Agnolo Bronzino. Santi di Tito's art is of fundamental importance to the history of Florentine painting in the transitional period between Mannerism and Baroque. He rejected the virtuosity of Mannerist painters and returned to an earlier Renaissance tradition that emphasized clear narrative and the expression of a purer, more genuine religious sentiment. His most important works are altarpieces and frescoes; his private commissions included devotional paintings, mythological scenes and portraits. Although he was less important as an architect, in that too he upheld an ideal of purity and simplicity that parallels the style of his paintings. — Tito's students included Agostino Ciampelli, Lodovico Cigoli, Francesco Mochi, Gregorio Pagani, Niccolò Pomarancio, Antonio Tempesta. — LINKS
–- Saint Thomas Aquinas Dedicating his Works to Christ (1593; 2700x1775pix, 437kb)
–- A Lady (89x65cm; 892x647pix, 75kb) She is half length, wearing a white and gold embroidered dress, standing together with her dog. She appears distinguished: her jewelry and embroidered costume both hint at her wealth, and her left hand is delicately posed, pointing gently at the dog which must surely be seen as a sign of fidelity (perhaps to her intended betrothed?).
San Domenico salva 40 naufragi (1944x2592pix, 1140kb)
Die in Pappel verwandelten Schwestern des Phaeton (2927x2024pix, 408kb)
Niccolò Machiavelli (1174x1058pix, 744kb)
The Madonna and Child with the child John the Baptist (1000x770pix, 649kb) —(091005)

Happened on a 06 October:

1623 Veláquez is appointed “Pintor de Cámara” of king Felipe IV. —(091005)

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